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Events in ... 1654 ...

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1654 First Protectorate Parliament

From 1653 to 1654 Lionel Tollemache 3rd Baronet Talmash 1624-1669 (28) lived at 6-7 Great Piazza, Covent Garden, Westminster .

Before 1654 William Finch 1653- was born to Heneage Finch 3rd Earl Winchelsea 1628-1689 (25) and Mary Seymour Countess Winchelsea 1637-1673 (16) .

First Protectorate Parliament

In 1654 John Wray 3rd Baronet Glentworth 1619-1664 (34) was elected as MP Lincolnshire during the First Protectorate Parliament

In 1654 John Glynne 1602-1666 (52) was elected as MP Caernarfonshire during the First Protectorate Parliament

In 1654 Robert Pye 1620-1701 (34) was elected as MP Berkshire during the First Protectorate Parliament

In 1654 Robert Bertie 3rd Earl Lindsey 1630-1701 (23) and Mary Massingberd -1658 were married .

In 1654 . Robert Walker 1599-1658 (55) . Portrait of William Wentworth 2nd Earl Strafford 1626-1695 (27) .

In 1654 Francis Brudenell 1654-1698 was born to Robert Brudenell 2nd Earl Cardigan 1607-1703 (46) and Anna Savage Countess Cardigan -1696

In 1654 Abigail Willoughby 1576-1654 (78) died

Around 1654 Philadelphia Carey -1654 died

Around 1654 William Constable 4th Viscount Dunbar 1654-1718 was born to John Constable 2nd Viscount Dunbar 1615-1688 (39) and Mary Brudenell Viscountess Dunbar .

In 1654 John Coventry 4th Baron Coventry 1654-1687 was born to George Coventry 3rd Baron Coventry 1628-1680 (26) and Margaret Tufton Baroness Coventry 1636-1729 (17)

In 1654 Henry Bingham 1654-1714 was born to George Bingham 1625-1682 (29) .

In 1654 Edward Berkeley -1654 died

Around 1654 Thomas Grey 2nd Earl Stamford 1654-1720 was born to Thomas Grey 1623-1657 (31) and Dorothy Bourchier 1627-1659 (27) .

Around 1654 Elizabeth Manners Countess Anglesey 1654-1700 was born to John Manners 8th Earl Rutland 1604-1679 (49) and Frances Montagu Countess Rutland 1614-1671 (40)

Around 1654 Richard Molyneux 2nd Viscount Molyneux 1617-1654 (37) died . His brother Caryll Molyneux 3rd Viscount Molyneux 1624-1700 (30) succeeded as 3rd Viscount Molyneux . Mary Barlow Viscountess Molyneux by marriage Viscountess Molyneux .

Around 1654 Caryll Molyneux 3rd Viscount Molyneux 1624-1700 (30) and Mary Barlow Viscountess Molyneux were married .

Around 1654 Cecily Neville 1600-1654 (54) died .

In 1654 Elizabeth Noel Countess Berkeley 1654-1719 was born to Baptist Noel 3rd Viscount Campden 1611-1682 (43) and Hester Wotton Viscountess Campden 1615-1646

In 1654 William Paston 2nd Earl Yarmouth 1654-1732 was born to Robert Paston 1st Earl Yarmouth 1631-1683 (22)

Around 1654 Richard Savage 4th Earl Rivers 1654-1712 was born to Thomas Savage 3rd Earl Rivers 1628-1694 (26) and Elizabeth Scrope Countess Rivers 1627-

In 1654 William Seymour 3rd Duke Somerset 1654-1671 was born to Henry Seymour 1626-1654 (28) and Mary Capell Duchess Beaufort 1630-1715 (23)

In 1654 Charles Seymour 2nd Baron Seymour Trowbridge 1621-1665 (33) and Eizabeth Alington 2nd Baroness Seymour Trowbridge 1635-1691 (18) were married . Eizabeth Alington 2nd Baroness Seymour Trowbridge 1635-1691 (18) by marriage 2nd Baroness Seymour Trowbridge .

Around 1664 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (45) . Portrait of Eizabeth Alington 2nd Baroness Seymour Trowbridge 1635-1691 (28) .

In 1654 Robert Kerr 1st Earl Ancram 1578-1654 (76) died .

In 1654 Humfrey Tufton 1st Baronet Tufton 1584-1659 (70) was appointed as High Sheriff Kent .

Around 1654 Edward Fitzgerald-Villiers 1654-1693 was born to George Villiers 4th Viscount Grandison 1617-1699 (37) and Mary Legh Viscountess Grandison

In 1654 Barbara Villiers Viscountess Fitzhardinge 1654-1708 was born to Edward Villiers 1620-1689 (33) and Frances Howard -1677

In 1654 William Wray 1st Baronet Ashby 1625-1669 (29) was appointed as Deputy Governor Beaumaris Castle .

Around 1654 Francis Wyndham 3nd Baronet Trent 1654-1715 was born to Francis Wyndham 1st Baronet Trent 1612-1676 (42) .

In 1654 Anne Percy 2nd Countess Chesterfield 1635-1654 (18) died .

Around 1655 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (36) . Portrait of (probably) Anne Percy 2nd Countess Chesterfield 1635-1654 .A three quarter-length portrait of a young woman, seated, looking slightly to the left, her right hand on the head of a sculptured dolphin-fountain and wearing a grey dress, with an old-gold mantle against a foliage background.

In 1654 Simon Archer 1581-1662 (72) purchased at Lord Leycester Hotel, Jury Street, Warwick, Warwickshire .

First Protectorate Parliament

In 1654 Francis Bacon 1600-1663 (53) was elected MP Ipswich in the First Protectorate Parliament .

In 1654 Louis Joseph Bourbon-Vendôme 3rd Duke Vendôme 1654-1712 was born to Louis Bourbon-Vendôme 2nd Duke Vendôme 1612-1669 (41) and Laura Macini Duchess Vendôme .

In 1654 Henry Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1654-1695 was born to Thomas Carew 1st Baronet Carew 1632-1673 (22) in Chudleigh, Devon .

In 1654 George Downing 1st Baronet Downing 1625-1684 (29) and Frances Howard Baronetess Downing were married .

In 1654 Alexander Elphinstone 6th Lord Elphinstone -1654 died . His son Alexander Elphinstone 7th Lord Elphinstone 1647-1669 (7) succeeded as 7th Lord Elphinstone .

In 1654 John Erskine 20th Earl Mar 1585-1654 (69) died . His son John Erskine 21st Earl Mar -1668 succeeded as 21st Earl Mar (1C 1404) .

