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Biography of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685

CONTENT

1630 Baptism of future Charles II

1642 Battle of Edge Hill

1648 Pride's Purge

1649 Execution of Charles I

1651 Battle of Worcester

1651 Charles II Crowned King Scotland

1656 Treaty of Brussels

1660 Coronation Charles II

1665 Great Plague of London

1678 Popish Plot

1683 Frost Fair

1683 Rye House Plot

1685 Death of Charles II

1705 Death of Catherine of Braganza Dowager Queen Consort


Family Trees

Descent

Ancestry

On 04 Dec 1600 Wadham Wyndham Judge 1609-1668 (-9) was knighted by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (-30) .

On 10 Jul 1613 Robert "The Elder" Peake 1551-1619 (62) was paid £13.6s.8d. by the vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge, "in full satisfaction for Prince Charles (-17) his picture", for a full-length portrait which is still in the Cambridge University Library.

In 1608 Robert "The Elder" Peake 1551-1619 (57) . Portrait of Elizabeth D'Oyly nee Knightley.

In 1611 Robert "The Elder" Peake 1551-1619 (60) . Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 in his Garter Robes and Leg Garter .

In 1611 Robert "The Elder" Peake 1551-1619 (60) . Portrait of Elizabeth Watson 1600-1624 (11) .She is wearing a draped mantle—embroidered with seed pearls in a pattern of ostrich plumes—and a matching turban. The mantle knotted on one shoulder was worn in Jacobean court masques.

In 1616 Robert "The Elder" Peake 1551-1619 (65) . Portrait of (possibly) Frances Cotton 1578-1620 (38) .

Before 1619 Robert "The Elder" Peake 1551-1619 (67) . Portrait of Anne Vavasour 1560-1650 (58) .

Before 1619 Robert "The Elder" Peake 1551-1619 (67) . Portrait of William Pope 1st Earl Downe 1573-1631 (45) .

On 29 May 1630 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was born to Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (20) at St James' Palace, St James', Westminster .

Around 1625 John Hoskins 1590-1664 (35) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15) .

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629 .

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42) . Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) .

On 29 May 1630 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was created as Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay .

Baptism of future Charles II

On 27 Jun 1630 the future Charles II was baptised by William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (56) at Chapel Royal, St James' Palace, St James', Westminster . Louis XIII King France 1601-1643 (28) and Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 1575-1642 (55) were godparents.
Robert Kerr 1st Earl Ancram 1578-1654 (52) was created 1st Earl Ancram .

In 1631 Daniel Mijtens 1590-1648 (41) . Portrait of William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (57) .

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (36) . Portrait of William Laud Archbishop Canterbury 1573-1645 (62) .

In 1638 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (7) was appointed 437th Knight Garter: Charles I .

John Evelyn's Diary 1641 Apr . On the 15th I repaired to London to hear and see the famous trial of the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Deputy of Ireland (48) , who, on the 22nd of March, had been summoned before both Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in Westminster hall , which was prepared with scaffolds for the Lords and Commons, who, together with the King (40) , Queen (31) , Prince (10) , and flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of the greatest malice and the greatest innocency that ever met before so illustrious an assembly. It was Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey (54) , Earl Marshal of England, who was made High Steward upon this occasion; and the sequel is too well known to need any notice of the event.

On 06 Sep 1641 William Fermor 1st Baronet 1621-1661 (20) was created 1st Baronet Fermor by Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40) who also gave him the command of a troop of horse, and afterwards made him a Privy Councillor to Charles, Prince of Wales (11) .

Around 1642 . William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30) . Portrait of the future Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11) .

