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Westminster Palace

Execution of Three Lords

1101 Christmas Court

1376 Death of the Black Prince

1453 Birth of Edward of Westminster

1460 Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

1472 Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

1478 Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

1483 Funeral of Edward IV

1484 Opening Parliament

1485 Queen Anne Dies

1490 Arthur Tudor created Prince of Wales

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1605 Gunpowder Plot

1649 Trial of Charles I

1684 Frost Fair

1685 Popish Plot

1689 Coronation William III and Mary II

Christmas Court

In Dec 1101 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (33) hosted his at Christmas Court at Westminster Palace. Gilbert Clare 1066-1117 (35) attended.

On 01 May 1118 Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England 1080-1118 (38) died at Westminster Palace. She was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House, Strand In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park, St James' with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

Chronica Majora: Heavy falls of rain. 10 Feb 1236. About the same time, for two months and more, namely, in January, February, and part of March, such deluges of rain fell as had never been seen before in the memory of any one. About the feast of 10 Feb 1236, when the moon was new, the sea became so swollen by the river torrents which fell into it, that all the rivers, especially those which fell into the sea, rendered the fords impasSable, overflowing their banks, hiding the bridges from sight, carrying away mills and dams, and overwhelming the cultivated lands, crops, meadows, and marshes. Amongst other unusual occurrences, the River Thames overflowed its usual bounds, and entered the Westminster Palace, where it spread and covered the whole area, so that small boats could float there, and people went to their apartments on horseback. The water also forcing its way into the cellars could with difficulty be drained off. The signs of this storm which preceded it, then gave proofs of their threats; for on the day of 11 Dec 1235, thunder was heard, and on the Friday next after the conception of 08 Dec 1235, a spurious sun was seen by the side of the true sun.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Bridge, with the Lord Mayor's Procession on the River Thames.

Around 1752. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Royal Hospital, Greenwich from the North Bank of the River Thames.

Around 1754. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Eton College with the new Eton College Chapel, Eton College visible in white stone and the original Tudor buildings in red brick.

In 1238 Simon Montfort 6th Earl Leicester 1208-1265 (30) and Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Pembroke, Countess Leicester 1215-1275 (23) were married (he was her Half Third-Cousin) at Westminster Palace. Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Pembroke, Countess Leicester 1215-1275 (23) by marriage Countess Leicester (1C 1107).

On 17 Jun 1239 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 was born to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (31) and Eleanor Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (16) at Westminster Palace.

On 25 Nov 1253 Katherine Plantagenet 1253-1257 was born to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (46) and Eleanor Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (30) at Westminster Palace.

14 May 1354. Letter XXIV. Philippa of Hainault Queen of Edward III to Sir John de Edington her Attorney. 14 May 1354. Letter XXIV. Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (39) to John de Edington her Attorney.
Philippa, by the grace of God queen of England, lady of Ireland, and duchess of Aquitaine, to our dear clerk Sir John de Edington, our attorney in the exchequer of our very dear lord the king, sends greeting.
We command you, that you cause all the writs which have been filed from the search lately made by Richard de Crssevill to be postponed until the octaves of Easter next ensuing; to the end that, in the meantime, we and our council may be able to be advised which of the said writs are to be put in execution for our profit, and which of them are to cease to the relief of our people, to save our conscience. And we will that this letter be your warrant therefore.
Given under our privy seal, at Westminster Palace, the 14th day of May, in the year of the reign of our very dear lord the king of England the twenty-eighth.

Death of the Black Prince

On 08 Jun 1376 Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince Wales 1330-1376 (45) died of dysentery at Westminster Palace. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral.

Close Rolls Richard II 1396-1399 V6. 07 Jun 1399. Westminster Palace. To the keepers, occupiers, receivers or farmers of the lordship of Kyngeston in Dorsete for the time being. Order so long as the same shall remain in the king's hand to pay to John Swelle esquire 20 marks a year, which by a writing indented, confirmed by the king, John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 granted him for life, to be taken of the issues of the said lordship.

Close Rolls Richard II 1396-1399 V6. 14 Jun 1399. Westminster Palace. To the keepers, farmers, occupiers or receivers of the manor of Lopham for the time being. Order every year to pay to Roger Bliklynge his raiment or 13s. 4d. for it, and 3d. a day, and to pay him the arrears since 5 February 8 Richard II, on which date the king confirmed letters patent whereby Margaret Plantagenet 2nd Countess Norfolk -1399, granted to the said Roger for life the office of keeper of the park, warren and game to the said manor pertaining, raiment once a year at Christmas of the suit of her esquires or 13s. 4d., and 3d. a day of the agistments of the park at the feast of St. Peter in autumn.

In 1409 Margaret Beaufort Countess Devon 1409-1449 was born to John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset, 1st Marquess Dorset 1373-1410 (36) and Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (24) at Westminster Palace.

Birth of Edward of Westminster

On 13 Oct 1453 Edward Lancaster Prince Wales 1453-1471 was born to Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (31) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (23) at Westminster Palace. When Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (31) recovered from his catatonic state, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (31) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (23) had been married for eight years before the birth. Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) was suggested at the time.

On 11 Feb 1466 Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (23) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (29) at Westminster Palace.

Around 1675 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

On 20 Mar 1469 Cecily York Viscountess Welles 1469-1507 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (32) at Westminster Palace.Named after her father's mother Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (53).

On 17 Aug 1473 Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (31) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (36) at Westminster Palace.

On 02 Nov 1475 Anne York 1475-1511 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (33) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (38) at Westminster Palace.

Queen Anne Dies

On 16 Mar 1485 Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (28) died at Westminster Palace.Probably of tuberculosis. The day she died there was an Eclipse of the Sun; a bad omen to some.There were, of course, rumours of foul play.

On 28 Nov 1489 Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (32) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (23) at Westminster Palace.

Around 1525 Unknown Artist.French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (35).

