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1300-1309 Scottish Succession

Siege of Caerlaverock Castle

In Jul 1300 Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (26), Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon 1276-1340 (23), Simon Fraser -1306, John Mohun 1st Baron Mohun Dunster 1269-1330 (31) and Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu 1250-1316 (50) fought at Caerlaverock during the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle.

Edward II Created Prince of Wales

On 07 Feb 1301 King Edward II of England (16) was appointed Prince Wales by his father Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (61); the first English heir to receive the title. Created Earl Chester the same day.

Baron's Letter to the Pope

Before 09 Mar 1301 seven Earls and 96 Barons signed a letter to the Pope refuting the Pope's claim that Scotland was subject to the Pope's feudal overlordship.The letter was never sent.Those who signed include: John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304, Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322, Ralph Monthermer 1st Baron Monthermer 1270-1325, Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford, 3rd Earl Essex 1276-1322, Roger Bigod 5th Earl Norfolk 1245-1306, Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl Arundel 1267-1302, Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315, Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324, William Leybourne 1st Baron Leybourne 1242-1309, Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345, William Latimer 1st Baron Latimer Corby 1243-1304, Edmund Hastings, John Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings, 14th Baron Bergavenny 1286-1325, Edmund Mortimer 2nd Baron Mortimer Wigmore 1251-1304, Fulk Fitzwarin 2nd Baron Fitzwarin 1285-1337, Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy 1273-1314, Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter 1247-1326, John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Somerset 1274-1336, William Braose 2nd Baron Braose 1260-1326, John Botetort 1st Baron Botetort 1265-1324, Reginald Grey 1st Baron Grey Wilton 1240-1308, John Moels 1st Baron Moels 1269-1310, Thomas Berkeley 6th Baron Berkeley 1245-1321, Robert Vere 5th Earl Oxford 1240-1296, John Strange 1st Baron Strange Knockin 1253-1309, Thomas Multon 1st Baron Multon Gilsland 1276-1313, Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314, Walter Beauchamp 1243-1303, Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby 1267-1314, John Segrave 2nd Baron Segrave 1256-1325, William Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers Groby 1272-1325, Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu 1250-1316, Piers Mauley 1st Baron Mauley 1181-1241, Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1262-1331, John Mohun 1st Baron Mohun Dunster 1269-1330, Roger Scales 1st Baron Scales -1304, Thomas Furnival 1st Baron Furnivall 1260-1332, Hugh Bardolf 1st Baron Bardolf 1259-1304, Gilbert Talbot 1st Baron Talbot 1276-1346, William Deincourt 1st Baron Deincourt 1301-1364, Edmund Stafford 1st Baron Stafford 1272-1308, Walter Fauconberg 1st Baron Fauconberg 1220-1304. .

Battle of the Golden Spurs aka Courtrai

On 11 Jul 1302 the army of Flanders unexpectedly defeated the army of France at Kortrijk during the Battle of the Golden Spurs aka Courtrai. Robert Artois II Count Artois 1250-1302 (51), Raoul II de Clermont 1245-1302 (57), Raoul Nesle -1302 and Godfrey Reginar -1302 were killed.
Jacques Chatillon -1302 was killed.

