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1660-1684 Restoration

Charles X King Sweden Dies Charles XI Succeeds

On 13 Feb 1660 Charles Gustav X King Sweden 1622-1660 (37) died. His Son Charles XI King Sweden 1655-1697 (4) succeeded XI King Sweden.

Convention Parliament (1C2)

In 1660 Thomas Thynne 1610-1669 (50) was elected MP Hindon during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

In 1660 Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697 (36) was elected MP Brackley during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

Around 1707. Charles D'Agar 1669-1723 (38). Portrait of Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697.

In 1660 Robert Pye 1620-1701 (40) was elected MP Berkshire during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

In 1660 John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692 (24) was elected MP Cornwall during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

Before 1691. John Riley 1646-1691. Portrait of John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692.

In 1660 Hender Robartes 1635-1688 (24) was elected MP Bodmin during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

In 1660 Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (27) was elected MP Chippenham during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

In 1660 Robert Pierrepoint 1638-1681 (22) was elected MP Nottingtham after the selected candidate John Hutchinson was evicted as a regicide. .

In 1660 William Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby Parham 1616-1673 (44) was elected MP Midhurst during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

In 1660 James Herbert 1623-1667 (37) was elected MP Queenborough in the Convention Parliament (1C2).

In 1660 William Wyndham 1st Baronet Wyndham 1632-1683 (28) was elected MP Taunton during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

In 1660 Robert Robartes 1634-1682 (25) was elected MP Cornwall during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On Mar 1660 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (26) was elected MP Windsor during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On Apr 1660 Robert Brooke 1637-1669 (23) was elected MP Aldeburgh during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On Apr 1660 Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699 (31) was elected MP Droitwich during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

Around 1675 Mary Cradock 1633-1699 (41). Portrait of Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699 (46).

On Apr 1660 Wentworth Fitzgerald 17th Earl Kildare 1634-1664 (26) was elected MP East Retford during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

In Apr 1660 Francis Bacon 1600-1663 (59) was elected MP Ipswich in the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On Apr 1660 Thomas Archer 1619-1685 (41) was elected MP Warwickshire during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On Apr 1660 Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1630-1691 (29) was elected MP Derbyshire during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On Apr 1660 William Wray 1st Baronet Ashby 1625-1669 (35) was elected MP Grimsby during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On 25 Apr 1660 William Glynne 1st Baronet Bicester aka Bisseter 1638-1690 (22) was elected MP Caernarfon during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On 25 Apr 1660 Richard Jennings 1619-1668 (41) was elected MP St Albans during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On 25 Apr 1660 Henry Carey 4th Viscount Falkland 1634-1663 (26) was elected MP Oxfordshire during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On 25 Apr 1660 John Glynne 1602-1666 (58) was elected MP Caernarfonshire during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

On 25 Apr 1660 Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (54) was elected MP Heytesbury during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

In 1633 Cornelius Johnson 1593-1661 (39). Portrait of Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (27).

Before 31 Aug 1660 John Drake Baronet Ashe Devon 1625-1669 was elected MP Bridport during the Convention Parliament (1C2).

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1661 Jan. 30 Jan 1661.Fast day1. The first time that this day hath been yet observed: and Mr. Mills made a most excellent sermon, upon “Lord forgive us our former iniquities;” speaking excellently of the justice of God in punishing men for the sins of their ancestors.
Home, and John Goods comes, and after dinner I did pay him 30l. for Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (36), and after that Admiral William Penn 1621-1670 (39) and I into Moorfields and had a brave talk, it being a most pleasant day, and besides much discourse did please ourselves to see young Davis and Whitton, two of our clerks, going by us in the field, who we observe to take much pleasure together, and I did most often see them at play together.
Back to the Old James, Bishopsgate Street, Bishopsgate in Bishopsgate Street, where Sir W. Batten and Sir Wm. Rider met him about business of the Trinity House, Deptford. So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John Pepys, a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion.
Then to my Lady Batten’s; where my wife and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658, Henry Ireton 1611-1651, and John Bradshaw Judge 1602-1659 hanged and buried at Tyburn. Then I home.
Note 1. 30 Jan the anniversary of the execution of Charles I and was regarded as a Fast Day.

Around 1649. Robert Walker 1599-1658 (50). Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (49).

Around 1650. Robert Walker 1599-1658 (51). Portrait of Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (39).

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 Jan. 30 Jan 1661. Was the first solemn fast and day of humiliation to deplore the sins which had so long provoked God against this afflicted church and people, ordered by Parliament to be annually celebrated to expiate the guilt of the execrable murder of the late King.
This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658, John Bradshaw Judge 1602-1659 (the judge who condemned his Majesty), and Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster Abbey among the Kings, to Tyburn, and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious monument in a deep pit; thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being spectators. Look back at October 22, 1658, and be astonished! and fear God and honor the King; but meddle not with them who are given to change!.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House, Strand In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park, St James' with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

On 30 Jan 1661 the remains of Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658, Henry Ireton 1611-1651 and John Bradshaw Judge 1602-1659 were exhumed from and mutilated in a posthumous execution.

Investiture of new Peers

On 20 Apr 1661 Thomas Brudenell 1st Earl Cardigan 1583-1663 (78) was created 1st Earl Cardigan by Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 personally a couple of days before Charles's coronation on the 23rd, with Charles investing the newly created earl with a mantle, a sword and belt, and a cap and coronet at Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace during the Investiture of new Peers. Mary Tresham Countess Cardigan -1664 by marriage Countess Cardigan.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (36).

Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View of Whitehall, Old Horseguards, Whitehall Palace and Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House, Strand In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Coronation Charles II

On 20 Apr 1660 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674 (51) was created 1st Earl Clarendon (1C 1661) at Westminster Abbey on the occasion of the Coronation Charles II. Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon 1617-1667 (42) by marriage Countess Clarendon (1C 1661).

Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (31). Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674 (33).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House, Strand In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park, St James' with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

On 22 Apr 1660 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) rode from the Tower of London to Whitehall Palace.At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".
Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.
At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.
The procession included the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (26), the Algernon Percy 10th Earl Northumberland 1602-1668 (57) and the Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey 1608-1666 (52)
The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond, 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660 (11).

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall Palace and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (34). Portrait of Algernon Percy 10th Earl Northumberland 1602-1668 (31) and Anne Cecil -1637.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Algernon Percy 10th Earl Northumberland 1602-1668.

On 23 Apr 1661 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart at Westminster Abbey.
John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44),Francis Fane -1691 and Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) were appointed Knight of the Bath.
Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (55) was knighted.
Josceline Percy 11th Earl Northumberland 1644-1670 (16) attended.

In 1633 Cornelius Johnson 1593-1661 (39). Portrait of Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (27).

Around 1658 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (39). Portrait of Josceline Percy 11th Earl Northumberland 1644-1670 (13).

Around 1672 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (53). Portrait of Josceline Percy 11th Earl Northumberland 1644-1670.

Indemnity and Oblivion Act

John Evelyn's Diary 1652 Apr. 05 Apr 1652. My brother George Evelyn 1617-1699 (34) brought to Sayes Court, Deptford Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (52) Indemnity and Oblivion Act to all that would submit to the Government.

Around 1649. Robert Walker 1599-1658 (50). Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (49).

On 29 Aug 1660 the Indemnity and Oblivion Act became law.The act was a general pardon for everyone who had committed crimes during the Civil War and Interregnum with the exception of certain crimes such as murder (without a licence granted by King or Parliament), piracy, buggery, rape and witchcraft, and people named in the act such as those involved in the regicide of Charles I.
Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (67) was excepted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Dec. 05 Dec 1683. I was this day invited to a wedding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, and it was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant-colonel of the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom-man, by his wife, who sold kitchen stuff in Kent Street, whom God so blessed that the father became a very rich, and was a very honest man; he was sheriff of Surrey, where I have sat on the bench with him. Another of his daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen and persons of quality; above all, George "Hanging Judge" Jeffreys 1st Baron Jeffreys 1645-1689 (38), newly made Lord Chief Justice of England, with Mr. Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were exceedingly merry. These great men spent the rest of the afternoon, till eleven at night, in drinking healths, taking tobacco, and talking much beneath the gravity of judges, who had but a day or two before condemned Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (60), who was executed the 07 Dec 1683 on Tower Hill, on the single witness of that monster of a man, William Howard 3rd Baron Howard Escrick -1694, and some sheets of paper taken in Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (60) study, pretended to be written by him, but not fully proved, nor the time when, but appearing to have been written before his Majesty's Restoration, and then pardoned by the Indemnity and Oblivion Act; so that though Mr. Sidney was known to be a person obstinately averse to government by a monarch (the subject of the paper was in answer to one by Sir E. Filmer), yet it was thought he had very hard measure. There is this yet observable, that he had been an inveterate enemy to the last king, and in actual rebellion against him; a man of great courage, great sense, great parts, which he showed both at his trial and death; for, when he came on the scaffold, instead of a speech, he told them only that he had made his peace with God, that he came not thither to talk, but to die; put a paper into the sheriff's hand, and another into a friend's; said one prayer as short as a grace, laid down his neck, and bid the executioner do his office.
The James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (34), now having his pardon, refuses to acknowledge there was any treasonable plot; for which he is banished Whitehall. This is a great disappointment to some who had prosecuted Trenchard, Hampden, etc., that for want of a second witness were come out of the Tower upon their habeas corpus.
The King had now augmented his guards with a new sort of dragoons, who carried also grenades, and were habited after the Polish manner, with long peaked caps, very fierce and fantastical.

Cavalier Parliament (2C2)

In 1661 John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44) was elected MP Wallingford during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 James Thynne 1605-1670 (56) was elected MP Wiltshire during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Adam Browne 2nd Baronet Browne 1626-1690 (35) was elected MP Surrey during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1630-1691 (30) was elected MP Northumberland during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 William Compton 1625-1663 (36) was elected MP Cambridge during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699 (32) was elected MP Camelford during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

Around 1675 Mary Cradock 1633-1699 (41). Portrait of Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699 (46).

In 1661 Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (61) was elected MP Bath and Heytesbury during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) was elected MP Chippenham during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Robert Pierrepoint 1638-1681 (23) was elected MP Nottingtham during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (75) was elected MP Weymouth during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (45) was elected MP Dorset during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 John Strangeways 1636-1676 (24) was elected MP Bridport during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 William Wyndham 1st Baronet Wyndham 1632-1683 (29) was elected MP Taunton during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 James Herbert 1623-1667 (38) was elected MP Queenborough in the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 William Alington 3rd Baron Alington 1640-1685 (20) was elected MP Cambridge during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 William Bowes 1657-1707 (3) was elected MP Durham during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Robert Brooke 1637-1669 (24) was elected MP Aldeburgh during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699 (29) was elected MP Dartmouth during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

Before 1691. John Riley 1646-1691. Portrait of Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699.