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck 1499-1525 (10) is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Around 1520 Unknown Artist.Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Arthur Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 27 Feb 1490 Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502 (3) was created Prince Wales at Westminster Palace.
Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr, 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (33) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

On Oct 1605 Thomas Knyvet 1st Baron Knyvet 1545-1622 (60) searched and arrested Guy Fawkes whilst leaving the cellar shortly after midnight at Westminster Palace.

Gunpowder Plot

On 04 Nov 1605 William Parker 4th Baron Monteagle, 14th Baron Marshal, 13th Baron Morley 1575-1622 (30) searched the basement with Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (44) and discovered the gunpowder and explosives at Westminster Palace. .

In 1598 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (36).

The History of King Richard the Third. 1.2 This noble Edward IV King England 1442-1483 died at his palace of Westminster Palace and, with great funeral honor and heaviness of his people from thence conveyed, was interred at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was a king of such governance and behavior in time of peace (for in war each part must needs be another’s enemy) that there was never any prince of this land attaining the crown by battle so heartily beloved by the substance of the people, nor he himself so specially in any part of his life as at the time of his death.

Exchequer

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 Jan. 02 Jan 1660. Monday.
In the morning before I went forth East Porter brought me a dozen of bottles of sack, and I gave him a shilling for his pains.
Then I went to Mr Sheply Servant who was drawing of sack in the wine cellar to send to other places as a gift from my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34), and told me that my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34) had given him order to give me the dozen of bottles.
Thence I went to the Temple to speak with Lestrange Calthorpe 1624-1708 (36) about the 60l. due to my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34), but missed of him, he being abroad. Then I went to John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (62) and borrowed 10l. of John Andrews Timber Merchant (NOTE. Possibly John Andrews Timber Merchant) for my own use, and so went to my Exchequer, where there was nothing to do. Then I walked a great while in Westminster Hall, where I heard that General John Lambert 1619-1684 (40) was coming up to London; that my Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax 1612-1671 (47) was in the head of the Irish brigade, but it was not certain what he would declare for. The House was to-day upon finishing the act for the Council of State, which they did; and for the indemnity to the soldiers; and were to sit again thereupon in the afternoon. Great talk that many places have declared for a free Parliament; and it is believed that they will be forced to fill up the House with the old members. From the Westminster Hall I called at home, and so went to John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (62) (my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) she was to go to her Alexandre Marchant de St Michel), thinking to have dined, but I came too late, so Mr Moore and I and another gentleman went out and drank a cup of ale together in the new market, and there I eat some bread and cheese for my dinner. After that Mr Moore and I went as far as Fleet Street together and parted, he going into the City, I to find Lestrange Calthorpe 1624-1708 (36), but failed again of finding him, so returned to John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (62) again, and from thence went along with Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (35) home, and there she taught me how to play at cribbage. Then I went home, and finding my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) gone to see Elizabeth Hunt, I went to Will's Ale House, and there sat with Mr Ashwell talking and singing till nine o’clock, and so home, there, having not eaten anything but bread and cheese, my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) cut me a slice of brawn which I received from my Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (35); which proves as good as ever I had any. So to bed, and my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) had a very bad night of it through wind and cold.

Around 1650 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (31). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (24).

Around 1662 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (43). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (36) in his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

Around 1652. Robert Walker 1599-1658 (53). Portrait of General John Lambert 1619-1684 (32).

House of Commons

On 11 May 1812 Spencer Perceval 1762-1812 (49) was assassinated at House of Commons.

King's Chapel

Old Palace Yard

On 29 Oct 1618 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (64) was beheaded at Old Palace Yard. He was buried in St Margaret's Church.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (44) painted a portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (37).

In 1598 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (44).

In 1585 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (31).

In 1588 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (34).

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

On 07 Dec 1661 Nicholas Monck Bishop Hereford 1610-1661 (51) died at Old Palace Yard.

Execution of Three Lords

On 09 Mar 1649 at the Old Palace Yard ...
Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649 was executed.
Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649 was beheaded.
James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton 1606-1649 was beheaded for his support of the Royalist cause and his leading an army against Cromwell. His Brother William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton 1616-1651 succeeded 2nd Duke Hamilton by special remainder.

Around 1647 John Hoskins 1590-1664 (57) (copy from original). Portrait of Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649.

In 1634 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (44). Portrait of Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649.

Will's Ale House

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 Jan. 02 Jan 1660. Monday.
In the morning before I went forth East Porter brought me a dozen of bottles of sack, and I gave him a shilling for his pains.
Then I went to Mr Sheply Servant who was drawing of sack in the wine cellar to send to other places as a gift from my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34), and told me that my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34) had given him order to give me the dozen of bottles.
Thence I went to the Temple to speak with Lestrange Calthorpe 1624-1708 (36) about the 60l. due to my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34), but missed of him, he being abroad. Then I went to John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (62) and borrowed 10l. of John Andrews Timber Merchant (NOTE. Possibly John Andrews Timber Merchant) for my own use, and so went to my Exchequer, where there was nothing to do. Then I walked a great while in Westminster Hall, where I heard that General John Lambert 1619-1684 (40) was coming up to London; that my Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax 1612-1671 (47) was in the head of the Irish brigade, but it was not certain what he would declare for. The House was to-day upon finishing the act for the Council of State, which they did; and for the indemnity to the soldiers; and were to sit again thereupon in the afternoon. Great talk that many places have declared for a free Parliament; and it is believed that they will be forced to fill up the House with the old members. From the Westminster Hall I called at home, and so went to John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (62) (my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) she was to go to her Alexandre Marchant de St Michel), thinking to have dined, but I came too late, so Mr Moore and I and another gentleman went out and drank a cup of ale together in the new market, and there I eat some bread and cheese for my dinner. After that Mr Moore and I went as far as Fleet Street together and parted, he going into the City, I to find Lestrange Calthorpe 1624-1708 (36), but failed again of finding him, so returned to John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (62) again, and from thence went along with Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (35) home, and there she taught me how to play at cribbage. Then I went home, and finding my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) gone to see Elizabeth Hunt, I went to Will's Ale House, and there sat with Mr Ashwell talking and singing till nine o’clock, and so home, there, having not eaten anything but bread and cheese, my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) cut me a slice of brawn which I received from my Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (35); which proves as good as ever I had any. So to bed, and my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) had a very bad night of it through wind and cold.

