Tower of London

Great Fire of London

1321 Siege of Leeds Castle

1346 Battle of Neville's Cross

1381 Peasant's Revolt

1397 Lords Appellant

1399 Richard II Abdication

1400 Epiphany Rising

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1470 Execution of John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester

1471 Death of Henry VI

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1483 Robert Brackenbury appointed Constable of the Tower of London

1483 Execution of Hastings

1483 Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

1483 Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

1485 Coronation of Henry VII

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

1521 Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

1536 Trial of Anne Boleyn

1536 Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn

1541 Exeter Conspiracy

1542 Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

1549 Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

1552 Edward Seymour's Execution

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley

1572 Ridolphi Plot

1601 Essex Rebellion

1603 Main and Bye Plot

1605 Gunpowder Plot

1651 Battle of Worcester

1660 Coronation Charles II

1666 Great Plague of London

1667 Raid on the Medway

1683 Rye House Plot

1685 Popish Plot

1688 Seven Bishops

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1715 Battle of Preston

Around 1106 William Mortain Count Mortain, 2nd Earl Cornwall 1083-1140 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1220 Stephen Segrave 1171-1241 (49) was appointed Constable Tower of London.

In 1241 Gruffydd ap Llewellyn Aberffraw 1198-1244 (43) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 01 Mar 1244 Gruffydd ap Llewellyn Aberffraw 1198-1244 (46) died at Tower of London.

After 27 Apr 1296 John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland 1249-1314 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 27 Apr 1296 John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl 1266-1306 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 12 Oct 1297 William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (57) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1298 William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (58) died at Tower of London.

In 1321 Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley 1308-1363 (13) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1321 Maud Badlesmere Countess Oxford 1310-1366 (11) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1321 Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere 1314-1338 (6) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1321 Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 1313-1356 (8) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 05 Jul 1321 Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 was born to King Edward II of England (37) and Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (26) at the Tower of London.

Siege of Leeds Castle

In Oct 1321 Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (26) was returning from Canterbury to London.She sought accommodation at Leeds Castle which was under the protection of Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34) the wife of Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46). Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34) refused entry to the Queen killing around six of her retinue when they tried to force entry. King Edward II of England (37) commenced the Siege of Leeds Castle.Once King Edward II of England (37) gained possession of the castle, he had the garrison hanged from the battlements. Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34), her five children, and Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh 1287-1355 (34), her nephew, were imprisoned in the Tower of London.

After Oct 1321 Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1322 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 03 Nov 1322 Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (35) was released at Tower of London.

On Aug 1323 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (36) escaped to France and to Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (28) at Tower of London.

In 1326 Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer Chirk 1256-1326 (70) died at Tower of London.

After 19 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 19 Dec 1333 Joan Plantagenet 1333-1348 was born to King Edward III England (21) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (19) at Tower of London.

In 1345 John Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Knayth 1280-1347 (65) was appointed Constable Tower of London.

Battle of Neville's Cross

On 17 Oct 1346 at the Battle of Neville's Cross near Durham the English inflicted a heavy defeat on the Scottish army that had invaded England in compliance with their treaty with the French for mutual support against England.
The English army included: William Deincourt 1st Baron Deincourt 1301-1364 (45), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham 1312-1392 (34), Ralph Hastings 1291-1346 (55), Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville Raby 1291-1367 (55), William Zouche Archbishop York -1352, Henry Percy 2nd Baron Percy 1299-1352 (47) and John Mowbray 3rd Baron Mowbray 1310-1361 (35).
Of the Scottish army David II King Scotland 1324-1371 (22), John Graham Earl Menteith -1347 and William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl 1300-1353 (46) were captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Neil Bruce -1346, John Randolph 3rd Earl Moray 1306-1346 (40), David Hay 6th Baron Erroll 1318-1346 (28) and Edward Keith of Sinton 1280-1346 (66) were killed.

After 17 Oct 1346 David II King Scotland 1324-1371 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 17 Oct 1346 William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl 1300-1353 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1361 Richard Vache -1366 was appointed Constable Tower of London.

Peasant's Revolt

On 11 Jun 1381 Richard II King England 1367-1400 (14) held council with his mother Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Plantagenet Princess Wales 1328-1385 (52), Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 1338-1401 (43), William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury 1328-1397 (52), Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (35), Simon Sudbury Archbishop Canterbury 1316-1381 (65) and Robert Hales 1325-1390 (56) at the Tower of London.

Lords Appellant

In 1387 Richard Mitford Bishop Chichester, Bishop Salisbury -1407 was arrested by Lords Appellant and imprisoned in Bristol Castle, Bristol. He was then imprisoned in the Tower of London.Thereafter he was released without charge..

On 28 Jan 1388 Nicholas Brembre -1399 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Richard II Abdication

On 29 Sep 1399 Richard II King England 1367-1400 (32) abdicated II King England: Plantagenet Angevin at Tower of London. Thomas Grey 1359-1400 (40), William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1370-1409 (29), Hugh Burnell 2nd Baron Burnell 1347-1420 (52) and Thomas Rempston -1406 were present.

On 07 Oct 1399 Thomas Rempston -1406 was appointed Constable Tower of London.

In 1400 Thomas Merke Bishop Carlisle -1409 was imprisoned in the Tower of London and deprived of his Bishopric.

Epiphany Rising

On 04 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was tried by Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey, 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (18) at Tower of London. .

In 1402 Philip Courtenay 1355-1406 (47) was imprisoned for clerical abuses at Tower of London.

In 1409 Catrin Mathrafal was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 24 Oct 1411 John Cockayne 1370-1438 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Around 1412 Gruffudd ab Owain Glyndŵr Mathrafal 1375-1412 (37) died at Tower of London.

In 1413 John Abrichecourt -1415 was appointed Constable Tower of London.

On 14 May 1414 Roger Cheney 1362-1414 (51) died at Tower of London.

In 1420 John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter 1395-1447 (24) was appointed Constable Tower of London.

In 1433 Richard Woodville 1385-1441 (48) was appointed Constable Tower of London.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

In 1441 Eleanor Cobham 1400-1452 (41), wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (50), brother of the deceased Henry V King England 1386-1422, uncle of Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke.All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but conFessd to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne, 'the Witch of Eye'.Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London.
Margery Jourdemayne was burned at the stake.
Eleanor was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.

On 28 Jan 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Around 1453 Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (39) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On Oct 1453 Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) was imprisoned by Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (42) at Tower of London.

On 25 Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales 1397-1460 (63) was murdered at Tower of London. On 25 Jul 1460 His Daughter Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers -1473 succeeded 8th Baron Scales.

On Nov 1461 Humphrey Neville 1439-1469 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. 02 Dec 1461. Westminster. Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman John, earl of Worcester (34), of the office of the constable of the Tower of London, with the accustomed fees.