Battle of Edge Hill

On 23 Oct 1642 the Battle of Edge Hill was fought at Edge Hill, Warwickshire . The Royal army was commanded by Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41) (with his son Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (12) present), Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22) and Richard Spencer 1593-1661 (49) commanded the army that included Maurice Palatinate-Simmern 1621-1652 (21) , Richard Byron 2nd Baron Byron 1606-1679 (36) , Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643 (32) , Charles Cavendish 1620-1643 (22) , Spencer Compton 2nd Earl Northampton 1601-1643 (41) , Thomas Salusbury 2nd Baronet Salusbury Lleweni 1612-1643 (30) , John Byron 1st Baron Byron 1599-1652 (43) and William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643 (55) .
George Stewart 1618-1642 (24) was killed .
Of the Parliamentary army Basil Feilding 2nd Earl Denbigh 1608-1675 (34) and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (51) . Oliver St John 5th Baron St John Bletso 1603-1642 (39) was wounded.
Samuel Sandys 1615-1685 (27) commanded a troop of horse at the Battle of Edgehill.
Richard Sandys 1616-1642 (26) was killed
Robert Bertie 1582-1642 1st Earl Lindsey 1582-1642 (59) was killed . His son Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey 1608-1666 (34) succeeded as 2nd Earl Lindsey , 15th Baron Willoughby Eresby . Martha Cockayne Countess Lindsey, Countess Holderness 1605-1641 by marriage Countess Lindsey .
Thomas Strickland 1621-1694 (20) was knighted on the field for his gallantry at the Battle of Edge Hill .
William Dugdale 1605-1686 (37) witnessed the battle and subsequently surveyed the battlefield.

In 1643 Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (37) sent to negotiate with Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (12) .

In 1634 . Unknown Artist . Portrait of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (28) .

In 1650 . Unknown Artist . Portrait of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (44) .

In 1644 Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (38) sent to negotiate with Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (13) .

In Nov 1644 George Goring 1st Earl Norwich 1585-1663 (59) was created 1st Earl Norwich (2C 1644) by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (14) .

On 16 Jul 1645 William Morgan 1560-1655 (85) was visited by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) who stayed ovenight.

Around Apr 1646 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) travelled to France .

Around Apr 1646 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) stayed at Pendennis Castle, Falmouth, Cornwall .

Around Apr 1646 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) travelled to Isles of Scilly, Cornwall .

Around Apr 1646 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) travelled to Jersey .

In 1648 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (17) travelled to where his sister Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (16) and brother in law William Orange-Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (21) were living at The Hague .

Pride's Purge

On 06 Jan 1648 Thomas Pride, on behalf of Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax 1612-1671 (35) and Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (37) , supported by two regiments, and Nathaniel Rich's Regiment of Horse, with Thomas Grey 1623-1657 (25) , prevented MPs opposed to the trial of King Charles II (17) from entering Parliament including ...
James Herbert 1623-1667 (25)
Robert Pye 1620-1701 (28)
Ambrose Browne 1st Baronet Browne -1661
Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles 1599-1680 (48) .
Richard Cromwell Lord Protector 1626-1712 (21) resigned as Lord Protector .

Around 1650 . Robert Walker 1599-1658 (51) . Portrait of Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (39) .

After Jan 1649 Henry Wilmot 1st Earl Rochester 1612-1658 (36) was appointed as Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (18) .

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster . He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

On 09 Apr 1649 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (18) and Lucy Walter 1630-1658 (19) at Rotterdam .

On Jul 1649 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19) stayed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines.

On Sep 1649 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19) travelled to Jersey .

Around 1650 Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzroy Countess Yarmouth 1650-1684 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19) and Elizabeth Killigrew Viscountess Shannon 1622-1680 (27) .

In 1650 Charles Lyttelton 3rd Baronet 1628-1716 (22) was appointed Cupbearer to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19) while the King was in exile.

Charles II Crowned King Scotland

On 01 Jan 1651 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (20) was crowned II King Scotland: Stewart at Scone Abbey, Scone.

