Hover the mouse over the coloured text for more information, click to go to the Pages. Hover over paintings for larger versions. Click on the Arms to go to the Heraldry pages. Click on Home in the Menu above to go to today's On This Day in History page.

1580-1599 Babington Plot and Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

Battle of Glenmalure

On 25 Aug 1580 the Irish forces ambushed the forces of Arthur Grey 14th Baron Grey Wilton 1536-1593 (44) at the Battle of Glenmalure fought at Glenmalure, County Wicklow.Around 800 English soldiers, including, Peter Carew -1580 were killed.

Siege of Smerwick

In Nov 1580 Edward Denny 1547-1600 (33) led a company at Smerwick, County Kerry during the Siege of Smerwick. Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (26) was present at Smerwick during the Siege of Smerwick. Arthur Grey 14th Baron Grey Wilton 1536-1593 (44) laid siege to the Smerwick garrison at Smerwick, County Kerry during the Siege of Smerwick.

Exeter Black Assizes 1586

In Mar 1586 a virulent outbreak of gaol fever occurred during the Assizes in Exeter. The cause according to modern medical opinion was typhus transmitted by the human body-louse. Among the dead victims were eight judges, eleven of the twelve jurors, several constables, and the surrounding population which was ravaged by the disease for several months.
Edward Flowerdew -1586 died of gaol fever.

On 28 Mar 1586 Thomas Carew of Haccombe 1516-1586 (70) died of gaol fever.

On 31 Mar 1586 John Chichester -1586 died of gaol fever.

On 01 Apr 1586 Robert Carey 1515-1586 (71) died of gaol fever.

On 02 Apr 1586 Arthur Bassett 1541-1586 (45) died of gaol fever.

On 10 Apr 1586 Bernard Drake 1528-1586 (58) died of gaol fever.

Babington Plot

On 06 Jul 1586 Anthony Babington 1561-1586 (24) wrote to Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (43), telling her that he and a group of friends were planning to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (52).

Around 1559 François Clouet Portrait Painter 1510-1572 (49). Portrait of Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (16).

Around 1546. William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (30).The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

On 04 Aug 1586 John Ballard -1586 was arrested and, under torture, he conFessd and implicated Anthony Babington 1561-1586 (24).

After 04 Aug 1586 Christopher Wray 1524-1592 passed sentence of death on those implicated.

On 20 Sep 1586 Anthony Babington 1561-1586 (24), John Ballard -1586, Henry Donn -1586, Thomas Salusbury 1564-1586 (22) and Chideock Tichbourne 1562-1586 (24) were hanged at St Giles' Field, Holborn for their involvement.

On 21 Sep 1586 Robert Gage -1586 was executed for his involvement in the Babington Plot.

Battle of Zutphen

On 22 Sep 1586 Robert Sidney 1st Earl Leicester 1563-1626 (22) fought at the Battle of Zutphen. William Russell 1st Baron Russel Thornhaugh 1560-1613 (26) distinguished himself being noted for maintaining an effective fighting force in difficult circumstances.

Around 1588 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Robert Sidney 1st Earl Leicester 1563-1626 (24).

On 17 Oct 1586 Philip Sidney 1554-1586 (31) died from wounds received at the Battle of Zutphen.

Around 1576 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Philip Sidney 1554-1586 (21).

Trial of Mary Queen of Scots

On 14 Oct 1586 Henry Compton 1st Baron Compton 1544-1589 (42), Lewis Mordaunt 3rd Baron Mordaunt 1538-1601 (48), Henry Wentworth 3rd Baron Wentworth 1558-1593 (28), Christopher Wray 1524-1592 (62), John Stourton 9th Baron Stourton 1553-1588 (33) and Edward Zouche 11th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1556-1625 (30) sat in judgement on Mary Queen of Scots (43) in the Presence Chamber, Fotheringay Castle.
Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 (57), George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (28), Henry Clinton 2nd Earl Lincoln 1539-1616 (47), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (45), Edward Manners 3rd Earl Rutland 1549-1587 (37), Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (55), Ambrose Dudley 3rd Earl Warwick 1530-1590 (56), George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (58), Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (36), William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589 (60), William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (66), Henry Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1538-1601 (48) and Thomas Bromley Lord Chancellor 1530-1587 (56) were present on the side of the Presence Chamber, Fotheringay Castle.
John St John 2nd Baron St John Bletso -1596 was present on the left side of the Presence Chamber, Fotheringay Castle.
John Stourton 9th Baron Stourton 1553-1588 (33) was a juror.

In 1568 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Wentworth 3rd Baron Wentworth 1558-1593 (9).

Around 1559 François Clouet Portrait Painter 1510-1572 (49). Portrait of Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (16).

In 1559 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (39). Portrait of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 (30) wearing a Garter Collar and St George Pendant.

Around 1590 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (43). Portrait of George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (31).

Around 1590 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Unknown Man. Possibly George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (31).

08 Feb 1587.Robert Beale Clerk 1541-1601 (46) was an eye-witness to the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. Those indicted include 1 George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), 2 Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), 3 Amyas Poulett 1457-1538. The drawing appears to show three event rather than a moment in time: her being led into the Hall, her being disrobed and being beheaded.

Around 1575 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (43).

Around 1590 Isaac Oliver 1565-1617 (25). Portrait of Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (58).

Around 1650 based on a work of 1575.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604.

After 1585 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (attributed). Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

On 25 Oct 1586 Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (43) was convicted and sentenced to death. Only Edward Zouche 11th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1556-1625 (30) offered any dissent against the judgement. .

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

On 01 Feb 1587 Queen Elizabeth I (53) signed the Death Warrant of Mary Queen of Scot's (44) (her first cousin once-Removed). Elizabeth gave orders of Mary's jailor Amyas Poulett 1457-1538 to complete the task. He refused.

Around 1546. William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (30).The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

Around 1559 François Clouet Portrait Painter 1510-1572 (49). Portrait of Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (16).

Around 1577 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (30) painted a portrait of Amyas Poulett 1457-1538.

08 Feb 1587.Robert Beale Clerk 1541-1601 (46) was an eye-witness to the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. Those indicted include 1 George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), 2 Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), 3 Amyas Poulett 1457-1538. The drawing appears to show three event rather than a moment in time: her being led into the Hall, her being disrobed and being beheaded.

