On this Day in History ... 20 April
Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England Book 5 Chapter 7.
How Caedwalla, king of the West Saxons, went to Rome to be baptized; and his successor Ini, also devoutly journeyed to the same threshold of the holy Apostles. [688 a.d.]
In the third year of the reign of Aldfrid, Caedwalla (29), king of the West Saxons, having most vigorously governed his nation for two years, quitted his crown for the sake of the Lord and an everlasting kingdom, and went to Rome, being desirous to obtain the peculiar honour of being cleansed in the baptismal font at the threshold of the blessed Apostles, for he had learned that in Baptism alone the entrance into the heavenly life is opened to mankind; and he hoped at the same time, that being made clean by Baptism, he should soon be freed from the bonds of the flesh and pass to the eternal joys of Heaven; both which things, by the help of the Lord, came to pass according as he had conceived in his mind. For coming to Rome, at the time that Sergius was pope, he was baptized on the Holy Saturday before Easter Day, in the year of our Lord 689, and being still in his white garments, he fell sick, and was set free from the bonds of the flesh on the 20th of April, and obtained an entrance into the kingdom of the blessed in Heaven. At his baptism, the aforesaid pope had given him the name of Peter, to the end, that he might be also united in name to the most blessed chief of the Apostles, to whose most holy body his pious love had led him from the utmost bounds of the earth. He was likewise buried in his church, and by the pope's command an epitaph was written on his tomb, wherein the memory of his devotion might be preserved for ever, and the readers or hearers thereof might be stirred up to give themselves to religion by the example of what he had done.
The epitaph was this:
"High estate, wealth, offspring, a mighty kingdom, triumphs, spoils, chieftains, strongholds, the camp, a home; whatsoever the valour of his sires, whatsoever himself had won, Caedwal (29), mighty in war, left for the love of God, that, a pilgrim king, he might behold Peter and Peter's seat, receive at his font pure waters of life, and in bright draughts drink of the shining radiance whence a quickening glory streams through all the world. And even as he gained with eager soul the prize of the new life, he laid aside barbaric rage, and, changed in heart, he changed his name with joy. Sergius the Pope bade him be called Peter, himself his father, when he rose born anew from the font, and the grace of Christ, cleansing him, bore him forthwith clothed in white raiment to the heights of Heaven. O wondrous faith of the king, but greatest of all the mercy of Christ, into whose counsels none may enter! For he came in safety from the ends of the earth, even from Britain, through many a nation, over many a sea, by many a path, and saw the city of Romulus and looked upon Peter's sanctuary revered, bearing mystic gifts. He shall walk in white among the sheep of Christ in fellowship with them; for his body is in the tomb, but his soul on high. Thou mightest deem he did but change an earthly for a heavenly sceptre, whom thou seest attain to the kingdom of Christ."
"Here was buried Caedwalla (29), called also Peter, king of the Saxons, on the twentieth day of April, in the second indiction, aged about thirty years, in the reign of our most pious lord, the Emperor Justinian, in the fourth year of his consulship, in the second year of the pontificate of our Apostolic lord, Pope Sergius."
When Caedwalla (29) went to Rome, Ini (18) succeeded to the kingdom, being of the blood royal; and having reigned thirty-seven years over that nation, he in like manner left his kingdom and committed it to younger men, and went away to the threshold of the blessed Apostles, at the time when Gregory was pope, being desirous to spend some part of his pilgrimage upon earth in the neighbourhood of the holy places, that he might obtain to be more readily received into the fellowship of the saints in heaven. This same thing, about that time, was wont to be done most zealously by many of the English nation, nobles and commons, laity and clergy, men and women.
On 20 Apr 689 Caedwalla King Wessex 659-689 (30) died.
On 20 Apr 1176 Richard "Strongbow" Clare 2nd Earl Pembroke, 1st Earl Buckingham 1130-1176 (46) died at Dublin. He was buried at Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin. His son Gilbert Clare 3rd Earl Pembroke 1176-1185 succeeded 3rd Earl Pembroke (1C 1138).