Around 1654 John Guise 2nd Baronet Guise 1654-1695 was born to Christopher Guise 1st Baronet Guise 1617-1670 (37) .

In 1654 Henry Mildmay 15th Baron Fitzwalter 1585- (69) de jure 15th Baron Fitzwalter .

In 1654 Henry Mildmay 15th Baron Fitzwalter 1585- (69) died .

In 1654 William Russell 1st Baronet Russell 1575-1654 (79) died . His son Francis Russell 2nd Baronet Russell 1616-1664 (38) succeeded as 2nd Baronet Russell of Chippenham in Wiltshire .

In 1654 Alexander Sutherland 1st Lord Duffus -1674 was appointed 1st Lord Duffus .

In 1654 William Waller 1597-1668 (57) bought at Osterley Park, Hounslow, Middlesex

Around 1654 John Brown Instrument Maker -1697 was working from the Sphere & Sun Diall, Great Minories, Aldgate, City of London

In 1654 Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet 1624-1693 (30) was appointed High Sheriff Worcestershire .

In 1654 William Moreton 1577-1654 (77) died

Around 1654 Jane Pole Baronetess Coplestone 1654-1710 was born to Courtenay Pole 2nd Baronet Pole 1619-1695 (35) and Urith Shapcote Baronetess Pole

In 1670 Mary Cradock 1633-1699 (36) . Portrait of Courtenay Pole 2nd Baronet Pole 1619-1695 (51) .

Around 1650 Gilbert Soest 1605-1681 (45) . Portrait Urith Shapcote Baronetess Pole . Belton House.

In 1654 Richard Power 1st Earl Tyrone 1630-1690 (24) and Dorothy Annesley Countess Tyrone were married

In 1654 Isaac Newton Scientist 1642-1727 (11) entered The King's School, Grantham, Lincolnshire

In 1654 Admiral George Churchill 1654-1710 was born to Winston Churchill 1620-1688 (33) and Elizabeth Drake .

Before 1710 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723 . Portrait of Admiral George Churchill 1654-1710 (55) .

Around 1654 Robert Coke 1654-1678 was born to Richard Coke 1626-1669 (28)

Around 1654 Francis Boothby 1654-1684 was born to William Boothby 1st Baronet Boothby 1638-1704 (16) .

Around 1654 . Robert Walker 1599-1658 (55) . Portrait of Charles Fleetwood 1618-1692 (36) .

Around 1654 . Robert Walker 1599-1658 (55) . Portrait of Charles Fleetwood 1618-1692 (36) .

Around 1654 Anthony Brabazon 1581-1654 (73) died .

In 1654 James Boyd 9th Lord Boyd -1654 died

In 1654 Francis Hay -1654 died .

In 1654 Frederick William "Great Elector" Hohenzollern Elector Brandenburg 1620-1688 (33) was appointed 457th Knight Garter: Charles II .

After 1654 Philip Stanhope 2nd Earl Chesterfield 1634-1714 (20) and Elizabeth Butler 2nd Countess Chesterfield 1640-1665 (13) were married . Elizabeth Butler 2nd Countess Chesterfield 1640-1665 (13) by marriage 2nd Countess Chesterfield .

Jan 1654

19 Jan 1654

On 19 Jan 1654 Amphilis Twigden 1609-1654 (45) died at Tring, Hertfordshire

20 Jan 1654

20 Jan 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jan . Come to see my old acquaintance and the most incomparable player on the Irish harp, Mr. Clark,48 after his travels. He was an excellent musician, a discreet gentleman, born in Devonshire (as I remember). Such music before or since did I never hear, that instrument being neglected for its extraordinary difficulty; but, in my judgment, far superior to the lute itself, or whatever speaks with strings.

25 Jan 1654

On 25 Jan 1654 John Stansfield Evelyn 1653-1654 died .

25 Jan 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jan . Died my son, J. Stansfield , of convulsion fits; buried at Deptford on the east corner of the church, near his mother's great-grandfather, and other relatives.

Feb 1654

08 Feb 1654

On 08 Feb 1654 John Talbot 10th Earl Shrewsbury, 10th Earl Waterford 1601-1654 (53) died . His son Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (31) succeeded as 11th Earl Shrewsbury (2C 1442) , 11th Earl Waterford .

08 Feb 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Feb . Ash Wednesday. In contradiction to all custom and decency, the usurper, Cromwell (54) , feasted at the Lord Mayor's, riding in triumph through the city.

12 Feb 1654

On 12 Feb 1654 Dorothea Saxe-Gotha 1654-1682 was born to Ernest "The Pious" Saxe-Gotha I Duke Saxe-Gotha 1601-1675 (52) and Elisabeth Sophie Saxe-Altenburg Duchess Saxe-Gotha at Gotha .

14 Feb 1654

14 Feb 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Feb . I saw a tame lion play familiarly with a lamb; he was a huge beast, and I thrust my hand into his mouth and found his tongue rough like a cat's; a sheep also with six legs, which made use of five of them to walk; a goose that had four legs, two crops, and as many vents.

Mar 1654

09 Mar 1654

On 09 Mar 1654 Robert Leke 3rd Earl Scarsdale 1654-1707 was born to Nicholas Leke 2nd Earl Scarsdale 1612-1681 (42) and Frances Rich Countess Scarsdale

29 Mar 1654

29 Mar 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Mar . That excellent man, Mr. Owen, preached in my library on Matt. xxviii. 6, a resurrection sermon, and after it we all received the Holy Communion.

Apr 1654

15 Apr 1654

15 Apr 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Apr . I went to London to hear the famous Jeremy Taylor (since Bishop of Down and Connor) at St. Gregory's (near St. Paul's) on Matt. vi, 48, concerning evangelical perfection.

May 1654

On May 1654 Murdough Obrien 1st Earl Inchiquin 1614-1674 (40) was created 1st Earl Inchiquin . Elizabeth St Leger Countess Inchiquin -1685 by marriage Countess Inchiquin .

On May 1654 Thomas Stanley 2nd Baronet Stanley Bickerstaffe 1616-1654 (38) died . His son Edward Stanley 3rd Baronet Stanley Bickerstaffe 1643-1671 (11) succeeded as 3rd Baronet Stanley of Bickerstaffe

04 May 1654

On 04 May 1654 Richard Assheton 1654-1705 was born to Ralph Assheton 1st Baronet Assheton -1665 .

05 May 1654

05 May 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 May . I bound my lackey, Thomas Headly, apprentice to a carpenter, giving with him five pounds and new clothing; he thrived very well, and became rich.