On 07 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) having been informed that she was to be executed the next day wrote her will ...
From The Last Days of Mary Stuart, Samuel Cowan, 1907 ...
In the name of the Father, son, and Holy Ghost, I, Mary, by the grace of God, Queen of Scotland and Dowager of France, being on the point of death and not having any means of making my will, have myself committed these articles in writing, and I will and desire that they have the same force as if they were made in due form:-
In the first place, I declare that I die in the Catholic Apostolic and Romish faith. First, I desire that a complete service be performed for my soul in the Church of St. Denis in France, and another in St. Peter’s at Rheims, where all my servants are to attend in such manner as they may be ordered to do by those to whom I have given directions and who are named therein.
Further, that an annual obit be founded for prayers for my soul in perpetuity in such place and after such manner as shall be deemed most convenient. To furnish funds for this I will that my houses at Fontainebleau be sold, hoping that the King will render me assistance, as I have requested him to do in my memorandum.
I will that my estate of Trespagny be kept by my cousin de Guise for one of his daughters, if she should come to be married. In these quarters I relinquish half of the arrears due to me, or a part, on condition that the others be paid, in order to be expended by my executors in perpetual alms. To carry this into effect the better, the documents shall be looked out and delivered according to the assignment for accomplishing this.
I will also that the money which may arise from my lawsuit with Secondat, be distributed as follows:- First, in the discharge of my debts and orders first place mentioned and which are not yet paid; in the first place, the 2000 crowns to Curle, which I desire to be paid without any hesitation, they being a marriage portion, upon which neither Nau nor any other person has any claim, whatever obligation he may hold, inasmuch as it is only fictitious, and the money is mine, not borrowed, which since I did but show him, and afterwards withdrew it; and it was taken from me with the rest at Chartley Castle; the which I give him, provided he can recover it agreeably to my promise in payment of the four thousand francs as promised at my death, one thousand as a marriage portion for an own sister, and he having asked me for the rest for his expenses in prison.
As to the payment of a similar sum to Nau it is not obligatory, and therefore it has always been my intention that it should be paid last, and then only in case he should make it appear that he has not acted contrary to the conditions upon which I gave it him, and to which my servants were witnesses. As regards the 1200 crowns which he has placed to my account as having been borrowed by him for my use – 600 of Beauregard, 300 from Jervis, and the remainder from I know not whom, he must repay them out of his own money, and I must be quit and my order annulled, as I have not received any part of it, consequently it must be still in his possession, unless he has paid it away. Be this as it may, it is necessary that this sum should revert to me, I having received nothing; and in case it has not been paid away, I must have recourse to his property.
I further direct that Pasquier shall account for the moneys that he has expended and received by order of Nau, from the hands of the servants of Mons. de Chateauneuf, the French Ambassador.
Further, I will that my accounts be audited and my treasure paid.
Further, that the wages and sums due to my household, as well for the last as for the present year, be paid them before all other things, both wages and pensions, excepting the pensions of Nau and Curle, until it is ascertained what there is remaining, or whether they merited any pensioning from me, unless the wife of Curle be in necessity or be ill-treated on my account; the wages of Nau after the same manner.
I will that the 2400 francs which I have given to Jane Kennedy (afterwards married to Sir Andrew Melville; and was drowned by the upsetting of a boat, the year of the marriage of James VI,) be paid to her in money, as it was stated in my first deed of gift, which done, the pension of Willie Douglas shall revert to me, which I give to Fontenay (Nau’s brother) for services and expenses for which he has had no compensation.
I will that the 4000 francs of that banker’s be applied for and repaid; I have forgotten his name, but the Bishop of Glasgow will readily recollect it; and if the first order be not honoured, I desire that another may be given in the first money from Secondat.
The 10,000 francs which the ambassador has received for me, I will that they be distributed among my servants who are now going away, viz-
First, 2000 francs to my physician; 2000 francs to Elizabeth Curle; 2000 to Sebastian Page; 2000 to Mary Page, my goddaughter; 1000 to Beauregard; 1000 to Gourgon; 1000 to Jervis.
Further, that out of the rest of my revenue with the remainder of Secondats and all other casualties, I will that:
5000 francs be given to the Foundling Hospital at Rheims; to my scholars 2000 francs. To four mendicants such sum as my executors may think fit, according to the means in their hands; 500 francs to the hospitals; to Martin escuyer de cuisine, 1000 francs; 1000 francs to Annibal, whom I recommend to my cousin de Guise, his godfather, to place in some situation for his life, in his service. I leave 500 francs to Nicholas, and 500 francs to his daughters when they marry. I leave 500 francs to Robert Hamilton, and beg my son to take him and Monsieur de Glasgow, or the Bishop of Ross. I leave to Didier his registership, subject to the approbation of the King. I give 500 francs to Jean Lauder, and beg my cousin of Guise, or of Mayne, to take him into their service, and Messieurs de Glasgow and de Ross to see him provided for. I will that his father be paid his wages and leave him 500 francs; 1000 francs to be paid to Gourgon for money and other things with which he supplied me in my necessity.
I will that if Bourgoyne should perform the journey agreeably to the vow which he made for me to St. Nicholas, that 1500 francs be paid to him for this purpose.
I leave according to my slender means, 6000 francs to the Bishop of Glasgow, and 3000 to the Bishop of Ross.
And I leave the gift of casualties and reserved seigneurial rights to my godson the son of Monsieur de Ruissieu.
I give 300 francs to Laurenz, and 300 to Suzanne; and I leave 10,000 francs among the four persons who have been m y sureties and to Varmy the solicitor.
I will that the money arising from the furniture which I have ordered to be sold in London shall go to defray the travelling expenses of my servants to France.
My coach I leave to carry my ladies, and the horses, which they can sell or do what they like with.
There remain about 300 crowns due to Bourgoyne for the wages of past years, which I desire may be paid him,
I leave 2000 francs to Sir Andrew Melville, my steward.
I appoint my cousin the Duke of Guise (36), principal executor of my will; after him, the Archbishop of Glasgow, the Bishop of Ross, and Monsieur de Ruissieu, my chancellor.
I desire that Le Preau may without obstacle hold his two prebends
I recommend Mary Page, my goddaughter, to my cousin, Madame de Guise, and beg her to take her into her service, and my aunt de Saint Pierre to get Mowbray some good situation or retain her in her service for the honour of God.
Done this day 7th February, 1587. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.