In 1468 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (48) was imprisoned for having taken part in the plots of John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (25) at Tower of London.

After 14 Apr 1471 Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1483 Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (18) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 20 May 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster.Grant for life to the king's servant William Hastings (52), knight, of the office of master and worker of the king's moneys and keeper of the exchange within the Tower of London, the realm of England and the town of Calais according to the form of certain indentures, receiving the accustomed fees.By p.s.

Execution of Hastings

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle next to Edward IV King England 1442-1483. His Son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings (2C 1430). Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings, 4th Baroness Hungerford 1466-1553 (17) by marriage Baroness Hastings (2C 1430).
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

On 16 Jun 1483 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65) Removed Edward IV's youngest son Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- (9) from Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey to the Tower of London so that he could join his brother in preparation for his Coronation. . Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham 1454-1483 (28) was present. .

Robert Brackenbury appointed Constable of the Tower of London

On 17 Jul 1483 Robert Brackenbury -1485 was appointed Constable Tower of London for life meaning he was in direct care of The Princes in the Tower: Edward V King England 1470- (12) and his brother Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- (9). .

Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

Around Aug 1483 Edward V King England 1470- (12) and his brother Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- (9) disappeared, presumably killed, from the Tower of London. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (5) reports, sometime after the event, that Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) requested Robert Brackenbury -1485 undertake the murder of the children. Upon Brackenbury's refusal Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) instructed Robert Brackenbury -1485 give the keys to the Tower to James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (28) who would then undertake the task. .

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (30). Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (48) wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. On 09 Mar 1484 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31). Westminster. Grant for life to the king's servant Robert Brackenbury -1485 of the office of Constable Tower of London and 100l. yearly for his wages from the issues of the manors or lordships of Wrottell, Haveryng, Boyton, Hadlegh, Raylegh and Rocheford, co Essex, and Tunbrich, Penshurste, Middleton and Merdon and the hundred of Middleton, co Kent, with arrears from 17 July last, in lieu of a grant to him by letters patent of that date surrendered.By p.s.

After 22 Aug 1485 Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 16 Oct 1485 Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486 was created 1st Earl Bath (1C 1486) at Tower of London by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) for having supported Henry' claim to the throne.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck 1499-1525 (10) is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Around 1520 Unknown Artist.Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Coronation of Henry VII

On 29 Oct 1485 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) processed from Tower of London to Westminster Abbey. Ahead of him marched the heralds and serjeants-at-arms, the Esquire of the Body, the King's Secretary Richard Fox (37), almoner Christopher Urswick (37), the mayor of London and the Garter King of Arms. Also ahead of him were Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50), John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (43) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59). Following behind were the only two Dukes: Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53), created the day before, and John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (43).

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms -1534 made a drawing of the death of Henry VII (he wasn't present). The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:

On 17 Jun 1497 James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley Heighley 1463-1497 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 04 Oct 1497 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VII. 1499. This yeare, in June, deceased the third sonne of the Kinge (1) named Duke of Somersett and was buried at Westminster. Perkin Werbeck (25) putt to death at Tybume Note. 22 Nov 1499; and the Earle of Warwyke (23), Sonne to the Duke of Clarence, who had bene kept in the Tower from the age of 11 years unto the end of 14 yeares, was beheaded at the Tower Hill Note. See Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick. A great pestilence throughout all England.

Around Mar 1499 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 (25) escaped at Tower of London.

Around Mar 1499 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 (25) recaptured at Tower of London.

In 1502 William Pole 1478-1539 (24) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 26 Dec 1502 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 was imprisoned at Tower of London with his brother William Pole 1478-1539. he remained there for eleven years.

Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VII. 1503. This yeare, in Februarie, died Queene Elizabeth (36) at the Towre of London, lyeinge in childebedd of a daughter named Katherine (the 8th day after her birth), and was buried at Westminster; and on Passion Sundaye a peace made betwene the Emperoure (43) and the Kinge (45) duringe their lyves, solemnized upon a great oathe at the highe aulter in Paules queere. See Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort.

Around 1675 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Around 1735. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. The Interior of the Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

On 02 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (46) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) at the Tower of London.
On 10 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 died.
On 11 Feb 1503 (her birthday) Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) died from childbirth. She was buried on 24 Feb 1503 in the Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

On Feb 1504 William Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1475-1511 (29) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 09 Nov 1506 Thomas Green 1461-1506 (45) died at the Tower of London.

In 1516 Robert Sheffield 1461-1518 (54) was imprisoned after complaining against Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (42) at Tower of London.

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Artist.French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530.

On 10 Aug 1518 Robert Sheffield 1461-1518 (56) died at Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

In Apr 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was arrested and imprisoned at Tower of London. He was accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (48) presided at his trial. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (43) and Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (32) acted as judges. Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham -1529, Anthony Poyntz 1480-1533 (41) and Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (41) as jurors. .

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (30). Portrait of Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) wearing the Garter and Inter-twined Knots Collar with St George Pendant.Standing three-quarter length, richly dressed in velvet, fur and cloth-of-gold. Holbein has meticulously shown the varied texture of his cloth-of-gold double which is woven into a pomegranate pattern with a variety of different weaves including loops of gold thread. Similarly, he has carefully articulated the band of black satin running down Guildford’s arm against the richer black of the velvet of his sleeve. A lavish use of both shell-gold paint and gold leaf (which has been used to emulate the highlights of the gold thread in the material) emphasises the luxuriousness of the sitter’s dress and his high status. In his right-hand he holds the Comptroller of the Household Staff of Office.

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (30). Portrait of Mary Wotton 1499-1535 (28) when she was thirty-two commissioned with that of her husband Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) possibly to celebrate their marriage.Hung with gold chains and embellished with pearls, Lady Guildford embodies worldly prosperity, and with her prayer book she is also the very image of propriety.

On 13 Apr 1534 Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (56) was asked to appear before a commission and swear his allegiance Act of Succession. He refused to take the oath and was duly imprisoned in the Tower of London.Whilst there Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (49) made several visits in an attempt to persuade More to comply.

Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540.

On Oct 1535 Thomas "Silken" Fitzgerald 10th Earl Kildare 1513-1537 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In May 1536 Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542 (33) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for allegedly committing adultery with Anne Boleyn 1475-1556 (60).

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (39). Drawing of Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542 (33).

Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542.

Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn

On 02 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) was charged with treason and accused of 'despising her marriage and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust' !She was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Five ladies were appointed to serve Anne whilst in prison including her aunt by marriage Elizabeth Wood, wife of her uncle James Boleyn -1561 and her aunt Anne Boleyn 1475-1556 (60), and Elizabeth Chamber Baroness St John Bletso -1602.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (37).Drawing of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (33).The attribution is contentious.

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.

In 1538 Ingelram Percy 1506-1538 (32) died at Tower of London.