08 May 1654

08 May 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 May . I went to Hackney , to see Lady Brook's garden, which was one of the neatest and most celebrated in England, the house well furnished, but a despicable building. Returning, visited one Mr. Tomb's garden; it has large and noble walks, some modern statues, a vineyard, planted in strawberry borders, staked at ten feet distances, the banqueting-house of cedar, where the couch and seats were carved à l'antique; some good pictures in the house, especially one of Vandyke's , being a man in his shirt; also some of Stenwyck. I also called at Mr. Ducie's, who has indeed a rare collection of the best masters, and one of the largest stories of H. Holbein . I also saw Sir Thomas Fowler's aviary, which is a poor business.

Around 1621 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (21) . Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel.

Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (32) . Portrait of Thomas Wharton 1615-1684 (16) .

Around 1633 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (33) . Portrait of James Stewart 4th Duke Lennox.

Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (34) . Portrait of James Stewart 4th Duke Lennox wearing his Leg Garter and Garter Collar .

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (35) . Portrait of Anne Carr Countess Bedford 1615-1684 (19) .

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (35) . Portrait of Olivia Boteler -1663 .

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (35) . Portrait of James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651 (27) and Charlotte Thouars Countess Derby 1599-1664 (35) and their daughter.

In 1635 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (35) . Portrait of Christian Bruce Countess Devonshire -1675 .

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (36) . Portrait of James Stewart 4th Duke Lennox.

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (36) . Portrait of William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (62) .

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (36) . Portrait of Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37) . Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel and Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37) . Portrait of Mary Ruthven Countess Atholl .

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37) . Portrait of Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37) . Portrait of Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox.

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38) . Portrait of Diana Cecil Countess Oxford.

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38) . Portrait of Thomas Hanmer 2nd Baronet Hamner 1612-1678 (26) .

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38) . Portrait of Mary Hill 1615-1690 (23) .

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38) . Portrait of Anne Boteler 1st Countess Newport.

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38) . Portrait of Isabella Edmondes 4th Baroness De La Warr 1607-1677 (31) .

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38) . Portrait of James Hay 2nd Earl Carlisle 1612-1660 (26) .

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38) . Portrait of Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (25) and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (27) .

Around 1639 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (39) . Portrait of Thomas Wharton 1588-1622 .

Around 1640 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (40) . Portrait of Charles Seton 2nd Earl Dunfermline 1615-1672 (24) .

Around 1640 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (40) . Portrait of sisters Essex Cheeke Countess Manchester -1658 and Anne Cheeke Countess Warwick .

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671 (42) .

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629 .

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) .

Around 1526 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (29) . Portrait of John More 1508-1547 (18) .

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (30) . Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (48) wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant .

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (30) . Known as "Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling". The subject is believed to be Anne Ashby -1539 (-11) wife of Francis Lovell -1552 (18) . The starling is probably intended as a rhyming pun of East Harling, Norfolk , where the family had recently inherited the estate of East Harling Hall, East Harling, Norfolk . Squirrels nibbling on nuts feature on the heraldry of the Lovell family: the windows of the Church of St Peter and St Paul, East Harling, Norfolk include two of the family’s arms in stained glass, each showing six red squirrels. The commission may commemorate the birth of a son to the couple in the spring of 1526 , but it also showed off their new status as wealthy landowners.

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (30) . Portrait of Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) wearing the Garter and Inter-twined Knots Collar with St George Pendant .Standing three-quarter length, richly dressed in velvet, fur and cloth-of-gold. Holbein has meticulously shown the varied texture of his cloth-of-gold double which is woven into a pomegranate pattern with a variety of different weaves including loops of gold thread. Similarly, he has carefully articulated the band of black satin running down Guildford’s arm against the richer black of the velvet of his sleeve. A lavish use of both shell-gold paint and gold leaf (which has been used to emulate the highlights of the gold thread in the material) emphasises the luxuriousness of the sitter’s dress and his high status. In his right-hand he holds the Comptroller of the Household Staff of Office .

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (30) . Portrait of Mary Wotton 1499-1535 (28) when she was thirty-two commissioned with that of her husband Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) possibly to celebrate their marriage.Hung with gold chains and embellished with pearls, Lady Guildford embodies worldly prosperity, and with her prayer book she is also the very image of propriety.

Around 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (30) . Portrait of John More 1451-1530 (76) .

Before 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (34) . Portrait of William Warham Archbishop Canterbury 1450-1532 (81) .

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36) . Drawing of Thomas Elyot 1490-1546 (43) .

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36) . Drawing of Margaret Barrow 1500-1560 (33) .

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (36) . Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop Canterbury 1489-1556 (43) .

Around 1535 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (38) . Portrait of William Roper 1496-1578 (39) .

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (39) . Portrait of William Roper 1496-1578 (40) .

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (39) . Drawing of Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542 (33) .

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (39) . Drawing of Thomas Vaux 2nd Baron Vaux Harrowden -1556 .

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (39) . Drawing of Margaret More 1505-1544 (31) known by her married name of "Margaret Roper".

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (39) . Drawing of Richard Southwell 1503-1564 (33) .

Around 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (40) . Drawing of Elizabeth Jenks Baroness Rich Leez 1510-1558 (27) .

1538 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (41) . Portrait of Christina Oldenburg Duchess Lorraine 1521-1590 (16) .

Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (41) . Drawing of the wife of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl Sussex 1483-1542 (55) . He had three wives. The sitter is believed to his third wife.

Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (41) . Drawing of George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (41) .

After 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (41) . Drawing of Elizabeth Grey Baroness Audley Waldon -1564 based on she having become Lady Audley on 29 Nov 1538 .Coloured chalks, silverpoint, pen and ink on pink-primed paper, 29.2 × 20.7 cm, Royal Collection, Windsor Castle. The drawing is inscribed, by a later hand than Holbein's, "The Lady Audley".

Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (42) . Portrait of Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England 1515-1557 (23) .

Around 1542 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (45) .Drawing of William Sharington 1495-1553 (47) .

10 May 1654

10 May 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 May . My Lady Gerrard treated us at Mulberry Garden, now the only place of refreshment about the town for persons of the best quality to be exceedingly cheated at; Cromwell and his partisans having shut up and seized on Spring Garden, which, till now, had been the usual rendezvous for the ladies and gallants at this season.

11 May 1654

11 May 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 May . I now observed how the women began to paint themselves, formerly a most ignominious thing, and used only by prostitutes.

13 May 1654

On 13 May 1654 Thomas Lennard Earl Sussex 1654-1715 was born to Francis Lennard 14th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1619-1662 (35) and Elizabeth Bayning Baroness Dacre Gilsland .