Around 1554. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry 1st Duke Guise 1550-1588 (3).

On 07 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) was informed she was to be executed the following day. During the course of the night she wrote to her former brother-in-law Henry III King France 1551-1589 (35) ...
To the most Christian king, my brother and old ally,
Royal brother, having by God’s will, for my sins I think, thrown myself into the power of the Queen my cousin, at whose hands I have suffered much for almost twenty years, I have finally been condemned to death by her and her Estates. I have asked for my papers, which they have taken away, in order that I might make my will, but I have been unable to recover anything of use to me, or even get leave either to make my will freely or to have my body conveyed after my death, as I would wish, to your kingdom where I had the honor to be queen, your sister and old ally.
Tonight, after dinner, I have been advised of my sentence: I am to be executed like a criminal at eight in the morning. I have not had time to give you a full account of everything that has happened, but if you will listen to my doctor and my other unfortunate servants, you will learn the truth, and how, thanks be to God, I scorn death and vow that I meet it innocent of any crime, even if I were their subject. The Catholic faith and the assertion of my God-given right to the English crown are the two issues on which I am condemned, and yet I am not allowed to say that it is for the Catholic religion that I die, but for fear of interference with theirs. The proof of this is that they have taken away my chaplain, and although he is in the building, I have not been able to get permission for him to come and hear my conFession and give me the Last Sacrament, while they have been most insistent that I receive the consolation and instruction of their minister, brought here for that purpose. The bearer of this letter and his companions, most of them your subjects, will testify to my conduct at my last hour. It remains for me to beg Your Most Christian Majesty, my brother-in-law and old ally, who have always protested your love for me, to give proof now of your goodness on all these points: firstly by charity, in paying my unfortunate servants the wages due them – this is a burden on my conscience that only you can relieve: further, by having prayers offered to God for a queen who has borne the title Most Christian, and who dies a Catholic, stripped of all her possessions. As for my son, I commend him to you in so far as he deserves, for I cannot answer for him. I have taken the liberty of sending you two precious stones, talismans against illness, trusting that you will enjoy good health and a long and happy life. Accept them from your loving sister-in-law, who, as she dies, bears witness of her warm feeling for you. Again I commend my servants to you. Give instructions, if it please you, that for my soul’s sake part of what you owe me should be paid, and that for the sake of Jesus Christ, to whom I shall pray for you tomorrow as I die, I be left enough to found a memorial mass and give the customary alms.
Wednesday, at two in the morning
Your most loving and most true sister
Mary R.

08 Feb 1587.Robert Beale Clerk 1541-1601 (46) was an eye-witness to the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. Those indicted include 1 George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), 2 Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), 3 Amyas Poulett 1457-1538. The drawing appears to show three event rather than a moment in time: her being led into the Hall, her being disrobed and being beheaded.

08 Feb 1587.Robert Beale Clerk 1541-1601 (46) was an eye-witness to the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. Those indicted include 1 George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), 2 Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), 3 Amyas Poulett 1457-1538. The drawing appears to show three event rather than a moment in time: her being led into the Hall, her being disrobed and being beheaded.