Battle of Worcester

On 03 Sep 1651 at the Battle of Worcester Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle 1629-1685 (22) .In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (28) , Thomas Blagge 1613-1660 (38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (60) was captured. Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (36) provided 300 gold pieces to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) following his defeat.
Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet 1624-1693 (27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London, Tower Hill, City of London .

After 03 Sep 1651 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) hid at Royal Oak, Boscobel House, Boscobel, Shropshire .

On 16 Oct 1651 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) landed at Normandy .

In 1652 William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (41) was appointed Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to the exiled Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) .

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (38) . Portrait of Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (25) and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (27) .

01 Aug 1652 . John Evelyn's Diary 1652 Aug . Came old Jerome Lennier , of Greenwich, a man skilled in painting and music, and another rare musician, called Mell. I went to see his collection of pictures, especially those of Julio Romano, which surely had been the King's (22) , and an Egyptian figure, etc. There were also excellent things of Polydore, Guido, Raphael, and Tintoretto. Lennier had been a domestic of Queen Elizabeth , and showed me her head, an intaglio in a rare sardonyx, cut by a famous Italian, which he assured me was exceedingly like her.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity.Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.
Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress.The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (38) .
Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

Treaty of Brussels

On 02 Apr 1656 the Treaty of Brussels agreeing mutual support between England (Royal) and Spain was signed by Henry Wilmot 1st Earl Rochester 1612-1658 (43) and James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 (45) on behalf of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (25) , and Alonso Cárdenas on behalf of Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665 (50) .

Around 1657 Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth 1657-1680 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (26) and Catherine Pegge 1635- .

In 1658 Catherine Fitzcharles 1658-1759 was born to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (27) and Catherine Pegge 1635- .

In 1660 George Hamilton 1st Baronet Donalong 1607-1679 (53) was appointed 1st Baronet Donalong by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) for his allegiance to the Crown.

Coronation Charles II

On 22 Apr 1660 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) rode from the Tower of London, Tower Hill, City of London to Whitehall Palace, Westminster .At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".
Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, City of London , that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.
At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.
The procession included the Duke of York (26) , the Lord High Constable (57) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (52)
The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond, 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660 (11)

On 08 May 1660 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) received a letter inviting him to return to England and become King at Breda .

Before 25 May 1660 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) left at Scheveningen .

On 25 May 1660 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) arrived at Dover, Kent .

On 29 May 1660 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was restored as II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart .

On 06 Jun 1660 John Talbot 1630-1714 (29) was knighted by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) at Whitehall Palace, Westminster .

On 15 Jun 1660 Thomas Tipping 1615-1693 (44) was knighted by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) at Whitehall Palace, Westminster .

Around 1660 Gilbert Soest 1605-1681 (55) . Portrait of a Gentleman with a Dog, probably Thomas Tipping 1615-1693 (44) .

In 1661 Seth Ward Bishop Exeter, Bishop Salisbury 1617-1689 (44) was appointed to the living of St Lawrence Jewry, City of London by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) .

Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694 (43) . Portrait of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

On 25 Feb 1661 Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex 1661-1722 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (20) at Westminster .

Coronation Charles II

On 23 Apr 1661 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart at Westminster Abbey .
John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44) , Francis Fane -1691 and Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) were appointed Knight of the Bath .
Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (55) was knighted.
Josceline Percy 11th Earl Northumberland 1644-1670 (16) attended.

On 11 Dec 1661 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (27) was created 1st Earl Castlemaine , 1st Baron Limerick by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) to Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (27) in gratitude for allowing his wife Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (21) to become the King's mistress. Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (21) by marriage Countess Castlemaine

In 1662 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) was appointed Governor Jamaica in which post he served until 1664 during which time he founded Port Royal, Jamaica, Greater Antilles, Antilles, Caribbean .

Around 1662 Winifred Wells 1642- became a mistress of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) .

In 1662 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) sold Dunkirk to his cousin Louis "Sun King" XIV King France 1638-1715 (23) for around £375,000.