14 May 1654

14 May 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 May . There being no such thing as church anniversaries in the parochial assemblies, I was forced to provide at home for Whit Sunday.

15 May 1654

15 May 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 May . Came Sir Robert Stapylton , the translator of "Juvenal," to visit me.

16 May 1654

Before 16 May 1654 Giles Estcourt 2nd Baronet -1676 was born to Giles Estcourt 1st Baronet -1668 and Anne Mordaunt -1655 .

Before 16 May 1654 Giles Estcourt 1st Baronet -1668 and Anne Mordaunt -1655 were married .

On 16 May 1654 William Estcourt 3rd Baronet 1654-1684 was born to Giles Estcourt 1st Baronet -1668 and Anne Mordaunt -1655 .

Jun 1654

08 Jun 1654

08 Jun 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jun . My wife and I set out in a coach and four horses, in our way to visit relations of hers in Wiltshire, and other parts, where we resolved to spend some months. We dined at Windsor , saw the Castle and Chapel of St. George, where they have laid our blessed Martyr, King Charles , in the vault just before the alter. The church and workmanship in stone is admirable. The Castle itself is large in circumference; but the rooms melancholy, and of ancient magnificence. The keep, or mount, hath, besides its incomparable prospect, a very profound well; and the terrace toward Eton, with the park, meandering Thames, and sweet meadows, yield one of the most delightful prospects. That night, we lay at Reading. Saw my Lord Craven's (46) house at Causam [Caversham], now in ruins, his goodly woods felling by the Rebels.

09 Jun 1654

09 Jun 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jun . Dined at Marlborough , which having been lately fired, was now new built. At one end of this town, we saw my Lord Seymour's (64) house, but nothing observable save the Mount, to which we ascended by windings for near half a mile. It seems to have been cast up by hand. We passed by Colonel Popham's (49) , a noble seat, park, and river. Thence, to Newbury , a considerable town, and Donnington , famous for its battle, siege, and castle, this last had been in the possession of old Geoffrey Chaucer . Then to Aldermaston, a house of Sir Humphrey Forster's, built à la moderne. Also, that exceedingly beautiful seat of my Lord Pembroke (33) , on the ascent of hill, flanked with wood, and regarding the river, and so, at night, to Cadenham, the mansion of Edward Hungerford (-7) , Esq., uncle to my wife, where we made some stay. The rest of the week we did nothing but feast and make good cheer, to welcome my wife.

27 Jun 1654

27 Jun 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jun . We all went to see Bath , where I bathed in the cross bath. Among the rest of the idle diversions of the town, one musician was famous for acting a changeling, which indeed he personated strangely.
The facciáta of this cathedral is remarkable for its historical carving. The King's Bath is esteemed the fairest in Europe. The town is entirely built of stone, but the streets narrow, uneven and unpleasant. Here, we trifled and bathed, and intervisited with the company who frequent the place for health, till the 30th, and then went to Bristol, a city emulating London, not for its large extent, but manner of building, shops, bridge, traffic, exchange, market-place, etc. The governor showed us the castle, of no great concernment. The city wholly mercantile, as standing near the famous Severn, commodiously for Ireland, and the Western world. Here I first saw the manner of refining sugar and casting it into loaves, where we had a collection of eggs fried in the sugar furnace, together with excellent Spanish wine. But, what appeared most stupendous to me, was the rock of St. Vincent, a little distance from the town, the precipice whereof is equal to anything of that nature I have seen in the most confragose cataracts of the Alps, the river gliding between them at an extraordinary depth. Here, we went searching for diamonds, and to the Hot Wells, at its foot. There is also on the side of this horrid Alp a very romantic seat: and so we returned to Bath in the evening, and July 1st to Cadenham.

Jul 1654

On Jul 1654 William Herbert 1st Marquess Powis 1626-1696 (28) and Elizabeth Somerset Marchioness Powis 1635-1691 (19) were married .

04 Jul 1654

04 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . On a letter from my wife's (19) uncle, Mr. Pretyman, I waited back on her to London, passing by Hungerford, a town famous for its trouts, and the next day arrived at Deptford, which was 60 miles, in the extremity of heat.

06 Jul 1654

06 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . I went early to London, and the following day met my wife (19) and company at Oxford , the eve of the Act.

08 Jul 1654

08 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . Was spent in hearing several exercises in the schools; and, after dinner, the Proctor opened the Act at St. Mary's (according to custom), and the Prevaricators, their drollery. Then, the Doctors disputed. We supped at Wadham College.

09 Jul 1654

On 09 Jul 1654 Ferdinand King Bohemia (20) died

09 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . Dr. French preached at St. Mary's, on Matt. xii. 42, advising the students the search after true wisdom, not to be had in the books of philosophers, but in the Scriptures alone. In the afternoon, the famous Independent, Dr. Owen, perstringing Episcopacy. He was now Cromwell's Vice-Chancellor. We dined with Dr. Ward (37) , Mathematical Professor (since Bishop of Sarum), and at night supped in Baliol College Hall, where I had once been student and fellow-commoner, and where they made me extraordinarily welcome.

10 Jul 1654

10 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . On Monday, I went again to the schools, to hear the several faculties, and in the afternoon tarried out the whole Act in St. Mary's, the long speeches of the Proctors, the Vice-Chancellor, the several Professors, creation of Doctors, by the cap, ring, kiss, etc., those ancient ceremonies and institution being as yet not wholly abolished. Dr. Kendal, now Inceptor among others, performing his Act incomparably well, concluded it with an excellent oration, abating his Presbyterian animosities, which he withheld, not even against that learned and pious divine, Dr. Hammond. The Act was closed with the speech of the Vice-Chancellor, there being but four in theology, and three in medicine, which was thought a considerable matter, the times considered. I dined at one Monsieur Fiat's, a student of Exeter College, and supped at a magnificent entertainment of Wadham Hall, invited by my dear and excellent friend, Dr. Wilkins, then Warden (after, Bishop of Chester).