Exeter Conspiracy

In Nov 1538 Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (65), her son Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (46), his son Henry Pole 1520-1542 (18), and other Pole family members, and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1539 (42), his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (34), their son Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (11) and Edward Neville 1471-1538 (67) wre arrested and imprisoned on charges of treason. Cromwell had previously written that they had "little offended save that he [Reginald Pole] is of their kin". They were committed to the Tower of London.

Around 1535 Unknown Artist. Portrait of unknown woman formerly thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541 (61).

In 1540 John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (60) was appointed Constable Tower of London.

In 1540 Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 (75) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 28 Jun 1541 Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane 1479-1541 (62) was executed for having allowed Gerald "Wizard Earl" Fitzgerald 11th Earl Kildare 1525-1585 (16), his sister's son, to escape capture at Tower of London.

On 03 Mar 1542 Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 (77) died at Tower of London.

On 12 Dec 1546 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (73) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 16 Jan 1549 Thomas Seymour (41), the King's uncle, was caught trying to break in to the King's apartments at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond. He entered the privy garden and awoke one of the King's pet spaniels.In response to the dog's barking, he shot and killed it.He was arrested and taken to the Tower of London.

On 13 Oct 1549 John Thynne 1515-1580 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On Nov 1549 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (29) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 1585 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (attributed). Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

Around 1565 Unknown Artist. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (44). His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

After 1590 Unknown Artist. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His left-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

In 1551 Edward Seymour 1529-1593 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On Sep 1551 Edward Waldegrave -1561 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 16 Oct 1551 John Thynne 1515-1580 (36) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 19 Dec 1552 John Seymour 1527-1552 (25) died at Tower of London.

After 10 Jul 1553 Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1561 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 25 Jul 1553 Andrew Dudley 1507-1559 (46) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 25 Jul 1553 Henry Dudley 1531-1557 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

On 03 Aug 1553 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) made her formal entrance into London.
The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London, 1550-1563, describes the event:
The third day of August, the Queen came riding to London and so to the Tower. She made her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged with a great number of streamers hanging about the said gate; and all the streets into Leadenhall and unto the Tower were laid with gravel, and all the crafts of London stood in a row, with their banners and streamers hanging over their heads. Her Grace came, preceded by the Mayor of London carrying the mace and the Earl of Arundel carrying the sword, and all the trumpets blowing. After the Queen came the Lady Elizabeth (19), and after her the Duchess of Norfolk (56), and after her the Marchioness of Exeter and other ladies. And after them the aldermen, and then the guard with bows and javelins, and all the rest who departed from Aldgate in green and white, and red and white, and blue and green, to the number of three thousand horses and spears and javelins.
Strype’s Complete History of England describes Mary's entrance to the Tower:
There met her as humble supplicants the Duke of Norfolk (80), who had been a prisoner ever since his son the Earl of Surrey (80) was put to death by King Henry the ; Edward Courtenay (26), son of the Marquis of Exeter who was executed in the year 1538; Gardiner (70), deprived of his Bishopric of Winchester about two years before; and the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (56). They presented themselves on their knees, and Gardiner in the name of them all, made a congratulatory speech to the Queen, who kindly raised them one after another, saluted them, saying they were her own proper prisoners and ordered their immediate discharge. The next day she restored Courtenay (26) to the honor of his family. Gardiner (70) not only obtained his bishopric again but on the 23rd of August following was made Lord Chancellor, even though he had formerly subscribed to the Sentence of Divorce against the Queen’s mother and had written in defense of King Henry’s proceedings.

Around 1554 Antonis Mor 1517-1577 (37). Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37).

In 1554 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (34). Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37).

Around 1556 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (36). Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (39).

Around 1546. William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (30).The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

After 1585 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (39). Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (44).

1540 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (43).Miniature portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (48).

Around 1525 Unknown Artist.Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

Wyatt's Rebellion

On 18 Mar 1554 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. .

After 25 Dec 1560 Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 was imprisoned in the Tower of London for having married Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621.

In 1561 Edward Waldegrave -1561 died at Tower of London.

In 1561 Thomas Wharton 2nd Baron Wharton 1520-1572 (41) was imprisoned for celebrating the Catholic mass at Tower of London.

On 21 Sep 1561 Edward Seymour 1561-1612 was born to Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621 (22) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 (21) at Tower of London.

In 1562 Thomas Seymour 1562-1600 was born to Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621 (22) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 (21) at Tower of London.

Ridolphi Plot

On 07 Sep 1571 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (35) was imprisoned at Tower of London for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot.

In 1563 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (43). Portrait of Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (26).

On Nov 1575 Egremont Radclyffe -1578 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 23 Mar 1581 Edward Vere 1581- was born illegitimately to Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (30) and Anne Vavasour 1560-1650 (21). Both parents were imprisoned in Tower of London the by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (47) as a consequence. Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (30) was released several months later but banished from court until 1583.

Around 1650 based on a work of 1575.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604.

Before 1619 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619. Portrait of Anne Vavasour 1560-1650.

Around 1605 John Critz 1551-1642 (54). Portrait of Anne Vavasour 1560-1650 (45).

In Dec 1584 Henry Percy 8th Earl Northumberland 1532-1585 (52) was imrpisong in the Tower of London for a third time.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Percy 8th Earl Northumberland 1532-1585.

On 25 Apr 1585 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (27) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 21 Jun 1585 Henry Percy 8th Earl Northumberland 1532-1585 (53) committed suicide at Tower of London. He was found dead in his bed in his cell, having been shot through the heart. A jury was at once summoned, and returned a verdict of suicide. He was buried in St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. His Son Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl Northumberland 1564-1632 (21) succeeded 9th Earl Northumberland (1C 1377). Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619 (21) by marriage Countess Northumberland (1C 1377).

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (35). Portrait of Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl Northumberland 1564-1632.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619.

On 27 Feb 1587 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (39) was imprisoned for presenting the Speaker of the House of Commons with a Puritan revision of the Book of Common Prayer and a bill abrogating existing ecclesiastical law at Tower of London.

On 01 Mar 1587 John Puckering 1544-1596 (43) was asked by Peter Wentworth 1529-1596 (58) to answer some questions regarding the liberties of the House. Puckering refused, but showed one of the questions to Thomas Heneage 1532-1595 (55). Wentworth (58), and four other members of parliament who seconded his motion were imprisoned in the Tower of London.

In 1591 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (37) and Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647 (25) were married in secret she probably being pregnant with their first child.When Queen Eizabeth (57) found out they had married without permission she placed them underhouse arrest then sent them to Tower of London.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (44) painted a portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (37).

In 1598 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (44).

In 1585 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (31).

In 1588 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (34).

In 1595 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647 (29).

On 02 Oct 1591 Thomas Fitzherbert 1514-1591 (77) died at Tower of London.

In Aug 1592 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (38) was released from the Tower of London.