Around 1650 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (31). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (24).

Around 1662 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (43). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (36) in his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

Around 1652. Robert Walker 1599-1658 (53). Portrait of General John Lambert 1619-1684 (32).

Painted Chamber

1484 Opening Parliament

Richard III Parliament Rolls 1484 The Opening of Parliament. Be it remembered that on 23 Jan 1484 in the first year of the reign of Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31) since the conquest , that is, on the first day of parliament, with the lord king sitting on the royal throne in the Painted Chamber within his palace of Westminster, then being present many lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons of the realm of England, assembled at the aforesaid parliament at the king's command, the venerable father John Russell Bishop Rochester, Bishop Lincoln -1494, chancellor of England memorably declared and announced the reasons for summoning the aforesaid parliament, taking as his theme: 'In the body there are many limbs, but not all have the same function'. In which words he gravely and very astutely explained the fealty which subjects of the Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31) and the functions individual members owe to the principal member, asserting that there are three kinds of body, namely the natural, the aggregate and the politic, and going on to suggest that one coin, the tenth, had been lost from the most precious fabric of the body politic of England and that to hunt for it and find it would require the king and all the lords spiritual and temporal to be very assiduous and diligent during this parliament; concluding that after the finding of the tenth coin, which signifies perfection, our body politic of England would endure gloriously and for a long time, healthy, safe and free from all damage or injury; the Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31), the great men of the realm and the commons eternally cherishing peace outward and inward and the author of that peace. At the end of which declaration and announcement, the aforesaid John Russell Bishop Rochester, Bishop Lincoln -1494 in the Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31) name firmly ordered the commons to assemble on the following day in their common house as usual and elect one of their number as their speaker, and to present the man thus elected to the same lord king. The same chancellor announced moreover that the said lord king, wishing justice to be done more swiftly both to denizens and aliens wishing to complain in the said parliament, had appointed and assigned certain receivers of the petitions to be presented in the same parliament in the following form ...
.

New Palace Yard

Swan Inn, New Palace Yard

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 10 May 1669. Troubled, about three in the morning, with my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (28) calling her maid up, and rising herself, to go with her coach abroad, to gather May-dew, which she did, and I troubled for it, for fear of any hurt, going abroad so betimes, happening to her; but I to sleep again, and she come home about six, and to bed again all well, and I up and with Richard Gibson by coach to St. James’s, and thence to Whitehall Palace, where the Duke of York met the Office, and there discoursed of several things, particularly the Instructions of Commanders of ships. But here happened by chance a discourse of the Council of Trade, against which the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35) is mightily displeased, and particularly Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699 (38), against whom he speaking hardly, Captain John Cox did second the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35), by saying that he was talked of for an unfayre dealer with masters of ships, about freight: to which Thomas Littleton 2nd Baronet 1621-1681 (48) very hotly and foolishly replied presently, that he never heard any honest man speak ill of Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699 (38); to which the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35) did make a smart reply, and was angry; so as I was sorry to hear it come so far, and that I, by seeming to assent to Captain John Cox, might be observed too much by Thomas Littleton 2nd Baronet 1621-1681 (48), though I said nothing aloud, for this must breed great heart-burnings. After this meeting done, the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35) took the Treasurers into his closet to chide them, as Christopher Wren Architect 1632-1723 (45) tells me; for that my Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1606-1674 (63) did last night at the Council say, when nobody was ready to say any thing against the constitution of the Navy, that he did believe the Treasurers of the Navy had something to say, which was very foul on their part, to be parties against us.
They being gone, Christopher Wren Architect 1632-1723 (45) [and I] took boat, thinking to dine with my Gilbert Sheldon Archbishop Canterbury 1598-1677 (70); but, when we come to Lambeth, the gate was shut, which is strictly done at twelve o’clock, and nobody comes in afterwards: so we lost our labour, and therefore back to Whitehall Palace, and thence walked my boy Jacke with me, to my John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (71), whom I have not seen since he was sick, which is eight months ago, I think and there dined with him: he is mightily broke. A stranger a country gentleman, was with him: and he pleased with my discourse accidentally about the decay of gentlemen’s families in the country, telling us that the old rule was, that a family might remain fifty miles from London one hundred years, one hundred miles from London two hundred years, and so farther, or nearer London more or less years. He also told us that he hath heard his father say, that in his time it was so rare for a country gentleman to come to London, that, when he did come, he used to make his will before he set out.
Thence: to St. James’s, and there met the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35), who told me, with great content, that he did now think he should master our adversaries, for that the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (38) did tell him that he was; satisfied in the constitution of the Navy, but that it was well to give these people leave to object against it, which they having not done, he did give order to give warrant to the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35) to direct Admiral Jeremy Smith -1675 to be a Commissioner of the Royal Navy in the room of Admiral William Penn 1621-1670 (48); which, though he be an impertinent fellow, yet I am glad of it, it showing that the other side is not so strong as it was: and so, in plain terms, the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35) did tell me, that they were every day losing ground; and particularly that he would take care to keep out Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699 (38): at all which I am glad, though yet I dare not think myself secure, as the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (38) may yet be wrought upon by these people to bring changes in our Office, and remove us, ere it be long. Thence I to Whitehall Palace, and there took boat to Westminster, and to Betty Powell Draper, who is not come to town from her Samuel Martin at Portsmouth. So drank only at Cragg’s with Doll Powell, and so to the Swan Inn, New Palace Yard, and there baiser a new maid that is there, and so to Whitehall Palace again, to a Committee of Tangier, where I see all things going to rack in the business of the Corporation, and consequently in the place, by John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton 1608-1674 (61) going. Thence walked a little with John Creed -1701, who tells me he hears how fine my horses and coach are, and advises me to avoid being noted for it, which I was vexed to hear taken notice of, it being what I feared and Thomas Povey 1614-1705 (55) told me of my gold-lace sleeves in the Park yesterday, which vexed me also, so as to resolve never to appear in Court with them, but presently to have them taken off, as it is fit I should, and so to my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (28) at John Unthank, and coach, and so called at my tailor’s to that purpose, and so home, and after a little walk in the garden, home to supper and to bed.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall Palace and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Before 1691. John Riley 1646-1691. Portrait of Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699.