11 Jul 1654

11 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . Was the Latin sermon, which I could not be at, though invited, being taken up at All Souls, where we had music, voices, and the orbos, performed by some ingenious scholars. After dinner, I visited that miracle of a youth, Mr. Christopher Wren, nephew to the Bishop of Ely. Then Mr. Barlow (since Bishop of Lincoln), bibliothecarius of the Bodleian Library, my most learned friend. He showed us the rarities of that most famous place, manuscripts, medals, and other curiosities. Among the MSS. an old English Bible, wherein the Eunuch mentioned to be baptized by Philip, is called the Gelding: "and Philip and the Gelding went down into the water," etc. The original Acts of the Council of Basil 900 years since, with the bulla, or leaden affix, which has a silken cord passing through every parchment; a MS. of Venerable Bede of 800 years antiquity; the old Ritual secundum usum Sarum exceeding voluminous; then, among the nicer curiosities, the "Proverbs of Solomon," written in French by a lady, every chapter of a several character, or hand, the most exquisite imaginable; an hieroglyphical table, or carta, folded up like a map, I suppose it painted on asses' hide, extremely rare; but, what is most illustrious, there were no less than 1,000 MSS. in nineteen languages, especially Oriental, furnishing that new part of the library built by Archbishop Laud , from a design of Sir Kenelm Digby (51) and the Earl of Pembroke (33) . In the closet of the tower, they show some Indian weapons, urns, lamps, etc., but the rarest is the whole Alcoran, written on one large sheet of calico, made up in a priest's vesture, or cope, after the Turkish and Arabic character, so exquisitely written, as no printed letter comes near it; also, a roll of magical charms, divers talismans, and some medals.
Then, I led my wife (19) into the Convocation House, finely wainscoted; the Divinity School, and Gothic carved roof; the Physic, or Anatomy School, adorned with some rarities of natural things; but nothing extraordinary save the skin of a jackal, a rarely-colored jackatoo, or prodigious large parrot, two humming birds, not much bigger than our bumblebee, which indeed I had not seen before, that I remember.

In 1631 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (41) . Portrait of William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (57) .

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (36) . Portrait of William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (62) .

12 Jul 1654

12 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . We went to St. John's, saw the library and the two skeletons, which are finely cleansed and put together; observable is here also the store of mathematical instruments, chiefly given by the late Archbishop Laud , who built here a handsome quadrangle.
Thence we went to New College, where the chapel was in its ancient garb, notwithstanding the scrupulosity of the times. Thence, to Christ's Church , in whose library was shown us an Office of Henry VIII., the writing, miniatures, and gilding whereof is equal, if not surpassing, any curiosity I had seen of that kind; it was given by their founder, Cardinal Wolsey. The glass windows of the cathedral (famous in my time) I found much abused. The ample hall and column, that spreads its capital to sustain the roof as one goes up the stairs, is very remarkable.
Next we walked to Magdalen College, where we saw the library and chapel, which was likewise in pontifical order, the altar only I think turned tablewise, and there was still the double organ, which abominations (as now esteemed) were almost universally demolished; Mr. Gibbon, that famous musician, giving us a taste of his skill and talents on that instrument.
Hence, to the Physic Garden, where the sensitive plant was shown us for a great wonder. There grew canes, olive trees, rhubarb, but no extraordinary curiosities, besides very good fruit, which, when the ladies had tasted, we returned in our coach to our lodgings.

In 1631 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (41) . Portrait of William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (57) .

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (36) . Portrait of William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (62) .

13 Jul 1654

13 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . We all dined at that most obliging and universally-curious Dr. Wilkins's, at Wadham College. He was the first who showed me the transparent apiaries, which he had built like castles and palaces, and so ordered them one upon another, as to take the honey without destroying the bees. These were adorned with a variety of dials, little statues, vanes, etc.; and, he was so abundantly civil, finding me pleased with them, to present me with one of the hives which he had empty, and which I afterward had in my garden at Sayes Court, where it continued many years, and which his Majesty came on purpose to see and contemplate with much satisfaction. He had also contrived a hollow statue, which gave a voice and uttered words by a long, concealed pipe that went to its mouth, while one speaks through it at a good distance. He had, above in his lodgings and gallery, variety of shadows, dials, perspectives, and many other artificial, mathematical, and magical curiosities, a waywiser, a thermometer, a monstrous magnet, conic, and other sections, a balance on a demi-circle; most of them of his own, and that prodigious young scholar Mr. Christopher Wren, who presented me with a piece of white marble, which he had stained with a lively red, very deep, as beautiful as if it had been natural.
Thus satisfied with the civilities of Oxford, we left it, dining at Farringdon, a town which had been newly fired during the wars; and, passing near the seat of Sir Walter Pye, we came to Cadenham.

16 Jul 1654

16 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . We went to another uncle and relative of my wife's, Sir John Glanville (68) , a famous lawyer, formerly Speaker of the House of Commons; his seat is at Broad Hinton, where he now lived but in the gate-house, his very fair dwelling house having been burnt by his own hands, to prevent the rebels making a garrison of it. Here, my cousin William Glanville's eldest son showed me such a lock for a door, that for its filing, and rare contrivances was a masterpiece, yet made by a country blacksmith. But, we have seen watches made by another with as much curiosity as the best of that profession can brag of; and, not many years after, there was nothing more frequent than all sorts of ironwork more exquisitely wrought and polished than in any part of Europe, so as a door lock of a tolerable price was esteemed a curiosity even among foreign princes.
Went back to Cadenham, and, on the 19th, to Sir Edward Baynton's at Spie Park, a place capable of being made a noble seat; but the humorous old knight has built a long single house of two low stories on the precipice of an incomparable prospect, and landing on a bowling-green in the park. The house is like a long barn, and has not a window on the prospect side. After dinner, they went to bowls, and, in the meantime, our coachmen were made so exceedingly drunk, that in returning home we escaped great dangers. This, it seems, was by order of the knight, that all gentlemen's servants be so treated; but the custom is barbarous, and much unbecoming a knight still less a Christian.

20 Jul 1654

20 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . We proceeded to Salisbury ; the cathedral I take to be the most complete piece of Gothic work in Europe, taken in all its uniformity. The pillars, reputed to be cast, are of stone manifestly cut out of the quarry; most observable are those in the chapter house. There are some remarkable monuments, particularly the ancient Bishops, founders of the Church, Knights Templars, the Marquis of Hertford's, the cloisters of the palace and garden, and the great mural dial.
In the afternoon we went to Wilton, a fine house of the Earl of Pembroke, in which the most observable are the dining room in the modern-built part toward the garden, richly gilded and painted with story, by De Crete; also some other apartments, as that of hunting landscapes, by Pierce; some magnificent chimney-pieces, after the best French manner; a pair of artificial winding stairs of stone, and divers rare pictures. The garden, heretofore esteemed the noblest in England, is a large handsome plain, with a grotto and waterworks, which might be made much more pleasant, were the river that passes through cleansed and raised; for all is effected by a mere force. It has a flower garden, not inelegant. But, after all, that which renders the seat delightful is, its being so near the downs and noble plains about the country contiguous to it. The stables are well ordered and yield a graceful front, by reason of the walks of lime trees, with the court and fountain of the stables adorned with the Cæsars' heads.
We returned this evening by the plain, and fourteen-mile race, where out of my lord's hare warren we were entertained with a long course of a hare for near two miles in sight. Near this, is a pergola, or stand, built to view the sports; and so we came to Salisbury, and saw the most considerable parts of the city. The market place, with most of the streets, are watered by a quick current and pure stream running through the middle of them, but are negligently kept, when with a small charge they might be purged and rendered infinitely agreeable, and this made one of the sweetest towns, but now the common buildings are despicable, and the streets dirty.

22 Jul 1654

22 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . We departed and dined at a farm of my Uncle Hungerford's, called Darnford Magna, situated in a valley under the plain, most sweetly watered, abounding in trouts caught by spear in the night, when they come attracted by a light set in the stern of a boat.
After dinner, continuing our return, we passed over the goodly plain, or rather sea of carpet, which I think for evenness, extent, verdure, and innumerable flocks, to be one of the most delightful prospects in nature, and reminded me of the pleasant lives of shepherds we read of in romances.
Now we arrived at Stonehenge , indeed a stupendous monument, appearing at a distance like a castle; how so many and huge pillars of stone should have been brought together, some erect, others transverse on the tops of them, in a circular area as rudely representing a cloister or heathen and more natural temple, is wonderful. The stone is so exceedingly hard, that all my strength with a hammer could not break a fragment; which hardness I impute to their so long exposure. To number them exactly is very difficult, they lie in such variety of postures and confusion, though they seemed not to exceed 100; we counted only 95. As to their being brought thither, there being no navigable river near, is by some admired; but for the stone, there seems to be the same kind about 20 miles distant, some of which appear above ground. About the same hills, are divers mounts raised, conceived to be ancient intrenchments, or places of burial, after bloody fights. We now went by Devizes , a reasonable large town, and came late to Cadenham .

27 Jul 1654

27 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . To the hunting of a sorel deer, and had excellent chase for four or five hours, but the venison little worth.

29 Jul 1654

29 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . I went to Langford to see my Cousin Stephens. I also saw Dryfield, the house heretofore of Sir John Pretyman , grandfather to my wife (19) , and sold by her uncle; both the seat and house very honorable and well built, much after the modern fashion.

31 Jul 1654

31 Jul 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Jul . Taking leave of Cadenham , where we had been long and nobly entertained, we went a compass into Leicestershire, where dwelt another relation of my wife's (19) ; for I indeed made these excursions to show her the most considerable parts of her native country, who, from her childhood, had lived altogether in France, as well as for my own curiosity and information.
About two miles before coming to Gloucester , we have a prospect from woody hills into a most goodly vale and country. Gloucester is a handsome city, considerable for the church and monuments. The minster is indeed a noble fabric. The whispering gallery is rare, being through a passage of twenty-five yards in a many-angled cloister, and was, I suppose, either to show the skill of the architect, or some invention of a cunning priest, who, standing unseen in a recess in the middle of the chapel, might hear whatever was spoken at either end. This is above the choir, in which lies buried King Stephen under a monument of Irish oak, not ill carved considering the age. The new library is a noble though a private design. I was likewise pleased with the Severn gliding so sweetly by it. The Duke's house, the castle works, are now almost quite dismantled; nor yet without sad thoughts did I see the town, considering how fatal the siege had been a few years before to our good King.

Aug 1654

01 Aug 1654

01 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . We set out toward Worcester , by a way thickly planted with cider fruit. We deviated to the Holy Wells, trickling out of a valley through a steep declivity toward the foot of the great Malvern Hills; they are said to heal many infirmities, as king's evil, leprosy, sore eyes, etc. Ascending a great height above them to the trench dividing England from South Wales, we had the prospect of all Herefordshire, Radnor, Brecknoch, Monmouth, Worcester, Gloucester, Shropshire, Warwick, Derbyshires, and many more. We could discern Tewkesbury, King's road, toward Bristol, etc.; so as I esteem it one of the goodliest vistas in England.

02 Aug 1654

02 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . This evening we arrived at Worcester , the Judges of Assize and Sheriff just entering as we did. Viewing the town the next day, we found the Cathedral much ruined by the late wars, otherwise a noble structure. The town is neatly paved and very clean, the goodly river Severn running by it, and standing in a most fertile country.

03 Aug 1654

On 03 Aug 1654 Charles Hesse-Kassel 1654-1730 was born to Wilhelm "The Just" Hesse-Kassel 1629-1663 (25) and Hedwig Sophia Hohenzollern 1623-1683 (31) .

On 03 Aug 1654 Charles Hesse-Kassel 1654-1730 was born .

03 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . We passed next through Warwick , and saw the castle , the dwelling house of the Lord Brook (15) , and the furniture noble. It is built on an eminent rock which gives prospect into a most goodly green, a woody and plentifully watered country; the river running so delightfully under it, that it may pass for one of the most surprising seats one should meet with. The gardens are prettily disposed; but might be much improved. Here they showed us Sir Guy's great two-handed sword, staff, horse-arms, pot, and other relics of that famous knight-errant. Warwick is a fair old town, and hath one church full of ancient monuments.
Having viewed these, I went to visit my worthy friend, Sir H. Puckering (36) , at the Abbey, and though a melancholy old seat, yet in a rich soil.
Hence to Sir Guy's grot, where they say he did his penances, and died. It is a squalid den made in the rock, crowned yet with venerable oaks and looking on a goodly stream, so as, were it improved as it might be, it were capable of being made a most romantic and pleasant place. Near this, we were showed his chapel and gigantic statue hewn out of the solid rock, out of which there are likewise divers other caves cut, and some very capacious.
The next place to Coventry . The cross is remarkable for Gothic work and rich gilding, comparable to any I had ever seen, except that of Cheapside in London, now demolished. This city has many handsome churches, a beautiful wall, a fair free school and library to it; the streets full of great shops, clean and well paved. At going forth the gate, they show us the bone, or rib, of a wild boar, said to have been killed by Sir Guy, but which I take to be the chine of a whale.

04 Aug 1654

04 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . Hence, riding through a considerable part of Leicestershire, an open, rich, but unpleasant country, we came late in the evening to Horninghold , a seat of my wife's (19) uncle.

07 Aug 1654

07 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . Went to Uppingham , the shire town of Rutland, pretty and well built of stone, which is a rarity in that part of England, where most of the rural parishes are but of mud; and the people living as wretchedly as in the most impoverished parts of France, which they much resemble, being idle and sluttish. The country (especially Leicestershire) much in common; the gentry free drinkers.

09 Aug 1654

09 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . To the old and ragged city of Leicester , large and pleasantly seated, but despicably built, the chimney flues like so many smiths' forges; however, famous for the tomb of the tyrant, Richard III , which is now converted to a cistern, at which (I think) cattle drink. Also, here in one of the churches lies buried the magnificent Cardinal Wolsey . John of Gaunt has here also built a large but poor hospital, near which a wretch has made him a house out of the ruins of a stately church. Saw the ruins of an old Roman Temple, thought to be of Janus. Entertained at a very fine collection of fruits, such as I did not expect to meet with so far North, especially very good melons. We returned to my uncle's.

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520. Unknown Artist .French.Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 .

14 Aug 1654

14 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . I took a journey into the Northern parts, riding through Oakham , a pretty town in Rutlandshire, famous for the tenure of the Barons (Ferrers), who hold it by taking off a shoe from every nobleman's horse that passes with his lord through the street, unless redeemed with a certain piece of money. In token of this, are several gilded shoes nailed up on the castle gate, which seems to have been large and fair. Hence, we went by Brook, a very sweet seat and park of the old Lady Camden's. Next, by Burleigh House , belonging to the Duke of Buckingham , and worthily reckoned among the noblest seats in England, situate on the brow of a hill, built à la moderne near a park walled in, and a fine wood at the descent.
Now we were come to Cottsmore , a pretty seat belonging to Mr. Heath, son of the late Lord Chief Justice of that name. Here, after dinner, parting with the company that conducted us thus far, I passed that evening by Belvoir Castle , built on a round mount at the point of a long ridge of hills, which affords a stately prospect, and is famous for its strenuous resistance in the late civil war.
Went by Newark-on-Trent , a brave town and garrison. Next, by Wharton House, belonging to the Lord Chaworth, a handsome seat; then by Home, a noble place belonging to the Marquis of Dorchester (48) , and passed the famous river Trent , which divides the South from the North of England; and so lay that night at Nottingham .
This whole town and county seems to be but one entire rock, as it were, an exceedingly pleasant shire, full of gentry. Here, I observed divers to live in the rocks and caves, much after the manner as about Tours, in France. The church is well built on an eminence; there is a fair house of the Lord Clare's, another of Pierrepont's; an ample market place; large streets, full of crosses; the relics of an ancient castle, hollowed beneath which are many caverns, especially that of the Scots' King, and his work while there.
This place is remarkable for being the place where his Majesty first erected his standard at the beginning of our late unhappy differences. The prospects from this city toward the river and meadows are most delightful.

15 Aug 1654

15 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . We passed next through Sherwood Forest, accounted the most extensive in England. Then, Paplewick , an incomparable vista with the pretty castle near it. Thence, we saw Newstead Abbey , belonging to the Lord Byron (48) , situated much like Fontainebleau in France, capable of being made a noble seat, accommodated as it is with brave woods and streams; it has yet remaining the front of a glorious abbey church. Next, by Mansfield town; then Welbeck , the house of the Marquis of Newcastle (61) , seated in a bottom in a park, and environed with woods, a noble yet melancholy seat. The palace is a handsome and stately building. Next to Worksop Abbey , almost demolished; the church has a double flat tower entire, and a pretty gate. The manor belongs to the Earl of Arundel (27) , and has to it a fair house at the foot of a hill in a park that affords a delicate prospect. Tickel, a town and castle, has a very noble prospect. All these in Nottinghamshire.

16 Aug 1654

On 16 Aug 1654 Henry Bourchier 5th Earl Bath 1587-1654 (67) died .

16 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . We arrived at Doncaster , where we lay this night; it is a large fair town, famous for great wax lights, and good stockings.

17 Aug 1654

Battle of Marston Moor

17 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . Passed through Pontefract ; therichard castle famous for many sieges both of late and ancient times, and the death of that unhappy King murdered in it, was now demolishing by the Rebels; it stands on a mount, and makes a goodly show at a distance. The Queen (44) has a house here, and there are many fair seats near it, especially Mr. Pierrepont's (48) , built at the foot of a hill out of the castle ruins. We all alighted in the highway to drink at a crystal spring, which they call Robin Hood's Well; near it, is a stone chair, and an iron ladle to drink out of, chained to the seat. We rode to Tadcaster, at the side of which we have prospect of the Archbishop's Palace (which is a noble seat), and in sight of divers other gentlemen's fair houses. This tract is a goodly, fertile, well-watered, and wooded country, abounding with pasture and plenty of provisions.
To York , the second city of England, fairly walled, of a circular form, watered by the brave river Ouse , bearing vessels of considerable burden on it; over it is a stone bridge emulating that of London, and built on; the middle arch is larger than any I have seen in England, with a wharf of hewn stone, which makes the river appear very neat. But most remarkable and worth seeing is St. Peter's Cathedral , which of all the great churches in England had been best preserved from the fury of the sacrilegious, by composition with the Rebels when they took the city, during the many incursions of Scotch and others. It is a most entire magnificent piece of Gothic architecture. The screen before the choir is of stone carved with flowers, running work and statues of the old kings. Many of the monuments are very ancient. Here, as a great rarity in these days and at this time, they showed me a Bible and Common Prayer Book covered with crimson velvet, and richly embossed with silver gilt; also a service for the altar of gilt wrought plate, flagons, basin, ewer, plates, chalices, patins, etc., with a gorgeous covering for the altar and pulpit, carefully preserved in the vestry, in the hollow wall whereof rises a plentiful spring of excellent water. I got up to the tower, whence we had a prospect toward Durham , and could see Ripon , part of Lancashire, the famous and fatal Marston Moor , the Spas of Knaresborough , and all the environs of that admirable country. Sir —— Ingoldsby has here a large house, gardens, and tennis court; also the King's house and church near the castle, which was modernly fortified with a palisade and bastions. The streets are narrow and ill-paved, the shops like London.

Around 1625 John Hoskins 1590-1664 (35) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15) .

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629 .

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) .

18 Aug 1654

18 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . We went to Beverley , a large town with two stately churches, St. John's and St. Mary's, not much inferior to the best of our cathedrals. Here a very old woman showed us the monuments, and, being above 100 years of age, spoke the language of Queen Mary's days, in whose time she was born; she was widow of a sexton who had belonged to the church a hundred years.
Hence, we passed through a fenny but rich country to Hull , situated like Calais , modernly and strongly fortified with three block-houses of brick and earth. It has a good market place and harbor for ships. Famous also (or rather infamous) is this town for Hotham's refusing entrance to his Majesty . The water-house is worth seeing. And here ends the south of Yorkshire.

