History of Charing Cross
On 13 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Charing Cross.
On 28 May 1626 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (64) died at Charing Cross. He was buried at Saffron Walden. His son Theophilus Howard 2nd Earl Suffolk 1582-1640 (43) succeeded 2nd Earl Suffolk (4C 1603). Elizabeth Home Countess Suffolk by marriage Countess Suffolk (4C 1603).
John Evelyn's Diary 1660 October. 17th October, 1660. Scot, Scroop (59), Cook, and Jones (63), suffered for reward of their iniquities at Charing Cross, in sight of the place where they put to death their natural prince, and in the presence of the King (30) his son, whom they also sought to kill. I saw not their execution, but met their quarters, mangled, and cut, and reeking, as they were brought from the gallows in baskets on the hurdle. Oh, the miraculous providence of God!.
On 17 Oct 1660 Gregory Clement Regicide 1594-1660 (66), Adrian Scrope Regicide 1601-1660 (59), John Jones Regicide 1597-1660 (63) and Thomas Scot Regicide -1660 were hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross..
Harp and Ball's
Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 03 May 1669. Up, and by coach to my Lord Brouncker’s (49), where Sir G. Carteret (59) did meet Sir J. Minnes (70) and me, to discourse upon Mr. Deering’s (43) business, who was directed, in the time of the war, to provide provisions at Hamburgh, by Sir G. Carteret’s (59) direction; and now G. Carteret (59) is afeard to own it, it being done without written order. But by our meeting we do all begin to recollect enough to preserve Mr. Deering (43), I think, which, poor silly man! I shall be glad of, it being too much he should suffer for endeavouring to serve us. Thence to St. James’s, where the Duke of York (35) was playing in the Pell Mell; and so he called me to him most part of the time that he played, which was an hour, and talked alone to me; and, among other things, tells me how the King (38) will not yet be got to name anybody in the room of Pen (48), but puts it off for three or four days; from whence he do collect that they are brewing something for the Navy, but what he knows not; but I perceive is vexed that things should go so, and he hath reason; for he told me that it is likely they will do in this as in other things — resolve first, and consider it and the fitness of it afterward. Thence to White Hall, and met with Creed, and I took him to the Harp and Balls, and there drank a cup of ale, he and I alone, and discoursed of matters; and I perceive by him that he makes no doubt but that all will turn to the old religion, for these people cannot hold things in their hands, nor prevent its coming to that; and by his discourse fits himself for it, and would have my Lord Sandwich (43) do so, too, and me. After a little talk with him, and particularly about the ruinous condition of Tangier, which I have a great mind to lay before the Duke of York (35), before it be too late, but dare not, because of his great kindness to Lord Middleton (61), we parted, and I homeward; but called at Povy’s (55), and there he stopped me to dinner, there being Mr. Williamson (35), the Lieutenant of the Tower, Mr. Childe (38), and several others. And after dinner, Povy (55) and I together to talk of Tangier; and he would have me move the Duke of York (35) in it, for it concerns him particularly, more than any, as being the head of us; and I do think to do it. Thence home, and at the office busy all the afternoon, and so to supper and to bed.
On 19 May 1676 John Greenhill 1644-1676 (32) died. He had been returning home somewhat less than sober from an evening in the Vine Tavern when he fell into a ditch in Long Acre. He was carried to his lodgings in Lincoln's Inn Fields but didn't recover. He was buried in St Giles in the Fields.
In 1746 John Rocque Mapmaker 1704-1762 (42). Map of London Part 2C.
Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.
St Martin's in the Fields
The Letter Books of Amias Paulet Keeper of Mary queen of Scots Published 1874 Marys Execution. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.The inventory of the property of the Queen of Scots (44), alluded to in the foregoing letter, is printed in Prince Labanoff's collection, in which it occupies more than twenty pages. Poulet (54) compiled it by summoning Mary's servants before him, and requesting each of them to give him a written note of all that the Queen (44) had given them. A comparison of this inventory, made after Mary's death, with a former one, dated June 13, 1586, which Prince Labanoff found amongst M. de Chateauneuf's papers enables us to see that Mr. Froude has been led into a curious error respecting Mary Stuart's dress at the scaffold by the anonymous writer whose account he follows in preference to the narratives drawn up by responsible witnesses. It may seem to be of little importance, but as Mr. Froude has chosen to represent the last moments of Mary's life as "brilliant acting throughout," he should at least have been accurate in his details. He even goes so far as to say that she was deprived of the assistance of her chaplain for "fear of some religious melodrame." As to her dress, he says, "She (44) stood on the black scaffold with the black figures all around her, blood-red from head to foot. Her reasons for adopting so extraordinary a costume must be left to conjecture. It is only certain that it must have been carefully studied, and that the pictorial effect must have been appalling." And he quotes from the Vray Rapport the words, "Ainsy fut executee toute en rouge. [Translation: So was executed all in red.]"