The Chronicles of Froissart Chapter XV - How that king Robert de Bruce of Scotland defied king Edward. AFTER that sir John of Hainault (39) was departed from king Edward (14), he and the queen (32) his mother governed the realm by the counsel of the earl of Kent (25), uncle to the king, and by the counsel of sir Roger Mortimer (39), who had great lands in England to the sum of seven hundred pounds of rent yearly. And they both were banished and chased out of England with the queen (32), as ye have heard before. Also they used much after the counsel of sir Thomas Wake (30), and by the advice of other who were reputed for the most sagest of the realm. Howbeit there were some had envy thereat, the which never died in England, and also it reigneth and will reign in divers other countries. Thus passed forth the winter and the Lent season till Easter, and then the king (14) and the queen (32) and all the realm was in good peace all this season. Then so it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (52), who had been right hardy and had suffered much travail against Englishmen, and oftentimes he had been chased and discomfited in the time of king Edward the first, grandfather to this young king Edward the third (14), he was as then become very old and ancient, and sick (as it was said) of the great evil and malady. When he knew the adventures that was fallen in England, how that the old king Edward the second (42) was taken and deposed down from his regaly and his crown, and certain of his counsellors beheaded and put to destruction, as ye have heard herebefore, then he bethought him that he would defy the young king Edward the third (14), because he was young and that the barons of the realm were not all of one accord, as it was said : therefore he [thought] the better to speed in his purpose to conquer part of England. And so about Easter in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. he sent his defiance to the young king Edward the third and to all the realm, sending them word how that he would enter into the realm of England and bren before him as he had done beforetime at such season as the discomfiture was at the castle of Stirling, whereas the Englishmen received great damage. When the king of England (14) and his council perceived that they were defied, they caused it to be known over all the realm, and commanded that all the nobles and all other should be ready apparelled every man after his estate, and that they should be by Ascension-day next after at the town of York, standing northward. The king sent much people before to keep the frontiers against Scotland, and sent a great ambassade to sir John of Hainault (39), praying him right affectuously that he would help to succour and to keep company with him in his voyage against the Scots, and that he world be with him at the Ascensionday next after at York, with such company as he might get of men of war in those parts. When sir John of Hainault lord of Beaumont (39) heard the king's (14) desire, he sent straight his letters and his messengers in every place whereas he thought to recover or attain to have any company of men of war, in Flanders, in Hainault, in Brabant, and in other places, desiring them that in their best apparel for the war they would meet him at Wissant, for to go over the sea with him into England. And all such as he sent unto came to him with a glad cheer, and divers other that heard thereof, in trust to attain to as much honour as they had that were with him in England before at the other voyage. So that by that time the said lord Beaumont (39) was come to Wissant, there was ready ships for him and his company, brought out of England. And so they took shipping and passed over the sea and arrived at Dover, and so then ceased not to ride till: they came within three days of Pentecost to the town of York, whereas the king (14) and the queen (32) his mother and all his lords were with great host tarrying the coming of sir John of Hainault (39), and had sent many before of their men of arms, archers and common people of the good towns and villages ; and as people resorted, they were caused to be lodged two or three leagues off, all about in the country. And on a day thither came sir John of Hainault (39) and his company, who were right welcome and well received both of the king (14), of the queen his mother, and of all other barons, and to them was delivered the suburbs of the city to lodge in. And to sir John of Hainault was delivered an abbey of white monks for him and his household. There came with him out of Hainault the lord of Enghien, who was called sir Gaultier, and sir Henry lord d'Antoing, and the lord of Fagnolle, and sir Fastres du Roeulx, sir Robert de Bailleul, and sir Guilliam de Bailleul his brother, and the lord of Havreth, chatelain of Mons, sir Allard de Briffeuil, sir Michael de Ligne, sir John de Montigny the younger and his brother, sir Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval de Semeries, the lord of Beaurieu and the lord of Floyon. Also of the country of Flanders there was sir Hector of Vilain, sir John de Rhodes, sir Wu there was sir John le Belt and sir Henry his brother, sir Godfrey de la Chapelle, sir Hugh d'Ohey, sir John de Libyne, sir Lambert d'Oupey, and sir Gilbert de Herck: and out of Cambresis and Artois there were come certain knights of their own good wills to advance their bodies: so that sir John of Hainault had well in his company five hundred men of arms, well apparelled and richly mounted. And after the feast of Pentecost came thither sir Guilliam de Juliers (28), who was after duke of Juliers after the decease of his father, and sir Thierry of Heinsberg, who was after earl of Loos, and with them a right fair rout, and all to keep company with the gentle knight sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont.