The Letter Books of Amias Paulet Keeper of Mary queen of Scots Published 1874 Marys Execution. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.The inventory of the property of the Queen of Scots (44), alluded to in the foregoing letter, is printed in Prince Labanoff's collection, in which it occupies more than twenty pages. Poulet (54) compiled it by summoning Mary's servants before him, and requesting each of them to give him a written note of all that the Queen (44) had given them. A comparison of this inventory, made after Mary's death, with a former one, dated June 13, 1586, which Prince Labanoff found amongst M. de Chateauneuf's papers enables us to see that Mr. Froude has been led into a curious error respecting Mary Stuart's dress at the scaffold by the anonymous writer whose account he follows in preference to the narratives drawn up by responsible witnesses. It may seem to be of little importance, but as Mr. Froude has chosen to represent the last moments of Mary's life as "brilliant acting throughout," he should at least have been accurate in his details. He even goes so far as to say that she was deprived of the assistance of her chaplain for "fear of some religious melodrame." As to her dress, he says, "She (44) stood on the black scaffold with the black figures all around her, blood-red from head to foot. Her reasons for adopting so extraordinary a costume must be left to conjecture. It is only certain that it must have been carefully studied, and that the pictorial effect must have been appalling." And he quotes from the Vray Rapport the words, "Ainsy fut executee toute en rouge. [Translation: So was executed all in red.]"
The rouge was not " blood-red," but a dark red brown. Blackwood says that she wore, with a pourpoint or bodice of black satin, "une Juppe de vellours cramoisi brun," and the narrative called La Mort de la Royne d'Escosse says the same. There it is in the June inventory, "Une juppe de velloux cramoisy brun, bandee de passement noir, doublee de taffetas de couleur brune." In the inventory taken after her death it is wanting. As it happens, if she had wished to be "blood-red," she might have been so, for in the wardrobe there was "satin figure incarnat," " escarlate," and " satin incarnate." These figure both in the June and February inventories. When she was dressed "le plus proprement qu'elle put et mieux que de coutume," she said to her maids of honour, "Mes amies, je vous eusse laisse plustost cet accoustrement que celui d'hier, sinon qu'il faut que j'aille a la mort un peu honnorablement, et que j'aye quelque chose plus que le commun." "La tragedie finie," continues Blackwood, " les pauvres damoiselles, soigneuses de rhonneur de leur maistresse s'adresserent a Paulet son gardien, et le prierent que le bourreau ne touchast plus au corps de sa Majeste, et qu'il leur fust permis de la despouiller, apres que le monde seroit retire, afin qu'aucune indignite ne fust faitte au corps, promettant de luy rendre la despouille, et tout ce qu'il pourroit demander. Mais ce maudict et espou- ventable Cerbere les renvoya fort lourdement, leur commandant de sortir de la salle. Cependant le bourreau la dechausse, et la manie a sa discretion. Apres qu'il eust fait tout ce qu'il voulust, le corps fut porte en une chambre joignante celle de ces serviteurs, bien fermee de peur qu'ils n'y entrassent pour luy rendre leurs debvoirs. Ce qui augmenta grandement leur ennuy, ils la voyoient par le trou de la serrure demy couverte d'un morceau de drop de bure qu'on avoit arrache de la table du billard, dont nous avous parle cy dessus, et prioyent Dieu a la porte, dont Paulet (54) s'appercevant fist boucher le trou."
The executioner snatched from her hand the little gold cross that she took from her neck. "Sa Majeste osta hors de son col line croix d'or, qu'elle vouloit bailler a mie de ses filles, disant au maistre d'oeuvres, Mon amy, cecy n'est pas k vostre usage, laissez la a cette damoiselle elle vous baillera en Argent plus qu'elle ne vaut; il luy arracha d'entre les mains fort rudement, disant, C'est mon droit. C'eust este merveille qu'elle eust trouve courtoisie en un bourreau Anglois, qui ne I'avoit jamais sceu trouver entre les plus honestes du pais, sinon tant qu'ils en pouvoient tirer de profit." It was worthy of Poulet (54) to insist that, even though everything Mary wore was to be burnt and the headsman was to lose his perquisites lest he should sell them for relics, it was to be by his hands that they should be taken from the person of his victim.
Several narratives of the execution exist. The most complete, attributed to Bourgoin, is printed in Jebb. Sir H. Ellis and Robertson print the official report of the Commissioners. Then there is Chateauneuf's Report to Henry III., February 27, 1587, N.S., in Teulet, and a narrative drawn up for Burghley by R. W. (Richard Wigmore). Blackwood also furnishes an interesting and trustworthy description. The anonymous Vray Rapport will be found in Teulet. Mr. Froude appears to have selected it, partly because it was possible to expand the Realistic description of the dissevered head, and in particular the inevitable contraction of the features, into the gross and pitiless caricature which he permits himself of the poor wreck of humanity; partly too, because the Vray Rapport, in direct contradiction to the other accounts, supports his assertion that Mary was "dreadfully agitated" on receiving the message of death from the two Earls. To convey the impression that the writer was bodily present on that occasion, Mr. Froude introduces him as "evidently an eye-witness, one of the Queen of Scots' (44) own attendants, probably her surgeon." But the narrative shows us that the writer, whoever he was, could not have been one of Mary's attendants, nor even acquainted with them, for he designates the two ladies who assisted their mistress at the scaffold as "deux damoiselles, I'une Francoise nommee damoiselle Ramete, et l'autre Escossoise, qui avait nom Ersex." There were no such names in Mary's household. The two ladies were both Scottish, Jane Kennedy and Elspeth Curie, Gilbert Curle's sister. Mr. Froude says, "Barbara Mowbray bound her eyes with a handkerchief." It was Jane Kennedy who performed for her this last service.