On 03 Nov 1592 John Perrot 1528-1592 (63) died at Tower of London whilst awaiting execution.

In 1593 Edward Seymour 1529-1593 (64) died at Tower of London.

In 1593 Peter Wentworth 1529-1596 (64) was imprisoned for presenting a petition on the subject of the royal succession at Tower of London.

On 19 Oct 1595 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (38) died of dysentery at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London, reburied at Arundel Cathedral, Arundel and then reburied in the Fitzalan Chapel, Arundel Castle, Arundel. His Son Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1586-1646 (9) succeeded 21st Earl Arundel (Sussex), 4th Earl Surrey (3C 1483), 11th Baron Maltravers (1C 1330), 11th Baron Arundel (1C 1377).

In 1618 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (28). Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1586-1646 (31).

In 1630 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (40). Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1586-1646 (43) and wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1629 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640 (51). Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1586-1646 (42).

On 10 Nov 1596 Peter Wentworth 1529-1596 (67) died at Tower of London.

Essex Rebellion

On 08 Feb 1601 Thomas Smythe 1558-1625 (43) was visited by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (35) at his house Gracechurch Street. Smythe was later accused of complicity in the Essex Rebellion, he was examined before the Privy Council. He was fired from his office of sheriff and committed to the Tower of London.

In 1590 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (24).

Around 1596 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (34). Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30).

Around 1597 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (35). Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (31).

Main and Bye Plot

In Jul 1603 the Main and Bye Plot led by Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham 1564-1618 (38) and Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) sought to replace James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (37) with Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (28)
Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) was sentenced to death, attainted, and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

On 15 Mar 1604 John Acland 1552-1620 (52) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (37) at the Tower of London.

In 1605 Anthony-Maria Browne 2nd Viscount Montague 1574-1629 (30) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1605 Carew Raleigh 1605-1666 was born to Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (51) and Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647 (39) in the Tower of London.

Gunpowder Plot

Around Oct 1605 Edward Stourton 10th Baron Stourton 1555-1633 (50) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for having received a letter from his cousin and brother-in-law Francis Tresham -1605 telling him not to attend Parliament.Nothing was proved against Edward and it emerged that several other Catholic peers had received similar warnings. He was released without charge.

On 22 Jun 1610 William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset 1588-1660 (22) and Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) were married in secret at Palace of Placentia. For having married without permission James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (44) had Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) imprisoned in Sir Thomas Perry's House, Lambeth and he in the Tower of London.

In May 1613 Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (1) was caught talking to Thomas Overbury, a prisoner in the Tower of London, and sent to the Fleet Prison for a short time. He was later accused of involvement in Overbury's murder, because he had supplied white powder to his patron, the Earl of Somerset (26), but exonerated.

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (35). Portrait of Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (22).

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (25) and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (27).

Around 1628 John Hoskins 1590-1664 (38) (copy from original). Portrait of Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 (41).

On 09 Jul 1614 Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (38) died at Tower of London.

On 25 Sep 1615 Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (40) died at Tower of London from illnesses exacerbated by her refusal to eat.

On 30 Dec 1617 Gervase Clifton 1st Baron Clifton 1570-1618 (47) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for having threatened Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (56) when Francis ordered a survey of Gervase's lands.

In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (29), whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (14) who was attached to the English Embassy at the time.

In 1731 (Copy of 1618 original).John Vanderbank 1694-1739 (36). Portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626.

On 02 Mar 1629 Miles Hobart 1595-1632 (33) locked the door of the House of Commons, against the King's Messenger and was accordingly imprisoned in the Tower of London.

After 18 Dec 1640 William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1631 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (41). Portrait of William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (57).

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (36). Portrait of William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (62). Wearing a black Chimere over his white Rochet.

On 05 Dec 1643 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1644 Anthony Hungerford 1608-1657 (36) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After Aug 1644 Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1645 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (59) was imprisoned although his son Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (29) remained as a hostage until his fine was paid at Tower of London.

In 1648 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (62) was released at Tower of London.

Battle of Worcester

On 03 Sep 1651 at the Battle of Worcester Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle 1629-1685 (22).In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (28), Thomas Blagge 1613-1660 (38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (60) was captured. Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (36) provided 300 gold pieces to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) following his defeat.
Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet 1624-1693 (27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London.

In 1656 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (65) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 06 Nov 1656 Robert Shirley 4th Baronet Staunton Harold 1623-1656 (33) died from poisoning, probably, in the Tower of London.

In 1658 Philip Stanhope 2nd Earl Chesterfield 1634-1714 (24) was imprisoned for wounding Captain John Whalley in a duel at Tower of London.

Coronation Charles II

On 22 Apr 1660 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) rode from the Tower of London to Whitehall Palace.At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".
Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.
At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.
The procession included the Duke of York (26), the Lord High Constable (57) and the Lord Great Chamberlain
The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond, 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660 (11).

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (34). Portrait of Algernon Percy 10th Earl Northumberland 1602-1668 (31) and Anne Cecil -1637.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Algernon Percy 10th Earl Northumberland 1602-1668.

On 01 Jul 1661 Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (68) was sentenced and degraded from his honours and titles and to be drawn every year on the anniversary of the king's sentence (27 Jan) upon a sledge through the streets to and under the gallows at Tyburn, with a rope about his neck, and so back to the Tower of London, there to remain a prisoner during his life.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 Jul. 02 Jul 1666. Came Sir John Duncomb (44) and Mr. Thomas Chicheley (52), both Privy Councillors and Commissioners of His Majesty's Ordnance, to visit me, and let me know that his Majesty had in Council, nominated me to be one of the Commissioners for regulating the farming and making of saltpetre through the whole kingdom, and that we were to sit in the Tower the next day. When they were gone, came to see me Sir John Cotton (45), heir to the famous antiquary, Sir Robert Cotton: a pretended great Grecian, but had by no means the parts, or genius of his grandfather.

In 1629 Cornelius Johnson 1593-1661 (35). Portrait of Robert Bruce Cotton 1st Baronet Cotton 1571-1631 (57).

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 Jul. 03 Jul 1666. I went to sit with the Commissioners at the Tower, where our commission being read, we made some progress in business, our Secretary being Sir George Wharton (49), that famous mathematician who wrote the yearly Almanac during his Majesty's troubles. Thence, to Painters' Hall, to our other commission, and dined at my Lord Mayor's.

Great Plague of London

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 Sep. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.
At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.
The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.
I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.
In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's proclamation also invited them.
Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (36).

Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 Mar. 06 Mar 1667. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor (58), Monsieur Kiviet's undertaking to wharf the whole river of Thames, or quay, from the Temple to the Tower, as far as the fire destroyed, with brick, without piles, both lasting and ornamental.—Great frosts, snow and winds, prodigious at the vernal equinox; indeed it had been a year of prodigies in this nation, plague, war, fire, rain, tempest and comet.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Bridge, with the Lord Mayor's Procession on the Thames.