The rouge was not " blood-red," but a dark red brown. Blackwood says that she wore, with a pourpoint or bodice of black satin, "une Juppe de vellours cramoisi brun," and the narrative called La Mort de la Royne d'Escosse says the same. There it is in the June inventory, "Une juppe de velloux cramoisy brun, bandee de passement noir, doublee de taffetas de couleur brune." In the inventory taken after her death it is wanting. As it happens, if she had wished to be "blood-red," she might have been so, for in the wardrobe there was "satin figure incarnat," " escarlate," and " satin incarnate." These figure both in the June and February inventories. When she was dressed "le plus proprement qu'elle put et mieux que de coutume," she said to her maids of honour, "Mes amies, je vous eusse laisse plustost cet accoustrement que celui d'hier, sinon qu'il faut que j'aille a la mort un peu honnorablement, et que j'aye quelque chose plus que le commun." "La tragedie finie," continues Blackwood, " les pauvres damoiselles, soigneuses de rhonneur de leur maistresse s'adresserent a Paulet son gardien, et le prierent que le bourreau ne touchast plus au corps de sa Majeste, et qu'il leur fust permis de la despouiller, apres que le monde seroit retire, afin qu'aucune indignite ne fust faitte au corps, promettant de luy rendre la despouille, et tout ce qu'il pourroit demander. Mais ce maudict et espou- ventable Cerbere les renvoya fort lourdement, leur commandant de sortir de la salle. Cependant le bourreau la dechausse, et la manie a sa discretion. Apres qu'il eust fait tout ce qu'il voulust, le corps fut porte en une chambre joignante celle de ces serviteurs, bien fermee de peur qu'ils n'y entrassent pour luy rendre leurs debvoirs. Ce qui augmenta grandement leur ennuy, ils la voyoient par le trou de la serrure demy couverte d'un morceau de drop de bure qu'on avoit arrache de la table du billard, dont nous avous parle cy dessus, et prioyent Dieu a la porte, dont Paulet (54) s'appercevant fist boucher le trou."
The executioner snatched from her hand the little gold cross that she took from her neck. "Sa Majeste osta hors de son col line croix d'or, qu'elle vouloit bailler a mie de ses filles, disant au maistre d'oeuvres, Mon amy, cecy n'est pas k vostre usage, laissez la a cette damoiselle elle vous baillera en Argent plus qu'elle ne vaut; il luy arracha d'entre les mains fort rudement, disant, C'est mon droit. C'eust este merveille qu'elle eust trouve courtoisie en un bourreau Anglois, qui ne I'avoit jamais sceu trouver entre les plus honestes du pais, sinon tant qu'ils en pouvoient tirer de profit." It was worthy of Poulet (54) to insist that, even though everything Mary wore was to be burnt and the headsman was to lose his perquisites lest he should sell them for relics, it was to be by his hands that they should be taken from the person of his victim.
Several narratives of the execution exist. The most complete, attributed to Bourgoin, is printed in Jebb. Sir H. Ellis and Robertson print the official report of the Commissioners. Then there is Chateauneuf's Report to Henry III., February 27, 1587, N.S., in Teulet, and a narrative drawn up for Burghley by R. W. (Richard Wigmore). Blackwood also furnishes an interesting and trustworthy description. The anonymous Vray Rapport will be found in Teulet. Mr. Froude appears to have selected it, partly because it was possible to expand the Realistic description of the dissevered head, and in particular the inevitable contraction of the features, into the gross and pitiless caricature which he permits himself of the poor wreck of humanity; partly too, because the Vray Rapport, in direct contradiction to the other accounts, supports his assertion that Mary was "dreadfully agitated" on receiving the message of death from the two Earls. To convey the impression that the writer was bodily present on that occasion, Mr. Froude introduces him as "evidently an eye-witness, one of the Queen of Scots' (44) own attendants, probably her surgeon." But the narrative shows us that the writer, whoever he was, could not have been one of Mary's attendants, nor even acquainted with them, for he designates the two ladies who assisted their mistress at the scaffold as "deux damoiselles, I'une Francoise nommee damoiselle Ramete, et l'autre Escossoise, qui avait nom Ersex." There were no such names in Mary's household. The two ladies were both Scottish, Jane Kennedy and Elspeth Curie, Gilbert Curle's sister. Mr. Froude says, "Barbara Mowbray bound her eyes with a handkerchief." It was Jane Kennedy who performed for her this last service.
