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1559-1579 Elizabeth I Accedes

Christian III King Denmark succeeded by Frederick II

On 01 Jan 1559 Christian III King Denmark 1503-1559 (55) died . His son Frederick II King Denmark 1534-1588 (24) succeeded as II King Denmark .

Coronation of Elizabeth I

On 13 Jan 1559 ...
Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon 1526-1596 (32) was created 1st Baron Hunsdon . Anne Morgan Baroness Hunsdon 1529-1607 (30) by marriage Baroness Hunsdon .
Oliver St John 1st Baron St John Bletso 1522-1582 (37) was created 1st Baron St John Bletso (1C 1559) . Agnes Fisher Baroness St John Bletso 1526-1572 (33) by marriage Baroness St John Bletso (1C 1559) .

On 15 Jan 1559 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (25) was crowned I King England and Ireland: Tudor by Owen Oglethorpe Bishop Carlisle 1507-1559 (52) at Westminster Abbey .
Margaret Audley Duchess Norfolk 1540-1564 (19) carried the train. Nicholas Heath Archbishop York 1501-1578 (58) censed. Edward Dymoke 1508-1566 (51) attended as the Queen's Champion. Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (22) , Francis Talbot 5th Earl Shrewsbury, 5th Earl Waterford 1500-1560 (59) , Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (46) , Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter 1542-1623 (16) and William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570 (58) attended.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

In 1562 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (42) . Portrait of Margaret Audley Duchess Norfolk 1540-1564 (22) . The Arms top left not Audley. Neither is the motto partially showing.

In 1550 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (30) . Portrait Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (37) with the motto Invidia Torquet Autorem meaning Let envy torment its author.

Around 1565 Unknown Artist .Anglo-Netherlandish.Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (52) .

Funeral of Frances Brandon

On 05 Dec 1559 Frances Brandon Marchioness Dorset 1517-1559 was buried in St Edmund's Chapel in Westminster Abbey at a ceremony conducted by John Jewel Bishop Salisbury 1522-1571 (37) . Her daughter Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 (19) was Chief Mourner. Mary Grey 1545-1578 (14) was present. Her effigy was paid for by Adrian Stokes : recumbent effigy is dressed in the ermine robes signifying she was a duchess with a pendant around her neck possibly designed by Cornelius Cure.

Consecration of Matthew Parker as Archbishop Canterbury

On 17 Dec 1559 Matthew Parker Archbishop Canterbury 1504-1575 (55) was consecrated Archbishop Canterbury at Lambeth Palace, Lambeth, Surrey by William Barlow Bishop St Asaph, St Davids, Chichester, Bath and Wells 1498-1568 (61) .