In 1711 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Christopher Wren Architect 1632-1723 (87).

Before 1691. John Riley 1646-1691. Portrait of Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1606-1674.

Around 1670 Pieter Borsseler 1634-1687 (36). Portrait of Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1606-1674 (63). Chirk Castle.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696. Portrait of John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton 1608-1674.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey 1614-1705.

St Stephen's Chapel

Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (19) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (16) were married (he was her First-Cousin Once-Removed) at St Stephen's Chapel. Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (16) by marriage Duchess Gloucester (3C 1461).

Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

On 15 Jan 1478 Edward IV's youngest son Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- and Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (5) were married (he was her Second-Cousin Once-Removed) at St Stephen's Chapel. She had recently inherited the vast Mowbray inheritance when her father John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 died in 1476. The ceremony was attended by Edward's daughters Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (11), Mary York 1467-1482 (10) and Cecily York Viscountess Welles 1469-1507 (8). The day before Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (35) was knighted. In 1483 Parliament changed the succession so Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- would continue to enjoy her inheritance (she died in 1481) effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (52) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (53) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death).

Around 1675 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

After 09 Apr 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 lay in state at St Stephen's Chapel.

Funeral of Edward IV

On 10 Apr 1483, in the morning, the coffin of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was moved to St Stephen's Chapel. Edward Story Bishop Chichester -1503 sang the masses. Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68), Chamberlain to Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), offered on the Queen's behalf.

On 30 Mar 1553 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop Canterbury 1489-1556 (63) was consecrated as Archbishop Canterbury at St Stephen's Chapel by John Longland Bishop Lincoln -1547, John Harman Bishop Exeter 1462-1555 (91) and Henry Standish Bishop St Asaph 1475-1535.

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36). Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop Canterbury 1489-1556 (43).

In 1544 Gerlach Flicke 1520-1558 (24). Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop Canterbury 1489-1556 (54).

Star Chamber

On 28 Nov 1449 William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (34) attacked Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell 1403-1456 (46) at Star Chamber.

Westminster Hall

On 26 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (43) was tried at Westminster Hall.

On 15 Feb 1382 William Ufford 2nd Earl Suffolk 1338-1382 (43) died at Westminster Hall.

Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

On 10 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (42). .

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

On 21 Nov 1499 John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (57) presided at Westminster Hall during the Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 18 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (49) and John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick 1527-1554 (26) were tried at Westminster Hall.

On 19 Aug 1553 Andrew Dudley 1507-1559 (46) was tried at Westminster Hall.

Gunpowder Plot The Effect Of the Indictment. On 27 Jan 1606 the trial of the conspirators took place at Westminster Hall.[Gunpowder Plot]
The Commissioners were:
Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (70)
Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (44)
Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628 (56)
Charles Blount 1st Earl Devonshire 1563-1606 (43)
Henry Howard 1st Earl Northampton 1540-1614 (65)
Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (42)
John Popham Lord Chief Justice 1531-1607 (75)
Thomas Fleming Judge 1544-1613 (61)
Peter Warburton Judge 1540-1621 (66)

The Effect of the Indictment
Note. We have broken this very lengthy paragraph up into more manageable chunks.
THAT whereas our James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (39) had, by the Advice and Assent of his Council, for divers weighty and urgent Occasions concerning, his Majesty, the State, and Defence of the Church and Kingdom of England, appointed a Parliament to be holden at his City of Westminster; That Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Superior of the Jesuits within the Realm of England, (called also by the several names of Wally, Darcy, Roberts, Farmer, and Henry Philips), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), otherwise called Oswald Greenwell, John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), (called also by the several names of Lee and Brooke), Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38), Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Gentlemen, Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35) Gent. otherwise called Guy Johnson, Robert Keyes Gent. and Thomas Bates Yeoman, late Servant to Robert Catesby Esquire; together with the said Robert Catesby and Thomas Percy Esquires, John Wright and Christopher Wright Gentlemen, in open Rebellion and Insurrection against his Majesty, lately slain, and Francis Tresham Esq; lately dead; as false Traitors against our said Sovereign Lord the King, did traitorously meet and assemble themselves together; and being so met, the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), and other Jesuits, did maliciously, falsly, and traitorously move and persuade as well the said Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, That our said Sovereign Lord the King, the Nobility, Clergy, and whole Commonalty of the Realm of England, (Papists excepted) were Hereticks; and that all Hereticks were accursed and excommunicate; and that none Heretick could be a King; but that it was lawful and meritorious to kill our said Sovereign Lord the King, and all other Hereticks within this Realm of England, for the Advancing and Enlargement of the pretended and usurped Authority and Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, and for the restoring of the superstitious Romish Religion within this Realm of England.

To which traitorous Persuasions, the said Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, traitorously did yield their Assents: And that thereupon the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), and divers other Jesuits; Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as also the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright and Francis Tresham, traitorously amongst themselves did conclude and agree, with Gunpowder, as it were with one Blast, suddenly, traitorously and barbarously to blow up and tear in pieces our said Sovereign Lord the King, the excellent, virtuous and gracious Queen Anne, his dearest Wife, the most noble Prince Henry, their eldest Son, and future Hope and Joy of England; and the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, the Reverend Judges of the Realm, the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of Parliament, and divers other faithful Subjects and Servants of the King in the said Parliament, for the Causes aforesaid, to be assembled in the House of Parliament; and all them, without any respect of Majesty, Dignity, Degree, Sex, Age or Place, most barbarously, and more than beastly, traitorously and suddenly to destroy and swallow up.