Poulet's (54) inventory, amongst other things, contains the following entry : "Memorandum that the Priest claimeth as of the said late Queen's gift, a silver chalice with a cover, two silver cruets, four images, the one of our Lady in red coral, with divers other vestments and necessaries belonging to a Massing Priest." When the scaffold had been taken away, the Priest was allowed to leave his room and join the rest of the household. On the morning after the execution he said Mass for Mary's soul; but on the afternoon of that day Melville and Bourgoin were sent for by Poulet, who gave orders that the altar should be taken down, and demanded an oath that Mass should not be said again. Melville excused himself as he was a Protestant and not concerned; the physician stoutly refused. Poulet (54) sent for the Priest, and required the coffer in which the vestments were kept to be brought to him. Du Preau, who was evidently a timid man, took the oath that Poulet (54) insisted on, little thinking that he was pledging himself for six months. "II jura sur la bible de ne faire aucune office de religion, craignant d'estre resserre en prison."
The household of the late Queen (44) were not allowed to depart as soon as Poulet (54) expected. They were detained at Fotheringay, from motives of policy, till the 3rd of August, when the funeral of their mistress having been at last performed, they were set free. Some of them were taken to Peterborough to accompany the corpse and to be present at the funeral ceremonies on the 1st of August. Amongst them, in the order of the procession, it is surprising to find Mary's chaplain, "Monsieur du Preau, aumosnier, en long manteau, portant une croix d'Argent en main." The account of the funeral from which this is taken, written by one of the late Queen's (44) household, takes care to mention that when they reached the choir of Peterborough Minster, and the choristers began "a chanter a leur fagon en langage Anglois," they all, with the exception of Andrew Melville and Barbara Mowbray, left the church and walked in the cloisters till the service was finished. "Si les Anglois," he says, "et principalement le Roy des heraux . . . estoit en extreme cholere, d'autant estoient joieux et contents les Catholiques."
Poulet left for London, and as long as Mary's servants were detained at Fotheringay, he seems to have retained jurisdiction over them. It was to him, therefore, that Melville and Bourgoin applied in March for leave to sell their horses and to write into France respecting the bequests made to them by the Queen of Scots ; and to him that Darrell forwarded in June "the petition of the whole household and servants of the late Queen of Scotland remaining at Fotheringay," begging to be released from their prison and to be allowed to leave the country.
Poulet (54), as has already been said, was made Chancellor of the Garter in April, 1587, but he did not retain this preferment for a whole year. He continued in the Captaincy of Jersey up to his death, but he appears to have resided in and near London. In the British Museum are two letters from him of small importance. One, addressed to the Lord High Admiral, is dated, "From my poor lodging in Fleet Street, the 14th of January, 1587," about "right of tenths in Jersey, belonging to the Government." The other, "From my little lodge at Twickenham, the 24th of April, 1588," "on behalf of Berry," whose divorce was referred by the Justices of the Common Pleas to four Doctors of the Civil Law, of whom Mr. Doctor Caesar, Judge of the Admiralty, to whom the letter was written, was one.
His name also occurs in a letter, from Walsingham to Burghley, dated May 23, 1587, while Elizabeth still kept up the farce of Burghley's disgrace for despatching Mary Stuart's death-warrant. "Touching the Chancellorship of the Duchy, she told Sir Amias Poulet that in respect of her promise made unto me, she would not dispose of it otherwise. But yet hath he no power to deliver the seals unto me, though for that purpose the Attorney is commanded to attend him, who I suppose will be dismissed hence this day with- out any resolution." And on the 4th of January following, together with the other lords of the Council, he signed a letter addressed by the Privy Council to the Lord Admiral and to Lord Buckhurst, the Lieutenants of Sussex, against such Catholics as "most obstinately have refused to come to the church to prayers and divine service," requiring them to " cause the most obstinate and noted persons to be committed to such prisons as are fittest for their safe keeping : the rest that are of value, and not so obstinate, are to be referred to the custody of some -ecclesiastical persons and other gentlemen well affected, to remain at the charges of the recusant, to be restrained in such sort as they may be forthcoming, and kept from intelligence with one another." On the 26th of September, in the year in which this letter was written, 1588, Sir Amias Poulet died.
Poulet was buried in St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London.When that church was pulled down to be rebuilt, his remains, with the handsome. Monument erected over them, were Removed to the parish church of Hinton St. George. After various panegyrics in Latin, French, and English inscribed on his. Monument, a quatrain, expressive apparently of royal favour, pays the following tribute to the service rendered by him to the State as Keeper of the Queen of Scots: Never shall cease to spread wise Poulet's fame; These will speak, and men shall blush for shame: Without offence to speak what I do know, Great is the debt England to him doth owe.