On 21 May 1662 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) were married at Portsmouth, Hampshire . Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) by marriage Queen Consort England .

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler 1634-1687 (52) . Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (48) .

Around 1663 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (44) . Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24) . Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel.The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head.She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46) . Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26) .

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (37) . Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31) .

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (62) . Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (57) .

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (62) . Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (57) .

On 14 Jun 1662 Henry "Younger" Vane 1613-1662 (49) was beheaded at Tower Hill, City of London for treason against King Charles II (32) . He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

On 18 Jun 1662 Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton, 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (32) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (21) .

On 28 Sep 1663 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (33) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (22) .

In 1664 Samuel Tuke 1st Baronet 1615-1674 (49) was knighted by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (33) .

On 05 Sep 1664 Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield 1664-1718 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (23) .

Great Plague of London

On Jul 1665 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (35) travelled to Salisbury, Wiltshire during the Great Plague of London .

On 28 Dec 1665 George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland 1665-1716 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (35) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (25) at Merton College, Oxford University, Oxford, Oxfordshire .

In 1666 William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (64) assisted the Duchess of Cleveland (25) in her plan to cause King Charles II (35) to surprise his latest favourite, ‘La Belle Stuart’ (18) in company of the Duke of Richmond (26) .

On Feb 1666 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (35) returned at City of London .

In 1667 William Sancroft Archbishop Canterbury 1617-1693 (49) was appointed Archbishop Canterbury at the express wish of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (36)

In 1667 King Chales II (36) , his brother James (33) , Prince Rupert (47) and James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (17) dined with Richard Neville 1615-1676 (51) at Billingbear House, Waltham St Lawrence, Berkshire .