1562 News Years Day Gift Giving

On 01 Jan 1562 the New Years Gift Giving was held. Those who gave gifts provide an interesting who's who of the Elizabethan Court soon after Elizabeth I's Coronation. Queen Elizabeth (28) was present since a number are described as "With the Qene her Majestie.".
For 'dimy' read 'demi' ie half-sovereigns.
Neweeyeur's Gyftes gevon to the Quene her Majestie by those Parsons whose Names hereafter ensue, the first of January, the Yere above wrytten.
By the Lady Margaret Strainge (22) , a little round mounte of golde to conteyne a pomaunder in it.With the Qene her Majestie. Note. Lady Margaret Strange married Henry Stanley Lord Strange (30) on 07 Feb 1555. In 1561 he had not succeeded to Earldom of Derby and was known by the courtesy title Lord Strange.She is listed first since she was one of the few remaining direct descendants of Henry VII , being a great-granddaughter by his daughter Mary Tudor . Margaret Clifford (22) was first in line to succeed in 1568 but died in 1596 before Elizabeth I.
Dukes, Marquises and Earls
By the Duke of Norfolke (25) , in a purse of purple silke and golde knit, in sundry coynes of golde £20 0s 0d.
By the Marquis of Winchester (79) , High Threasourer of Englande, in a purse of crymsen satten, in angells £20 0s 0d.
By the Marquis of Northampton (50) , in a purse of crymsen silke and gold knit, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Arundell (49) , Lord Steward, in a paper, in angels, £30 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Shrewesburye (34) , in a red silke purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Darbye (52) , in a purse of crymsen satten, embraudered with golde, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Pembroke (61) , in a purse of black silk and silver knit, in new angells £30 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Bedforde (35) , in a purse of black silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Rutlande (35) , in a purse of red silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraigns and angells £20 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Huntingdon , in a red silk purse, in angells £15 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Westmerlande (37) , in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Oxforde (46) , in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.
By the Earle of Northumberlande (34) , in a purse of black silke and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d. With the Quene her Highness.
By the Earle of Warwike (32) , a smocke wrought with black silk, a peire of slevis, and a partelett wrought with gold, silver, and black silke.Delivered to the Lady Cobham (23) .
By the Viscounte Mountague (33) , in a purse of cloth of golde, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.With her said Majestie.
Bishops.The list of Bishops ends with "With her said Majestie"; unclear whether this refers to all the Bishops listed.
By the Archbusshop of Caunterbury (57) , in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £40 0s 0d.
By the Archbusshop of York (61) , in soveraigns £30 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Duresme (42) , in a purse of crymson silk and gold knytt, in angells £30 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Ely (69) , in a red vellat purse, in angells £30 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Wynchester (52) , in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt and set with pearles, in angells £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of London (43) , in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Salisbury (39) , in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Worcester (43) , in a black vellat purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Lyncoln (42) , in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Chychester (64) , in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Norwich (50) , in a blew silk purse £13 6s 8d.
By the Busshop of Hereforde (52) , in a green silk purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Lychfield and Coventry (48) , in a red satten purse, in angells £13 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Rochester (48) , in a red purse, in gold £13 6s 8d.
By the Busshop of Saint Davies (55) , in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Bathe, in a purse of red silk, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Exetour, in a blew silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Peterborowe, in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Chester, in a red purse, in angells and soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
Duchesses and Countesses
By the Duchess of Norfolke (22) , in a prse of crymsen silk and gold knyt, in angells £20 0s 0d.
By the Duchess of Somerset (65) , in a purse of silver and black silk, in royalls and ducketts £14 0s 0d. Probably the Dowager Duchess of Somerset since her husband Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 had been executed in 1552, and their children disinherited as a result.
By the Countess of Surrey (-21) , in a purse of tawny silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.Dowager since her husband Henry Howard 1516-1547, by courtesy Earl Surrey, had been executed in 1547.
By the Countess of Pembroke (38) , in a cherry bag of crymsen satten, in new angells £15 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Bedford (36) , in a purse of crymsen silk and silver knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Darby , in a purse of crymson sattin embrodred with gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Oxford (36) , in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Shrewisbury, Dowager , in a purse of black silk knytt, in dimy soveraignes £12 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Shrewisbury (37) , in a red silk purse knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Huntingdon, Dowager (51) , in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Huntingdon (24) , in a red purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Northumberland (24) , in a purse of black silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Rutland (29) , in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.
Viscountesses
By the Vicountess Hereford, Dowager (42) , six hankercheffes edged with gold.Delivered to the said Lady Cobham (23) .
By the Vicountess Mountague (24) , in a purse of cloth of gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
Lordes
By the Lorde Keeper of the Great Seale, Bacon (51) , in a purse of silver knytt, in angells £13 6s 8d.
By the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (52) , in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d
By the Lorde Pagett (56) , in a greene purse in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.
By the Lorde Clynton, Lord Admyrall (50) , in gold £10 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Riche (65) , in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Lorde North (66) , in a purse of purple silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Lumley (29) , in a paper, in angells £20 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Hastings of Loughboro (41) , in a red silk purse, in French crowns £13 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Stafford (60) , in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Windsor (30) , in a purse of crymsn silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.With her said Majestie.
By Lorde John Graye (38) , a haunce pott of allabaster garnished with silver gilt.Delivered in charge to John Asteley, Esq. Master and Threasourer of her Highnes Jewels and Plate.Lord John Grey assumed to be a courtesy title his father being Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 .
By the Lorde Barkeley (27) , in a red purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Mountejoye (29) , in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Abergavennye (36) , in a purse of red silke, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Scrowpe (28) , in a purse of blak silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Caree of Hundesdon (35) , in a purse of crymsen silk, in double ducketts £13 6s 8d.
By the Lorde Strainge (30) , in a purse of red silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Lord Strange being the courtesy title for the Earldom of Derby. He wouldn't inherit until 1572.
By the Lorde Darcey of Chichey , in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes, £10 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Shefild (24) , in a red silk purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Shandowes , in a blak silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.With her said Majestie.
Ladyes
By the Lady Howarde (47) , in a purse of crymsen silk and knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.
By the Lady Clinton (35) , a peire of sleevis of gold, pulled out with lawne.Delivered to the said Lady Cobham (23) .
By the Lady Pagett , in gold £6 13s 4d.
By the Lady Barkeley (24) , Lord Barkeley's wife, in gold £5 0s 0d.
By the Lady Mountejoye (30) , in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Lady Abergavenny , in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.
By the Lady Caree of Hundesdon (33) , in a blak purse knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Lady Taylboyes, Sir Peter Carewe's (48) wyfe, in a purse of blak silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.With her said Majestie.
By the Lady Cobham (23) , a partelett and a peire of sleeves of sypers wrought with silver and blak silke.Re-delivered to herself.
By the Lady Dakers (21) , a warming ball of gold, per oz. 3 oz. dim.With her said Majestie.
By the Lady Shefilde (20) , a paire of sleeves wrought with fringe of blak silk and lozeng of gold.Delivered to the said Lady Cobham.
By the Lady Scrope, in a purse of blak silk and silver, in angells £7 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.
By the Lady Shandowes (38) , a peire of sleeves and a partlett of gold and silver knytt, cawle fashion.Delivered to the said Lady Cobham
By the Lady Knowlles (38) , a feyne carpett of needleworke, theverende frienged and buttoned with gold and silk.Delivered to John Torneworth, Groom of the Privy Chamber.
By the Lady Butler, in a little white purse, in French crowns £6 0s 0d.With her said Majestie.Unclear as to who Lady Butler refers to.
By the Lady Raclyef , a peire of sleeves of cameryk, all over sett with purle, and two sweet bags.Delivered to the said Lady Cobham.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