On 28 Feb 1587 William Paulet 4th Marquess Winchester 1559-1629 (27) and Lucy Cecil Marchioness Winchester were married at St Martin's in the Fields.
On 16 Nov 1601 Henry Grey 8th Earl Kent 1583-1639 (18) and Elizabeth Talbot Countess Kent 1582-1651 (19) were married at St Martin's in the Fields. Elizabeth Talbot Countess Kent 1582-1651 (19) by marriage Countess Kent (8C 1465).
On 07 Jan 1619 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 was buried in St Martin's in the Fields. In his will he left twenty shillings to the poor of the parish, thirty between his two sisters, some goods to his maidservant, and all the rest of his effects to his son, Lawrence Hilliard, his sole executor.
On 08 Aug 1622 Anne Mayne -1622 died. She was buried at St Martin's in the Fields.
On or before 16 Apr 1637 Henry Killigrew 1637-1705 was born to Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (25) and Cecilia Crofts 1610-1638 (27). On 16 Apr 1637 Henry Killigrew 1637-1705 was baptised at St Martin's in the Fields.
On 27 May 1637 John Boteler 1st Baron Boteler Brantfield 1566-1637 (71) died at St Martin's in the Fields. He was buried at Higham Gobion. After 27 May 1637 His son William Boteler 2nd Baron Boteler Brantfield -1647 succeeded 2nd Baron Boteler Brantfield.
John Evelyn's Diary 1673 April. 26 Apr 1673. Dr. Lamplugh (58) preached at St. Martin's the Holy Sacrament following, which I partook of, upon obligation of the late Act of Parliament, enjoining everybody in office, civil or military, under penalty of £500, to receive it within one month before two authentic witnesses; being engrossed on parchment, to be afterward produced in the Court of Chancery, or some other Court of Record; which I did at the Chancery bar, as being one of the Council of Plantations and Trade; taking then also the oath of allegiance and supremacy, signing the clause in the said Act against Transubstantiation.
John Evelyn's Diary 1680 October. 31st October, 1680. I spent this whole day in exercises. A stranger preached at Whitehall on Luke xvi. 30, 31. I then went to St. Martin's, where the Bishop of St. Asaph (53) [Note. The next post refers to William Lloyd Bishop 1617-1717 (53) being made Bishop St Asaph. The previous incumbent Isaac Barrow had died 24 Jun 1680] preached on 1 Peter iii. 15; the Holy Communion followed, at which I participated, humbly imploring God's assistance in the great work I was entering into. In the afternoon, I heard Dr. Sprat (45), at St. Margaret's, on Acts xvii. 11.
I began and spent the whole week in examining my life, begging pardon for my faults, assistance and blessing for the future, that I might, in some sort, be prepared for the time that now drew near, and not have the great work to begin, when one can work no longer. The Lord Jesus help and assist me! I therefore stirred little abroad till the 5th of November, when I heard Dr. Tenison (44), the now vicar of St. Martin's; Dr. Lloyd (53), the former incumbent, being made Bishop of St. Asaph.
John Evelyn's Diary 1684 March. 30 Mar 1684. Easter day. The Bp. of Rochester [Dr. Turner] (46) preach'd before, the King (53) after which his Ma*, accompanied with three of his natural sonns, the Dukes of Northumberland (18), Richmond, and St. Alban's (13) (sons of Portsmouth (34), Cleaveland (43), and Nelly (34)), went up to the Altar ; ye three boyes entering before the King (53) within the railes, at the right hand, and three Bishops on the left, viz. London (52) (who officiated), Durham (51), and Rochester (46), with the Sub-dean Dr. Holder. the King (53) kneeling before the Altar, zaking his offering, the Bishop first receiv'd, and then his Ma* after which he retir'd to a canopied seate on the right hand. Note, there was perfume burnt before the Office began. I had receiv'd ye Sacrament at Whitehall early with the Lords and Household, ye Bp. of London officiating. Then went to St. Martin's, where Dr. Tenison (47) preach'd (recover'd from yc small-pox); then went againe to Whitehall as above. In the afternoone went to St. Martin's againe.
John Evelyn's Diary 1685 July. 15 Jul 1685. I went to see Dr. Tenison's (48) Library [in St. Martin's.].
Monmouth (36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower, had an interview with his late Dutchesse (34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he proFess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (47) and Bath and Wells (48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.
Thus ended this quondam Duke, darling of his father and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to ga ther a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July. His mother, whose name was Barlow, daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney, who was familiar with his mother) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.
Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cozens to sign a certificate of the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name was Walters: this the Bishop refused. She was born of a gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sidney, then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her 50 broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) but being ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother Colonel Robert Sidney, who kept her for some time, till the King hearing of her, got her from him. On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her she is already sped and after being with the King she was so soon with child that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wort on his face. However the King owned the child. In the King's absence she behaved so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King James II. Vol I.
Had it not pleas'd God to dissipate this attempt in ye beginning, there would in all appearance have gather'd an irresistable force which would have desperately proceeded to ye ruine of ye Church and Govern ment, so general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my owne part I look'd upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an Inundation of phanatics and men of impious principles must needs have caus'd universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, an unavoidable civil war and misery without end. Blessed be God the knot was happily broken, and a faire prospect of tranquil lity for the future if we reforme, be thankful!, and make a right use of this mercy.
John Evelyn's Diary 1686 November. 05 Nov 1686. I went to St. Martin's in the morning, where Dr. Birch preached very boldly against the Papists, from John xvi. 2. In the afternoon I heard Dr. Tillotson (56) in Lincoln's Inn chapel, on the same text, but more cautiously.
John Evelyn's Diary 1687 March. 20 Mar 1687. The Bishop of Bath and Wells (49) (Dr. Ken) preached at St. Martin's to a crowd of people not to be expressed, nor the wonderful eloquence of this admirable preacher; the text was Matt. xxvi. 36 to verse 40, describing the bitterness of our Blessed Savior's agony, the ardor of his love, the infinite obligations we have to imitate his patience and resignation; the means by watching against temptations, and over ourselves with fervent prayer to attain it, and the exceeding reward in the end. Upon all which he made most pathetical discourses. The Communion followed, at which I was participant. I afterward dined at Dr. Tenison's (50) with the Bishop and that young, most learned, pious, and excellent preacher, Mr. Wake (30). In the afternoon, I went to hear Mr. Wake (30) at the newly built church of St. Anne, on Mark viii. 34, upon the subject of taking up the cross, and strenuously behaving ourselves in time of persecution, as this now threatened to be.
His Majesty again prorogued the Parliament, foreseeing it would not remit the laws against Papists, by the extraordinary zeal and bravery of its members, and the free renunciation of the great officers both in Court and state, who would not be prevailed with for any temporal concern.
John Evelyn's Diary 1687 March. 25 Mar 1687 Good Friday. Dr. Tenison (50) preached at St. Martin's on 1 Peter ii. 24. During the service, a man came into near the middle of the church, with his sword drawn, with several others in that posture; in this jealous time it put the congregation into great confusion, but it appeared to be one who fled for sanctuary, being pursued by bailiffs.
John Evelyn's Diary 1688 October. 07 Oct 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on 2 Tim. iii. 16, showing the Scriptures to be our only rule of faith, and its perfection above all traditions. After which, near 1,000 devout persons partook of the Communion. The sermon was chiefly occasioned by a Jesuit, who in the Masshouse on the Sunday before had disparaged the Scripture and railed at our translation, which some present contradicting, they pulled him out of the pulpit, and treated him very coarsely, insomuch that it was like to create a great disturbance in the city.
Hourly expectation of the Prince of Orange's (37) invasion heightened to that degree, that his Majesty (54) thought fit to abrogate the Commission for the dispensing Power (but retaining his own right still to dispense with all laws) and restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. In the meantime, he called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued to remove Protestants and put in Papists at Portsmouth and other places of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, that they seemed passionately to long for and desire the landing of that Prince (37), whom they looked on to be their deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying incessantly for an east wind, which was said to be the only hindrance of his expedition with a numerous army ready to make a descent. To such a strange temper, and unheard of in former times, was this poor nation reduced, and of which I was an eyewitness. The apprehension was (and with reason) that his Majesty's (54) forces would neither at land nor sea oppose them with that vigor requisite to repel invaders.
The late imprisoned Bishops were now called to reconcile matters, and the Jesuits hard at work to foment confusion among the Protestants by their usual tricks. A letter was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), informing him, from good hands, of what was contriving by them. A paper of what the Bishops advised his Majesty was published. The Bishops were enjoined to prepare a form of prayer against the feared invasion. A pardon published. Soldiers and mariners daily pressed.
NOTE. The Letter was written by John Evelyn ...