And further did most traitorously conspire and conclude among themselves, That not only the whole Royal Issue-Male of our said Sovereign Lord the King should be destroyed and rooted out; but that the Persons aforesaid, together with divers other false Traitors, traitorously with them to be assembled, should surprize the Persons of the most noble Ladies Elizabeth and Mary, Daughters of our said Sovereign Lord the King, and falsly and traitorously should proclaim the said Lady Elizabeth to be Queen of this Realm: And thereupon should publish a Proclamation in the name of the said Lady Elizabeth; wherein, as it was especially agreed by and between the said Conspirators, That no mention should be made at the first, of the alteration of Religion established within within this Realm of England; neither would the said false Traitors therein acknowledge themselves to be Authors, or Actors, or Devisers of the aforesaid most wicked and horrible Treasons, until they had got sufficient Power and Strength for the assured Execution and Accomplishment of their said Conspiracy and Treason; and that then they would avow and justify the said most wicked and horrible Treasons, as Actions that were in the number of those, Quae non laudantur, nisi peracta, which be not to be commended before they be done: but by the said feign'd and traitorous Proclamation they would publish, That all and singular Abuses and Grievances within this Realm of England, should, for satisfying of the People, be reform'd.

And that as well for the better concealing, as for the more effectual accomplishing of the said horrible Treasons, as well the said Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, by the traitorous Advice and Procurement of the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), and other Jesuits, traitorously did further conclude and agree, that as well the said Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, thereupon severally and traitorously should receive several corporal Oaths upon the holy Evangelists, and the Sacrament of the Eucharist, That they the Treasons aforesaid would traitorously conceal and keep secret, and would not reveal them, directly or indirectly, by Words or Circumstances, nor ever would desist from the Execution and final Accomplishment of the said Treasons, without the consent of some three of the aforesaid false Traitors first in that behalf traitorously had: And that thereupon as well the said Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christ. Wright, and Francis Tresham, did traitorously take the said several corporal Oaths severally, and did receive the Sacrament of the Eucharist aforesaid, by the Hands of the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), and other Jesuits.

And further, that the said Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35),Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright,Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, by the like traitorous Advice and Counsel of the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), and other Jesuits, for the more effectual compassing and final execution of the said Treasons, did traitorously among themselves conclude and agree to dig a certain Mine under the said House of Parliament, and there secretly, under the said House, to bestow and place a great Quantity of Gunpowder ; and that according to the said traitorous Conclusion, the said Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomes Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, afterwards secretly, not without great labour and difficulty, did dig and make the said Mine unto the midst of the Foundation of the Wall of the said House of Parliament, the said Foundation being of the thickness of three yards, with a traitorous Intent to bestow and place a great Quantity of Gunpowder in the Mine aforesaid, so as aforesaid traitorously to be made for the traitorous accomplishing of their traitorous Purposes aforesaid.

And that the said Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, finding and perceiving the said Work to be of great difficulty, by reason of the Hardness and thickness of the said Wall ; and understanding a certain Cellar under the said House of Parliament, and adjoining to a certain House of the said Thomas Percy, then to be letten to farm for a yearly Rent, the said Thomas Percy, by the traitorous Procurement, as well of the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), and other Jesuits, Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as of the said Robert Catesby, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, traitorously did hire the Cellar aforesaid for a certain yearly Rent and Term: and then those Traitors did remove twenty Barrels full of Gunpowder out of the said House of the said Thomas Percy, and secretly and traitorously did bestow and place them in the Cellar aforesaid, under the said House of Parliament, for the traitorous effecting of the Treason, and traitorous Purposes aforesaid.

And that afterwards the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), and other Jesuits, Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright traitorously did meet with Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38), John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, Esquires; and traitorously did impart to the said Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, the Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid ; and did require the said Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, to join themselves as well with the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, in the Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid; and traitorously to provide Horse, Armour, and other Necessaries, for the better Accomplishment and effecting of the said Treasons.

To which traitorous Motion and Request, the said Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, did traitorously yield their Assents, and as well with the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38), Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, in the said Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid, traitorously did adhere and unite themselves: And thereupon several corporal Oaths, in form abovesaid, traitorously did take, and the Sacrament of the Eucharist, by the hands of the said Jesuits did receive, to such intent and Purpose, as is aforesaid; and Horses, Armour, and other Necessaries for the better effecting of the said Treasons, according to their traitorous Assents aforesaid, traitorously did provide.

And that afterwards all the said false Traitors did traitorously provide, and bring into the Cellar aforesaid ten other Barrels full of Gunpowder, newly bought, fearing lest the former Gunpowder, so as aforesaid bestow'd and placed there, was become dankish; and the said several Quantities of: Gunpowder aforesaid, with Billets and Faggots, lest they should be spy'd, secretly and traitorously did cover.

And that afterwards the said false Traitors traitorously provided, and brought into the Cellar aforesaid, four Hogsheads full of Gunpowder, and laid divers great Iron Bars and Stones upon the said four Hogsheads, and the aforesaid other Quantities of Gunpowder: And the said Quantities of Gunpowder, Bars, and Stones, with Billets and Faggots, lest they should be espy'd, secretly and traitorously did likewise cover.

And that the said Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35), afterwards, for a full and final Accomplishment of the said Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid, by the traitorous Procurement, as well of the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), and other Jesuits, Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38), Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, as of the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, traitorously had prepared, and had upon his Person Touchwood and Match, therewith traitorously to give fire to the several Barrels, Hogsheads, and Quantities of Gunpowder aforesaid, at the time appointed for the Execution of the said horrible Treasons.

And further, that after the said horrible Treasons were, by the great Favour and Mercy of God, in a wonderful manner discover'd, not many hours before it should have been executed, as well the said Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50), Oswald Tesimond Jesuit 1563-1636 (43), John Gerrard Jesuit 1564-1637 (41), Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38), Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, traitorously did fly and withdraw themselves, to the intent traitorously to stir up and procure such Popish Persons, as they could, to join with them in actual, publick and open Rebellion against our said Sovereign Lord the King; and to that end did publish divers feigned and false Rumours, that the Papists Throats should have been cut; and that thereupon divers Papists were in Arms, and in open, publick, and actual Rebellion against our said Sovereign Lord the King, in divers Parts of this Realm of England.