Around 1752. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Greenwich Hospital from the North Bank of the Thames.

Around 1754. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Eton College with the new Eton College Chapel, Eton College visible in white stone and the original Tudor buildings in red brick.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 Apr. 23 Apr 1667. In the morning, his Majesty (36) went to chapel with the Knights of the Garter, all in their habits and robes, ushered by the heralds; after the first service, they went in procession, the youngest first, the Sovereign last, with the Prelate of the Order and Dean, who had about his neck the book of the Statutes of the Order; and then the Chancellor of the Order (old Sir Henry de Vic (68)), who wore the purse about his neck; then the Heralds and Garter King-at-Arms, Clarencieux, Black Rod. But before the Prelate and Dean of Windsor went the gentlemen of the chapel and choristers, singing as they marched; behind them two doctors of music in damask robes; this procession was about the courts at Whitehall. Then, returning to their stalls and seats in the chapel, placed under each knight's coat-armor and titles, the second service began. Then, the King (36) offered at the altar, an anthem was sung; then, the rest of the Knights offered, and lastly proceeded to the banqueting-house to a great feast. The King (36) sat on an elevated throne at the upper end at a table alone; the Knights at a table on the right hand, reaching all the length of the room; over against them a cupboard of rich gilded plate; at the lower end, the music; on the balusters above, wind music, trumpets, and kettle-drums. The King was served by the lords and pensioners who brought up the dishes. About the middle of the dinner, the Knights drank the King's health, then the King, theirs, when the trumpets and music played and sounded, the guns going off at the Tower. At the Banquet, came in the Queen (28), and stood by the King's left hand, but did not sit. Then was the banqueting-stuff flung about the room profusely. In truth, the crowd was so great, that though I stayed all the supper the day before, I now stayed no longer than this sport began, for fear of disorder. The cheer was extraordinary, each Knight having forty dishes to his mess, piled up five or six high; the room hung with the richest tapestry.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View of Whitehall, Old Horse Guards and Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel.The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head.She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Raid on the Medway

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 Jun. 17 Jun 1667. This night, about two o'clock, some chips and combustible matter prepared for some fire-ships, taking flame in Deptford-yard, made such a blaze, and caused such an uproar in the Tower (it being given out that the Dutch fleet was come up, and had landed their men and fired the Tower), as had liked to have done more mischief before people would be persuaded to the contrary and believe the accident. Everybody went to their arms. These were sad and troublesome times..

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 Aug. 08 Aug 1667. Visited Mr. Oldenburg (48), a close prisoner in the Tower, being suspected of writing intelligence. I had an order from Lord Arlington (49), Secretary of State, which caused me to be admitted. This gentleman was secretary to our Society, and I am confident will prove an innocent person.

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 (58) wearing his Garter Robes.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 Dec. 09 Dec 1667. To visit the late Lord Chancellor. I found him in his garden at his new-built palace, sitting in his gout wheel-chair, and seeing the gates setting up toward the north and the fields. He looked and spake very disconsolately. After some while deploring his condition to me, I took my leave. Next morning, I heard he was gone; though I am persuaded that, had he gone sooner, though but to Cornbury, and there lain quiet, it would have satisfied the Parliament. That which exasperated them was his presuming to stay and contest the accusation as long as it was possible: and they were on the point of sending him to the Tower.
Note. There is some confusion over the dating of this entry since Lord Clarendon is supposed to have left London on 28 Nov 1667. Possible case of Evelyn writing his diary retrospectively.

In 1669 Henry Savile 1642-1687 (27) was sent to the Tower of London for a few days for having carried Thomas Coventry's (40) challenge to the Duke of Buckingham (40).

Around 1675 Mary Cradock 1633-1699 (41). Portrait of Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699 (46).

Around 1675 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (56). Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke Buckingham 1628-1687 (46) wearing his Garter Collar.

On 02 Feb 1675 John Flamsteed Astronomer 1646-1719 (28) arrived in London. He stayed at the Tower of London with Jonas Moore. He was taken by Silius Titus to meet Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44).

Around 1678 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (44) was imprisoned being under suspiscion of supporting a Popish Plot at Tower of London.

On 28 Jan 1678 Philip "Infamous Earl" Herbert 7th Earl Pembroke, 4th Earl Montgomery 1652-1683 (26) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Rye House Plot

Before Jul 1683 Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville 1655-1701 was arrested for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. He ecasped from the Tower of London in Jul 1683.

On 08 Jul 1683 John Hampden of Great Hampden 1653-1696 (30) was sent to the Tower of London on the discovery of the Rye House Plot.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Jul. 13 Jul 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady, in Covent Garden, the astonishing news was brought to us of the Earl of Essex (52) having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower, and this happened on the very day and instant that Lord Russell (43) was on his trial, and had sentence of death [See Rye House Plot.]. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex (52) being so well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to the King. It is certain the King (53) and Duke (49) were at the Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when my Lord (52) asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were odd reflections upon it.
The fatal news coming to Hicks's Hall upon the article of my Lord Russell's (43) trial, was said to have had no little influence on the Jury and all the Bench to his prejudice. Others said that he had himself on some occasions hinted that in case he should be in danger of having his life taken from him by any public misfortune, those who thirsted for his estate should miss of their aim; and that he should speak favorably of that Earl of Northumberland, and some others, who made away with themselves; but these are discourses so unlike his sober and prudent conversation that I have no inclination to credit them. What might instigate him to this devilish act, I am not able to conjecture. My Lord Clarendon, his brother-in-law, who was with him but the day before, assured me he was then very cheerful, and declared it to be the effect of his innocence and loyalty; and most believe that his Majesty had no severe intentions against him, though he was altogether inexorable as to Lord Russell (43) and some of the rest. For my part, I believe the crafty and ambitious Earl of Shaftesbury had brought them into some dislike of the present carriage of matters at Court, not with any design of destroying the monarchy (which Shaftesbury had in confidence and for unanswerable reasons told me he would support to his last breath, as having seen and felt the misery of being under mechanic tyranny), but perhaps of setting up some other whom he might govern, and frame to his own platonic fancy, without much regard to the religion established under the hierarchy, for which he had no esteem; but when he perceived those whom he had engaged to rise, fail of his expectations, and the day past, reproaching his accomplices that a second day for an exploit of this nature was never successful, he gave them the slip, and got into Holland, where the fox died, three months before these unhappy Lords and others were discovered or suspected. Every one deplored Essex (52) and Russell (43), especially the last, as being thought to have been drawn in on pretense only of endeavoring to rescue the King from his present councilors, and secure religion from Popery, and the nation from arbitrary government, now so much apprehended; while the rest of those who were fled, especially Ferguson and his gang, had doubtless some bloody design to get up a Commonwealth, and turn all things topsy-turvy. Of the same tragical principles is Sydney.
I had this day much discourse with Monsieur Pontaq, son to the famous and wise prime President of Bordeaux. This gentleman was owner of that excellent vignoble of Pontaq and O'Brien, from whence come the choicest of our Bordeaux wines; and I think I may truly say of him, what was not so truly said of St. Paul, that much learning had made him mad. He had studied well in philosophy, but chiefly the Rabbins, and was exceedingly addicted to cabalistical fancies, an eternal hablador [romancer], and half distracted by reading abundance of the extravagant Eastern Jews. He spoke all languages, was very rich, had a handsome person, and was well bred, about forty-five years of age.