Battle of Roslyn

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV - Conflict of Roslyn. On the 27 Jul 1302, [Note. The date here confusing since the Battle of Roslyn] is reported to have taken place on 24 Feb 1303] took place the great and famous engagement between the Scots and English, at Roslin, where the English were defeated, though with great difficulty. From the beginning of the first war which ever broke out between the Scots and English, it is said, there never was so desperate a struggle, or one in which the stoutness of knightly prowess shone forth so brightly. The commander and leader in this struggle was John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch 1269-1305 (33), the son. Now this was how this struggle came about, and the manner thereof. After the battle fought at Falkirk, the Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (63) came not in person, for the nonce, this side of the water of Forth ; but sent a good large force, which plundered the whole land of Fife, with all the lands lying near the town of Perth, after having killed a great many of the dwellers in those lands. On the return of this force, with countless spoils, that Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (63) hied him home again with his host. Now this was brought about, doubtless, by God's agency : for had he made a lengthened stay then, or after the battle of Dunbar and the seizure of John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland 1249-1314 (53), he would either have subjugated the whole land of Scotland, and the dwellers therein, to his sway, or made it a waste with naught but floods and stones. But the goodness of God, Who alone tends and heals after wounds, so governed the actions and time of that king, that, being stirred up to battle, and engrossed with sundry wars, he could not put off all other matters, and give himself up to subduing this kingdom. So that Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (63) went back with his men, having first appointed the officers of the sheriffdoms, and the wardens of the castles, in the districts beyond the water of Forth, which were then fully and wholly subject unto his sway — with the exception of a few outlaws (or, indeed, robbers), of Scottish birth, who were lurking in the woods, and could not, because of their misdeeds, submit to the laws. But John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch 1269-1305 (33), then guardian of Scotland, and Simon Fraser -1306, with their followers, day and night did their best to harass and annoy, by their great prowess, the aforesaid king's officers and bailiffs ; and from the time of that king's departure, for four years and more, the English and the Anglicized Scots were harried by them, in manifold ways, by mutual slaughter and carnage, according to the issue of various wars.
When the aforesaid Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (63) had got news of this, he sent off a certain nobleman, Ralph de Manton Cofferer, his treasurer (Ralph de Manton Cofferer, the Cofferer of the Household), a man stout in battle, and of tried judgment and wisdom, with a certain body of chosen knights, thoroughly well-armed, to seek out, in every hole and corner, those who troubled and disturbed the king's peace, and not to forbear punishing them with the penalty of death. So they entered Scotland, and went about ranging through the land, until they, at Roslyn, pitched their tents, split up into three lines apart, for want of free camping room. But the aforesaid John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch 1269-1305 (33) and Simon Fraser -1306, with their abettors, hearing of their arrival, and wishing to steal a march rather than have one stolen upon them, came briskly through from Biggar to Eoslyn, in one night, with some chosen men, who chose rather death before unworthy subjection to the English nation; and, all of a sudden, they fearlessly fell upon the enemy. But having been, a little before, roused by the sentries, all those of the first line seized their weapons, and manfully withstood the attacking foe. At length, however, the former were overcome. Some were taken, and some slain ; while some, again, fled to the other line. But, while the Scots were sharing the booty, another line straightway appeared, in battle-array ; so the Scots, on seeing it, slaughtered their prisoners, and armed their own vassals with the spoils of the slain ; then, putting away their jaded horses, and taking stronger ones, they fearlessly hastened to the fray. When this second line had been, at length, overcome, though with difficulty, and the Scots thought they had ended their task, there appeared a third, mightier than the former, and more choice in their harness. The Scots were thunderstruck at the sight of them ; and being both fagged out in manifold ways, — by the fatigues of travelling, watching, and want of food — and also sore distressed by the endless toil of fighting, began to be weary, and to quail in spirit, beyond belief. But, when the people were thus thrown into bewilderment, the aforesaid John and Simon, with , hearts undismayed, took up, with their weapons, the office of preachers ; and, comforting them with their words, cheering them with their promises, and, moreover, reminding them of the nobleness of freedom, and the baseness of thraldom, and of the unwearied toil which their ancestors had willingly undertaken for the deliverance of their country, they, with healthful warnings, heartened them to the fray. So, being greatly emboldened by these and such-like words, the Scots laid aside all cowardice, and got back their strength. Then they slaughtered their prisoners, with whose horses and arms they were again — as it were — renewed ; and, putting their trust in God, they and their armed vassals marched forward most bravely and dashingly to battle. The shock was so mighty and fierce, that many were run through, and bereft of life ; and some of either host, after awful spear-thrusts, savage flail-strokes, and hard cudgelling, withdrew from the ranks, by hundreds, forties, and twenties, to the hills, time after time, fagged out and dazed by the day's fighting. There they would throw back their helmets, and let the winds blow upon them ; and after having been thus cooled by the breeze, they would put away their wounded horses, and, mounting other fresh ones, would thus be made stronger against the onslaughts of the foe. So, after this manifold ordeal and awful struggle, the Scots, who, if one looked at the opposite side, were very few in number — as it were a handful of corn or flour compared with the multitude of the sea-sand — by the power, not of man, but of God, subdued their foes, and gained a happy and gladsome victory..

On 24 Feb 1303 at Roslyn a Scottish force commanded by Simon Fraser -1306 and John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch 1269-1305 (34) ambushed the English army led by John Segrave 2nd Baron Segrave 1256-1325 (47) who was captured and subsequently released.

Ambush at Melrose Abbey

In May 1303 John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch 1269-1305 (34) ambushed the English army who were camped at Melrose Abbey, Melrose. Thomas Grey 1280-1344 (23) was captured.Most of his comrades were killed. .

Battle of Happrew

Around 20 Feb 1304 a chevauchée of English knights including Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (29), William Latimer 2nd Baron Latimer Corby 1276-1327 (28), John Mohun 1st Baron Mohun Dunster 1269-1330 (35), John Segrave 2nd Baron Segrave 1256-1325 (48) and the future Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland 1274-1329 (29) attempted, unsuccessfully, to capture Simon Fraser -1306 and William Wallace -1305 at Happrew, Peebles during the Battle of Happrew.

Siege of Stirling Castle

In Apr 1304 Thomas Grey 1280-1344 (24) fought under Henry Beaumont 4th Earl Buchan 1279-1340 (24) at Stirling Castle during the Siege of Stirling Castle.

Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle

On 18 Aug 1304 John Capet II Duke Brittany 1239-1305 (65) fought during the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle.

Capture of William Wallace

On 05 Aug 1305 William Wallace -1305 was handed over to the English forces by John Menteith 1275-1329 (30) at Robroyston, Glasgow. .

Execution of William Wallace

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV - Death of William Wallace. In the year 23 Aug 1305, William Wallace -1305 was craftily and treacherously taken by John Menteith 1275-1329 (30), who handed him over to the Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (66) ; and he was, in London, torn limb from limb, and, as a reproach to the Scots, his limbs were hung on towers in sundry places throughout England and Scotland. .

On 23 Aug 1305 William Wallace -1305 was hanged at Elms, Smithfield, Farringdon Without.His head being displayed on London Bridge, Bridge. .

Robert "The Bruce" murders John "Red Comyn"

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV - John Comyn's Death. The same year, after the aforesaid Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland 1274-1329 (30) had left the Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (65) and returned home, no less miraculously than by God's grace, a day is appointed for him and the aforesaid John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch 1269-1305 (36) to meet together at Greyfriars Monastery Chapel ; and both sides repair to the above-named place. John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch 1269-1305 (36) is twitted with his treachery and belied troth. The lie is at once given. The evil-speaker is stabbed, and wounded unto death, in the church of the Friars ; and the wounded man is, by the friars, laid behind the altar. On being asked by those around whether he could live, straightway his answer is : — " I can." His foes, hearing this, give him another wound ; — and thus was he taken away from this world on the 10 Feb 1305..

On 10 Feb 1305 John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch 1269-1305 (36) was murdered by Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland 1274-1329 (30) before the High Altar at Greyfriars Monastery Chapel. Robert Comyn -1305, John's uncle, was killed by Christopher Seton 1278-1306 (27). Christopher's brother John Seton 1278-1306 (27) was also present.
Murder, in a church, in front of the altar, regarded as a terrible crime. The act gave Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (65) cause to invade Scotland. .

Coronation of Robert the Bruce

On 26 Mar 1306 Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland 1274-1329 (31) was crowned I King Scotland: Bruce at Scone Abbey, Scone during the Coronation of Robert the Bruce. Christopher Seton 1278-1306 (28) was present.

Battle of Methven

On 19 Jun 1306 the forces of Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 (31) including Robert Pierrepoint -1334 ambushed and routed the Scottish army of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland 1274-1329 (31) including Simon Fraser -1306, Christopher Seton 1278-1306 and John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl 1266-1306 (40) at Methven during the Battle of Methven. John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl 1266-1306 (40) was captured as well as many others.

Execution of the Bruce Brothers

On 09 Feb 1307 Thomas Bruce 1284-1307 (23) and Alexander Bruce 1285-1307 (22) were hanged at Carlisle. They being younger brothers of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland 1274-1329 (32).

Death of Edward I

On 07 Jul 1307 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (68) died at Burgh by Sands whilst on his way north to Scotland. His Son King Edward II of England (23) succeeded II King England: Plantagenet Angevin.
Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (68) had gathered around him Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (29), Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315 (35), Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 (32) and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (33) and charged them with looking after his son in particular ensuring Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (23) didn't return from exile.

Return of Piers Gaveston

On 06 Aug 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (23) was appointed 1st Earl Cornwall (5C 1307) by King Edward II of England (23) to the shock of the nobility; Earl Cornwall usually reserved for the heir.The earldom gave Gaveston substantial landholdings over great parts of England, to the value of £4,000 a year. These possessions consisted of most of Cornwall, as well as parts of Devonshire in the south-west, land in Berkshire and Oxfordshire centred on the honour of Wallingford, most of the eastern part of Lincolnshire, and the honour of Knaresborough in Yorkshire, with the territories that belonged to it.

Marriage of Piers Gaveston and Margaret de Clare

On 02 Nov 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (23) and Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester -1342 were married. Arranged by King Edward II of England (23). Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester -1342 grand-daughter of Edward I through his daughter Joan and, as such, significantly higher than Gaveston in the nobility.

Tournament at Wallingford

On 02 Dec 1307 King Edward II of England (23) held a tournament to celebrate Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (23) recent wedding. Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (23) took the opportunity to humiliate the older nobility including John Warenne 7th Earl Surrey 1286-1347 (21), Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford, 3rd Earl Essex 1276-1322 (31) and Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel 1285-1326 (22) further increasing his unpopularity.

Marriage of King Edward II and Isabella of France

On 25 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (23) and Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (13) were married (he was her Second-Cousin Once-Removed) at Boulogne-sur-Mer.

Boulogne Agreement

On 31 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (23) signed the Boulogne Agreement.

On 31 Jan 1308 a group of England's leading nobles signed the Boulogne Agreement that attempted to curtail King Edward II of England (23) rule.The signatories included Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham and Patriarch of Jerusalem, John Warenne 7th Earl Surrey 1286-1347 (21), Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 (33), Henry Lacy 3rd Earl Lincoln, 4th Earl Salisbury 1251-1311 (57) and Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315 (36).

King Edward II and Isabella of France arrive in England

Fine Rolls Edward II. On 07 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (23) and Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (13) returned from their wedding in Boulogne-sur-Mer to Dover.

07 Feb 1308. Be it remembered that on 07 Feb 1308 after the Purification, King Edward II of England (23), the king, returning from beyond seas, to wit, from Boulogne-sur-Mer, where he took to Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (13), daughter of the Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314 (39), touched at Dover in his barge about the ninth hour [1500], Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester 1261-1326 (46) and the lord of Castellione of Gascony being in his company, and the queen a little afterward touched there with certain ladies accompanying her, and because the great seal which had been taken with him beyond seas then remained in the keeping of the keeper of the wardrobe who could not arrive on that day, no writ was sealed from the hour of the king's coming until 09 Feb 1308 following on which day the John Langton Bishop Chichester -1337, about the ninth hour [1500] delivered to the king in his chamber in Dover Castle the seal used in England during the king's absence, and the king, receiving the same, delivered it to William Melton Archbishop York 1275-1340 (33), controller of the wardrobe, and forthwith delivered with his own hand to the chancellor the great seal under the seal of J. de Benstede, keeper of the wardrobe, and Master John Painter Fraunceis, in the presence of Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (30), Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (24), and Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester 1261-1326 (46), William Martyn and William Inge, knights, and Adam de Osgodby, clerk ; and the chancellor on that day after lunch in his room (hospicio) in God's House, Dover, sealed writs with the great seal.

Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 08 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (23). Dover. To William Leybourne. Order to attend the Coronation of Edward II and Isabella with his wife on Sunday next after the 14 Feb.
The like to seventy others in various counties.

On 25 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (23) was crowned II King England: Plantagenet Angevin at Westminster Abbey by Henry Woodlock, Bishop Winchester. Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (13) was crowned Queen Consort England.
Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (24) carried the Royal Crown.
William Marshal 1st Baron Marshal 1277-1314 (30) carried the Gilt Spurs.
Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford, 3rd Earl Essex 1276-1322 (32) carried the Royal Sceptre.
Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 (27) carried the Royal Rod.
Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (30) carried the sword Curtana (the sword of Edward the ConFessor).
Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (20) carried the table bearing the Royal Robes.
Thomas Grey 1280-1344 (28) and Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter 1247-1326 (61) attended.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House, Strand In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park, St James' with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

de Clare and de Burgh Double Marriage

On 29 Sep 1308 (possibly 30th) in a Double Marriage de Clare siblings married de Burgh siblings at Waltham Abbey, Waltham in the presence of King Edward II of England (24). John Burgh 1286-1313 (22) and Elizabeth Clare Lady Verdun 1295-1360 (13) were married John Burgh 1286-1313 (22) and Elizabeth Clare Lady Verdun 1295-1360 (13) were married.