19 Aug 1654

19 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . We pass the Humber , an arm of the sea of about two leagues breadth. The weather was bad, but we crossed it in a good barge to Barton , the first town in that part of Lincolnshire. All marsh ground till we came to Brigg, famous for the plantations of licorice, and then had brave pleasant riding to Lincoln , much resembling Salisbury Plain. Lincoln is an old confused town, very long, uneven, steep, and ragged; formerly full of good houses, especially churches and abbeys. The Minster almost comparable to that of York itself, abounding with marble pillars, and having a fair front (herein was interred Queen Eleanora, the loyal and loving wife who sucked the poison out of her husband's wound); the abbot founder, with rare carving in the stone; the great bell, or Tom, as they call it. I went up the steeple, from whence is a goodly prospect all over the country. The soldiers had lately knocked off most of the brasses from the gravestones, so as few inscriptions were left; they told us that these men went in with axes and hammers, and shut themselves in, till they had rent and torn off some barge loads of metal, not sparing even the monuments of the dead; so hellish an avarice possessed them: beside which, they exceedingly ruined the city.
Here, I saw a tall woman six feet two inches high, comely, middle-aged, and well-proportioned, who kept a very neat and clean alehouse, and got most by people's coming to see her on account of her height.

20 Aug 1654

20 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . From hence we had a most pleasant ride over a large heath open like Salisbury Plain, to Grantham , a pretty town, so well situated on the side of a bottom which is large and at a distance environed with ascending grounds, that for pleasure I consider it comparable to most inland places of England; famous is the steeple for the exceeding height of the shaft, which is of stone.
About eighteen miles south, we pass by a noble seat, and see Boston at a distance. Here, we came to a parish of which the parson had tithe ale.
Thence through Rutland, we brought night to Horninghold , from whence I set out on this excursion.

22 Aug 1654

22 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . I went a setting and hawking, where we had tolerable sport.

25 Aug 1654

On 25 Aug 1654 Sophie Amalie Oldenburg 1654-1655 was born to Ernest Günther Oldenburg I Duke Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg 1609-1689 (44) and Auguste Oldenburg Duchess Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg 1633-1701 (21)

25 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . To see Kirby , a very noble house of my Lord Hatton's (49) , in Northamptonshire, built à la moderne; the garden and stables agreeable, but the avenue ungraceful, and the seat naked: returned that evening.

27 Aug 1654

27 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . Mr. Allington preached an excellent discourse from Romans vi. 19. This was he who published those bold sermons of the members warring against the mind, or the Jews crucifying Christ, applied to the wicked regicides; for which he was ruined. We had no sermon in the afternoon.

30 Aug 1654

30 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . Taking leave of my friends, who had now feasted me more than a month, I, with my wife, etc., set our faces toward home, and got this evening to Peterborough , passing by a stately palace (Thorpe) of St. John's (one deep in the blood of our good king), built out of the ruins of the Bishop's palace and cloister. The church is exceeding fair, full of monuments of great antiquity. Here lies Queen Catherine , the unhappy wife of Henry VIII , and the no less unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots . On the steeple, we viewed the fens of Lincolnshire, now much inclosed and drained with infinite expense, and by many sluices, cuts, mounds, and ingenious mills, and the like inventions; at which the city and country about it consisting of a poor and very lazy sort of people, were much displeased.
Peterborough is a handsome town, and hath another well-built church.

Around 1492 . Juan de Flandes 1440-1519 (32) . Portrait of Catherine of Aragon (6) .

Around 1520 Unknown Artist . Portrait of Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England 1485-1536 (34) .

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms -1534 (21) made a drawing of the death of Henry VII (he wasn't present). The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:
Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528 (61)
Two tonsured clerics
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (22)
Richard Weston of Sutton Place 1465-1541 (44)
Richard Clement of Ingham Mote 1482-1538 (27)
Matthew Baker Governor Jersey -1513
John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex -1518
Physician holding urine bottle
William Tyler
Hugh Denys
William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl Southampton 1490-1542 (19) closing the King's eyes.There is doubt as to whether the person shown is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl Southampton 1490-1542 (19) given his age of around nineteen at the King's death. He appears to be holding a Staff of Office although sources state he wasn't appointed Gentleman Usher, in which role he would have a Staff of Office, until Henry VIII's Coronation in Jun 1509.
The Arms below him are Quarterly 1 Lozengy argent & gules (FitzWilliam); 2 Arms of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 3 Quartered 1 possibly Plantagent with white border ie Holland 2 and 3 Tibetot, 4 Unknown, overall a star for difference indicating third son. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl Southampton 1490-1542 (19) was his father's third son, and his mother was Lucy Neville 1468-1534 (41) daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 . It appears correct that the person represented is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl Southampton 1490-1542 (19) . William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl Southampton 1490-1542 (19) was the childhood companion of Henry VIII (17) .
Physician holding urine bottle

31 Aug 1654

31 Aug 1654 . John Evelyn's Diary 1654 Aug . Through part of Huntingdonshire, we passed that town , fair and ancient, a river running by it. The country about it so abounds in wheat that, when any King of England passes through it, they have a custom to meet him with a hundred plows.
This evening, to Cambridge; and went first to St. John's College , well built of brick, and library, which I think is the fairest of that University. One Mr. Benlowes has given it all the ornaments of pietra commessa, whereof a table and one piece of perspective is very fine; other trifles there also be of no great value, besides a vast old song-book, or Service, and some fair manuscripts. There hangs in the library the picture of John Williams, Archbishop of York, sometime Lord Keeper, my kinsman, and their great benefactor.

Nov 1654

On Nov 1654 Henry Danvers 1633-1654 (20) died

13 Nov 1654

On 13 Nov 1654 Edward Watson 2nd Baron Rockingham 1630-1689 (24) and Anne Wentworth Baroness Rockingham 1629-1696 (25) were married .

18 Nov 1654

On 18 Nov 1654 Elizabeth Steward 1565-1654 (89) died .

25 Nov 1654

On 25 Nov 1654 Thomas Vernon 1654-1721 was born to Richard Vernon of Hanbury Hall 1615-1679 (39)

Dec 1654

On Dec 1654 John "Jack for the King" Arundell 1576-1654 (78) died .

19 Dec 1654

On 19 Dec 1654 Anthony Thorold -1670 and Grisilla Wray were married

30 Dec 1654

On 30 Dec 1654 Maria Anna Josepha Habsburg-Spain 1654-1689 was born to Ferdinand King Bohemia, III Holy Roman Emperor 1608-1657 (46) and Eleonora Gonzaga Queen Consort Bohemia 1630-1686 (24)