Around 1604 John Critz 1551-1642 (53) is believed to have contributed to the Somerset House Conference painting of the negotiation of the Treaty of London in which Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608 (68), Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (68), Charles Blount 1st Earl Devonshire 1563-1606 (41), Henry Howard 1st Earl Northampton 1540-1614 (63) and Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (40) are represented on the right side.

Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (30). Portrait of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (84).

In 1598 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (36).

In 1621 Gilbert Jackson 1595-1648 (26). Portrait of Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628 (71).

1624. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Howard 1st Earl Northampton 1540-1614.

Around 1602 John Critz 1551-1642 (51). Portrait of Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (38).

Around 1605 John Critz 1551-1642 (54). Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (38) with Garter Collar and Leg Garter.

In 1621 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (31). Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (54) wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter.

Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (32). Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst -1583. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (16).

John Evelyn's Diary 1641 Apr. On the 15 Apr 1641 I repaired to London to hear and see the famous trial of the Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48), who, on the 22nd of March, had been summoned before both Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in Westminster Hall, which was prepared with scaffolds for the Lords and Commons, who, together with the Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40), Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (31), Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (10), and flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of the greatest malice and the greatest innocency that ever met before so illustrious an assembly. It was Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1586-1646 (54), Earl Marshal of England, who was made High Steward upon this occasion; and the sequel is too well known to need any notice of the event.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (39).

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (36). Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (42).

Around 1712. Charles D'Agar 1669-1723 (43). Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (36).

Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.

Around 1625 John Hoskins 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

In 1618 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (28). Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1586-1646 (31).

In 1630 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (40). Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1586-1646 (43) and wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1629 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640 (51). Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1586-1646 (42).

John Evelyn's Diary 1641 Aug. 19 Aug 1641. We returned to the Hague, and went to visit the Hoff, or Prince's Court, with the adjoining gardens full of ornament, close walks, statues, marbles, grots, fountains, and artificial music. There is to this palace a stately hall, not much inferior to ours of Westminster Hall, hung round with colours and other trophies taken from the Spaniards; and the sides below are furnished with shops.

Trial of Charles I

On 23 Jan 1649 Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (48) was tried at Westminster Hall by Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (56). Adrian Scrope 1601-1660 (48), Thomas Grey 1623-1657 (26), Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (49), John Danvers 1588-1655 (60) and William Monson 1st Viscount Monson 1599-1672 (50) signed the Death Warrant.

Around 1649. Robert Walker 1599-1658 (50). Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (49).

John Evelyn's Diary 1652 Jul. 09 Jul 1652. We went to see Penshurst Place, Penshurst, the Earl of Leicester's, famous once for its gardens and excellent fruit, and for the noble conversation which was wont to meet there, celebrated by that illustrious person, Philip Sidney 3rd Earl Leicester 1619-1698 (33), who there composed divers of his pieces. It stands in a park, is finely watered, and was now full of company, on the marriage of my old fellow-collegiate, Mr. Robert Smith, who married my Dorothy Sidney Countess Sunderland 1617-1683 (35), widow of the Earl of Sunderland.
One of the men who robbed me was taken; I was accordingly summoned to appear against him; and, on the 12th, was in Westminster Hall, but not being bound over, nor willing to hang the fellow, I did not appear, coming only to save a friend's bail; but the bill being found, he was turned over to the Old Bailey. In the meantime, I received a petition from the prisoner, whose father I understood was an honest old farmer in Kent. He was charged, with other crimes, and condemned, but reprieved. I heard afterward that, had it not been for his companion, a younger man, he would probably have killed me. He was afterward charged with some other crime, but, refusing to plead, was pressed to death.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Dorothy Sidney Countess Sunderland 1617-1683.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 Jan. 02 Jan 1660. Monday.
In the morning before I went forth East Porter brought me a dozen of bottles of sack, and I gave him a shilling for his pains.
Then I went to Mr Sheply Servant who was drawing of sack in the wine cellar to send to other places as a gift from my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34), and told me that my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34) had given him order to give me the dozen of bottles.
Thence I went to the Temple to speak with Lestrange Calthorpe 1624-1708 (36) about the 60l. due to my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34), but missed of him, he being abroad. Then I went to John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (62) and borrowed 10l. of John Andrews Timber Merchant (NOTE. Possibly John Andrews Timber Merchant) for my own use, and so went to my Exchequer, where there was nothing to do. Then I walked a great while in Westminster Hall, where I heard that General John Lambert 1619-1684 (40) was coming up to London; that my Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax 1612-1671 (47) was in the head of the Irish brigade, but it was not certain what he would declare for. The House was to-day upon finishing the act for the Council of State, which they did; and for the indemnity to the soldiers; and were to sit again thereupon in the afternoon. Great talk that many places have declared for a free Parliament; and it is believed that they will be forced to fill up the House with the old members. From the Westminster Hall I called at home, and so went to John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (62) (my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) she was to go to her Alexandre Marchant de St Michel), thinking to have dined, but I came too late, so Mr Moore and I and another gentleman went out and drank a cup of ale together in the new market, and there I eat some bread and cheese for my dinner. After that Mr Moore and I went as far as Fleet Street together and parted, he going into the City, I to find Lestrange Calthorpe 1624-1708 (36), but failed again of finding him, so returned to John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (62) again, and from thence went along with Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (35) home, and there she taught me how to play at cribbage. Then I went home, and finding my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) gone to see Elizabeth Hunt, I went to Will's Ale House, and there sat with Mr Ashwell talking and singing till nine o’clock, and so home, there, having not eaten anything but bread and cheese, my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) cut me a slice of brawn which I received from my Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (35); which proves as good as ever I had any. So to bed, and my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (19) had a very bad night of it through wind and cold.

Around 1650 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (31). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (24).