Poulet's (54) inventory, amongst other things, contains the following entry : "Memorandum that the Priest claimeth as of the said late Queen's gift, a silver chalice with a cover, two silver cruets, four images, the one of our Lady in red coral, with divers other vestments and necessaries belonging to a Massing Priest." When the scaffold had been taken away, the Priest was allowed to leave his room and join the rest of the household. On the morning after the execution he said Mass for Mary's soul; but on the afternoon of that day Melville and Bourgoin were sent for by Poulet, who gave orders that the altar should be taken down, and demanded an oath that Mass should not be said again. Melville excused himself as he was a Protestant and not concerned; the physician stoutly refused. Poulet (54) sent for the Priest, and required the coffer in which the vestments were kept to be brought to him. Du Preau, who was evidently a timid man, took the oath that Poulet (54) insisted on, little thinking that he was pledging himself for six months. "II jura sur la bible de ne faire aucune office de religion, craignant d'estre resserre en prison."
The household of the late Queen (44) were not allowed to depart as soon as Poulet (54) expected. They were detained at Fotheringay Castle, from motives of policy, till the 3rd of August, when the funeral of their mistress having been at last performed, they were set free. Some of them were taken to Peterborough Cathedral to accompany the corpse and to be present at the funeral ceremonies on the 1st of August. Amongst them, in the order of the procession, it is surprising to find Mary's chaplain, "Monsieur du Preau, aumosnier, en long manteau, portant une croix d'Argent en main." The account of the funeral from which this is taken, written by one of the late Queen's (44) household, takes care to mention that when they reached the choir of Peterborough Minster, and the choristers began "a chanter a leur fagon en langage Anglois," they all, with the exception of Andrew Melville and Barbara Mowbray, left the church and walked in the cloisters till the service was finished. "Si les Anglois," he says, "et principalement le Roy des heraux . . . estoit en extreme cholere, d'autant estoient joieux et contents les Catholiques."
Poulet left for London, and as long as Mary's servants were detained at Fotheringay Castle, he seems to have retained jurisdiction over them. It was to him, therefore, that Melville and Bourgoin applied in March for leave to sell their horses and to write into France respecting the bequests made to them by the Queen of Scots ; and to him that Darrell forwarded in June "the petition of the whole household and servants of the late Queen of Scotland remaining at Fotheringay," begging to be released from their prison and to be allowed to leave the country.
Poulet (54), as has already been said, was made Chancellor of the Garter in April, 1587, but he did not retain this preferment for a whole year. He continued in the Captaincy of Jersey up to his death, but he appears to have resided in and near London. In the British Museum are two letters from him of small importance. One, addressed to the Lord High Admiral, is dated, "From my poor lodging in Fleet Street, the 14th of January, 1587," about "right of tenths in Jersey, belonging to the Government." The other, "From my little lodge at Twickenham, the 24th of April, 1588," "on behalf of Berry," whose divorce was referred by the Justices of the Common Pleas to four Doctors of the Civil Law, of whom Mr. Doctor Caesar, Judge of the Admiralty, to whom the letter was written, was one.
His name also occurs in a letter, from Walsingham to Burghley, dated May 23, 1587, while Elizabeth still kept up the farce of Burghley's disgrace for despatching Mary Stuart's death-warrant. "Touching the Chancellorship of the Duchy, she told Sir Amias Poulet that in respect of her promise made unto me, she would not dispose of it otherwise. But yet hath he no power to deliver the seals unto me, though for that purpose the Attorney is commanded to attend him, who I suppose will be dismissed hence this day with- out any resolution." And on the 4th of January following, together with the other lords of the Council, he signed a letter addressed by the Privy Council to the Lord Admiral and to Lord Buckhurst, the Lieutenants of Sussex, against such Catholics as "most obstinately have refused to come to the church to prayers and divine service," requiring them to " cause the most obstinate and noted persons to be committed to such prisons as are fittest for their safe keeping : the rest that are of value, and not so obstinate, are to be referred to the custody of some -ecclesiastical persons and other gentlemen well affected, to remain at the charges of the recusant, to be restrained in such sort as they may be forthcoming, and kept from intelligence with one another." On the 26th of September, in the year in which this letter was written, 1588, Sir Amias Poulet died.
Poulet was buried in St Martin's in the Fields, Charing CrossWhen that church was pulled down to be rebuilt, his remains, with the handsome monument erected over them, were Removed to the Church of St George, Hinton St George. After various panegyrics in Latin, French, and English inscribed on his monument, a quatrain, expressive apparently of royal favour, pays the following tribute to the service rendered by him to the State as Keeper of the Queen of Scots: Never shall cease to spread wise Poulet's fame; These will speak, and men shall blush for shame: Without offence to speak what I do know, Great is the debt England to him doth owe.