In 1550 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (30) . Portrait Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (37) with the motto Invidia Torquet Autorem meaning Let envy torment its author.

Around 1565 Unknown Artist .Anglo-Netherlandish.Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (52) .

In 1571 Unknown Artist . Portrait of Richard Cox Bishop Ely 1493-1581 (78) .

In 1577 Unknown Artist . Portrait of Richard Cox Bishop Ely 1493-1581 (84) .

In 1562 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (42) . Portrait of Margaret Audley Duchess Norfolk 1540-1564 (22) . The Arms top left not Audley. Neither is the motto partially showing.

Before 1558 Gerlach Flicke 1520-1558 (37) . Portrait of Peter Carew 1514-1575 (44) .

Death of Amy Robsart wife of Robert Dudley

On 08 Sep 1560 , the day of the Abingdon Fair, Amy Robsart -1560 died from falling down stairs at Cumnor Place, Abingdon, Berkshire . She was married to Robert Dudley 1st Earl Leicester 1532-1588 (28) , favourite of Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (27) , who was with Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (27) at Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire at the time. Foul play was suspected but not proven. The event was regarded as suspicious by many. The Queen's reputation being tarnished she could not risk a marriage with Dudley.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Battle of Corrichie

Elizabeth I's visit to Cambridge University

In Aug 1564 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (30) visited Cambridge University, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire accompanied by William Howard 1st Baron Howard 1510-1573 (54) and William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (43) . William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (43) was created as Master of Arts: Cambridge University . John Astley Master of the Jewel House 1507-1595 (57) was created as Master of Arts: Cambridge University .