Around 1662 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (43). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (36) in his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

Around 1652. Robert Walker 1599-1658 (53). Portrait of General John Lambert 1619-1684 (32).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 Jan. 31 Jan 1660.
In the morning I fell to my lute till 9 o’clock. Then to my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34) lodgings and set out a barrel of soap to be carried to Mrs. Ann. Here I met with Nick Bartlet, one that had been a servant of my Lord’s at sea and at Harper's, Whitehall Palace gave him his morning draft. So to my office where I paid; 1200l. to Mr. Frost and at noon went to Will’s to give one of the Excise office a pot of ale that came to-day to tell over a bag of his that wanted; 7l. in it, which he found over in another bag. Then home and dined with my wife when in came Mr. Hawly newly come from shipboard from his master, and brought me a letter of direction what to do in his lawsuit with Squib about his house and office. After dinner to Westminster Hall, where all we clerks had orders to wait upon the Committee, at the Star Chamber that is to try Colonel Jones, and were to give an account what money we had paid him; but the Committee did not sit to-day. Hence to Will’s, where I sat an hour or two with Mr. Godfrey Austin, a scrivener in King Street.

Here I met and afterwards bought the answer to George Monck 1st Duke Albermarle 1608-1670 (51) letter, which is a very good one, and I keep it by me.

Thence to Mrs. Jem, where I found her maid in bed in a fit of the ague, and Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (35) among the people below at work and by and by she came up hot and merry, as if they had given her wine, at which I was troubled, but said nothing.

After a game at cards, I went home and wrote by the post and coming back called in at Harper’s and drank with Mr. Pulford, servant to Mr. Waterhouse, who tells me, that whereas my Lord Fleetwood should have answered to the Parliament to-day, he wrote a letter and desired a little more time, he being a great way out of town. And how that he is quite ashamed of himself, and conFesses how he had deserved this, for his baseness to his brother. And that he is like to pay part of the money, paid out of the Exchequer during the Committee of Safety, out of his own purse again, which I am glad of. Home and to bed, leaving my wife reading in Polixandre. I could find nothing in George Downing 1st Baronet Downing 1625-1684 (35) letter, which Hawly brought me, concerning my office; but I could discern that Hawly had a mind that I would get to be Clerk of the Council, I suppose that he might have the greater salary; but I think it not safe yet to change this for a public employment.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albermarle 1608-1670.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albermarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Wednesday 12 May 1669. Up, and to Westminster Hall, where the term is, and this the first day of my being there, and here by chance met Roger Pepys Lawyer 1617-1688 (52), come to town the last night: I was glad to see him. After some talk with him and others, and among others Charles Harbord 1640-1670 (29) and Sidney Wortley-Montagu 1650-1727 (18), the latter of whom is to set out tomorrow towards Flanders and Italy, I invited them to dine with me to-morrow, and so to Betty Powell Draper lodging, who come to town last night, and there je did hazer her, she having been a month, I think, at Portsmouth with her Samuel Martin, newly come home from the Streights. But, Lord! how silly the Betty Powell Draper talks of her great entertainment there, and how all the gentry come to visit her, and that she believes her Samuel Martin is worth 6 or 700l., which nevertheless I am glad of, but I doubt they will spend it a fast. Thence home, and after dinner my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (28) and I to the Duke of York's Playhouse, Lincoln's Inn Fields, and there, in the side balcony, over against the musick, did hear, but not see, a new play, the first day acted, “The Roman Virgin,” an old play, and but ordinary, I thought; but the trouble of my eyes with the light of the candles did almost kill me. Thence to my Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (43), and there had a promise from Sidney Wortley-Montagu 1650-1727 (18) to come and dine with me to-morrow; and so my wife and I home in our coach, and there find my brother John Pepys, as I looked for, come to town from Ellington, where, among other things, he tell me the first news that my Paulina Jackson Pepys 1640-1689 (28) is with child, and far gone, which I know not whether it did more trouble or please me, having no great care for my friends to have children; though I love other people’s. So, glad to see him, we to supper, and so to bed.

Popish Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 May. 07 May 1685. I was in Westminster Hall when Titus Oates 1649-1705 (35), who had made such a stir in the kingdom, on his revealing a Popish Plot, and alarm'd several Parliaments, and had occasioned the execution of divers Priests, Noblemen*, &c. was tried for perjurie at the King's Bench; but being very tedious, I did not endeavour to see the issue, considering that it would be published. Aboundance of Roman Catholics were in the Hall in expectation of the most gratefull conviction and ruine of a person who* had ben so obnoxious to them, and, as I verily believe, had don much mischeife and greate injury to several by his violent and ill-grounded proceedings; whilst he was at first so unreasonably blowne up and encouraged, that his insolence was no longer sufferable. Roger Strange 1616-1704 (68) (a gentleman whom I had long known, and a person of excellent parts abating some affectations) appearing first against the Dissenters in several Tracts, had now for some yeares turn'd his style against those whom (by way of hateful distinction) they call'd Whiggs and Trimmers, under the title of Observator, which came out 3 or 4 days every weeke, in which sheets, under pretence to serve the Church of England, he gave suspicion of gratifying another party, by several passages which rather kept up animosities than appeas'd them, especialy now that nobody gave the least occasion.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Oct. 31 Oct 1685. I din'd at our greate George "Hanging Judge" Jeffreys 1st Baron Jeffreys 1645-1689 (40), who us'd me with much respect. This was the late Chief Justice who had newly ben the Western Circuit to try the Monmouth conspirators, and had formerly don such severe justice amongst the obnoxious in Westminster Hall, for which his James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (52) dignified him by creating him first a Baron Jeffreys, and now Lord Chancellor. He had some years past ben conversant at Deptford; is of an assur'd and undaunted spirit, and has serv'd the Court interest on all the hardiest occasions; is of nature cruel and a slave of the Court.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Feb. 08 Feb 1686. I tooke the Test in Westminster Hall, before the Edward Herbert Attorney General 1591-1658. I now came to lodge at Whitehall Palace in the Lord Privy Seal's lodgings.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall Palace and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

John Evelyn's Diary 1687 Apr. 08 Apr 1687. I had a rehearing of my great cause at the Chancery in Westminster Hall, having seven of the most learned Counsel, my adversary five, among which were the Attorney General and late Solicitor Finch, son to the Lord Chancellor Nottingham. The account was at last brought to one article of the surcharge, and referred to a Master. The cause lasted two hours and more.