Original Letters Illustrative of English History Second Series Volume III. Ellis notes that "the present narrative is from the Lansdowne MS. 51. art. 46. It is indorsed in Lord Burghley's hand, "8 Feb. 1586. The Manner of the Q. of Scotts death at Fodrynghay, wr. by Ro. Wy.
A Reporte of the manner of the execution of the Sc. Q. performed the viijth. of February, Anno 1586 [modern dating 1587] in the Great Hall, Fotheringay Castle, with relacion of speeches uttered and accions happening in the said execution, from the delivery of the said Sc. Q. to Mr Thomas Androwes Esquire Sherife of the County of Northampton unto the end of said execution.
THE READER shall now be presented with the Execution of the Queen of Scots (44) which was to the Court or three Statements of this Transaction were There was a Short one copies of which are Manuscripts Jul F vi foll 246 266 b and b Another a Copy of the Account of the Earl to the Lords of the Council dated on the day is MS Calig C ix fol 163 And there is a Office somewhat longer said to have been drawn evidently one of her servants present Narrative is from the Lansdowne MS in Lord Burghley s hand 8 Feb 1586 of Scotts death at Fodrynghay wr by Ro Wy Queen s death have been dressed up from writers but it is here given accurate and entire.
First, the said Scottish Queen, being carried by two of Sir Amias Paulett's (54) gentlemen, and the Sheriff (46) going before her, came most willingly out of her chamber into an entry next the Great Hall, Fotheringay Castle, at which place the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), commissioners for the execution, with the two governors of her person, and divers knights and gentlemen did meet her, where they found one of the Scottish Queen's servants, named Melvin [NOTE. Possibly Andrew Melville of Garvock Steward], kneeling on his knees, who uttered these words with tears to the Queen of Scots (44), his mistress, "Madam, it will be the sorrowfullest message that ever I carried, when I shall report that my Queen (44) and dear mistress is dead." Then the Queen of Scots, shedding tears, answered him, "You ought to rejoice rather than weep for that the end of Mary Stuart's (44) troubles is now come. Thou knowest, Melvin, that all this world is but vanity, and full of troubles and sorrows; carry this message from me, and tell my friends that I die a true woman to my religion, and like a true Scottish woman and a true Frenchwoman. But God forgive them that have long desired my end; and He that is the true Judge of all secret thoughts knoweth my mind, how that it ever hath been my desire to have Scotland and England united together. Commend me to my son, and tell him that I have not done anything that may prejudice his kingdom of Scotland; and so, good Melvin, farewell;" and kissing him, she bade him pray for her.
Then she (44) turned to the Lords and told them that she had certain requests to make unto them. One was for a sum of money, which she said Sir Amyas Paulet (54) knew of, to be paid to one Curle her servant; next, that all her poor servants might enjoy that quietly which by her Will and Testament she had given unto them; and lastly, that they might be all well entreated, and sent home safely and honestly into their countries. "And this I do conjure you, my Lords, to do."
Answer was made by Sir Amyas Paulet (54), "I do well remember the money your Grace speaketh of, and your Grace need not to make any doubt of the not performance of your requests, for I do surely think they shall be granted."
"I have," said she, "one other request to make unto you, my Lords, that you will suffer my poor servants to be present about me, at my death, that they may report when they come into their countries how I died a true woman to my religion."
Then the Earl of Kent (46), one of the commissioners, answered, "Madam, it cannot well be granted, for that it is feared lest some of them would with speeches both trouble and grieve your Grace, and disquiet the company, of which we have had already some experience, or seek to wipe their napkins in some of your blood, which were not convenient." "My Lord," said the Queen of Scots, "I will give my word and promise for them that they shall not do any such thing as your Lordship has named. Alas! poor souls, it would do them good to bid me farewell. And I hope your Mistress (53), being a maiden Queen, in regard of womanhood, will suffer me to have some of my own people about me at my death. And I know she hath not given you so straight a commission, but that you may grant me more than this, if I were a far meaner woman than I am." And then (seeming to be grieved) with some tears uttered these words: "You know that I am cousin to your Queen (53) [NOTE. They were first-cousin once-Removed], and descended from the blood of Henry the Seventh [NOTE. She was a Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509], a married Queen of France [NOTE. She had married Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560], and the anointed Queen of Scotland."
Whereupon, after some consultation, they granted that she (44) might have some of her servants according to her Grace's request, and therefore desired her to make choice of half-a-dozen of her men and women: who presently said that of her men she would have Melvin, her apothecary, her surgeon, and one other old man beside; and of her women, those two that did use to lie in her chamber.
After this, she being supported by Sir Amias's (54) two gentlemen aforesaid, and Melvin carrying up her train, and also accompanied with the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen aforenamed, the Sheriff (46) going before her, she passed out of the entry into the Great Hall, Fotheringay Castle, with her countenance careless, importing thereby rather mirth than mournful cheer, and so she willingly stepped up to the scaffold which was prepared for her in the Hall, being two feet high and twelve feet broad, with rails round about, hung and covered with black, with a low stool, long cushion, and block, covered with black also. Then, having the stool brought her, she sat her down; by her, on the right hand, sat the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), and on the left hand stood the Sheriff (46), and before her the two executioners; round about the rails stood Knights, Gentlemen, and others.
Then, silence being made, the Queen's Majesty's Commission for the execution of the Queen of Scots (44) was openly read by Mr. Beale, clerk of the Council (46); and these words pronounced by the Assembly, "God save the Queen." During the reading of which Commission the Queen of Scots (44) was silent, listening unto it with as small regard as if it had not concerned her at all; and with as cheerful a countenance as if it had been a pardon from her Majesty (53) for her life; using as much strangeness in word and deed as if she had never known any of the Assembly, or had been ignorant of the English language.
Then one Doctor Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough (42), standing directly before her, without the rail, bending his body with great reverence, began to utter this exhortation following: "Madam, the Queen's most excellent Majesty," &c, and iterating these words three or four times, she told him, "Mr. Dean (42), I am settled in the ancient Catholic Roman religion, and mind to spend my blood in defence of it." Then Mr. Dean (42) said: "Madam, change your opinion, and repent you of your former wickedness, and settle your faith only in Jesus Christ, by Him to be saved." Then she (44) answered again and again, "Mr. Dean (42), trouble not yourself any more, for I am settled and resolved in this my religion, and am purposed therein to die." Then the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), perceiving her (44) so obstinate, told her that since she would not hear the exhortation begun by Mr. Dean (42), "We will pray for your Grace, that it stand with God's will you may have your heart lightened, even at the last hour, with the true knowledge of God, and so die therein." Then she answered, "If you will pray for me, my Lords, I will thank you; but to join in prayer with you I will not, for that you and I are not of one religion."
Then the Lords called for Mr. Dean (42), who, kneeling on the scaffold stairs, began this prayer, "O most gracious God and merciful Father," &c, all the Assembly, saving the Queen of Scots (44) and her servants, saying after him. During the saying of which prayer, the Queen of Scots (44), sitting upon a stool, having about her neck an Agnus Dei, in her hand a crucifix, at her girdle a pair of beads with a golden cross at the end of them, a Latin book in her hand, began with tears and with loud and fast voice to pray in Latin; and in the midst of her prayers she slided off from her stool, and kneeling, said divers Latin prayers; and after the end of Mr. Dean's (42) prayer, she kneeling, prayed in English to this effect: "For Christ His afflicted Church, and for an end of their troubles; for her son; and for the Queen's Majesty (53), that she might prosper and serve God aright." She conFessed that she hoped to be saved "by and in the blood of Christ, at the foot of whose Crucifix she would shed her blood." Then said the Earl of Kent (46), "Madam, settle Christ Jesus in your heart, and leave those trumperies." Then she little regarding, or nothing at all, his good counsel, went forward with her prayers, desiring that "God would avert His wrath from this Island, and that He would give her grief and forgiveness for her sins." These, with other prayers she made in English, saying she forgave her enemies with all her heart that had long sought her blood, and desired God to convert them to the truth; and in the end of the prayer she desired all saints to make intercession for her to Jesus Christ, and so kissing the crucifix, and crossing of her also, said these words: "Even as Thy arms, O Jesus, were spread here upon the Cross, so receive me into Thy arms of mercy, and forgive me all my sins."
Her (44) prayer being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death; who answered, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles." Then they, with her two women, helping of her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel; she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, "that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company."
Then she (44), being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin; she (44), turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, "Ne criez vous; j'ay promis pour vous;" and so crossing and kissing them, bade them pray for her, and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress's (44) troubles. Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometime weeping, sometime crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell; and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.
This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots' (44) face, and pinned it fast to the caul of her head. Then the two women departed from her, and she (44) kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, "In te, Domine, confido, non confundar in eternum," &c. [Ps. xxv.]. Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, Putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which holding there, still had been cut off, had they not been espied. Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms, cried, "In manus tuas, Domine," &c, three or four times. Then she (44) lying very still on the block, one of the executioners holding of her slightly with one of his hands, she (44) endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay; and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little grisle, which being cut asunder, he lifted up her head to the view of all the assembly, and bade "God save the Queen." Then her dressing of lawn falling off from her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face. Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.
Then Mr. Dean (42) said with a loud voice, "So perish all the Queen's enemies;" and afterwards the Earl of Kent (46) came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, "Such end of all the Queen's and the Gospel's enemies."
Then one of the executioners pulling off her (44) garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood, was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or clean washed; and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her. And so, every man being commanded out of the Hall, except the Sheriff (46) and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.