On 20 Apr 1396 Alianore Strange Baroness Grey Ruthyn 1331-1396 (65) died at Ruthyn.
On 20 Apr 1478 Margery Despencer 3rd Baroness Despencer, Baroness Ros Helmsley 1397-1478 (81) died. Her son Philip Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer 1424-1464 succeeded 4th Baron Despencer (5C 1387). Mary Clifford Baroness Despencer 1422-1464 by marriage Baroness Despencer (5C 1387).
On 20 Apr 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was buried at Altar, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) celebrated the mass. John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) attended. John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21) was chief mourner. John Savage 1444-1492 and Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (21) were pall-bearers. .
On 20 Apr 1541 Robert Stewart 1st Earl Orkney 1541-1541 died.
On 20 Apr 1544 Renata Lorraine Duchess Bavaria 1544-1602 was born to Francis Lorraine I Duke Lorraine 1517-1545 (26) and Christina Oldenburg Duchess Lorraine 1521-1590 (22).
On 20 Apr 1597 Oliver St John 1st Earl Bolingbroke 1580-1646 (17) admitted at Gray's Inn.
On 20 Apr 1636 Thomas Pope 3rd Earl Downe 1598-1668 (38) and Beatrix Poole were married at Wroxton.
South Aisle, Salisbury Cathedral. On 20 Apr 1641 John Davenant Bishop 1572-1641 (68) died.
On 20 Apr 1661 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674 (52) was created 1st Earl Clarendon (1C 1661) at Westminster Abbey on the occasion of the Coronation Charles II. Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon 1617-1667 (43) by marriage Countess Clarendon (1C 1661).
On 20 Apr 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (14) was created 1st Duke Buccleuch, 1st Earl Dalkeith, 1st Baron Scott of Whitchester and Eskdale. Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (12) by marriage Duchess Buccleuch.
On 20 Apr 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (14) and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (12) were married. Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (12) by marriage Duchess Monmouth. He an illegitimate Son of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 and Great Grandson of Henry IV King France 1553-1610.
John Evelyn's Diary 1665 April. 20 Apr 1665. To Whitehall, to the King (34), who called me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to me from the Duke of York (31) from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty (34) how he would have me treat them, when he commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (47) (the Secretary Bennet lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord Chancellor's (56); none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe (69), formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.
On 20 Apr 1678 Francis Seymour 5th Duke Somerset 1658-1678 (20) was killed. He was unmarried and childless. He was shot dead by Genoese Horatio Botti whose wife Seymour was said to have insulted at Lerici. His brother Charles Seymour 6th Duke Somerset 1662-1748 (15) succeeded 6th Duke Somerset (4C 1547), 4th Baron Seymour Trowbridge.
John Evelyn's Diary 1679 April. 20th April, 1679. Easter day. Our vicar preached exceedingly well on 1 Cor. v. 7. The Holy Communion followed, at which I and my daughter, Mary (14) (now about fourteen years old), received for the first time. The Lord Jesus continue his grace unto her, and improve this blessed beginning!.
On 20 Apr 1681 Richard Newport 2nd Earl Bradford 1644-1723 (36) and Mary Wilbraham Countess Bradford 1661-1737 (19) were married.
On 20 Apr 1690 Maria Anna Victoria Wittelsbach Duchess Burgundy 1660-1690 (29) died.
On 20 Apr 1701 Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1649-1701 (51) died. His son Orlando Bridgeman 2nd Baronet Bridgeman 1678-1746 (22) succeeded 2nd Baronet Bridgeman of Ridley in Cheshire.
On 20 Apr 1702 Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702 (60) died.
On 20 Apr 1712 Catherine Cavendish Countess Isle Thanet 1665-1712 (47) died.
On 20 Apr 1713 John Hay 2nd Marquess Teviotdale 1645-1713 (68) died. His son Charles Hay 3rd Marquess Teviotdale 1670-1715 (43) succeeded 3rd Marquess Teviotdale, 4th Earl Tweeddale.
On 20 Apr 1713 John Rushout 4th Baronet 1685-1775 (28) was elected MP Malmesbury with the support of Thomas Wharton 1st Marquess Wharton 1648-1715 (64).
On 20 Apr 1720 George Gordon 1st Earl Aberdeen 1637-1720 (82) died. His son William Gordon 2nd Earl Aberdeen 1679-1746 (41) succeeded 2nd Earl Aberdeen. Anne Gordon Duchess Mantua -1786 by marriage Duchess Mantua.
On 20 Apr 1741 Henry Obrien 8th Earl Thomond 1688-1741 (52) died without issue. He was buried in St Mary's Cathedral, Limerick, County Limerick.
On 20 Apr 1757 Elizabeth Anne Burrell Duchess Hamilton, Duchess Brandon 1757-1837 was born to Peter Burrell 1724-1775 (32) and Elizabeth Lewis.
On 20 Apr 1757 William Nelson 1st Earl Nelson 1757-1835 was born to Rev Edmund Nelson 1st Earl Nelson 1722-1802 (35).
On 20 Apr 1759 Thomas William Coke 1st Earl of Leicester 1697-1759 (61) died.
On 20 Apr 1767 John St John 12th Baron St John Bletso 1725-1767 (41) died at Nice. His son Henry St John 13th Baron St John Bletso 1758-1805 (8) succeeded 13th Baron St John Bletso (1C 1559).
On 20 Apr 1770 George Keppel 3rd Earl Albermarle 1724-1772 (46) and Anne Miller Countess Albermarle -1824 were married at Bagshot Park, Bagshot. Anne Miller Countess Albermarle -1824 by marriage Countess Albermarle (1C 1697). He a Great Grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 and 3 x Great Grandson of Henry IV King France 1553-1610.
On 20 Apr 1775 Spencer Stanley Chichester 1775-1819 was born to Arthur Chichester 1st Marquess Donegal 1739-1799 (35) and Anne Hamilton 1738-1780 (37).
On 20 Apr 1796 Francis Baring 1st Baron Northbrook 1796-1866 was born to Thomas Baring 2nd Baronet Baring 1772-1848 (23) and Mary Ursula Sealy Sealy Baronetess Baring Sealy Baronetess Baring 1774-1846 (22).
On 20 Apr 1798 Maria Liddell Marchioness Normanby 1798-1882 was born to Thomas Liddell 1st Baron Ravensworth 1775-1855 (23) and Maria Susannah Simpson Baroness Ravensworth 1773-1845 (25).
On 20 Apr 1801 John Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie 2nd Baron Wharncliffe 1801-1855 was born to James Archibald Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie 1st Baron Wharncliffe 1776-1845 (24) and Elizabeth Caroline Mary Creighton Baroness Wharncliffe.
On 20 Apr 1802 George Augustus North 3rd Earl Guildford 1757-1802 (44) died. His brother Francis North 4th Earl Guildford 1761-1817 (40) succeeded 4th Earl Guildford (3C 1752), 10th Baron North, 6th Baron Guildford.
On 20 Apr 1804 Ernest Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg Duke Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 1745-1804 (59) died at Gotha. His son Augustus Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg Duke Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 1772-1822 (31) succeeded Duke Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Karoline Amalie Hesse-Kassel Duchess Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 1771-1848 (32) by marriage Duchess Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
On 20 Apr 1805 Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873 was born.