In 1661 Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet Clifton 1587-1666 (73) was elected MP Nottinghamshire during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697 (37) was elected MP Brackley during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

Around 1707. Charles D'Agar 1669-1723 (38). Portrait of Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697.

In 1661 Richard Jennings 1619-1668 (42) was elected MP St Albans during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Robert Kemp 2nd Baronet Kemp 1628-1710 (32) was elected MP Norfolk during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Edward Phelips 1613-1680 (48) was elected MP Somerset during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

Before 06 Aug 1658 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696. Portrait of Edward Phelips 1613-1680.

In 1661 Robert Robartes 1634-1682 (26) was elected MP Bossiney during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Hender Robartes 1635-1688 (25) was elected MP Bodmin during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 Clement Fisher 2nd Baronet 1613-1683 (48) was elected MP Coventry in the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1661 William Portman 6th Baronet 1643-1690 (17) was elected MP Taunton in the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1665 Joseph Maynard 1639-1689 (25) was elected MP Bere Alston during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

In 1673 John Robartes 4th Earl Radnor 1686-1757 was elected MP Bossiney during the Cavalier Parliament (2C2).

Conventicle Act

In 1664 the Conventicle Act forbade conventicles, defined as religious assemblies of more than five people other than an immediate family, outside the auspices of the Church of England as a means of discouaging non-conformism and to stregthen the position of the Church of England.

Five Mile Act

In 1665 the Five Mile Act sought to place further constraints on non-conformists by forbidding clergymen to live within five miles of a parish from which they had been expelled unless they swore an oath never to resist the king, or attempt to alter the government of Church or State. The latter involved swearing to obey the 1662 prayer book. Thousands of ministers were deprived of a living under this act.

Great Plague of London

In 1665 the last great bubonic plague occurred in England killing a quarter of London's population, between 60000 and 120000 people died, in around eighteen months.

On Jul 1665 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (35) travelled to Salisbury during the Great Plague of London.

Battle of Lowestoft

In 1665 Henry Brouncker 3nd Viscount Brounckner 1627-1688 (38) was elected MP New Romney which seat he held until 21 Apr 1668 when he was expelled from the House of Commons when charges were brought against him, for allowing the Dutch fleet to escape during the Battle of Lowestoft, and for ordering the sails of the English fleet to be slackened in the name of the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31). This was essentially an act of treason. Such a military decision, taken without the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) authority, was an incident seemingly without parallel, especially as his apparent motive was simply that he was fatigued with the stress and noise of the battle.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

In 1665 Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665 (50) died in Scarborough, North Yorkshire from wounds received at the Battle of Lowestoft.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665 (50). One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

On 13 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31), Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.
Richard Boyle -1665 was killed.
Charles Maccarthy 2nd Earl Clancarty -1666 was killed. His Son Callaghan Maccarthy 3rd Earl Clancarty -1676 succeeded 3rd Earl Clancarty (1C 1658).
Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth 1630-1665 (35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the Royal Charles. His Father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (65) succeeded 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.
Charles Weston 3rd Earl Portland 1639-1665 (26) was killed. On 13 Jun 1665 His Uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl Portland 1609-1688 (55) succeeded 4th Earl Portland (1C 1633).
Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685 (53) was present.
Admiral Jeremy Smith -1675 commanded the HMS Mary.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

Around 1650 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (31). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (24).

Around 1662 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (43). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (36) in his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth 1630-1665, afterwards Earl Falmouth (1C 1664), was the confidant and favourite of the King: he commanded the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 regiment of guards, and governed the Duke himself. He had nothing very remarkable either in his wit, or his person; but his sentiments were worthy of the fortune which awaited him, when, on the very point of his elevation, he was Battle of Lowestoft. Never did disinterestedness so perfectly characterise the greatness of the soul: he had no views but what tended to the glory of his master: his credit was never employed but in advising him to reward services, or to confer favours on merit: so polished in conversation, that the greater his power, the greater was his humility; and so sincere in all his proceedings, that he would never have been taken for a courtier.

Four Days' Battle

From 01 Jun 1666 to 04 Jun 1666 the English and Dutch fleets engaged in battle.The English lost ten ships and 1000 men.The Dutch lost four ships and 1500 men.
On 01 Jun 1666 William Berkeley 1639-1666 (27) was killed.

St James' Day Battle

On 25 Jul 1666 the English fleet inflicted a severe defeat on the Dutch.Dutch casualties amounted to 1200 men, English 300.

Great Fire of London

From 02 Sep 1666 to 06 Sep 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed around 13000 properties in the medieval City of London as well as 87 parish churches and Old St Paul's Cathedral.The fire is estimated to have left 80% of the city's residents homeless.

Frederick III King Denmark Dies Christian V King Denmark Succeeds

On 09 Feb 1670 Frederick III King Denmark 1609-1670 (60) died. His Son Christian V King Denmark and Norway 1646-1699 (23) succeeded V King Denmark and Norway. Charlotte Amalie Hesse-Kassel Queen Consort Denmark and Norway 1650-1714 (19) by marriage Queen Consort Denmark and Norway.

Battle of Sole Bay

On 28 May 1672 Philip Carteret 1628-1672 (44) and Winston Churchill -1672 were killed at Solebay, Southwold during the Battle of Sole Bay
Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (46) was killed. His Son Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688 (24) succeeded 2nd Earl Sandwich. Mary Anne Boyle Countess Sandwich -1671 by marriage Countess Sandwich.
George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (25) fought.
Charles Harbord 1640-1670 (32) died. The inscription on his monument in Westminster Abbey reads ... Sr. Charles Harbord Knt. his Majesties Surveyor General, and First Lieutenant of the Royall James, under the most noble and illustrious captain Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (46), Vice Admirall of England, which after a terrible fight maintained to admiration against a squadron of the Holland fleet for above six houres, neere the Suffolk coast, having put off two fireships, at last being utterly disSabled and few of her men remaining unhurt, was by a third unfortunately set on fire: but he (though he swam well) neglected to save himselfe as some did, and out of the perfect love to that worthy lord (whom for many yeares he had constantly accompanyed in all his honourable imployments, and in all the engagements of the former warr) dyed with him at the age of XXXIII, much bewailed of his father whom he never offended, and much beloved of all for his knowne piety, vertue, loyalty, fortitude and fidelity.

Around 1650 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (31). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (24).

Around 1662 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (43). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (36) in his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House, Strand In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park, St James' with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

Habeas Corpus Parliament (3C2)

In 1679 Walter Long 2nd Baronet Long 1627-1710 (52) was elected MP Bath during the Habeas Corpus Parliament (3C2).

In Mar 1679 William Bowes 1657-1707 (22) was elected MP Durham during the Habeas Corpus Parliament (3C2).

In Mar 1679 Robert Pierrepoint 1638-1681 (41) was elected MP Nottingtham during the Habeas Corpus Parliament (3C2).

Exclusion Bill Parliament (4C2)

On Jul 1679 William Bowes 1657-1707 (22) was elected MP Durham during the Exclusion Bill Parliament (4C2).

On Jul 1679 Robert Pierrepoint 1638-1681 (41) was elected MP Nottingtham during the Exclusion Bill Parliament (4C2).

Popish Plot

Between 1678 and 1681 the Popish Plot was a fictitious Catholic conspiracy to murder Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (47) invented by Titus Oates 1649-1705 (28) that led to the execution of more than twenty-two men.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Jun. 18 Jun 1683. I was present, and saw and heard the humble submission and petition of the Lord Mayor, sheriffs, and aldermen, on behalf of the city of London, on the quo warranto against their charter which they delivered to his Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53) in the presence chamber. It was delivered kneeling, and then the Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53) and Council went into the council chamber, the mayor and his brethren attending still in the presence chamber. After a short space they were called in, and my Lord Keeper made a speech to them, exaggerating the disorderly and riotous behavior in the late election, and polling for Papillon and Du Bois after the Common hall had been formally dissolved: with other misdemeanors, libels on the government, etc., by which they had incurred his Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53) high displeasure: and that but for this submission, and under such articles as the Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53) should require their obedience to, he would certainly enter judgment against them, which hitherto he had suspended. The things required were as follows: that they should neither elect mayor, sheriffs, aldermen, recorder, common Serjeant town clerk, coroner, nor steward of Southwark, without his Majesty's approbation; and that if they presented any his Majesty did not like, they should proceed in wonted manner to a second choice; if that was disapproved, his Majesty to nominate them; and if within five days they thought good to assent to this, all former miscarriages should be forgotten. And so they tamely parted with their so ancient privileges after they had dined and been treated by the King. This was a signal and most remarkable period. What the consequences will prove, time will show. Divers of the old and most learned lawyers and judges were of opinion that they could not forfeit their charter, but might be personally punished for their misdemeanors; but the plurality of the younger judges and rising men judged it otherwise.
The Popish Plot also, which had hitherto made such a noise, began now sensibly to dwindle, through the folly, knavery, impudence, and giddiness of Titus Oates 1649-1705 (33), so as the Papists began to hold up their heads higher than ever, and those who had fled, flocked to London from abroad. Such sudden changes and eager doings there had been without anything steady or prudent, for these last seven years.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Jun. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Rye House Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53) and the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower, the William Russell 1639-1683 (43), eldest son of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (66), the Earl of Essex, Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (60), son to the old Robert Sidney 2nd Earl Leicester 1595-1677, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, William Howard 3rd Baron Howard Escrick -1694, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King, others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (60) and William Russell 1639-1683 (43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King, or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the William Howard 3rd Baron Howard Escrick -1694 and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!
Was born my granddaughter at Sayes Court, Deptford, and christened by the name of Martha Maria, our Vicar officiating. I pray God bless her, and may she choose the better part!.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Before 21 Jul 1683. John Riley 1646-1691. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683.

Before 1681 Gilbert Soest 1605-1681. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 (24) and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (20).

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (21).

Around 1672 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (53). Postumous portrait of Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (55)Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Feb. 12 Feb 1684. The Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712 (51), late Lord Treasurer, together with the Roman Catholic Lords impeach'd of High Treason in the Popish Plot, had now their Habeas Corpus, and came out upon baile, after five yeares imprisonment in the Tower. Then were also tried and deeply fin'd Mr. Hampden and others for being suppos'd of the late Plot, for which William Russell 1639-1683 and Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 suffer'd; as also the person who went about to prove that the Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex 1631-1683 had his throat cut in the Tower by others; likewise Mr. Johnson, the author of that famous piece called Julian.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jan. 28 Jan 1685. I was invited to my Thomas Arundell 4th Baron Arundel Wardour 1633-1711 (52), (now newly released of his 6 yeares confinement in ye Tower of London on suspicion of the Plot call'd Popish Plot), where after dinner the same Mr. Pordage entertain'd us with his voice, that excellent and stupendous artist Sign' Jo. Baptist playing to it on the harpsichord. My daughter Mary Evelyn 1665-1685 (20) being with us, she also sung to the greate satisfaction of both the masters, and a world of people of quality present. Mary Evelyn 1665-1685 (20) did so also at my Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711 (42) the evening following, where we had the French Boy so fam'd for his singing, and indeede he had a delicate voice, and had ben well taught. I also heard Mrs. Packer (daughter to my old friend) sing before his Ma* and the Duke, privately, that stupendous basse Gosling accompanying her, but hers was so loud as tooke away much of the sweetnesse. Certainly never woman had a stronger or better eare, could she possibly have govern'd it. She would do rarely in a large church among the nunns.

In 1685 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711 (42).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711 (43) wearing his Garter Robes including the Garter Collar and holding his white Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Apr. 10 Apr 1685. I went early to Whitehall Palace to heare John Tillotson Archbishop Canterbury 1630-1694 (54), preaching on Ecclesiastes Chapter 9 Verse 18. I returned in the evening, and visited Lady Tuke, and found with her Sr Geo Wakeman, the physician, whom I had seene tried and acquitted J, amongst the plotters for poisoning the late King, on the accusation of the famous Popish Plot; and surely I believ'd him guiltlesse.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall Palace and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

In 1734 William Hogarth 1697-1764 (36).Titled "Edwards Hamilton family on a Terrace" the subjects are Anne Hamilton 1709-1748 (24) and Mary Edwards 1704-1743 (30) and their child Gerard Edwardes of Welham Grove 1734-1773.In her left hand she holds Addison’s Spectator No.580 that describes the need to fill the mind with an awareness of the Divine Being.The books on the table beside her include poetry or sermons of Edward Young, the works of Swift, Pope’s translation of the Iliad, and the devotional writings of Damuel Bowens and John Tillotson Archbishop Canterbury 1630-1694.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 May. 07 May 1685. I was in Westminster Hall when Titus Oates 1649-1705 (35), who had made such a stir in the kingdom, on his revealing a Popish Plot, and alarm'd several Parliaments, and had occasioned the execution of divers Priests, Noblemen*, &c. was tried for perjurie at the King's Bench; but being very tedious, I did not endeavour to see the issue, considering that it would be published. Aboundance of Roman Catholics were in the Hall in expectation of the most gratefull conviction and ruine of a person who* had ben so obnoxious to them, and, as I verily believe, had don much mischeife and greate injury to several by his violent and ill-grounded proceedings; whilst he was at first so unreasonably blowne up and encouraged, that his insolence was no longer sufferable. Roger Strange 1616-1704 (68) (a gentleman whom I had long known, and a person of excellent parts abating some affectations) appearing first against the Dissenters in several Tracts, had now for some yeares turn'd his style against those whom (by way of hateful distinction) they call'd Whiggs and Trimmers, under the title of Observator, which came out 3 or 4 days every weeke, in which sheets, under pretence to serve the Church of England, he gave suspicion of gratifying another party, by several passages which rather kept up animosities than appeas'd them, especialy now that nobody gave the least occasion.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 May. 16 May 1685. Titus Oates 1649-1705 (35) was sentenced to be whipped and pilloried with the utmost severity.Popish Plot.

Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

On 29 Dec 1680 William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford 1614-1680 (66) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was attainted; Viscount Stafford extinct. Henry Stafford Howard 1st Earl Stafford 1648-1719 (32) de jure 2nd Baron Stafford (5C 1640).

Oxford Parliament (5C2)

On 21 Mar 1681 Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (48) was elected MP Chippenham at Oxford during the Oxford Parliament (5C2).

Murder of Tom of Ten Thousand Thynne

On 12 Feb 1682 Thomas "Tom of Ten Thousand" Thynne 1648-1682 (34) was shot and killed while riding in his coach along Pall Mall, St James', by three men, Colonel Christopher Vrats -1682, John Stern and Charles George Borosky who were believed to be acting for her lover the Karl Johann von Königsmarck 1659-1686 (22). He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House, Strand In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park, St James' with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

John Evelyn's Diary 1682 Mar. 10 Mar 1682. This day was executed Colonel Christopher Vrats -1682, and some of his accomplices, for the execrable murder of Thomas "Tom of Ten Thousand" Thynne 1648-1682, set on by the principal Karl Johann von Königsmarck 1659-1686 (22). He went to execution like an undaunted hero, as one that had done a friendly office for that base coward, Karl Johann von Königsmarck 1659-1686 (22), who had hopes to marry his widow, the rich Elizabeth Percy Duchess Somerset 1667-1722 (15), and was acquitted by a corrupt jury, and so got away. Colonel Christopher Vrats -1682 told a friend of mine who accompanied him to the gallows, and gave him some advice that he did not value dying of a rush, and hoped and believed God would deal with him like a gentleman. Never man went, so unconcerned for his sad fate..

Sinking of HMS Gloucester

On 06 May 1682 Richard Hill -1682 drowned off Great Yarmouth during the Sinking of HMS Gloucester when it struck a sandbank. The future James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) and John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 (31) were rescued in the ship's boat.
John Hope of Hopetoun 1651-1682 drowned during the sinking of HMS Gloucester. He gave up his seat in a lifeboat to the future James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) for which his son was rewarded with an Earldom twenty-one years later when he came of age.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Before 28 Oct 1708 John Closterman 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722.

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 known as The Triumph of the John, 1st Duke of Marlborough.

In 1702. Michael Dahl 1659-1743 (43). Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 (51).

Before 1744 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman 1694-1744. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 and Colonel John Armstrong.

John Evelyn's Diary 1682 May. 25 May 1682. I was desired by Stephen Fox Paymaster 1627-1716 (55) and Christopher Wren Architect 1632-1723 (58) to accompany them to Lambeth, with the plot and design of the college to be built at Royal Hospital Chelsea, to have the Archbishop's approbation. It was a quadrangle of 200 feet square, after the dimensions of the larger quadrangle at Christ Church College, Oxford University, Oxford, for the accommodation of 440 persons, with governor and officers. This was agreed on.
The James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) and James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) and Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (23) were just now come to London, after his escape and shipwreck, as he went by sea for Scotland. See Sinking of HMS Gloucester.

Before 1725. John James Baker -1725. Portrait of Stephen Fox Paymaster 1627-1716.

In 1711 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Christopher Wren Architect 1632-1723 (87).

Around 1751. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Royal Hospital Chelsea, Rotunda, Ranelagh Gardens, Chelsea and Ranelagh House.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. François de Troy 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

On 15 Apr 1703 Charles Hope 1st Earl Hopetoun 1681-1742 (22) was created 1st Earl Hopetoun by Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (38) in recognitions of his father having given up his seat in a lifeboat to the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 during the Sinking of HMS Gloucester; his father subsequently drowned.

In 1703 John Closterman 1660-1711 (43). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (37).

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.

In 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (20).

Around 1705. Michael Dahl 1659-1743 (46). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (39).

Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Jul. 28 Jul 1683. Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland 1653-1708 (30) was married to the Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (18) at Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. Her Court and household to be modeled as the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (49), had been, and they to continue in England. See Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George.

Before 28 Oct 1708 John Closterman 1660-1711. Portrait of Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland 1653-1708.

Around 1705. Michael Dahl 1659-1743 (46). Portrait of Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland 1653-1708 (51). Walmer Castle, Walmer.

In 1703 John Closterman 1660-1711 (43). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (37).

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.

In 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (20).

Around 1705. Michael Dahl 1659-1743 (46). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (39).

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

On 28 Jul 1683 Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland 1653-1708 (30) and Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (18) were married (he was her Half Second-Cousin Once-Removed) at Chapel Royal, St James's Palace.

Frost Fair

In Dec 1683 the River Thames froze for a period of six weeks during which a great Frost Fair took place on the frozen surface.
The printer Croom sold souvenir cards written with the customer's name, the date, and the fact that the card was printed on the Thames; he was making five pounds a day (ten times a labourer's weekly wage). Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53) bought one. .

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Bridge, with the Lord Mayor's Procession on the River Thames.

Around 1752. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Royal Hospital, Greenwich from the North Bank of the River Thames.

Around 1754. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Eton College with the new Eton College Chapel, Eton College visible in white stone and the original Tudor buildings in red brick.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Dec. 23 Dec 1683. The small pox very prevalent and mortal; the Thames frozen..

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Dec. 27 Dec 1683. I went to visite Jean Chardin Traveller 1643-1713 (40), a French gentleman who had travell'd three times by land into Persia, and had made many curious researches in his travells, of which he was now setting forth a relation. It being in England this year one of the severest frosts that had hap pen'd of many yeares, he told me the cold in Persia was much greater, the ice of an incredible thicknesse; that they had little use of iron in all that country, it being so moiste (tho' the aire admirably clear and healthy), that oyle would not preserve it from rusting, so that they had neither clocks nor watches; some padlocks they had for doores and boxes. .

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Jan. 01 Jan 1684. The weather continuing intolerably severe, streetes of booths were set upon the Thames; the aire was so very cold and thick, as of many yeares there had not ben the like. The small pox was very mortal..

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Jan. 06 Jan 1684. The river quite frozen. .

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Jan. 09 Jan 1684. I went crosse the Thames on the ice, now become so thick as to beare not onely streetes of boothes, in which they roasted meate, and had divers shops of wares, quite acrosse as in a towne, but coaches, carts, and horses, passed over. So I went from Westminster Stairs to Lambeth Palace, and din'd with the William Sancroft Archbishop Canterbury 1617-1693 (66): where I met my Lord Bruce, George Wheeler Traveller 1651-1724 (32), Coll. Cooke, and severall divines. After dinner and discourse with his Grace till evening prayers, George Wheeler Traveller 1651-1724 (32) and I walked over the ice from Lambeth Stayres to the horse ferry. .

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Jan. 16 Jan 1684. The Thames was fill'd with people and tents, selling all sorts of wares as in the Citty. .

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Jan. 24 Jan 1684. The frost continuing more and more severe, the Thames before London was still planted with boothes in formal streetes, all sorts of trades and shops furnish'd and full of commodities, even to a printing presse, where the peopje and ladyes tooke a fancy to have their names printed, and the day and yeare set down when printed on the Thames; this humour tooke so universally, that 'twas estimated the printer gain'd £5. a day, for printing a line onely, at sixpence a name, be sides what he got by ballads, &c. Coaches plied from Westminster to the Temple, and from several other staires to and fro, as in the streetes, sleds, sliding with skeetes, a bull-baiting, horse and coach races, puppet plays and interludes, cookes, tlpling, and other lewd places, so that it seem'd to be a bacchanalian triumph, or carnival on the water, whilst it was a severe judgment on the land, the trees not onely splitting as if lightning-struck, but men and cattle perishing in divers places, and the very seas so lock'd up with ice, that no vessells could stir out or come in. The fowles, fish, and birds, and all our exotiq plants and greenes universally perishing. Many parkes of deer were destroied, and all sorts of fuell so deare that there were greate con tributions to preserve the poore alive. Nor was this severe weather much lesse intense in most parts of Europe, even as far as Spaine and the most Southern tracts. London, by reason of the excessive coldnesse of the aire hindering the ascent of the smoke, was so fill'd with the fuliginous steame of the sea-coale, that hardly could one see crosse the streetes, and this filling the lungs with its grosse particles, exceedingly obstructed the breast, so as one could scarcely breath. Here was no water to be had from the pipes and engines, nor could the brewers and divers other tradesmen worke, and every moment was full of dis astrous accidents. .

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Feb. 05 Feb 1684. It began to thaw, but froze againe. My coach crossed from Lambeth to the Horseferry at Millbank, Westminster. The booths were almost all taken downe, but there was first a Map or Landskip cut in copper representing all the manner of the camp, and the several actions, sports, and pastimes thereon, in memory of so signal a frost..

Rye House Plot

Before 21 Mar 1683 the Rye House Plot was an attempt to assassinate Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 and his brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 as they passed Rye House, Hoddesdon when were returning from the races at Newmarket on 01 Apr 1683. In the event a fire at Newmarket on the 22 Mar 1683 the races were cancelled.

After 21 Mar 1683 Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 implicated and his home was searched during the Rye House Plot.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Jun. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Rye House Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53) and the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower, the William Russell 1639-1683 (43), eldest son of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (66), the Earl of Essex, Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (60), son to the old Robert Sidney 2nd Earl Leicester 1595-1677, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, William Howard 3rd Baron Howard Escrick -1694, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King, others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (60) and William Russell 1639-1683 (43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King, or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the William Howard 3rd Baron Howard Escrick -1694 and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!
Was born my granddaughter at Sayes Court, Deptford, and christened by the name of Martha Maria, our Vicar officiating. I pray God bless her, and may she choose the better part!.

Before 21 Jul 1683. John Riley 1646-1691. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683.

Before 1681 Gilbert Soest 1605-1681. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 (24) and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (20).

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (21).

Around 1672 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (53). Postumous portrait of Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (55)Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

Before Jul 1683 Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville 1655-1701 was arrested for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. He ecasped from the Tower of London in Jul 1683.

On 08 Jul 1683 John Hampden of Great Hampden 1653-1696 (30) was sent to the Tower of London on the discovery of the Rye House Plot.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Jul. 13 Jul 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady, in Covent Garden, the astonishing news was brought to us of the Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex 1631-1683 (52) having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower of London, and this happened on the very day and instant that William Russell 1639-1683 (43) was on his trial, and had sentence of death [See Rye House Plot.]. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex 1631-1683 (52) being so well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to the King. It is certain the Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53) and James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (49) were at the Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when my Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex 1631-1683 (52) asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were odd reflections upon it.
The fatal news coming to Hicks Hall upon the article of my William Russell 1639-1683 (43) trial, was said to have had no little influence on the Jury and all the Bench to his prejudice. Others said that he had himself on some occasions hinted that in case he should be in danger of having his life taken from him by any public misfortune, those who thirsted for his estate should miss of their aim; and that he should speak favorably of that Henry Percy 8th Earl Northumberland 1532-1585, and some others, who made away with themselves; but these are discourses so unlike his sober and prudent conversation that I have no inclination to credit them. What might instigate him to this devilish act, I am not able to conjecture. My Henry Hyde 2nd Earl Clarendon -1709, his brother-in-law, who was with him but the day before, assured me he was then very cheerful, and declared it to be the effect of his innocence and loyalty; and most believe that his Majesty had no severe intentions against him, though he was altogether inexorable as to William Russell 1639-1683 (43) and some of the rest. For my part, I believe the crafty and ambitious Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683 had brought them into some dislike of the present carriage of matters at Court, not with any design of destroying the monarchy (which Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683 had in confidence and for unanswerable reasons told me he would support to his last breath, as having seen and felt the misery of being under mechanic tyranny), but perhaps of setting up some other whom he might govern, and frame to his own platonic fancy, without much regard to the religion established under the hierarchy, for which he had no esteem; but when he perceived those whom he had engaged to rise, fail of his expectations, and the day past, reproaching his accomplices that a second day for an exploit of this nature was never successful, he gave them the slip, and got into Holland, where the fox died, three months before these unhappy Lords and others were discovered or suspected. Every one deplored Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex 1631-1683 (52) and William Russell 1639-1683 (43), especially the last, as being thought to have been drawn in on pretense only of endeavoring to rescue the King from his present councilors, and secure religion from Popery, and the nation from arbitrary government, now so much apprehended; while the rest of those who were fled, especially Ferguson and his gang, had doubtless some bloody design to get up a Commonwealth, and turn all things topsy-turvy. Of the same tragical principles is Sydney.
I had this day much discourse with Monsieur Pontaq, son to the famous and wise prime President of Bordeaux. This gentleman was owner of that excellent vignoble of Pontaq and O'Brien, from whence come the choicest of our Bordeaux wines; and I think I may truly say of him, what was not so truly said of St. Paul, that much learning had made him mad. He had studied well in philosophy, but chiefly the Rabbins, and was exceedingly addicted to cabalistical fancies, an eternal hablador [romancer], and half distracted by reading abundance of the extravagant Eastern Jews. He spoke all languages, was very rich, had a handsome person, and was well bred, about forty-five years of age.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Percy 8th Earl Northumberland 1532-1585.

Around 1672 John Greenhill 1644-1676 (28). Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683 (50).

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman 1603-1671. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Jul. 15 Jul 1683. A stranger, an old man, preached on Jeremiah Chapter 6 Verse 8, the not hearkening to instruction, portentous of desolation to a people; much after Bishop Andrew's method, full of logical divisions, in short and broken periods, and Latin sentences, now quite out of fashion in the pulpit, which is grown into a far more profitable way, of plain and practical discourses, of which sort this nation, or any other, never had greater plenty or more profitable (I am confident); so much has it to answer for thriving no better on it.
The public was now in great consternation on the late Rye House Plot and conspiracy; his Majesty very melancholy, and not stirring without double guards; all the avenues and private doors about Whitehall and the Park shut up, few admitted to walk in it. The Papists, in the meantime, very jocund; and indeed with reason, seeing their own plot brought to nothing, and turned to ridicule, and now a conspiracy of Protestants, as they called them.
The Turks were likewise in hostility against the German Emperor, almost masters of the Upper Hungary, and drawing toward Vienna. On the other side, the French King (who it is believed brought in the infidels) disturbing his Spanish and Dutch neighbors, having swallowed up almost all Flanders, pursuing his ambition of a fifth universal monarchy; and all this blood and disorder in Christendom had evidently its rise from our defections at home, in a wanton peace, minding nothing but luxury, ambition, and to procure money for our vices. To this add our irreligion and atheism, great ingratitude, and self-interest; the apostacy of some, and the suffering the French to grow so great, and the Hollanders so weak. In a word, we were wanton, mad, and surfeiting with prosperity; every moment unsettling the old foundations, and never constant to anything. The Lord in mercy avert the sad omen, and that we do not provoke him till he bear it no longer!
This summer did we suffer twenty French men-of-war to pass our Channel toward the Sound, to help the Danes against the Swedes, who had abandoned the French interest, we not having ready sufficient to guard our coasts, or take cognizance of what they did; though the nation never had more, or a better navy, yet the sea had never so slender a fleet.

On 21 Jul 1683 William Russell 1639-1683 (43) was beheaded by Jack Ketch -1686 at Lincoln's Inn, Holborn, Camden for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. The executioner was so inept that he took four axe blows to separate the head from the body. After the first failed blow his victim looked up and said "You dog, did I give you 10 guineas to use me so inhumanely?".

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Jul. 21 Jul 1683. William Russell 1639-1683 (43) was beheaded in Lincoln's Inn Fields, the executioner giving him three butcherly strokes. The speech he made, and the paper which he gave the Sheriff declaring his innocence, the nobleness of the family, the piety and worthiness of the unhappy gentleman, wrought much pity, and occasioned various discourses on the Rye House Plot.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Sep. 23 Sep 1683. We had now the welcome tidings of the King of Poland raising the siege of Vienna, which had given terror to all Europe, and utmost reproach to the French, who it is believed brought in the Turks for diversion, that the French King might the more easily swallow Flanders, and pursue his unjust conquest on the empire, while we sat unconcerned and under a deadly charm from somebody.
There was this day a collection for rebuilding Newmarket, consumed by an accidental fire, which removing his Majesty thence sooner than was intended, put by the Rye House Plot, who were disappointed of their rendezvous and expectation by a wonderful providence. This made the King more earnest to render Winchester the seat of his autumnal field diversions for the future, designing a Kings' House, Winchester there, where the ancient castle stood; infinitely indeed preferable to Newmarket for prospects, air, pleasure, and provisions. The surveyor has already begun the foundation for a palace, estimated to cost £35,000, and his Majesty is purchasing ground about it to make a park, etc.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Nov. 23 Nov 1683. The James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (34), till now proclaimed traitor on the pretended Rye House Plot for which William Russell 1639-1683 was lately beheaded, came this evening to Whitehall Palace and rendered himself, on which were various discourses.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall Palace and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

On 07 Dec 1683 Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (60) was beheaded at Tower Hill during the Rye House Plot.

On 20 Jun 1684 Thomas Armstrong 1633-1684 (51) was dragged by hurdle to Tower Hill where he was hanged, drawn and quartered for his involvement in the Rye House Plot.

In 1685 Charles Gerard 2nd Earl Macclesfield 1659-1701 (26) was sentenced to death for his part in the Rye House Plot but was subsequently pardoned by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54).