On 08 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) was beheaded in the Great Hall, Fotheringay Castle.
George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), Richard Knightley 1532-1615 (55) and Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl Southampton 1573-1624 (13) witnessed her execution.
There are few extant original sources describing Mary's execution. Those that do exist are somewhat contradictory. They include The letter-books of Sir Amias Poulet, Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots, the Calendar of State Papers, Spain (known as the Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603 and Beale's sketch of the execution. The most reliable primary source appears to be Jebb's De vita et rebus gestis serenissimæ principis Mariæ Scotorum Reginæ published in Paris in 1589 in French; there doesn't appear to be an extant translation.

In 1567 attrbuted to Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (47). Portrait of Richard Knightley 1532-1615 (35).

In 1618 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (28). Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl Southampton 1573-1624 (44).

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 4 1587-1603. 28 Feb 1587. Paris. Bernardino De Mendoza Ambassador 1540-1604 (47) to the King (59). Note. Assumed to be the Spanish King Philip II.
The English ambassador sent the confidant (i.e., Charles Arundel (54)) to me this morning to say that as it was so important that your Majesty (59) should be informed instantly of the news he had received last night from England, that he sent to tell me of it, and openly to conFess me his anxiety to serve your Majesty (59). He offered himself entirely through me, in the assurance that your Majesty (59) would not order him to do anything against the interest of his mistress the Queen (53), who however, he could plainly see, had not long to live now that she had allowed the execution of the queen of Scotland. It happened in this way. The Lord Treasurer (66) being absent through illness, the earl of Leicester (54), Lord Hunsdon (60), Lord Admiral Howard (51) and Walsingham (55), had represented to the Queen (53) that the Parliament would resolutely refuse to vote any money to maintain the war in Holland, or to fit out a naval force to help Don Antonio, unless she executed the queen of Scotland. Under this pressure she consented to sign a warrant, as they called it, that the Parliament might see, but which was not to be executed, unless it were proved that the Queen of Scotland conspired again against her life. As Secretary Walsingham (55) was ill this warrant was taken to the Queen (53) for her signature by Davison, and after she had signed it she ordered him not to give it to anyone unless she gave him personally her authority to do so. Davison, who is a terrible heretic and an enemy of the queen of Scotland, like the rest of the above-mentioned, delivered the warrant to them. They took a London executioner and sent him with the warrant to the justice of the county where the queen of Scotland was. The moment the justice received it, on the 08th [NOTE. Appears to be a typo; original says 18th], he entered the queen of Scotland's chamber with Paulet (54) and Lord Grey (46), who had charge of her, and there they had her head cut off with a hatchet in the presence of the four persons only. The Queen (53) orders her ambassador to inform this King (59) of it, and assure him, as she will more fully by a special envoy, that the deed was done against her will, and although she had signed the warrant she had no intention of having it carried out. She cannot avoid blaming herself for having trusted anyone but herself in such a matter. The ambassador is begging earnestly for an audience and is keeping the matter secret until he tells the King. In order that no time may be lost in informing your Majesty, I send this special courier in the name of merchants, by way of Bordeaux, whence he will go post to Irun ; and as God has so willed that these accursed people, for His ends, should fall into "reprobrium sensum," and against all reason commit such an act as this, it is evidently His design to deliver those two kingdoms into your Majesty's hands. I thanked the ambassador in general terms for his offer, saying that I would give an account thereof to your Majesty. As I have formerly said, it will be most adviSable to accept it, and pledge him to give us notice of any machinations here and in England against us. He reports that the fitting out of ships continues but in no greater number than he previously advised, although the rumour is current here that there would be 60 English, besides the Hollanders, but that the crews, etc. were not raised and no time fixed for the departure. The ambassador says he will have full information on the point when a gentleman of his has arrived whom he had sent to England to gain intelligence, as Cecil only writes now to say that the execution of the queen of Scotland has been against his will, as he, the ambassador knew ; and that the King, her son, was in great danger of suffering a similar fate. The execution was known in London on the 20th when the executioner returned, and great bonfires had been lit for joy all over the countryside. They did not even give her time to commend her soul to God. See Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola 1532-1625 (41). Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (45).

Around 1560 Antonis Mor 1517-1577 (43). Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (32).

Around 1550. Titian Painter 1488-1576 (62). Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (22).

Around 1554. Titian Painter 1488-1576 (66). Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598 (26).

After 1585 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (attributed). Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

Around 1604 John Critz 1551-1642 (53) is believed to have contributed to the Somerset House Conference painting of the negotiation of the Treaty of London in which Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608 (68), Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (68), Charles Blount 1st Earl Devonshire 1563-1606 (41), Henry Howard 1st Earl Northampton 1540-1614 (63) and Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (40) are represented on the right side.

Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (30). Portrait of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (84).

Singeing the King of Spain's Beard

On 12 Apr 1587 an English fleet commanded by Francis Drake 1540-1596 (47) left Plymouth.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (44) painted a portrait of Francis Drake 1540-1596 (51).

In 1581 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Francis Drake 1540-1596 (41).

On 29 Apr 1587 the English fleet entered the Bay of Cádiz, Spain in the evening to discover sixty Spanish and twenty French ships.The Spanish ships, under the command of Pedro de Acuña, sailed out to meet the English fleet but were forced to retire back to Cadiz before the superiority of the English. Gun positions on the shore opened fire, shelling the English fleet from the coast with little effect. During the night of the 29th and all the following day and night the battle raged in the bay. At dawn on 1 May, the English withdrew having destroyed around thirty-two Spanish ships, with a combined capacity of 10,000 tons, and captured four other ships, laden with provisions.

On 08 Jun 1587 the English fleet sighted a Portuguese carrack, the São Filipe, twenty leagues from the Island of São Miguel, returning from the Indies laden with treasure. After a brief exchange of fire it was captured, the first ship to be so on the return run from the Indies. Its enormous fortune of gold, spices, and silk was valued at £108,000 (of which 10% was to go to Drake); the fleet returned to England, arriving on 6 July.The expedition led by Francis Drake was a resounding military success: over one hundred Spanish vessels of different tonnages were destroyed or captured during the expedition.Economic and material losses caused to the Spanish fleet by the English attack ensured that Spanish plans for the invasion of England had to be postponed for over a year. It was not until August 1588 that the Armada was ready to leave for the British Isles.

"Day of the Dagger" Assassination of Henry 1st Duke Guise

On 23 Dec 1588 Henry 1st Duke Guise 1550-1588 (37), leader of the Catholic League, was assassinated at the Château de Blois by the King's bodyguard whilst Henry III King France 1551-1589 (37) looked on.

Around 1554. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry 1st Duke Guise 1550-1588 (3).

Trial of Philip Earl of Arundel

On 14 Apr 1589 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (31) was condemned to death. Elizbeth I never signed the death warrant; Howard was never told. Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (57) was present.

Around 1575 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (43).

Around 1590 Isaac Oliver 1565-1617 (25). Portrait of Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (58).

On 18 Apr 1589 Christopher Wray 1524-1592 (65) acted as judge during the Trial of Philip Earl of Arundel.

King Henry IV of France invested in the Order of the Garter

In 1596 William Segar 1554-1663 accompanied Gilbert Talbot 7th Earl Shrewsbury, 7th Earl Waterford 1552-1616 (43) on his trip to invest Henry IV King France 1553-1610 (42) with the Order of the Garter.

Elizabeth's Royal Progress 1591

On 02 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (57) left at Nonsuch Palace, Nonsuch Park, Cheam to commence her Royal Progress.She travelled south to Mansion House, Leatherhead ; the home of Edmund Tilney 1536-1610 (55).

Around 1546. William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (30).The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

After 02 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland arrived at East Horsley where she stayed with Thomas Cornwallis 1518-1604.

On 15 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (57) arrived at Cowdray House, Cowdray, Midhurst the home of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 (62) and Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague 1538-1608 (53).She was welcomed by a breakfast for some 300 guests. George Browne -1615 was knighted. Henry Browne organised the hunting.Elizabeth stayed until the 21 Aug 1591. .