On 19 Oct 1667 was staged first by The King's Company at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Convent Garden, Westminster . The opening performance was attended by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (37) .
Edward Kynaston Actor 1640-1706 (27) played The Black Prince.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May . Monday 03 May 1669 . Up, and by coach to my Lord Brouncker’s (49) , where Sir G. Carteret (59) did meet Sir J. Minnes (70) and me, to discourse upon Mr. Deering’s (43) business, who was directed, in the time of the war, to provide provisions at Hamburgh, by Sir G. Carteret’s (59) direction; and now G. Carteret (59) is afeard to own it, it being done without written order. But by our meeting we do all begin to recollect enough to preserve Mr. Deering (43) , I think, which, poor silly man! I shall be glad of, it being too much he should suffer for endeavouring to serve us. Thence to St. James’s, where the Duke of York (35) was playing in the Pell Mell ; and so he called me to him most part of the time that he played, which was an hour, and talked alone to me; and, among other things, tells me how the King (38) will not yet be got to name anybody in the room of Pen (48) , but puts it off for three or four days; from whence he do collect that they are brewing something for the Navy, but what he knows not; but I perceive is vexed that things should go so, and he hath reason; for he told me that it is likely they will do in this as in other things — resolve first, and consider it and the fitness of it afterward. Thence to White Hall , and met with Creed , and I took him to the Harp and Balls , and there drank a cup of ale, he and I alone, and discoursed of matters; and I perceive by him that he makes no doubt but that all will turn to the old religion, for these people cannot hold things in their hands, nor prevent its coming to that; and by his discourse fits himself for it, and would have my Lord Sandwich (43) do so, too, and me. After a little talk with him, and particularly about the ruinous condition of Tangier, which I have a great mind to lay before the Duke of York (35) , before it be too late, but dare not, because of his great kindness to Lord Middleton (61) , we parted, and I homeward; but called at Povy’s (55) , and there he stopped me to dinner, there being Mr. Williamson (35) , the Lieutenant of the Tower , Mr. Childe (38) , and several others. And after dinner, Povy (55) and I together to talk of Tangier; and he would have me move the Duke of York (35) in it, for it concerns him particularly, more than any, as being the head of us; and I do think to do it. Thence home , and at the office busy all the afternoon, and so to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May . Monday 10 May 1669 . Troubled, about three in the morning, with my wife’s (28) calling her maid up, and rising herself, to go with her coach abroad, to gather May-dew, which she did, and I troubled for it, for fear of any hurt, going abroad so betimes, happening to her; but I to sleep again, and she come home about six, and to bed again all well, and I up and with Mr. Gibson by coach to St. James’s, and thence to White Hall , where the Duke of York met the Office, and there discoursed of several things, particularly the Instructions of Commanders of ships. But here happened by chance a discourse of the Council of Trade, against which the Duke of York (35) is mightily displeased, and particularly Mr. Child (38) , against whom he speaking hardly, Captain Cox did second the Duke of York (35) , by saying that he was talked of for an unfayre dealer with masters of ships, about freight: to which Sir T. Littleton (48) very hotly and foolishly replied presently, that he never heard any honest man speak ill of Child (38) ; to which the Duke of York (35) did make a smart reply, and was angry; so as I was sorry to hear it come so far, and that I, by seeming to assent to Cox , might be observed too much by Littleton (48) , though I said nothing aloud, for this must breed great heart-burnings. After this meeting done, the Duke of York (35) took the Treasurers into his closet to chide them, as Mr. Wren (45) tells me; for that my Lord Keeper (63) did last night at the Council say, when nobody was ready to say any thing against the constitution of the Navy, that he did believe the Treasurers of the Navy had something to say, which was very foul on their part, to be parties against us.
They being gone, Mr. Wren (45) [and I] took boat, thinking to dine with my Lord of Canterbury (70) ; but, when we come to Lambeth, the gate was shut, which is strictly done at twelve o’clock, and nobody comes in afterwards: so we lost our labour, and therefore back to White Hall , and thence walked my boy Jacke with me, to my Lord Crew (71) , whom I have not seen since he was sick, which is eight months ago, I think and there dined with him: he is mightily broke. A stranger a country gentleman, was with him: and he pleased with my discourse accidentally about the decay of gentlemen’s families in the country, telling us that the old rule was, that a family might remain fifty miles from London one hundred years, one hundred miles from London two hundred years, and so farther, or nearer London more or less years. He also told us that he hath heard his father say, that in his time it was so rare for a country gentleman to come to London, that, when he did come, he used to make his will before he set out.
Thence: to St. James’s, and there met the Duke of York (35) , who told me, with great content, that he did now think he should master our adversaries, for that the King (38) did tell him that he was; satisfied in the constitution of the Navy, but that it was well to give these people leave to object against it, which they having not done, he did give order to give warrant to the Duke of York (35) to direct Sir Jeremy Smith to be a Commissioner of the Navy in the room of Pen (48) ; which, though he be an impertinent fellow, yet I am glad of it, it showing that the other side is not so strong as it was: and so, in plain terms, the Duke of York (35) did tell me, that they were every day losing ground; and particularly that he would take care to keep out Child (38) : at all which I am glad, though yet I dare not think myself secure, as the King (38) may yet be wrought upon by these people to bring changes in our Office, and remove us, ere it be long. Thence I to White Hall , and there took boat to Westminster, and to Mrs. Martin’s , who is not come to town from her husband at Portsmouth. So drank only at Cragg’s with Doll , and so to the Swan , and there baiser a new maid that is there, and so to White Hall again, to a Committee of Tangier , where I see all things going to rack in the business of the Corporation, and consequently in the place, by Middleton’s (61) going. Thence walked a little with Creed , who tells me he hears how fine my horses and coach are, and advises me to avoid being noted for it, which I was vexed to hear taken notice of, it being what I feared and Povy (55) told me of my gold-lace sleeves in the Park yesterday, which vexed me also, so as to resolve never to appear in Court with them, but presently to have them taken off, as it is fit I should, and so to my wife (28) at Unthanke’s , and coach, and so called at my tailor’s to that purpose, and so home, and after a little walk in the garden, home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May . Wednesday 19 May 1669 . With my coach to St. James’s ; and there finding the Duke of York (35) gone to muster his men, in Hyde Park , I alone with my boy thither, and there saw more, walking out of my coach as other gentlemen did, of a soldier’s trade, than ever I did in my life: the men being mighty fine, and their Commanders, particularly the Duke of Monmouth (20) ; but me-thought their trade but very easy as to the mustering of their men, and the men but indifferently ready to perform what was commanded, in the handling of their arms. Here the news was first talked of Harry Killigrew’s being wounded in nine places last night, by footmen, in the highway, going from the Park in a hackney-coach towards Hammersmith , to his house at Turnham Greene : they being supposed to be my Lady Shrewsbury’s (27) men, she being by, in her (27) coach with six horses; upon an old grudge of his saying openly that he had lain with her. Thence by and by to White Hall , and there I waited upon the King (38) and Queen (59) all dinner-time, in the Queen’s lodgings, she being in her white pinner and apron, like a woman with child; and she seemed handsomer plain so, than dressed. And by and by, dinner done, I out, and to walk in the Gallery, for the Duke of York’s (35) coming out; and there, meeting Mr. May (47) , he took me down about four o’clock to Mr. Chevins’s (67) lodgings, and all alone did get me a dish of cold chickens, and good wine; and I dined like a prince, being before very hungry and empty. By and by the Duke of York (35) comes, and readily took me to his closet, and received my petition, and discoursed about my eyes, and pitied me, and with much kindness did give me his consent to be absent, and approved of my proposition to go into Holland to observe things there, of the Navy; but would first ask the King’s (38) leave, which he anon did, and did tell me that the King (38) would be a good master to me, these were his words, about my eyes, and do like of my going into Holland, but do advise that nobody should know of my going thither, but pretend that I did go into the country somewhere, which I liked well. Glad of this, I home, and thence took out my wife, and to Mr. Holliard’s (60) about a swelling in her cheek, but he not at home, and so round by Islington and eat and drink, and so home, and after supper to bed. In discourse this afternoon, the Duke of York (35) did tell me that he was the most amazed at one thing just now, that ever he was in his life, which was, that the Duke of Buckingham (41) did just now come into the Queen’s (59) bed-chamber, where the King (38) was, and much mixed company, and among others, Tom Killigrew (57) , the father of Harry , who was last night wounded so as to be in danger of death, and his man is quite dead; and [ Buckingham (41) ] there in discourse did say that he had spoke with some one that was by (which all the world must know that it must be his whore, my Lady Shrewsbury (27) ), who says that they did not mean to hurt, but beat him, and that he did run first at them with his sword; so that he do hereby clearly discover that he knows who did it, and is of conspiracy with them, being of known conspiracy with her, which the Duke of York (35) did seem to be pleased with, and said it might, perhaps, cost him his life in the House of Lords; and I find was mightily pleased with it, saying it was the most impudent thing, as well as the most foolish, that ever he knew man do in all his life.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May . Monday 24 May 1669 . To White Hall , and there all the morning, and thence home, and giving order for some business and setting my brother to making a catalogue of my books, I back again to W. Hewer (27) to White Hall , where I attended the Duke of York (35) and was by him led to [the King (38) ], who expressed great sense of my misfortune in my eyes, and concernment for their recovery; and accordingly signified, not only his assent to desire therein, but commanded me to give them rest summer, according to my late petition to the Duke of York (35) . W. Hewer (27) and I dined alone at the Swan ; and thence having thus waited on the King (38) , spent till four o’clock in St. James’s Park , when I met my wife (28) at Unthanke’s , and so home.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723 . Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715 (47) .

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May . Wednesday 26 May 1669 . To White Hall , where all the morning. Dined with Mr. Chevins (67) , with Alderman Backewell (51) , and Spragg (49) . The Court full of the news from Captain Hubbert , of “The Milford ,” touching his being affronted in the Streights, shot at, and having eight men killed him by a French man-of-war, calling him “English dog,” and commanding him to strike, which he refused, and, as knowing himself much too weak for him, made away from him. The Queen (59) , as being supposed with child, fell ill, so as to call for Madam Nun , Mr. Chevins’s (67) sister, and one of her women, from dinner from us; this being the last day of their doubtfulness touching her being with child; and they were therein well confirmed by her Majesty’s (59) being well again before night. One Sir Edmund Bury Godfry (47) , a woodmonger and justice of Peace in Westminster, having two days since arrested Sir Alexander Frazier for about 30l. in firing, the bailiffs were apprehended, committed to the porter’s lodge, and there, by the King’s (38) command, the last night severely whipped; from which the justice himself very hardly escaped, to such an unusual degree was the King (38) moved therein. But he lies now in the lodge, justifying his act, as grounded upon the opinion of several of the judges, and, among others, my Lord Chief-Justice (62) ; which makes the King (38) very angry with the Chief-Justice (62) , as they say; and the justice do lie and justify his act, and says he will suffer in the cause for the people, and do refuse to receive almost any nutriment. The effects of it may be bad to the Court. Expected a meeting of Tangier this afternoon, but failed. So home, met by my wife (28) at Unthanke’s .