Before 21 Jul 1683. John Riley 1646-1691. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683.

Before 1681 Gilbert Soest 1605-1681. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683.

Around 1672 John Greenhill 1644-1676 (28). Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683 (50).

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman 1603-1671. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683.

In 1685 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (38) was appointed Constable Tower of London.

Popish Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jan. 28 Jan 1685. I was invited to my Lord Arundel of Wardour (52), (now newly released of his 6 yeares confinement in ye Tower on suspicion of the Plot call'd Oates's Plot), where after dinner the same Mr. Pordage entertain'd us with his voice, that excellent and stupendous artist Sign' Jo. Baptist playing to it on the harpsichord. My daughter Mary (20) being with us, she also sung to the greate satisfaction of both the masters, and a world of people of quality present. She (20) did so also at my Lord Rochester's (42) the evening following, where we had the French Boy so fam'd for his singing, and indeede he had a delicate voice, and had ben well taught. I also heard Mrs. Packer (daughter to my old friend) sing before his Ma* and the Duke, privately, that stupendous basse Gosling accompanying her, but hers was so loud as tooke away much of the sweetnesse. Certainly never woman had a stronger or better eare, could she possibly have govern'd it. She would do rarely in a large church among the nunns.

In 1685 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711 (42).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711 (43) wearing his Garter Robes including the Garter Collar and holding his white Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jul. 15 Jul 1685. I went to see Dr. Tenison's (48) Library [in St. Martin's.].
Monmouth (36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower, had an interview with his late Dutchesse (34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he proFess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (47) and Bath and Wells (48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.
Thus ended this quondam Duke, darling of his father and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to ga ther a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July. His mother, whose name was Barlow, daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney, who was familiar with his mother) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.
Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cozens to sign a certificate of the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name was Walters: this the Bishop refused. She was born of a gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sidney, then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her 50 broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) but being ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother Colonel Robert Sidney, who kept her for some time, till the King hearing of her, got her from him. On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her she is already sped and after being with the King she was so soon with child that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wort on his face. However the King owned the child. In the King's absence she behaved so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King James II. Vol I.
Had it not pleas'd God to dissipate this attempt in ye beginning, there would in all appearance have gather'd an irresistable force which would have desperately proceeded to ye ruine of ye Church and Govern ment, so general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my owne part I look'd upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an Inundation of phanatics and men of impious principles must needs have caus'd universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, an unavoidable civil war and misery without end. Blessed be God the knot was happily broken, and a faire prospect of tranquil lity for the future if we reforme, be thankful!, and make a right use of this mercy.

Seven Bishops

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Jun. 08 Jun 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), with the Bishops of Ely (50), Chichester (64), St. Asaph (60), Bristol (38), Peterborough (60), and Bath and Wells (50), were sent from the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower, for refusing to give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the Declaration for liberty of conscience; they refused to give bail, as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The concern of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds on their knees begging their blessing, and praying for them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower wharf..

Around 1720 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Jonathan Trelawny Bishop 3rd Baronet 1650-1721 (69).

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Jun. 10 Jun 1688. A YOUNG PRINCE born, which will cause disputes.
About two o'clock, we heard the Tower ordnance discharged, and the bells ring for the birth of a Prince of Wales. This was very surprising, it having been universally given out that her Majesty did not look till the next month..

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Jun. 13 Jun 1688. I went to the Tower to see the Bishops, visited the Archbishop (71) and the Bishops of Ely (50), St. Asaph (60), and Bath and Wells (50)..

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 Jun. 20 Jun 1689. News of A PLOT discovered, on which divers were sent to the Tower and secured.

Battle of the Boyne

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 Jun. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower, on suspicion of being affected to King James (56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's (28) uncle. King William (39) having vanquished King James (56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (74) was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (60), was taken. It is reported that King James (56) is gone back to France. Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William (39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici." But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 Jun. 27 Jun 1690. I went to visit some friends in the Tower, when asking for Lord Clarendon, they by mistake directed me to the Earl of Torrington (42), who about three days before had been sent for from the fleet, and put into the Tower for cowardice and not fighting the French fleet, which having beaten a squadron of the Hollanders, while Torrington (42) did nothing, did now ride masters of the sea, threatening a descent.

Battle of the Boyne

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 Aug. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

On 09 Oct 1690 Richard Power 1st Earl Tyrone 1630-1690 (60) was sent to the Tower of London having accussed of treason.

On 14 Oct 1690 Richard Power 1st Earl Tyrone 1630-1690 (60) died in the Tower of London. His Son John Power 2nd Earl Tyrone 1665-1693 (25) succeeded 2nd Earl Tyrone (2C 1673).

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 Nov. 03 Nov 1690. Went to the Countess of Clancarty (19), to condole with her concerning her debauched and dissolute son, who had done so much mischief in Ireland, now taken and brought prisoner to the Tower.

John Evelyn's Diary 1691 Jan. 04 Jan 1691. This week a PLOT was discovered for a general rising against the new Government, for which (Henry) Lord Clarendon and others were sent to the Tower. The next day, I went to see Lord Clarendon. The Bishop of Ely (53) searched for. Trial of Lord Preston (41), as not being an English Peer, hastened at the Old Bailey.

John Ashton, Edmund Elliot, Richard Graham 1691. On Fryday, the 2d day of this Sessions, my Lord Preston (41), John Ashton and Edmund Elliot, were all Arrained for High Treason, my Lord Preston (41) was Tryed on Saturday by the name of Sir Richard Graham , Mr. Ashton on Monday. The Indictments against them consisted of Two Parts, the First of which set forth, That they had a Treasonable Design carrying on to Depose the King and Queen, and to Subvert and Alter the Government of the Kingdom of England, and to raise War and Rebellion in the same; which said Traiterous and Wicked Designs and Purposes to bring to pass, they did, on the 29th of December last, Meet and Conspire together, with several other Traitors not yet discovered, and did Compose several Treasonable Letters, Notes and Memorandums in writing, which set forth the most effectual way and means how they might Dethrone and Depose our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady the King (40) and Queen (28), and further describing therein how the Affairs of this Kingdom stood, and of what Strength and Force our Shipping was; as also the Fortifications of several Sea-Port-Towns within this Kingdom. The Second Part was their adhering to the Kings's Enemies: And to that end, that they might Acquaint Lewis the French King of the same, they did hire a Boat and Embarque themselves in order to Transport themselves and Pacquet of Treasonable Letters into France , agreeing to pay for their said Passages the Sum of One hundred Pound; and, in order to their Treasonable Voyage, they had made their Passage as far as below Gravesend, but were then Taken by Captain Billop, who Cruised abroad to search for them.
After this the Evidence for the King (40) being called, gave an Account particularly from Step to Step, how cunningly and subtilly they managed this horrid Conspiracy, by hiring the Smack called the Thomas and Elizabeth, to convey them secretly into France; in order to which they took Water in a Skuller at Surrey-Stairs, and went on Board the aforesaid Vessel, which lay in the River of Thames over against the Tower: From thence they set Sail down the River, till coming within the View of the George Frigate, lying in Long-reach, they desired the Master of the Smack to hide them under the Quarter-Hatches; which was done, they having some Fear of being discovered: There they remained till past that Danger, and then came up; but when they were within Sight of Gravesend they hid again, and a little below it Captain Billop came aboard them, under Pretence of Pressing the Masters two Men, who were assistants to him; but indeed his Design and real Intention was to find out those Traytors, which, upon Search, he found lying along under the Hatches; and after their being haled up he search'd them, and found a Pacquet of Treasonable Papers in Mr. Ashton's Bosom: which he with the Prisoners carried before my Lord Nottingham; who examined the Papers, and after being examined by the Cabinet Council they were committed to the Tower. The Evidence was very full and plain against them both, much to the same effect and purport: The Letters being also Read against them in Court, were adjudged to be of no less Import than High-Treason. Upon the whole they had nothing material to offer in their Defence; so after a very long hearing, they were both found Guilty of High Treason. Edmond Elliot was ordered to remain till further order.

John Evelyn's Diary 1691 Apr. 22 Apr 1691. I dined with Lord Clarendon in the Tower.

On Jul 1691 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (44) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 25 Oct 1691 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (44) died at Tower of London. He was buried at Holy Trinity, Minories.

On Mar 1694 Anthony Carey 5th Viscount Falkland 1656-1694 (38) was imprisoned on charges of peculation at Tower of London.

On 10 Nov 1710 Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin 1650-1710 (59) died having been imprisoned for being a Jacobite at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.His Son James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin 1667-1715 (42) succeeded 2nd Baron Griffin of Braybrooke.

Before 1710 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman 1694-1744. Portrait of Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin 1650-1710.

Before 31 Oct 1715 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman 1694-1744. Portrait of James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin 1667-1715.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:
George Seton 5th Earl of Winton 1678-1749. The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.
On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure 1672-1716 was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale 1676-1744. On 09 Feb 1716 he was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (35) effected his escape from the Tower of London by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (26) was.
James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater 1692-1723 (23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave 1695-1719 (20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond 1671-1722 (44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 appealed to George I King Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727 (54) in person without success. On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne 1665-1726 was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.
On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh -1716 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar, Fleet Street.
The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723 (50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709.

Around 1664 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (23) and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.

Around 1666 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (47). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (25). One of the Windsor Beauties.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709.

Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (57). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (49).

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709.

Before 1727. Michael Dahl 1659-1743. Portrait of George I King Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727.

Before 1723 Johnathan "The Elder" Richardson 1667-1745. Portrait of William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723.

On 29 Oct 1722 Thomas Howard 8th Duke Norfolk 1683-1732 (38) was arrested under suspicion of involvement in a Jacobite plot, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London.

In 1725 Thomas Parker 1st Earl Macclesfield 1666-1732 (58) was imprisoned until payment of his £30,000 fine was received at Tower of London.

The History of King Richard the Third. 5 Richard, the third son, of whom we now treat, was in wit and courage equal with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both: little of stature, ill featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favored in appearance, and such as is in the case of lords called warlike, in other men called otherwise. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from before his birth, ever perverse. It is for truth reported that the Duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail to birth him that she could not be delivered of him uncut, and he came into the world with the feet forward, as men be borne outward, and (as the story runs) also not untoothed. Either men of hatred reported the above for truth or else nature changed her course in his beginning—in the course of whose life many things were unnaturally committed. No unskilled captain was he in war, for which his disposition was more suited than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never by fault of his own person, either of hardiness or political order. Free was he called when dispensing gifts, and somewhat above his power liberal; with large gifts he got for himself unsteadfast friendship, for which he was glad to pillage and spoil in other places, and get for himself steadfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissembler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly friendly where he inwardly hated, not omitting to kiss whom he thought to kill; pitiless and cruel, not for evil will always, but for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much the same; where his advantage grew, he spared no man death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower, as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the King, who would, undoubtedly, if he had intended such a thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

Great Fire of London

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 Sep. 05 September, 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall; but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty to command me, among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all despair. It also broke out again in the Temple; but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.
The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, etc., did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had dedicated to his Majesty and published, giving warning what probably might be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the city was looked upon as a prophecy.
The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, were now reduced to extreme misery and poverty.
In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine, who, in the midst of all this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound.

Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer Chirk 1256-1326 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

John Seymour 1527-1552 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Thomas Stafford 1533-1557 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Ingelram Percy 1506-1538 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Geoffrey Mandeville -1100 was appointed Constable Tower of London.

William Mandeville -1129 was appointed Constable Tower of London.

Gruffudd ab Owain Glyndŵr Mathrafal 1375-1412 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Piers Mauley 6th Baron Mauley 1331-1383 was appointed Constable Tower of London.

Bloody Tower, Tower of London

Bowyer Tower, Tower of London

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

On 18 Feb 1478 Edward's brother George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was executed; drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine (allegedly) in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London. William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London

Lords Appellant

In 1397 Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 1338-1401 (58) was imprisoned at Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London during the Lords Appellant.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 25 Jul 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (49), John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick 1527-1554 (26), Robert Dudley 1st Earl Leicester 1532-1588 (21), Guildford Dudley 1535-1554 (18), Henry Manners 2nd Earl Rutland 1526-1563 (26) and Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1561 (39) were imprisoned for supporting Lady Jane Grey at Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London.

In 1587 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl Leicester 1532-1588 (54).

Around 1575 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl Leicester 1532-1588 (42).

Around 1575 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl Leicester 1532-1588 (42) wearing his Garter Collar.