My Lord, The honor and reputation which your Grace's piety, prudence, and signal courage, have justly merited and obtained, not only from the sons of the Church of England, but even universally from those Protestants among us who are Dissenters from her discipline; God Almighty's Providence and blessing upon your Grace's vigilancy and extraordinary endeavors will not suffer to be diminished in this conjuncture. The conversation I now and then have with some in place who have the opportunity of knowing what is doing in the most secret recesses and cabals of our Church's adversaries, obliges me to acquaint you, that the calling of your Grace and the rest of the Lords Bishops to Court, and what has there of late been required of you, is only to create a jealousy and suspicion among well-meaning people of such compliances, as it is certain they have no cause to apprehend. The plan of this and of all that which is to follow of seeming favor thence, is wholly drawn by the Jesuits, who are at this time more than ever busy to make divisions among us, all other arts and mechanisms having hitherto failed them. They have, with other things contrived that your Lordships the Bishops should give his Majesty advice separately, without calling any of the rest of the Peers, which, though maliciously suggested, spreads generally about the town. I do not at all question but your Grace will speedily prevent the operation of this venom, and that you will think it highly necessary so to do, that your Grace is also enjoined to compose a form of prayer, wherein the Prince of Orange is expressly to be named the Invader: of this I presume not to say anything; but for as much as in all the Declarations, etc., which have hitherto been published in pretended favor of the Church of England, there is not once the least mention of the Reformed or Protestant Religion, but only of the Church of England as by Law Established, which Church the Papists tell us is the Church of Rome, which is (say they) the Catholic Church of England—that only is established by Law; the Church of England in the Reformed sense so established, is but by an usurped authority. The antiquity of THAT would by these words be explained, and utterly defeat this false and subdolous construction, and take off all exceptions whatsoever; if, in all extraordinary offices, upon these occasions, the words Reformed and Protestant were added to that of the Church of England by Law established. And whosoever threatens to invade or come against us, to the prejudice of that Church, in God's name, be they Dutch or Irish, let us heartily pray and fight against them. My Lord, this is, I confess, a bold, but honest period; and, though I am well assured that your Grace is perfectly acquainted with all this before, and therefore may blame my impertinence, as that does αλλοτριοεπισκοπειν; yet I am confident you will not reprove the zeal of one who most humbly begs your Grace's pardon, with your blessing. Lond., 10 Oct 1688.
John Evelyn's Diary 1688 December. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (55) and Earl of Nottingham (41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth declared for the Prince (38). Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (38) coming to Oxford. The Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover (52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution..
John Evelyn's Diary 1690 February. 16 Feb 1690. The Duchess of Monmouth's (39) chaplain preached at St. Martin's an excellent discourse exhorting to peace and sanctity, it being now the time of very great division and dissension in the nation; first, among the Churchmen, of whom the moderate and sober part were for a speedy reformation of divers things, which it was thought might be made in our Liturgy, for the inviting of Dissenters; others more stiff and rigid, were for no condescension at all. Books and pamphlets were published every day pro and con; the Convocation were forced for the present to suspend any further progress. There was fierce and great carousing about being elected in the new Parliament. The King (39) persists in his intention of going in person for Ireland, whither the French are sending supplies to King James (56), and we, the Danish horse to Schomberg (74).
John Evelyn's Diary 1691 July. 18 Jul 1691. To London to hear Mr. Stringfellow preach his first sermon in the newly erected Church of Trinity, in Conduit Street; to which I did recommend him to Dr. Tenison (54) for the constant preacher and lecturer. This Church, formerly built of timber on Hounslow-Heath by King James (57) for the mass priests, being begged by Dr. Tenison (54), rector of St. Martin's, was set up by that public-minded, charitable, and pious man near my son's dwelling in Dover Street, chiefly at the charge of the Doctor (54). I know him to be an excellent preacher and a fit person. This Church, though erected in St. Martin's, which is the Doctor's parish, he was not only content, but was the sole industrious mover, that it should be made a separate parish, in regard of the neighborhood having become so populous. Wherefore to countenance and introduce the new minister, and take possession of a gallery designed for my son's family, I went to London, where, [NOTE. Text runs out?].
John Evelyn's Diary 1692 January. 06 Jan 1692. At the funeral of Mr. Boyle, at St. Martin's, Dr. Burnet (48), Bishop of Salisbury, preached on Eccles. ii. 26. He concluded with an eulogy due to the deceased, who made God and religion the scope of all his excellent talents in the knowledge of nature, and who had arrived to so high a degree in it, accompanied with such zeal and extraordinary piety, which he showed in the whole course of his life, particularly in his exemplary charity on all occasions,—that he gave £1,000 yearly to the distressed refugees of France and Ireland; was at the charge of translating the Scriptures into the Irish and Indian tongues, and was now promoting a Turkish translation, as he had formerly done of Grotius "on the Truth of the Christian Religion" into Arabic, which he caused to be dispersed in the eastern countries; that he had settled a fund for preachers who should preach expressly against Atheists, Libertines, Socinians, and Jews; that he had in his will given £8,000 to charitable uses; but that his private charities were extraordinary. He dilated on his learning in Hebrew and Greek, his reading of the fathers, and solid knowledge in theology, once deliberating about taking Holy Orders, and that at the time of restoration of King Charles II., when he might have made a great figure in the nation as to secular honor and titles, his fear of not being able to discharge so weighty a duty as the first, made him decline that, and his humility the other. He spoke of his civility to strangers, the great good which he did by his experience in medicine and chemistry, and to what noble ends he applied himself to his darling studies; the works, both pious and useful, which he published; the exact life he led, and the happy end he made. Something was touched of his sister, the Lady Ranelagh, who died but a few days before him. And truly all this was but his due, without any grain of flattery.