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May . Friday 28 May 1669 . To St. James’s , where the King’s (38) being with the Duke of York (35) prevented a meeting of the Tangier Commission . But, Lord! what a deal of sorry discourse did I hear between the King (38) and several Lords about him here! but very mean methought. So with Creed to the Excise Office , and back to White Hall , where, in the Park, Sir G. Carteret (59) did give me an account of his discourse lately, with the Commissioners of Accounts, who except against many things, but none that I find considerable; among others, that of the Officers of the Navy selling of the King’s (38) goods, and particularly my providing him with calico flags, which having been by order, and but once, when necessity, and the King’s (38) apparent profit, justified it, as conformable to my particular duty, it will prove to my advantage that it be enquired into. Nevertheless, having this morning received from them a demand of an account of all monies within their cognizance, received and issued by me, I was willing, upon this hint, to give myself rest, by knowing whether their meaning therein might reach only to my Treasurership for Tangier, or the monies employed on this occasion. I went, therefore, to them this afternoon, to understand what monies they meant, where they answered me, by saying, “The eleven months’ tax, customs, and prizemoney,” without mentioning, any more than I demanding, the service they respected therein; and so, without further discourse, we parted, upon very good terms of respect, and with few words, but my mind not fully satisfied about the monies they mean. At noon Mr. Gibson and I dined at the Swan , and thence doing this at Brook house , and thence calling at the Excise Office for an account of payment of my tallies for Tangier, I home, and thence with my wife (28) and brother spent the evening on the water, carrying our supper with us, as high as Chelsea; so home, making sport with the Westerne bargees, and my wife (28) and I singing, to my great content.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May . Saturday 29 May 1669 . The King’s (39) birth-day. To White Hall , where all very gay; and particularly the Prince of Tuscany (26) very fine, and is the first day of his appearing out of mourning, since he come. I heard the Bishop of Peterborough preach but dully; but a good anthem of Pelham’s (22) . Home to dinner, and then with my wife (28) to Hyde Park , where all the evening; great store of company, and great preparations by the Prince of Tuscany (26) to celebrate the night with fire-works, for the King’s (39) birth-day. And so home.

On 10 Sep 1669 Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (59) died .

On 08 May 1670 Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (39) and Nell Gwyn 1650-1687 (20) .

In 1671 Henry Hobart 4th Baronet Hobart 1657-1698 (14) was knighted by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (40) at Blickling, Norfolk .