In 1559 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (39). Portrait of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 (30) wearing a Garter Collar and St George Pendant.

On 22 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (57) arrived in Chichester, West Sussex as a guest of John Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1533-1609 (58).She is believed to haved stayed at The Punch House, The Cross, West Sussex. .

On 22 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (57) arrived in Chichester, West Sussex as a guest of John Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1533-1609 (58).She is believed to haved stayed at The Punch House, The Cross, West Sussex. .

After 22 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland arrived in Titchfield as a guest of Henry Wriothesley 2nd Earl Southampton 1545-1581. .

On 22 Oct 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58) arrived in Elvetham Hall, Harley Wintney where she was entertained in magnificent style by Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621 (52). .

On 26 Oct 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58) arrived in Oatlands Palace, Weybridge. .

Battle of Flores

On 10 Sep 1591 Richard Grenville 1542-1591 (49) died from wounds received at the Battle of Flores.

In 1571 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Richard Grenville 1542-1591 (28).

Spanish Armada

On 25 Jul 1588 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (26) was captain of the Golden Lion in the attack on the Spanish Armada.

On 26 Jul 1588 Roger Townshend 1544-1590 (44) was knighted.

Battle of Glenlivet

On 03 Oct 1594 Archibald Campbell 7th Earl Argyll 1575-1638 (19) commanded during the Battle of Glenlivet.

Sack of Cadiz

On 13 Jun 1596 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30) departed from Plymouth with a fleet of 150 English and Dutch ships divided into four squads with 6,360 private soldiers, 1,000 English volunteers, and 6,772 sailors.
Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (60) was admiral in command. Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30) commanded the land forces. Edward Conway 1st Viscount Conway 1564-1631 (32) commanded a foot Regiment.
Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (34),Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (42),Francis Vere 1561-1609 (36) each commanded a squadron.
Anthony Ashley 1st Baronet St Giles Wimborne St Giles 1561-1628 (35) represented Queen Elizabeth (62).

In 1590 William Segar 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (24).

Around 1596 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (34). Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30).

Around 1597 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (35). Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (31).

Around 1604 John Critz 1551-1642 (53) is believed to have contributed to the Somerset House Conference painting of the negotiation of the Treaty of London in which Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608 (68), Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (68), Charles Blount 1st Earl Devonshire 1563-1606 (41), Henry Howard 1st Earl Northampton 1540-1614 (63) and Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (40) are represented on the right side.

Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (30). Portrait of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (84).

Around 1546. William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (30).The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

On 29 Jun 1596 the fleet arrived in Cádiz, Spain.In the Bay of Cádiz some 40 Spanish ships, ranging from galleys to galleons, as well as 16 other vessels from the Spanish convoy, which were disarmed and ready to depart for the West Indies. These unarmed vessels immediately fled to Puerto Real for refuge.

On 30 Jun 1596 at two in the morning the Anglo-Dutch fleet could be seen from Cádiz, Spain, but it could not enter the bay due to bad weather. At five o'clock in the morning, both sides commenced an intense artillery barrage. After two hours, the Spanish fleet, outnumbered by the English, had to retreat to the interior of the bay. In the fray, the Spanish galleons San Andrés and San Mateo were captured, while the San Felipe and Santo Tomás sank, set fire by their captains in the face of possible capture by the Anglo-Dutch forces. They entered the bay at eight o'clock in the morning.

On 14 Jul 1596 the English burned Cádiz and the next day they left the bay, taking the hostages with them since the Spanish authorities had not been able to pay the ransom.The sacking of Cádiz in 1596 was one of the worst Spanish defeats in the course of the war, together with the attack on Cádiz of 1587 and the loss of the Armada in 1588. The economic losses produced by the Earl of Essex's expedition against the city and the anchored fleet in the port, estimated at 5 million ducats,contributed to the bankruptcy of the royal treasury that same year.The city of Cádiz remained devastated; in addition to the churches and hospitals, 290 out of a total of 1,303 houses burned.

Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl Sussex 1573-1629 was knighted by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 for the taking of Cadiz.

Around 1580 based on a work of 1565.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl Sussex 1573-1629 (6) wearing his Garter Collar and holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

Death of Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon

On 23 Jul 1596 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon 1526-1596 (70) died at Somerset House, Strand_Westminster. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (62) was present. She, apparently, proposed he be made Earl Wiltshire. He refused saying ... "Madam, as you did not count me worthy of this honour in life, then I shall account myself not worthy of it in death". His Son George Carey 2nd Baron Hunsdon 1547-1603 (49) succeeded 2nd Baron Hunsdon. Elizabeth Spencer Baroness Hunsdon, Baroness Eure 1552-1618 (44) by marriage Baroness Hunsdon.

Around 1546. William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (30).The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

Battle of Carrickfergus

On Nov 1597 John Chichester -1597 was beheaded by Randal "Arranach" Macdonnell 1st Earl Antrim -1636 at Carrickfergus, County Antrim.

Robert Devereux Earl Essex loses the Plot

On 24 Sep 1599 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (33) sailed from Ireland reaching London four days later.

In 1590 William Segar 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (24).

Around 1596 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (34). Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30).

Around 1597 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (35). Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (31).

On 28 Sep 1599 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (33) presented himself to Elizabeth (66) in her bedchamber at Nonsuch Palace, Nonsuch Park, Cheam "where he found the queen newly up, the hair about her face”. Elizabeth had just a simple robe over her nightdress, her wrinkled skin was free of cosmetics and, without her wig_Essex saw her bald head with just wisps of thinning grey hair 'hanging about her ears'". The Queen confined the Earl to his rooms with the comment that "an unruly beast must be stopped of his provender.".

Around 1546. William Scrots 1517-1553 (29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (12) before her accession painted for her father.

Around 1570 Hans Eworth 1520-1574 (50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (36).

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38).
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts 1562-1636 (30).The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (58).

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

On 29 Sep 1599 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (33) was compelled to stand before the Council during a five-hour interrogation. The Council, which included his uncle William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury 1544-1632 (55), took a quarter of an hour to compile a report, which declared that his truce with O'Neill was indefensible and his flight from Ireland tantamount to a desertion of duty. He was committed to the custody of Sir Richard Berkeley 1531-1605 (68) in his own York House, Strand on 1 October.

In 1619 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (29). Portrait of William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury 1544-1632 (75) wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter.