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1685-1699 Glorious Revolution

Argyll's Rising

In 1685 Argyll's Rising was a plot to overthrow James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) led by Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (55).
Of the rebels 177 were transported to Jamaica and 100 to New Jersey.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 May. 22 May 1685. In the morning I went with a French gentleman, and my Lord Privy Seale, to the House of Lords, where we were plac'd by his lordship next the Bar, just below yc Bishops, very commodiously both for hearing and seeing. After a short space came in ye Queene (26) and Princesse of Denmark (20), and stood next above the Archbishops, at the side of the House on the right hand of the throne. In the interim divers of the Lords, who had not finish'd before, tooke the Test and usual Oathes, so that her Ma*, the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind the throne, heard the Pope and worship of the Virgin Mary, &c. renounc'd very decently, as likewise the prayers which follow'd, standing all the while. Then came in the King (51), the Crowne on his head, and being seated, the Commons were introduced, and the House being full, he drew forth a paper containing his speech, which he read distinctly enough, to this effect : " That he resolv'd to call a Parliament from the moment of his brother's decease, as the best meanes to settle all the concernes of the Nation, so as to be most easy and happy to himselfe and his subjects; that he would confirme whatever he had said in his declaration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the principles of the Church of England, for their loyaltie, and would defend and support it, and preserve its government as by law now establish'd; that, as he would invade no man's property, so he would never depart from his owne prerogative; and as he had ventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would proceede to do still; that, having given this assurance of his care of our Religion (his word was your Religion) and Property (wch he had not said by chance but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable returnes of his subjects duty and kindnesse, especialy as to settling his Revenue for life, for yte many weighty necessities of go vernment, weh he would not suffer to be precarious; that some might possibly suggest that it were better to feede and supply him from time to time only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments, but that that would be a very improper method to take with him, since the best way to engage him to meete oftener would be always to use him well, and therefore he expected their compliance speedily, that this Session being but short, they might meet againe to satisfaction." At every period of this the House gave loud shouts. Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of Argyle's (56) being landed in the West High lands of Scotland from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he had published, which he would communicate to them, and that he should take the best care he could it should meete with the reward It deserv'd, not questioning the Parliament's zeale and readinesse to assist him as he desir'd; at which there follow'd another Vive le Roi, and so his Ma* retlr'd.
So soone as ye Commons were return'd and had put themselves into a grand Committee, they immediately put the question, and unanimously voted the Revenue to his Ma* for life. Mr. Seymour made a bold speech against many Elections, and would have had those members who (he pretended) were obnoxious, to withdraw, till they had clear'd the matter of their being legally return'd; but no one seconded him. The truth is, there were many of the new members whose Elections and Returns were universally censur'd, many of them being persons of no condition or interest in the Nation, or places for which they serv'd, especially in Devon, Cornwall, Norfolk, &c. said to have ben recommended by the Court and from the effect of the new charters changing ye electors. It was reported that Lord Bath (56) carried down with him [into Cornwall] no fewer than 15 charters, so that some call'd him the Prince Elector; whence Seymour told the House in his speech that if this was digested, they might introduce what religion and lawes they pleas'd, and that tho' he never gave heed to ye feares and jealousies of the people before, he now was really apprehensive of Popery. By the printed list of Members of 505 there did not appeare to be above 135 who had ben in former Parliaments, especialy that lately held at Oxford. In ye Lords House Lord Newport (65) made an exception against two or three young Peeres, who wanted some moneths, and some only four or five daies of being of age.
The Popish Lords who had ben sometime before releas'd from their confinement about the Plot, were now discharg'd of their impeachment, of wch I gave Lord Arundel of Wardour (52) joy.
Oates (35), who had but two dayes before ben pilloried at severall places and whipt at ye carts taile from Newgate to Aldgate, was this day plac'd on a sledge, being not able to go by reason of so late scourging, and dragg'd from prison to Tyburn, and whipt againe all ye way, which some thought to be very severe and extraordinary; but if he was guilty of the perjuries, and so of the death of many innocents, as I feare he was, his punishment was but what he deserv'd. I chanc'd to pass just as execution was doing on him. A strange revolution!.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. François de Troy 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

In 1703 John Closterman 1660-1711 (43). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (37).

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.

In 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (20).

Around 1705. Michael Dahl 1659-1743 (46). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (39).

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jun. 22 Jun 1685. We had now plentiful raine after 2 yeares excessive drowth and severe winters.
Argyle (56) taken in Scotland and executed, and his party dispers'd.Argyll's Rising.

On 30 Jun 1685 Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (56) was beheaded on the Maiden (an early gullotine) in Edinburgh for his part in Argyll's Rising. His Son Archibald Campbell 1st Duke Argyll 1658-1703 (26) succeeded 10th Earl Argyll. Elizabeth Tollemache Duchess Argyll 1659-1735 (25) by marriage Countess Argyll.

On 30 Oct 1685 John Ayloffe 1645-1685 (40) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Temple Bar, Fleet Street for his part in the Argyll's Rising.

Death and Burial of Charles II

On 02 Feb 1685 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) suffered a sudden apoplectic fit.

On 05 Feb 1685 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) was received into the Catholic Church in the presence of John Huddlestone 1608-1698 (76).

On 06 Feb 1685 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace. His Brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart. Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) by marriage Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland.
His brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51), William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (83), Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52) and William Sancroft Archbishop Canterbury 1617-1693 (68) were present.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. François de Troy 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

Before 08 Mar 1685 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696. Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.

Around 1688 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (55). Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.

On 14 Feb 1685 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was buried without any manner of pomp at Westminster Abbey.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

Coronation James II and Mary

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Apr. 23 Apr 1685. Was the Coronation of the King (51) and Queene (26). The solemnity was magnificent, as is set forth in print. The Bp. of Ely (47) preach'd; but, to the greate sorrow of the people, no Sacrament, as ought to have ben. However the King begins his reigne with greate expectations, and hopes of much reformation as to the late vices and prophanenesse both of Court and Country. Having ben present at the late King's Coronation, I was not ambitious of seeing this ceremonie.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. François de Troy 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

On 23 Apr 1685 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart by William Sancroft Archbishop Canterbury 1617-1693 (68). Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) crowned Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland.
Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) preached the sermon.
John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham 1656-1710 (29) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at Westminster Abbey.
Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (21) was appointed Lord High Constable.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

Monmouth Rebellion

Battle of Sedgemoor

In 1685 Sherrington Talbot 1656-1685 was killed during an altercation with Captain Love following the Battle of Sedgemoor over whose troops fought better.

On 06 Jul 1685 John Berkeley 4th Viscount Fitzhardinge 1650-1712 (35) fought at Westonzoyland, Bridgwater during the Battle of Sedgemoor: Royalists.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jul. 08 Jul 1685. Came news of Monmouth's (36) utter defeate, and the next day of his being taken by Sr Wm Portman (41) and Lord Lumley (35) with the militia of their counties. It seemes the horse, commanded by Lord Grey (29), being newly rais'd and undisciplin'd, were not to be brought in so short a time to endure the fire, which expos'd the foote to the King's, so as when Monmouth had led the foote in greate silence and order, thinking to surprize Lieut Gen Lord Feversham (44) newly encamp'd, and given him a smart charge, interchanging both greate and small shot, the horse, breaking their owne ranks, Monmouth (36) gave it over, and fled with Grey (29), leaving their party to be cut in pieces to the number of 2000. The whole number reported to be above 8,000, the King's but 2,700. The slaine were most of them Mendip-miners, who did greate execution with their tooles, and sold their lives very dearely, whilst their leaders flying were pursu'd and taken the next morning, not far from one another. Monmouth (36)Lord Lumley in a dry ditch cover'd with fern-brakes, but without sword, pistol, or any weapon, and so might have pass'd for some countryman, his beard being grown so long and so grey as hardly to be known, had not his George [Note. This is possible a reference to the Small St George Pendant] discover'd him, which was found in his pocket. 'Tis said he trembl'd exceedingly all over, not able to speake. Grey (29) was taken not far from him. Most of his party were anabaptists and poore cloth workers of yu country, no gentlemen of account being come in to him. The arch-boutefeu Ferguson, Matthews, *&c. were not yet found. The £5,000 to be given to whoever should bring Monmouth in, was to be distributed among the militia by agreement between Sr Wm Portman (41) and Lord Lumley (35). The battail ended, some words, first In jest, then in passion, pass'd between Sherrington Talbot (a worthy gent. son to Sr John Talbot (55), and who had behav'd himselfe very handsomely) and one Capt. Love, both commanders of the militia, as to whose souldiers fought best, both drawing their swords and passing at one another. Sherrington was wounded to death on the spot, to the greate regret of those who knew him. He was Sir John's only son.

On 15 Jul 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) was beheaded at Tower Hill. Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) acted a Chaplain.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

On 16 Mar 1687 Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (64) died from wounds received from duelling. He was buried at Albrighton. His Son Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (26) succeeded 12th Earl Shrewsbury (2C 1442), 12th Earl Waterford.

Before 1718. Michael Dahl 1659-1743. Portrait of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718.

On 16 Apr 1687 George Villiers 2nd Duke Buckingham 1628-1687 (59) fought a duel with Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 with whose wife Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury, Countess Waterford 1642-1702 (45) he was conducting a relationship. Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 was fatally wounded. Following the duel George Villiers 2nd Duke Buckingham 1628-1687 (59) commenced living with Shresbury's wife Anne Maria (45). His wife Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720 (48) returned to live with her parents.

Around 1675 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (56). Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke Buckingham 1628-1687 (46) wearing his Garter Collar.

Seven Bishops

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Jun. 08 Jun 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), with the Bishops of Ely (50), Chichester (64), St. Asaph (60), Bristol (38), Peterborough (60), and Bath and Wells (50), were sent from the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower, for refusing to give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the Declaration for liberty of conscience; they refused to give bail, as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The concern of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds on their knees begging their blessing, and praying for them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower wharf..

Around 1720 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Jonathan Trelawny Bishop 3rd Baronet 1650-1721 (69).

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Jun. 10 Jun 1688. A YOUNG PRINCE born, which will cause disputes.
About two o'clock, we heard the Tower ordnance discharged, and the bells ring for the birth of a Prince of Wales. This was very surprising, it having been universally given out that her Majesty did not look till the next month..

Around 1698. François de Troy 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (9).

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Jun. 13 Jun 1688. I went to the Tower to see the Bishops, visited the Archbishop (71) and the Bishops of Ely (50), St. Asaph (60), and Bath and Wells (50)..

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Jun. 15 Jun 1688. Being the first day of term, the Bishops were brought to Westminster on habeas corpus, when the indictment was read, and they were called on to plead; their counsel objected that the warrant was illegal; but, after long debate, it was overruled, and they pleaded. The Court then offered to take bail for their appearance; but this they refused, and at last were dismissed on their own recognizances to appear that day fortnight; the Archbishop in £200, the Bishops in £100 each..

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Jun. 29 Jun 1688. They appeared; the trial lasted from nine in the morning to past six in the evening, when the jury retired to consider of their verdict, and the Court adjourned to nine the next morning. The jury were locked up till that time, eleven of them being for an acquittal; but one (Arnold, a brewer) would not consent. At length he agreed with the others. The Chief Justice, Wright (54), behaved with great moderation and civility to the Bishops. Alibone, a Papist, was strongly against them; but Holloway and Powell (56) being of opinion in their favor, they were acquitted. When this was heard, there was great rejoicing; and there was a lane of people from the King's Bench to the water side, on their knees, as the Bishops passed and repassed, to beg their blessing. Bonfires were made that night, and bells rung, which was taken very ill at Court, and an appearance of nearly sixty Earls and Lords, etc., on the bench, did not a little comfort them; but indeed they were all along full of comfort and cheerful.
Note, they denied to pay the Lieutenant of the Tower (Hales (43), who used them very surlily), any fees, alleging that none were due.
The night was solemnized with bonfires, and other fireworks, etc.

Around 1685. John Riley 1646-1691 (39). Believed to be a portrait of Frances Windebank wife of Edward Hales 3rd Baronet Hales Woodchurch and Tunstall 1645-1695 (40).

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Oct. 07 Oct 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on 2 Tim. iii. 16, showing the Scriptures to be our only rule of faith, and its perfection above all traditions. After which, near 1,000 devout persons partook of the Communion. The sermon was chiefly occasioned by a Jesuit, who in the Masshouse on the Sunday before had disparaged the Scripture and railed at our translation, which some present contradicting, they pulled him out of the pulpit, and treated him very coarsely, insomuch that it was like to create a great disturbance in the city.
Hourly expectation of the Prince of Orange's (37) invasion heightened to that degree, that his Majesty (54) thought fit to abrogate the Commission for the dispensing Power (but retaining his own right still to dispense with all laws) and restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. In the meantime, he called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued to remove Protestants and put in Papists at Portsmouth and other places of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, that they seemed passionately to long for and desire the landing of that Prince (37), whom they looked on to be their deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying incessantly for an east wind, which was said to be the only hindrance of his expedition with a numerous army ready to make a descent. To such a strange temper, and unheard of in former times, was this poor nation reduced, and of which I was an eyewitness. The apprehension was (and with reason) that his Majesty's (54) forces would neither at land nor sea oppose them with that vigor requisite to repel invaders.
The late imprisoned Bishops were now called to reconcile matters, and the Jesuits hard at work to foment confusion among the Protestants by their usual tricks. A letter was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), informing him, from good hands, of what was contriving by them. A paper of what the Bishops advised his Majesty was published. The Bishops were enjoined to prepare a form of prayer against the feared invasion. A pardon published. Soldiers and mariners daily pressed.
NOTE. The Letter was written by John Evelyn ...
My Lord, The honor and reputation which your Grace's piety, prudence, and signal courage, have justly merited and obtained, not only from the sons of the Church of England, but even universally from those Protestants among us who are Dissenters from her discipline; God Almighty's Providence and blessing upon your Grace's vigilancy and extraordinary endeavors will not suffer to be diminished in this conjuncture. The conversation I now and then have with some in place who have the opportunity of knowing what is doing in the most secret recesses and cabals of our Church's adversaries, obliges me to acquaint you, that the calling of your Grace and the rest of the Lords Bishops to Court, and what has there of late been required of you, is only to create a jealousy and suspicion among well-meaning people of such compliances, as it is certain they have no cause to apprehend. The plan of this and of all that which is to follow of seeming favor thence, is wholly drawn by the Jesuits, who are at this time more than ever busy to make divisions among us, all other arts and mechanisms having hitherto failed them. They have, with other things contrived that your Lordships the Bishops should give his Majesty advice separately, without calling any of the rest of the Peers, which, though maliciously suggested, spreads generally about the town. I do not at all question but your Grace will speedily prevent the operation of this venom, and that you will think it highly necessary so to do, that your Grace is also enjoined to compose a form of prayer, wherein the Prince of Orange is expressly to be named the Invader: of this I presume not to say anything; but for as much as in all the Declarations, etc., which have hitherto been published in pretended favor of the Church of England, there is not once the least mention of the Reformed or Protestant Religion, but only of the Church of England as by Law Established, which Church the Papists tell us is the Church of Rome, which is (say they) the Catholic Church of England—that only is established by Law; the Church of England in the Reformed sense so established, is but by an usurped authority. The antiquity of THAT would by these words be explained, and utterly defeat this false and subdolous construction, and take off all exceptions whatsoever; if, in all extraordinary offices, upon these occasions, the words Reformed and Protestant were added to that of the Church of England by Law established. And whosoever threatens to invade or come against us, to the prejudice of that Church, in God's name, be they Dutch or Irish, let us heartily pray and fight against them. My Lord, this is, I confess, a bold, but honest period; and, though I am well assured that your Grace is perfectly acquainted with all this before, and therefore may blame my impertinence, as that does αλλοτριοεπισκοπειν; yet I am confident you will not reprove the zeal of one who most humbly begs your Grace's pardon, with your blessing. Lond., 10 Oct 1688.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Test Act

In 1688 Admiral Arthur Herbert 1st Earl Torrington 1648-1716 (40) was dismissed by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (54) for refusing to sign the Test Act.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Glorious Revolution

In 1688 Michael Wharton MP 1648-1725 and Lord Danby (55) secured Kingston upon Hull, East Riding for the Prince of Orange (37) during the Glorious Revolution.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

On Oct 1688 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle 1670-1718 (18) and Robert Ferguson Minister 1637-1714 (51) accompanied William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (37) to England during the Glorious Revolution.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Nov. 04 Nov 1688. Fresh reports of the Prince (38) being landed somewhere about Portsmouth, or the Isle of Wight, whereas it was thought it would have been northward. The Court in great hurry. .

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Nov. 05 Nov 1688. I went to London; heard the news of the Prince (38) having landed at Torbay, coming with a fleet of near 700 sail, passing through the Channel with so favorable a wind, that our navy could not intercept, or molest them. This put the King (55) and Court into great consternation, they were now employed in forming an army to stop their further progress, for they were got into Exeter, and the season and ways very improper for his Majesty's forces to march so great a distance.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (71) and some few of the other Bishops and Lords in London, were sent for to Whitehall, and required to set forth their abhorrence of this invasion. They assured his Majesty (55) that they had never invited any of the Prince's (38) party, or were in the least privy to it, and would be ready to show all testimony of their loyalty; but, as to a public declaration, being so few, they desired that his Majesty (55) would call the rest of their brethren and Peers, that they might consult what was fit to be done on this occasion, not thinking it right to publish anything without them, and till they had themselves seen the Prince's (38) manifesto, in which it was pretended he was invited in by the Lords, spiritual and temporal. This did not please the King; so they departed.
A declaration was published, prohibiting all persons to see or read the Prince's (38) manifesto, in which was set forth at large the cause of his expedition, as there had been one before from the States.
These are the beginnings of sorrow, unless God in his mercy prevent it by some happy reconciliation of all dissensions among us. This, in all likelihood, nothing can effect except a free Parliament; but this we cannot hope to see, while there are any forces on either side. I pray God to protect and direct the King (55) for the best and truest interest of his people!—I saw his Majesty (55) touch for the evil, Piten the Jesuit, and Warner officiating..

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Nov. 14 Nov 1688. The Prince (38) increases everyday in force. Several Lords go in to him. Lord Cornbury (26) carries some regiments, and marches to Honiton, the Prince's (38) headquarters. The city of London in disorder; the rabble pulled down the nunnery newly bought by the Papists of Lord Berkeley (60), at St. John's. The Queen (30) prepares to go to Portsmouth for safety, to attend the issue of this commotion, which has a dreadful aspect..

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. François de Troy 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Nov. 18 Nov 1688. It was now a very hard frost. The King (55) goes to Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and return to London. Lord Delamere (36) appears for the Prince (38) in Cheshire. The nobility meet in Yorkshire. The Archbishop of Canterbury (71) and some Bishops, and such Peers as were in London, address his Majesty (55) to call a Parliament. The King (55) invites all foreign nations to come over. The French take all the Palatinate, and alarm the Germans more than ever..

Before 1694 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Henry Booth 1st Earl Warrington 1652-1694.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Dec. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (48), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (55) and Earl of Nottingham (41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth declared for the Prince (38). Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (38) coming to Oxford. The Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover (52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution..

Around 1678 Mary Cradock 1633-1699 (44). Portrait of George Savile 1st Marquess Halifax 1633-1695 (44).

Around 1698. François de Troy 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (9).

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Dec. 13 Dec 1688. The King (55) flies to sea, puts in at Faversham for ballast; is rudely treated by the people; comes back to Whitehall.
The Prince of Orange (38) is advanced to Windsor, is invited by the King (55) to St. James's, the messenger sent was the Earl of Faversham (47), the General of the Forces, who going without trumpet, or passport, is detained prisoner by the Prince (38), who accepts the invitation, but requires his Majesty (38) to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may be quartered about the palace and city. This is taken heinously and the King (38) goes privately to Rochester; is persuaded to come back; comes on the Sunday; goes to mass, and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I was present)..

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Dec. 17 Dec 1688. That night was a Council; his Majesty (38) refuses to assent to all the proposals; goes away again to Rochester..

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Dec. 18 Dec 1688. I saw the King (55) take barge to Gravesend at twelve o'clock—a sad sight! The Prince (38) comes to St. James's, and fills Whitehall with Dutch guards. A Council of Peers meet about an expedient to call a Parliament; adjourn to the House of Lords. The Chancellor, Earl of Peterborough (67), and divers others taken. The Earl of Sunderland (47) flies; Sir Edward Hale (43), Walker, and others, taken and secured.
All the world go to see the Prince (38) at St. James's, where there is a great Court. There I saw him, and several of my acquaintance who came over with him. He is very stately, serious and reserved. The English soldiers sent out of town to disband them; not well pleased..

Around 1685. John Riley 1646-1691 (39). Believed to be a portrait of Frances Windebank wife of Edward Hales 3rd Baronet Hales Woodchurch and Tunstall 1645-1695 (40).

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 Dec. 24 Dec 1688. The King (55) passes into France, whither the Queen (30) and child were gone a few days before..

On 15 Apr 1690 Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough 1650-1721 (40) was created 1st Earl Scarborough by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) in recognition of his (40) support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

In 1694 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712 (61) was created 1st Duke Leeds by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712 (61) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds 1629-1704 (65) by marriage Duchess Leeds.

In 1694 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707 (53) was created 1st Duke Devonshire by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707 (53) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire 1646-1710 (48) by marriage Duchess Devonshire.

In 1694 Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (52) was created 1st Earl Romney (1C 1694) by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (52) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 30 Apr 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (33) was created 1st Duke Shrewsbury and 1st Marquess Alton by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (33) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

Before 1718. Michael Dahl 1659-1743. Portrait of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718.

On 07 May 1697 Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (44) was created 1st Earl Orford (1C 1697) by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (46) in recognition of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (44) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

Around 1715 Thomas Gibson 1680-1751 (35). Portrait of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (62).

Around 1682 Thomas Murray 1663-1735 (19). Portrait of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (29) and Captain John Benbow (1653–1702), and Admiral Ralph Delavall (c.1645–1707).

1688 Battle of Reading

On 09 Dec 1688 the Battle of Reading was fought between supporters of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55) and William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38). William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) was victorious. Thereafter James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55) fled to France and William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) acceeded.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Abdication of James II

On 23 Dec 1688 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55) abdicated II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart. His Daughter Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland: William and Mary. His Nephew William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) succeeded IIi King England Scotland and Ireland: William and Mary.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven

In 1688 Admiral Arthur Herbert 1st Earl Torrington 1648-1716 (40) carried the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven to The Hague.

On Oct 1688 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle 1670-1718 (18) and Robert Ferguson Minister 1637-1714 (51) accompanied William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (37) to England during the Glorious Revolution.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

On 15 Apr 1690 Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough 1650-1721 (40) was created 1st Earl Scarborough by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) in recognition of his (40) support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

In 1694 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712 (61) was created 1st Duke Leeds by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712 (61) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds 1629-1704 (65) by marriage Duchess Leeds.

In 1694 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707 (53) was created 1st Duke Devonshire by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707 (53) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire 1646-1710 (48) by marriage Duchess Devonshire.

In 1694 Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (52) was created 1st Earl Romney (1C 1694) by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (52) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 30 Apr 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (33) was created 1st Duke Shrewsbury and 1st Marquess Alton by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (33) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

Before 1718. Michael Dahl 1659-1743. Portrait of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718.

On 07 May 1697 Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (44) was created 1st Earl Orford (1C 1697) by William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (46) in recognition of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (44) 's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

Around 1715 Thomas Gibson 1680-1751 (35). Portrait of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (62).

Around 1682 Thomas Murray 1663-1735 (19). Portrait of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (29) and Captain John Benbow (1653–1702), and Admiral Ralph Delavall (c.1645–1707).

On Oct 1714 John Hervey 1st Earl Bristol 1665-1751 (49) was created 1st Earl Bristol (2C 1714) for having supported the Glorious Revolution.

1738 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman 1694-1744 (44). Portrait of John Hervey 1st Earl Bristol 1665-1751 (72).

Coronation William III and Mary II

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 Apr. 11 Apr 1689. I saw the procession to and from the Abbey Church of Westminster, with the great feast in Westminster Hall, at the coronation of King William and Queen Mary. What was different from former coronations, was some alteration in the coronation oath. Dr. Burnet (45), now made Bishop of Sarum, preached with great applause. The Parliament men had scaffolds and places which took up the one whole side of the Hall. When the King (38) and Queen (26) had dined, the ceremony of the Champion, and other services by tenure were performed. The Parliament men were feasted in the Exchequer chamber, and had each of them a gold medal given them, worth five-and-forty shillings. On the one side were the effigies of the King and Queen inclining one to the other; on the reverse was Jupiter throwing a bolt at Phäeton the words, "Ne totus absumatur": which was but dull, seeing they might have had out of the poet something as apposite. The sculpture was very mean.
Much of the splendor of the proceeding was abated by the absence of divers who should have contributed to it, there being but five Bishops, four Judges (no more being yet sworn), and several noblemen and great ladies wanting; the feast, however, was magnificent. The next day the House of Commons went and kissed their new Majesties' hands in the Banqueting House.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

Around 1675 Mary Cradock 1633-1699 (41). Portrait of Gilbert Burnet Bishop Salisbury 1643-1715 (31).

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler 1634-1687. Portrait of Gilbert Burnet Bishop Salisbury 1643-1715.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View of Whitehall, Old Horse Guards and Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace.

On 11 Apr 1689 William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) and Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26) were crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland: William and Mary at Westminster Abbey.
John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham 1656-1710 (33) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports.
George Compton 4th Earl Northampton 1664-1727 (24) bore the King's sceptre and cross at Westminster Abbey. .

Around 1758 Pompeo Batoni Painter 1708-1787 (49). Portrait of George Compton 4th Earl Northampton 1664-1727.

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 Apr. 12 Apr 1689. I went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to visit my Lord of Canterbury (58) at Lambeth, who had excused himself from officiating at the coronation, which was performed by the Bishop of London (57), assisted by the Archbishop of York (74). We had much private and free discourse with his Grace (58) concerning several things relating to the Church, there being now a bill of comprehension to be brought from the Lords to the Commons. I urged that when they went about to reform some particulars in the Liturgy, Church discipline, Canons, etc., the baptizing in private houses without necessity might be reformed, as likewise so frequent burials in churches; the one proceeding much from the pride of women, bringing that into custom which was only indulged in case of imminent danger, and out of necessity during the rebellion, and persecution of the clergy in our late civil wars; the other from the avarice of ministers, who, in some opulent parishes, made almost as much of permission to bury in the chancel and the church, as of their livings, and were paid with considerable advantage and gifts for baptizing in chambers. To this they heartily assented, and promised their endeavor to get it reformed, utterly disliking both practices as novel and indecent.
We discoursed likewise of the great disturbance and prejudice it might cause, should the new oath, now on the anvil, be imposed on any, save such as were in new office, without any retrospect to such as either had no office, or had been long in office, who it was likely would have some scruples about taking a new oath, having already sworn fidelity to the government as established by law. This we all knew to be the case of my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (58), and some other persons who were not so fully satisfied with the Convention making it an abdication of King James, to whom they had sworn allegiance.
King James (55) was now certainly in Ireland with the Marshal d'Estrades, whom he made a Privy Councillor; and who caused the King (55) to remove the Protestant Councillors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit, telling him that the King of France (50), his master, would never assist him if he did not immediately do it; by which it is apparent how the poor Prince (55) is managed by the French.
Scotland declares for King William (38) and Queen Mary (26), with the reasons of their setting aside King James (55), not as abdicating, but forfeiting his right by maladministration; they proceeded with much more caution and prudence than we did, who precipitated all things to the great reproach of the nation, all which had been managed by some crafty, ill-principled men. The new Privy Council have a Republican spirit, manifestly undermining all future succession of the Crown and prosperity of the Church of England, which yet I hope they will not be able to accomplish so soon as they expect, though they get into all places of trust and profit.

In 1734 William Hogarth 1697-1764 (36).Titled "Edwards Hamilton family on a Terrace" the subjects are Anne Hamilton 1709-1748 (24) and Mary Edwards 1704-1743 (30) and their child Gerard Edwardes of Welham Grove 1734-1773.In her left hand she holds Addison’s Spectator No.580 that describes the need to fill the mind with an awareness of the Divine Being.The books on the table beside her include poetry or sermons of Edward Young, the works of Swift, Pope’s translation of the Iliad, and the devotional writings of Damuel Bowens and Archbishop Tillotson.

Around 1675 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Henry Compton Bishop 1632-1713 (43).

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Act of Poll

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 Apr. 26 Apr 1689. I heard the lawyers plead before the Lords the writ of error in the judgment of Oates (39), as to the charge against him of perjury, which after debate they referred to the answer of Holloway, etc., who were his judges. I then went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to the Archbishop (72) at Lambeth, where they entered into discourse concerning the final destruction of Antichrist, both concluding that the third trumpet and vial were now pouring out. My Lord St. Asaph (61) considered the killing of the two witnesses, to be the utter destruction of the Cevennes Protestants by the French and Duke of Savoy, and the other the Waldenses and Pyrenean Christians, who by all appearance from good history had kept the primitive faith from the very Apostles' time till now. The doubt his Grace suggested was, whether it could be made evident that the present persecution had made so great a havoc of those faithful people as of the other, and whether there were not yet some among them in being who met together, it being stated from the text, Apoc. xi., that they should both be slain together. They both much approved of Mr. Mede's way of interpretation, and that he only failed in resolving too hastily on the King of Sweden's (Gustavus Adolphus) success in Germany. They agreed that it would be good to employ some intelligent French minister to travel as far as the Pyrenees to understand the present state of the Church there, it being a country where hardly anyone travels.
There now came certain news that King James (55) had not only landed in Ireland, but that he had surprised Londonderry, and was become master of that kingdom, to the great shame of our government, who had been so often solicited to provide against it by timely succor, and which they might so easily have done. This is a terrible beginning of more troubles, especially should an army come thence into Scotland, people being generally disaffected here and everywhere else, so that the seamen and landmen would scarce serve without compulsion.
A new oath was now fabricating for all the clergy to take, of obedience to the present Government, in abrogation of the former oaths of allegiance, which it is foreseen many of the bishops and others of the clergy will not take. The penalty is to be the loss of their dignity and spiritual preferment. This is thought to have been driven on by the Presbyterians, our new governors. God in mercy send us help, and direct the counsels to his glory and good of his Church!
Public matters went very ill in Ireland: confusion and dissensions among ourselves, stupidity, inconstancy, emulation, the governors employing unskillful men in greatest offices, no person of public spirit and ability appearing,—threaten us with a very sad prospect of what may be the conclusion, without God's infinite mercy.
A fight by Admiral Herbert (41) with the French, he imprudently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and little honor—so strangely negligent and remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new King and Queen on conditions. Act of Poll money came forth, sparing none. Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office according to law, with several other clauses. A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate the King (38) and Queen (26) on their accession to the crown.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Grant to the King and Queen of 10s. in every £100 of Personal Estate.
Wee Your Majestyes most Dutyfull and Loyal Subjects the Commons Assembled in Parlyament haveing entred into a Serious Consideration of the great and extraordinary Expences in which Your Majesties are Engaged for the Reduceing of Ireland and for the Carrying on the Warr against the French King In order towards the Enabling Your Majesties to Prosecute the said Ends with Speede and Vigour doe most humbly present to Your Majestyes a Free Gift of the severall Sums of Money hereafter specified Beseeching Your Majestyes that it may be Enacted And bee it Enacted by the King and Queens most Excellent Majestyes by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and of the Commons in this present Parliament Assembled and by the Authoritie of the same That all and every Person and Persons Bodies Politick and Corporate Guilds or Fraternities within this Kingdome of England Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede haveing any Personall Estate either in Debts oweing to them within this Realme or without which he she or they doe not account as desperate other then such Debts as now are or shall be oweing from Their Majestyes (over and besides such just Debts as he she or they shall bona fide owe) or in ready Moneys shall yield and pay unto Their Majestyes for every Hundred pounds in such Debts and ready Moneys the Summe of Ten shillings (to be paid by the Lender notwithstanding any Agreement to the contrary) to be Assessed Imposed Levyed and Collected in manner herein after mentioned
II. Public Officers (Exceptions) to pay is. for every 20s. of the Profits of their Offices.
III. Pensions, &c. from Government exceeding £20 per Ann. to pay is in the Pound.
IV. Judges, Serjeants at Law, Barristers, Advocates, and Persons practising Physick, to pay 3s. in the Pound.
V. Rates of Payments by Peers, &c.
VI. Gentleman having Estate of £300 or more, to pay 20s. though an Infant; under that Estate, on Oath, not charged.
VII. Archbishop, £50. Bishop, £20. Deans, £10. Archdeacons, £2. 10s.
etc.

Act of Indulgence

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 Apr. 26 Apr 1689. I heard the lawyers plead before the Lords the writ of error in the judgment of Oates (39), as to the charge against him of perjury, which after debate they referred to the answer of Holloway, etc., who were his judges. I then went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to the Archbishop (72) at Lambeth, where they entered into discourse concerning the final destruction of Antichrist, both concluding that the third trumpet and vial were now pouring out. My Lord St. Asaph (61) considered the killing of the two witnesses, to be the utter destruction of the Cevennes Protestants by the French and Duke of Savoy, and the other the Waldenses and Pyrenean Christians, who by all appearance from good history had kept the primitive faith from the very Apostles' time till now. The doubt his Grace suggested was, whether it could be made evident that the present persecution had made so great a havoc of those faithful people as of the other, and whether there were not yet some among them in being who met together, it being stated from the text, Apoc. xi., that they should both be slain together. They both much approved of Mr. Mede's way of interpretation, and that he only failed in resolving too hastily on the King of Sweden's (Gustavus Adolphus) success in Germany. They agreed that it would be good to employ some intelligent French minister to travel as far as the Pyrenees to understand the present state of the Church there, it being a country where hardly anyone travels.
There now came certain news that King James (55) had not only landed in Ireland, but that he had surprised Londonderry, and was become master of that kingdom, to the great shame of our government, who had been so often solicited to provide against it by timely succor, and which they might so easily have done. This is a terrible beginning of more troubles, especially should an army come thence into Scotland, people being generally disaffected here and everywhere else, so that the seamen and landmen would scarce serve without compulsion.
A new oath was now fabricating for all the clergy to take, of obedience to the present Government, in abrogation of the former oaths of allegiance, which it is foreseen many of the bishops and others of the clergy will not take. The penalty is to be the loss of their dignity and spiritual preferment. This is thought to have been driven on by the Presbyterians, our new governors. God in mercy send us help, and direct the counsels to his glory and good of his Church!
Public matters went very ill in Ireland: confusion and dissensions among ourselves, stupidity, inconstancy, emulation, the governors employing unskillful men in greatest offices, no person of public spirit and ability appearing,—threaten us with a very sad prospect of what may be the conclusion, without God's infinite mercy.
A fight by Admiral Herbert (41) with the French, he imprudently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and little honor—so strangely negligent and remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new King and Queen on conditions. Act of Poll money came forth, sparing none. Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office according to law, with several other clauses. A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate the King (38) and Queen (26) on their accession to the crown.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Siege of Londonderry

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 Aug. 25 Aug 1689. Hitherto it has been a most seasonable summer. Londonderry relieved after a brave and wonderful holding out.

Battle of Killiecrankie

On 27 Jul 1689 James Seton 4th Earl Dunfermline 1643-1694 (46) fought at Killiecrankie during the Battle of Killiecrankie: Jacobites.

Parliament (2W3)

On 20 Mar 1690 William Bowes 1657-1707 (33) was elected MP Durham during the Parliament (2W3).

Battle of the Boyne

In 1690 Dr George Walker 1618-1690 (72) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne.

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 Jun. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower, on suspicion of being affected to King James (56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's (28) uncle. King William (39) having vanquished King James (56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (74) was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (60), was taken. It is reported that King James (56) is gone back to France. Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William (39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici." But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

On 01 Jul 1690 Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg 1615-1690 (74) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne. He was buried at St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. His Son Charles Schomberg 2nd Duke Schomberg 1645-1693 (44) succeeded 2nd Duke Schomberg.

On 01 Jul 1690 the Battle of the Boyne was fought between the armies of Protestant William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) and Catholic James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (56).
The English army was commanded by Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg 1615-1690 (74)
The English or Protestant army included Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough 1650-1721 (40), Osmund Mordaunt -1690 and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (49).
For the Irish or Catholic army James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (19) and Henry Hobart 4th Baronet Hobart 1657-1698 (33) fought. Richard Hamilton -1717 was captured.

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 Aug. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

On or before 15 Aug 1690 Charles Tuke 2nd Baronet 1671-1690 (19) died of wound received at the Battle of the Boyne fighting for James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (56).

On 12 Jul 1691 General Charles Chalmot de Saint-Ruhe 1650-1691 (41) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne.