Coronation William III and Mary II

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 Apr. 11 Apr 1689. I saw the procession to and from the Westminster Abbey, with the great feast in Westminster Hall, at the Coronation William III and Mary II. What was different from former coronations, was some alteration in the coronation oath. Gilbert Burnet Bishop Salisbury 1643-1715 (45), now made Bishop of Sarum, preached with great applause. The Parliament men had scaffolds and places which took up the one whole side of the Westminster Hall. When the William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) and Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26) had dined, the ceremony of the Champion, and other services by tenure were performed. The Parliament men were feasted in the Exchequer chamber, and had each of them a gold medal given them, worth five-and-forty shillings. On the one side were the effigies of the King and Queen inclining one to the other; on the reverse was Jupiter throwing a bolt at Phäeton the words, "Ne totus absumatur": which was but dull, seeing they might have had out of the poet something as apposite. The sculpture was very mean.
Much of the splendor of the proceeding was abated by the absence of divers who should have contributed to it, there being but five Bishops, four Judges (no more being yet sworn), and several noblemen and great ladies wanting; the feast, however, was magnificent. The next day the House of Commons went and kissed their new Majesties' hands in the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House, Strand In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park, St James' with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

Around 1675 Mary Cradock 1633-1699 (41). Portrait of Gilbert Burnet Bishop Salisbury 1643-1715 (31).

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler 1634-1687. Portrait of Gilbert Burnet Bishop Salisbury 1643-1715.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View of Whitehall, Old Horseguards, Whitehall Palace and Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace.

In 1746 John Rocque Mapmaker 1704-1762 (42). Map of London Part 2C.

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Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

On Apr 1761 Laurence Shirley 4th Earl Ferrers 1720-1760 was tried for murder by his peers at Westminster Hall with Attorney General Charles Pratt leading for the prosecution and found guilty.

In 1776 Elizabeth 1721-1788 (54) was tried for bigamy at Westminster Hall.

Westminster Palace Yard

On 29 Jun 1612 Robert Crichton 8th Lord Sanquhar -1612 was hanged in Westminster Palace Yard for having arranged the murder of his fencing Master John Painter Turner who had previously disfigured him during practice.At his trial Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (51) read the charges.

In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (29), whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (14) who was attached to the English Embassy at the time.

In 1731 (Copy of 1618 original).John Vanderbank 1694-1739 (36). Portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626.

Westminster Stairs

Frost Fair

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Jan. 09 Jan 1684. I went crosse the Thames on the ice, now become so thick as to beare not onely streetes of boothes, in which they roasted meate, and had divers shops of wares, quite acrosse as in a towne, but coaches, carts, and horses, passed over. So I went from Westminster Stairs to Lambeth Palace, and din'd with the William Sancroft Archbishop Canterbury 1617-1693 (66): where I met my Lord Bruce, George Wheeler Traveller 1651-1724 (32), Coll. Cooke, and severall divines. After dinner and discourse with his Grace till evening prayers, George Wheeler Traveller 1651-1724 (32) and I walked over the ice from Lambeth Stayres to the horse ferry. .

Swan Inn

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 24 May 1669. To Whitehall Palace, and there all the morning, and thence home, and giving order for some business and setting my John Pepys to making a catalogue of my books, I back again to William Hewer 1642-1715 (27) to Whitehall Palace, where I attended the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35) and was by him led to [the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (38)], who expressed great sense of my misfortune in my eyes, and concernment for their recovery; and accordingly signified, not only his assent to desire therein, but commanded me to give them rest summer, according to my late petition to the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35). William Hewer 1642-1715 (27) and I dined alone at the Swan Inn; and thence having thus waited on the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (38), spent till four o’clock in St James' Park, St James', when I met my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (28) at John Unthank, and so home.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall Palace and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715 (47).

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View of St James' Park, St James'.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park, St James' with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 28 May 1669. To St. James’s, where the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (38) being with the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (35) prevented a meeting of the Committee of Tangier. But, Lord! what a deal of sorry discourse did I hear between the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (38) and several Lords about him here! but very mean methought. So with John Creed -1701 to the Excise Office, Aldersgate Street, Aldersgate, and back to Whitehall Palace, where, in the Park, George Carteret 1st Baronet Metesches 1610-1680 (59) did give me an account of his discourse lately, with the Commissioners of Accounts, who except against many things, but none that I find considerable; among others, that of the Officers of the Navy selling of the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (38) goods, and particularly my providing him with calico flags, which having been by order, and but once, when necessity, and the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (38) apparent profit, justified it, as conformable to my particular duty, it will prove to my advantage that it be enquired into. Nevertheless, having this morning received from them a demand of an account of all monies within their cognizance, received and issued by me, I was willing, upon this hint, to give myself rest, by knowing whether their meaning therein might reach only to my Treasurership for Tangier, or the monies employed on this occasion. I went, therefore, to them this afternoon, to understand what monies they meant, where they answered me, by saying, “The eleven months’ tax, customs, and prizemoney,” without mentioning, any more than I demanding, the service they respected therein; and so, without further discourse, we parted, upon very good terms of respect, and with few words, but my mind not fully satisfied about the monies they mean. At noon Richard Gibson and I dined at the Swan Inn, and thence doing this at Brooke House, Holborn, and thence calling at the Excise Office, Aldersgate Street, Aldersgate for an account of payment of my tallies for Tangier, I home, and thence with my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (28) and John Pepys spent the evening on the water, carrying our supper with us, as high as Chelsea; so home, making sport with the Westerne bargees, and my Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (28) and I singing, to my great content.