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Marriage of Richard Keyes and Mary Grey

On 19 Aug 1565 Thomas Keyes 1523-1571 (41) and Mary Grey 1545-1578 (20) were married . Elizabeth Stafford 1546-1599 (19) and Ursula Stafford 1553- were witnesses.

Elizabeth I's visit to Oxford University

In 1566 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (32) visited Oxford University, Oxford, Oxfordshire . William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (45) was created Master of Arts: Oxford University .

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Battle of St Denis

On 10 Nov 1567 brothers John Norreys 1547-1597 and William Norreys 1548-1579 (19) were present at St Denis during the Battle of St Denis .

Battle of Langside

In 1568 Robert Seton 1st Earl Winton 1553-1603 (15) fought during the Battle of Langside .

On 13 May 1568 William "Younger" Douglas 7th Lord Drumlanrig -1572 fought at Langside, Glasgow during the Battle of Langside .

On 13 May 1568 John Campbell -1568 was killed at Langside, Glasgow during the Battle of Langside

Ridolphi Plot

Around Sep 1571 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (43) was implicated in the Ridolphi Plot and imprisoned at home for months.

Around Mar 1571 the Ridolphi Plot was a Catholic plan to assassinate Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (37) and replace her with her with Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (28) would would marry Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (34) . Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (37) and Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (34) were cousins through their Great Grandmother Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 .

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

On 29 Aug 1571 Norfolk's secretaries William Barker and Robert Higford entrusted to Thomas Browne, a Shrewsbury draper, what was purported to be a bag of silver coin for delivery to Laurence Bannister, one of Norfolk's officials in the north of England. Browne grew suspicious of the bag's weight, opened it, and discovered 600 pounds in gold from the French ambassador, destined for Scotland on Mary's behalf, and ciphered letters. Because he knew Norfolk was under suspicion, Browne reported his find to William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (50) , the Secretary of State. Higford and Barker were interrogated, the letters were partly deciphered, and a search for the cipher key at Howard House uncovered a ciphered letter from Mary Stuart hidden under a doormat.

On 07 Sep 1571 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (35) was imprisoned at Tower of London, Tower Hill, City of London for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot .

In Jan 1572 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (35) was tried for high treason for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot . Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608 (36) acted as judge. George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (44) was appointed as Lord High Steward for the trial.

On 02 Jun 1572 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (36) was executed for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot . He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London, Tower Hill, City of London

Jul 1575 Rathlin Island Massacre

Before 25 Jul 1575 Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex 1541-1576 (33) ordered Francis Drake 1540-1596 (35) and John Norreys 1547-1597 (28) to confront Scottish refugees on Rathlin Island, County Antrim.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (44) painted a portrait of Francis Drake 1540-1596 (51) .

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (44) painted a portrait of Francis Drake 1540-1596 (51) .

In 1581 Unknown Artist . Portrait of Francis Drake 1540-1596 (41) .

In 1581 Unknown Artist . Portrait of Francis Drake 1540-1596 (41) .

On 25 Jul 1575 the garrison surrendered.

On 26 Jul 1575 the English forces killed more than six hundred Scots and Irish men, women and children. The entire family of Sorley Boy Macdonnell were killed.

After 26 Jul 1575 Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex 1541-1576 (33) wrote to Francis Walsingham 1532-1590 (43) that Sorley Boy MacDonnell watched the massacre from the mainland helplessly and was "like to run mad from sorrow".

Oxford Black Assizes 1577

Around Mar 1577 a virulent outbreak of gaol fever occurred in Oxford killing around 300 people.

After 25 Jul 1577 Robert Bell Chief Baron of the Exchequer -1577 died of gaol fever .

Francis Walsingham's Mission to the Low Base

In 1578 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (50) joined at Low Base .

Battle of Alcácer Quibir or the Three Kings

On 04 Aug 1578 Sebastian King Portugal 1554-1578 (24) was killed at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir or the Three Kings . He was succeeded by his great uncle Henrique Aviz Cardinal King Portgal 1512-1580.