John Evelyn's Diary 1691 Jul. 19 Jul 1691. In the morning Dr. Tenison (54) preached the first sermon, taking his text from Psalm xxvi. 8. "Lord, I have loved the habitation of thy house, and the place where thine honor dwelleth." In concluding, he gave that this should be made a parish church so soon as the Parliament sat, and was to be dedicated to the Holy Trinity, in honor of the three undivided persons in the Deity; and he minded them to attend to that faith of the church, now especially that Arianism, Socinianism, and atheism began to spread among us. In the afternoon, Mr. Stringfellow preached on Luke vii. 5. "The centurion who had built a synagogue." He proceeded to the due praise of persons of such public spirit, and thence to such a character of pious benefactors in the person of the generous centurion, as was comprehensive of all the virtues of an accomplished Christian, in a style so full, eloquent, and moving, that I never heard a sermon more apposite to the occasion. He modestly insinuated the obligation they had to that person who should be the author and promoter of such public works for the benefit of mankind, especially to the advantage of religion, such as building and endowing churches, hospitals, libraries, schools, procuring the best editions of useful books, by which he handsomely intimated who it was that had been so exemplary for his benefaction to that place. Indeed, that excellent person, Dr. Tenison, had also erected and furnished a public library [in St. Martin's]; and set up two or three free schools at his own charges. Besides this, he was of an exemplary, holy life, took great pains in constantly preaching, and incessantly employing himself to promote the service of God both in public and private. I never knew a man of a more universal and generous spirit, with so much modesty, prudence, and piety.
The great victory of King William's army in Ireland was looked on as decisive of that war. The French General, St. Ruth, who had been so cruel to the poor Protestants in France, was slain, with divers of the best commanders; nor was it cheap to us, having 1,000 killed, but of the enemy 4,000 or 5,000.

Siege of Limerick

In 1690 John Margetson -1690 died at Limerick, County Limerick during the Siege of Limerick.

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 Aug. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Battle of Aughrim

On 12 Jul 1691 John Hamilton -1691 was killed in action fighting for the Jacobites at Aughrim, County Galway during the Battle of Aughrim.

Candlemas Massacre aka Raid on York

On 24 Jan 1692 Shubael Dummer 1636-1692 (56) was killed at York, York County, Maine during the Candlemas Massacre aka Raid on York.

William III Creation of New Lords

John Evelyn's Diary 1692 Feb. 28 Feb 1692. Lord Marlborough (41) having used words against the King (41), and been discharged from all his great places, his wife (31) was forbidden the Court, and the Princess of Denmark (27) was desired by the Queen (29) to dismiss her from her service; but she refusing to do so, goes away from Court to Sion house. Divers new Lords made: Sir Henry Capel (53), Sir William Fermor (43), etc. Change of Commissioners in the Treasury. The Parliament adjourned, not well satisfied with affairs. The business of the East India Company, which they would have reformed, let fall. The Duke of Norfolk (37) does not succeed in his endeavor to be divorced.

Before 28 Oct 1708 John Closterman 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722.

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 known as The Triumph of the John, 1st Duke of Marlborough.

In 1702. Michael Dahl 1659-1743 (43). Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 (51).

Before 1744 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman 1694-1744. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 and Colonel John Armstrong.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Sarah Jennings Duchess Marlborough 1660-1744.

Before 02 Nov 1739 Charles Jervas 1675-1739. Portrait of Sarah Jennings Duchess Marlborough 1660-1744.

In 1703 John Closterman 1660-1711 (43). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (37).

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.

In 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (20).

Around 1705. Michael Dahl 1659-1743 (46). Portrait of Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (39).

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Around 1655 John Hoskins 1590-1664 (65). Portrait of Henry Capell 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury 1638-1696 (16).

On 11 Apr 1692 Henry Capell 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury 1638-1696 (54) was created 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury.

On 12 Apr 1692 William Fermor 1st Baron Leominster 1648-1771 (43) was created 1st Baron Leominster. Catherine Poulett Baroness Leominster by marriage Baroness Leominster.

Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue

John Evelyn's Diary 1692 May. 15 May 1692. My niece, M. Evelyn, was now married to Sir Cyril Wyche (60), Secretary of State for Ireland. After all our apprehensions of being invaded, and doubts of our success by sea, it pleased God to give us a great naval victory, to the utter ruin of the French fleet, their admiral and all their best men-of-war, transport-ships, etc.

Glencoe Massacre

In 1695 John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale 1625-1697 (69) ordered an inquiry into the Glencoe Massacre.

Around 1728 William Aikman 1682-1731 (45). Portrait of John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale 1625-1697.

Battle of Steenkerque

On 03 Aug 1692 George Hamilton -1692 was killed in action at Steenkerque during the Battle of Steenkerque.

Battle of Marsaglia

On 04 Oct 1693 Charles Schomberg 2nd Duke Schomberg 1645-1693 (48) fought for Spain and Savoy at Marsaglia during the Battle of Marsaglia: Spain and Savoy.

Death of Queen Mary II

On 28 Dec 1694 Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (32) died of smallpox shortly after midnight at Kensington Palace. Her body lay in state at the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace.
On 05 Mar 1695 she was buried in Westminster Abbey. Thomas Tenison Archbishop Canterbury 1636-1715 (58) preached the sermon.
She had reigned for five years. Her husband William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (44) continued to reign for a further eight years.

Around 1676 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View of Whitehall, Old Horse Guards and Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Nine Year's War

On Jan 1695 James Killigrew -1695 was killed during the Nine Year's War.

1698 General Election

In 1698 Thomas Coke 1674-1727 (23) was elected MP Derby at the 1698 General Election which seat he held until Dec 1701.

Whitehall Palace Fire

On 04 Jan 1698 Whitehall Palace was burned to the ground. The only remaining building was the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View of Whitehall, Old Horse Guards and Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.