This week a most execrable murder was committed on Dr. Clench, father of that extraordinary learned child whom I have before noticed. Under pretense of carrying him in a coach to see a patient, they strangled him in it; and, sending away the coachman under some pretense, they left his dead body in the coach, and escaped in the dusk of the evening.
John Evelyn's Diary 1692 February. 13 Feb 1692. Mr. Boyle having made me one of the trustees for his charitable bequests, I went to a meeting of the Bishop of Lincoln (55), Sir Rob.... wood, and serjeant, Rotheram, to settle that clause in the will which related to charitable uses, and especially the appointing and electing a minister to preach one sermon the first Sunday in the month, during the four summer months, expressly against Atheists, Deists, Libertines, Jews, etc., without descending to any other controversy whatever, for which £50 per annum is to be paid quarterly to the preacher; and, at the end of three years, to proceed to a new election of some other able divine, or to continue the same, as the trustees should judge convenient. We made choice of one Mr. Bentley, chaplain to the Bishop of Worcester (Dr. Stillingfleet) (56). The first sermon was appointed for the first Sunday in March, at St. Martin's; the second Sunday in April, at Bow Church, and so alternately.
John Evelyn's Diary 1692 November. 20 Nov 1692. Dr. Lancaster, the new Vicar of St. Martin's, preached.
A signal robbery in Hertfordshire of the tax money bringing out of the north toward London. They were set upon by several desperate persons, who dismounted and stopped all travelers on the road, and guarding them in a field, when the exploit was done, and the treasure taken, they killed all the horses of those whom they stayed, to hinder pursuit, being sixteen horses. They then dismissed those that they had dismounted.
John Evelyn's Diary 1700. 14 Jan 1700. Dr. Lancaster, Vicar of St. Martin's, dismissed Mr. Stringfellow, who had been made the first preacher at our chapel by the Bishop of Lincoln (63), while he held St. Martin's by dispensation, and put in one Mr. Sandys, much against the inclination of those who frequented the chapel. The Scotch book about Darien was burned by the hangman by vote of Parliament.
On 06 Jun 1702 James Long 4th Baronet 1682-1729 (20) and Henrietta Greville Baronetess Long 1683-1765 (18) were married St Martin's in the Fields. Henrietta Greville Baronetess Long 1683-1765 (18) by marriage Lady Long of Westminster in London.
On 16 Jun 1702 William Anne Keppel 2nd Earl Albermarle 1702-1754 was baptised with Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (37) as godparent at St Martin's in the Fields.
On 16 Mar 1705 John Sheffield 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normandby 1648-1721 (56) and Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby 1680-1743 (25) were married at St Martin's in the Fields. Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby 1680-1743 (25) by marriage Duchess of Buckingham and Normandby (4C 1822).
On 15 May 1707 George Brudenell 3rd Earl Cardigan 1685-1732 (21) and Elizabeth Bruce 3rd Countess Cardigan 1689-1745 (18) were married at St Martin's in the Fields. Elizabeth Bruce 3rd Countess Cardigan 1689-1745 (18) by marriage 3rd Countess Cardigan.
In 1746 John Rocque Mapmaker 1704-1762 (42). Map of London Part 2C.
On 05 Dec 1761 Dorothea Bland 1761-1816 was baptised at St Martin's in the Fields.
Around 12 Feb 1771 Charlotte Sophia Leveson-Gower 6th Duchess Beaufort 1771-1854 was baptised at St Martin's in the Fields.
On 19 May 1810 James Murray 1st Baron Goldolphin Helston 1782-1837 (27) and Emily Frances Percy Baroness Goldolphin Helston 1788-1844 (22) were married at St Martin's in the Fields.
On 20 Jul 1921 Wentworth Henry Canning Beaumont 2nd Viscount Allendale 1890-1956 (30) and Violet Lucy Emily Seely Viscountess Allendale were married at St Martin's in the Fields.
St. Martin's Lane
In 1610 Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (46) developed St. Martin's Lane when he was granted five acres of its west side. It was originally called West Church Lane. Its name was changed in 1618.