King's Hall, Tower of London

Trial of Anne Boleyn

On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London. .
Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess Worcester 1502-1565 (34) was the principal witness.
The jurors were:
Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52)
Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 (24)
Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (21)
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (49)
Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (44)
John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (56)
Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (38)
Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal, 10th Baron Morley 1481-1556 (55)
Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (27)
Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle 1507-1560 (28)
John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (65)
Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth 1501-1551 (35)
Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 (40)
Henry Percy 5th Earl Northumberland 1478-1527
Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham Sternborough, 5th Baron Strabolgi, 1st Baron Burgh 1488-1550 (48)
Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1539 (40)
William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (60)
Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (24)
Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Waldon 1488-1544 (48)
Edward Powers Lord Powers
William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (66)
Thomas Ware
Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (69)
George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (39).

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (37).Drawing of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (33).The attribution is contentious.

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36). Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547 (17).

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36). Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547 (17).

Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Artist. After William Scrots 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. The Arms on his right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300-1338 Arms. On the left Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 Arms.

Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547.

Around 1543 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (59).

Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (41). Drawing of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 (26).

Around 1565 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 (53).

In 1583 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 (71) wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1556 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (36). Portrait of Mary Neville Baroness Dacre Gilsland 1524-1576 (32) with an inset portrait of husband Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541.

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms -1534 made a drawing of the death of Henry VII (he wasn't present). The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:

Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (35). Drawing of Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (22).

Around 1550 John "The Elder" Bettes 1531-1569; some doubt over attribution. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth 1501-1551 (49).

In 1550 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (30). Portrait Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (37) with the motto Invidia Torquet Autorem meaning Let envy torment its author.

Around 1565 Unknown Artist.Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (52).

In 1569 Unknown Artist. Posthumous portrait of Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Waldon 1488-1544.

Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (41). Drawing of George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (41).

Ordnance Office, Tower of London

In 1664 Samuel Martin worded at the Ordnance Office, Tower of London.

St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London

Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

On 17 May 1536 George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33), Henry Norreys 1482-1536 (54) and Mark Smeaton 1512-1536 (24) were beheaded at Tower Hill.
George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33) was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 19 May 1536 Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).
Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:
Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.
To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.
She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (37).Drawing of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (33).The attribution is contentious.

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.

Around 1543 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (59).

Around 1562 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of (probably) Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (38).

On 28 Jul 1540 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (55) forfeit 1st Earl Essex (6C 1540). He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540.

Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

On 13 Feb 1542 Catherine Howard (19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 (37) were beheaded at Tower Green. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36). Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547 (17).

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36). Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547 (17).

Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Artist. After William Scrots 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. The Arms on his right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300-1338 Arms. On the left Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 Arms.

Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547.

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 20 Mar 1549 Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour Sudeley 1508-1549 (41) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Edward Seymour's Execution

On 22 Jan 1552 Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (52) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. King Edward VI (14) noted in his diary ... "the duke of Somerset had his head cut off upon Tower Hill between eight and nine o'clock in the morning".
On 26 Feb 1552 Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) and Michael Stanhope 1507-1552 (44) were beheaded at Tower Hill for plotting to assassinate John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (48). Both men protested their innocence to the end.
Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Around 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (43). Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (2)

Around 1546 Unknown Artist. After William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (8).

Around 1547 Master John PainterWorkshop. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (9).

After 22 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley

On 12 Feb 1554 Lady Jane Grey (18) was beheaded at Tower Green by order of Queen Elizabeth I (20). She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. Guildford Dudley (19) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Around 1590 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Jane "Nine Day Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554.

Around 1546. William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (30).The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

After 1585 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

After 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley 1535-1554 was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Ridolphi Plot

On 02 Jun 1572 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (36) was executed for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

In 1563 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (43). Portrait of Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (26).

On 21 Jun 1585 Henry Percy 8th Earl Northumberland 1532-1585 (53) committed suicide at Tower of London. He was found dead in his bed in his cell, having been shot through the heart. A jury was at once summoned, and returned a verdict of suicide. He was buried in St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. His Son Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl Northumberland 1564-1632 (21) succeeded 9th Earl Northumberland (1C 1377). Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619 (21) by marriage Countess Northumberland (1C 1377).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Percy 8th Earl Northumberland 1532-1585.

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (35). Portrait of Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl Northumberland 1564-1632.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619.

On 19 Oct 1595 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (38) died of dysentery at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London, reburied at Arundel Cathedral, Arundel and then reburied in the Fitzalan Chapel, Arundel Castle, Arundel. His Son Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1586-1646 (9) succeeded 21st Earl Arundel (Sussex), 4th Earl Surrey (3C 1483), 11th Baron Maltravers (1C 1330), 11th Baron Arundel (1C 1377).

On 10 Nov 1710 Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin 1650-1710 (59) died having been imprisoned for being a Jacobite at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.His Son James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin 1667-1715 (42) succeeded 2nd Baron Griffin of Braybrooke.

Before 1710 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman 1694-1744. Portrait of Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin 1650-1710.

Before 31 Oct 1715 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman 1694-1744. Portrait of James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin 1667-1715.

On 18 Aug 1746 William Boyd 4th Earl Kilmarnock 1705-1746 (41) was executed at Tower Hill. He was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Tower Green, Tower of London

Execution of John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester

On 18 Oct 1470 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (43) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. On 14 Apr 1471 His Son Edward Tiptoft 2nd Earl Worcester 1470-1485 succeeded 2nd Earl Worcester (4C 1449), 3rd Baron Tiptoft.

Execution of Hastings

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle next to Edward IV King England 1442-1483. His Son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings (2C 1430). Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings, 4th Baroness Hungerford 1466-1553 (17) by marriage Baroness Hastings (2C 1430).
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 19 May 1536 Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).
Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:
Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.
To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.
She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (37).Drawing of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (33).The attribution is contentious.

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.

Around 1543 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (59).

Around 1562 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of (probably) Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (38).

Exeter Conspiracy

On 27 May 1541, after some two and a half years of imprisonment, Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (67) was executed at Tower Green, Tower of London.

Around 1535 Unknown Artist. Portrait of unknown woman formerly thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541 (61).

Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

On 13 Feb 1542 Catherine Howard (19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 (37) were beheaded at Tower Green. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36). Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547 (17).

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36). Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547 (17).

Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Artist. After William Scrots 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. The Arms on his right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300-1338 Arms. On the left Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 Arms.

Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley

On 12 Feb 1554 Lady Jane Grey (18) was beheaded at Tower Green by order of Queen Elizabeth I (20). She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. Guildford Dudley (19) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Around 1590 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Jane "Nine Day Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554.

Around 1546. William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (30).The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

After 1585 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

Essex Rebellion

On 25 Feb 1601 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London during the Essex Rebellion.

In 1590 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (24).

Around 1596 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (34). Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30).

Around 1597 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (35). Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (31).

Wakefield Tower, Tower of London

Death of Henry VI

On 21 May 1471 Henry VI (49) died (possibly murdered) in the Wakefield Tower in the Tower of London. Death of Henry VI.

White Tower, Tower of London

Great Plague of London

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 Sep. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.
At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.
The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.
I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.
In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's proclamation also invited them.
Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (36).

Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.