On 20 Apr 1807 Thomas Manners-Sutton 1st Baron Manners 1756-1842 (51) was created 1st Baron Manners. Anne Moyle Baroness Manners -1814 by marriage Baroness Manners.
On 20 Apr 1810 Charles Henry Dillon 14th Viscount Dillon 1810-1865 was born to Henry Augustus Dillon-Lee 13th Viscount Dillon 1777-1832 (32) at Dublin. He a 4 x Great Grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.
On 20 Apr 1819 Charles William Henry Montagu-Scott 4th Duke Buccleuch, 6th Duke Queensberry 1772-1819 (46) died. His son Walter Francis Montagu-Douglas-Scott 5th Duke Buccleuch, 7th Duke Queensberry -1884 succeeded 5th Duke Buccleuch, 7th Duke Queensberry.
On 20 Apr 1838 Elizabeth Sophia Heathcote-willoughby-drummond 1838-1920 1838-1920 was born to Gilbert John Heathcote 1st Baron Aveland 1795-1867 (43) and Clementina Drummond-Willoughby 24th Baroness Willoughby Eresby, Baroness Aveland 1809-1888 (28).
On 20 Apr 1839 John Ponsonby 1st Viscount Ponsonby 1770-1855 (69) was created 1st Viscount Ponsonby of Imokilly in Cork. Frances Elizabeth Villiers Viscountess Ponsonby 1786-1866 (53) by marriage Viscountess Ponsonby of Imokilly in Cork.
On 20 Apr 1843 Thomas Coke 2nd Earl of Leicester 1822-1909 (20) and Juliana Whitbread Countess Leicester were married. Juliana Whitbread Countess Leicester by marriage Countess of Leicester (7C 1837). He a 4 x Great Grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.
On 20 Apr 1844 Orlando Bridgeman 3rd Earl Bradford 1819-1898 (24) and Selina Weld-Forester Countess Bradford -1894 were married.
On 20 Apr 1884 Beatrice Windsor Duchess Galliera 1884-1966 was born to Prince Alfred Windsor 1844-1900 (39) and Maria Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1853-1920 (30) at Eastwell Park, Eastwell. She a Granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901.
On 20 Apr 1896 John Alexander Thynne 4th Marquess Bath 1831-1896 (65) died. His son Thomas Henry Thynne 5th Marquess Bath 1862-1946 (33) succeeded 5th Marquess Bath, 7th Viscount Weymouth. Violet Caroline Mordaunt Marchioness Bath 1869-1928 (27) by marriage Marchioness Bath.
On 20 Apr 1896 Maud Louisa Emma Cavendish 1896-1975 was born to Victor Christian William Cavendish 9th Duke Devonshire 1868-1938 (27) and Evelyn Emily Mary Petty-Fitzmaurice Duchess Devonshire 1870-1960 (25).
On 20 Apr 1899 Robert Offley Ashburton Crewe-Milnes 1st Marquess Crewe 1858-1945 (41) and Margaret Etrenne Hannah "Peggy" Primrose Marchioness Crewe 1881-1967 (18) were married.
On 20 Apr 1910 Alvaro Antonio Orléans-Galliera 1910-1997 was born to Alfonso Orléans-Galliera Duke Galliera 1886-1975 (23) and Beatrice Windsor Duchess Galliera 1884-1966 (26) at Coburg. He a Great Grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901.
On 20 Apr 1941 Francis Hope Pelham-Clinton-Hope 8th Duke Newcastle-under-Lyne 1866-1941 (75) died at Clumber Park, Worksop.
On 20 Apr 1947 Christian X King Denmark 1870-1947 (76) died. His brother Haakon VII King Norway 1872-1957 (74) succeeded VII King Norway. Maud Windsor Queen Consort Norway 1869-1938 by marriage Queen Consort Norway.
On 20 Apr 1949 George Bingham 5th Earl Lucan 1860-1949 (88) died.