On 03 Jan 1631 Edward Conway 1st Viscount Conway 1564-1631 (67) died in St. Martin's Lane. His son Edward Conway 2nd Viscount Conway 1594-1655 (36) succeeded 2nd Viscount Conway. Frances Popham Viscountess Conway 1597-1671 (34) by marriage Viscountess Conway. Wall. Monument in Church of the Holy Trinity, Arrow.
John Evelyn's Diary 1662 May. 14th May, 1662. To London, being chosen one of the Commissioners for reforming the buildings, ways, streets, and incumbrances, and regulating the hackney coaches in the city of London, taking my oath before my Lord Chancellor (53), and then went to his Majesty's (31) Surveyor's office, in Scotland Yard, about naming and establishing officers, adjourning till the 16th, when I went to view how St. Martin's Lane might be made more passable into the Strand. There were divers gentlemen of quality in this commission.
On 03 Jun 1640 Theophilus Howard 2nd Earl Suffolk 1582-1640 (57) died at Suffolk House. On 03 Jun 1640 His son James Howard -1702 3rd Earl Suffolk 1606-1688 (34) succeeded 3rd Earl Suffolk (4C 1603).
John Evelyn's Diary 1658 June. 9th June, 1658. I went to see the Earl of Northumberland's (55) pictures, whereof that of the Venetian Senators was one of the best of Titian's and another of Andrea del Sarto, viz, a Madonna, Christ, St. John, and an Old Woman; a St. Catherine of Da Vinci, with divers portraits of Vandyck; a Nativity of Georgioni; the last of our blessed Kings (Charles I.), and the Duke of York, by Lely (39), a Rosary by the famous Jesuits of Brussels, and several more. This was in Suffolk House: the new front toward the gardens is tolerable, were it not drowned by a too massy and clumsy pair of stairs of stone, without any neat invention.
John Evelyn's Diary 1654 August. Catherine-Hall, though a mean structure, is yet famous for the learned Bishop Andrews, once Master. Emanuel College, that zealous house, where to the hall they have a parlor for the Fellows. The chapel is reformed, ab origine, built north and south, and meanly erected, as is the library.
Jesus College, one of the best built, but in a melancholy situation. Next to Christ-College, a very noble erection, especially the modern part, built without the quadrangle toward the gardens, of exact architecture.
The Schools are very despicable, and Public Library but mean, though somewhat improved by the wainscoting and books lately added by the Bishop Bancroft's library and MSS. They showed us little of antiquity, only King James's Works, being his own gift, and kept very reverently.
The market place is very ample, and remarkable for old Hobson, the pleasant carrier's beneficence of a fountain. But the whole town is situate in a low, dirty, unpleasant place, the streets ill-paved, the air thick and infected by the fens, nor are its churches, (of which St. Mary's is the best) anything considerable in compare to Oxford.
From Cambridge, we went to Audley-End, and spent some time in seeing that goodly place built by Howard, Earl of Suffolk, once Lord Treasurer. It is a mixed fabric, between antique and modern, but observable for its being completely finished, and without comparison is one of the stateliest palaces in the kingdom. It consists of two courts, the first very large, winged with cloisters. The front had a double entrance; the hall is fair, but somewhat too small for so august a pile. The kitchen is very large, as are the cellars, arched with stone, very neat and well disposed; these offices are joined by a wing out of the way very handsomely. The gallery is the most cheerful and I think one of the best in England; a fair dining-room, and the rest of the lodgings answerable, with a pretty chapel. The gardens are not in order, though well inclosed. It has also a bowling-alley, a noble well-walled, wooded and watered park, full of fine collines and ponds: the river glides before the palace, to which is an avenue of lime trees, but all this is much diminished by its being placed in an obscure bottom. For the rest, is a perfectly uniform structure, and shows without like a diadem, by the decorations of the cupolas and other ornaments on the pavilions; instead of rails and balusters, there is a border of capital letters, as was lately also on Suffolk House, near Charing-Cross, built by the same Lord Treasurer.
This house stands in the parish of Saffron Walden, famous for the abundance of saffron there cultivated, and esteemed the best of any foreign country.
The Mews House
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle, Middleham. The like (Grant for life) to the said earl (33) of the office of Master of the King's Mews and Falcons and a messuage called 'le Mewehous' at Charryng by Westminster, co Middlesex, with all houses and other profits pertaining to the same, in the same manner as John, duke of Bedford, deceased; and appointment of him to take the king's right prises of falcons, goshawks, sakers, sakrets, lanners, lannerets and ger-falcons sold within the realm, paying the accustomed price viz 20s for each tercel of goshawk, saker, lanner or lanneret. By other latters patent.
Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.
On 10 Jan 1687 Bernard Gascoigne Soldier 1614-1687 (73) died at the The Haymarket.