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman 1603-1671 (68) . Portrait of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (41) .

Before 1672 Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (22) became a mistress of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (41) .

Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723 . Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (73) .

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (62) . Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (31) .

In 1670 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (35) . Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (20) .

In 1673 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (38) . Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (23) .

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (66) . Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (51) .

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (66) . Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (51) .

On 29 Jul 1672 Charles Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1672-1723 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (42) and Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (22)

From 1673 to May 1678 Henry Savile 1642-1687 (31) was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (42) .

On 20 Jun 1673 Hugh Wyndham Baron of the Exchequer 1602-1684 (71) was knighted by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (43) .

On 19 Aug 1673 Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (23) was created 1st Duke Portsmouth , 1st Earl Fareham , 1st Baron Petersfield for life for being the mistress of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (43) .

On 16 Oct 1673 Mary Tudor Countess Derwentwater 1673-1726 was born to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (43) .

On 01 Oct 1674 George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland 1665-1716 (8) was created 1st Earl Northumberland (4C 1674) , 1st Viscount Falmouth , 1st Baron Pontefract by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44) for being his illegitimate son.

On 02 Feb 1675 John Flamsteed Astronomer 1646-1719 (28) arrived in London. He stayed at the Tower of London with Jonas Moore. He was taken by Silius Titus to meet Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44) .

On 09 Aug 1675 Charles Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1672-1723 (3) was created 1st Duke Richmond (3C 1675) , 1st Earl March (4C 1675) , 1st Baron Settrington by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (45) for being his illegitimate son.

In 1676 Thomas Sprat Bishop 1635-1713 (41) was appointed Chaplain to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (45) .

Around Jun 1676 Hortense Mancini 1646-1699 (29) had become the mistress of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (46) for whom he had provided a pension of £4000 each year.

In 1694 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723 . Portrait of Hortense Mancini 1646-1699 (47) .

On 21 Dec 1676 Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726 (6) was created 1st Earl Burford , 1st Baron Heddington by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (46) for being his illegitimate son.

Popish Plot

Between 1678 and 1681 the Popish Plot was a fictitious Catholic conspiracy to murder Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (47) invented by Titus Oates (28) that led to the execution of more than twenty-two men.

On 10 Apr 1678 Christopher Hussey 1599-1686 (79) swore allegiance to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (47) (the first to do so) at Hampton, Rockingham County, New Hampshire

In 1679 John Robartes 1st Earl Radnor 1606-1685 (73) was created 1st Earl Radnor (1C 1679) , 1st Viscount Bodmin by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (48) in reward for having supported Charles' brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (45) 's future accession.Letitia Isabella Smythe Countess Radnor 1630-1714 (49) by marriage Countess Radnor (1C 1679) .

In 1679 James Hamilton 4th Duke Hamilton, 1st Duke Brandon 1658-1712 (20) was appointed as Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (48) .

On 09 Dec 1679 Henry Brouncker 3nd Viscount Brounckner 1627-1688 (52) was appointed Cofferer of the Household to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (49) .

In 1680 Thomas Tenison Archbishop Canterbury 1636-1715 (43) was presented by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (49) to St Martin's in the Fields, Charing Cross, Westminster .

On 17 Nov 1681 Jean Chardin Traveller 1643-1713 (38) was knighted at Whitehall Palace, Westminster by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (51) . The same day Jean Chardin Traveller 1643-1713 (38) and Esther Lardinière Peigné were married .

Rye House Plot

Before 21 Mar 1683 the Rye House Plot was an attempt to assassinate Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (52) and his brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (49) as they passed Rye House, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire when were returning from the races at Newmarket, Suffolk on 01 Apr 1683 . In the event a fire at Newmarket, Suffolk on the 22 Mar 1683 the races were cancelled.

On 06 Apr 1683 George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland 1665-1716 (17) was created 1st Duke Northumberland (2C 1683) by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (52) for being his illegitimate son.

Frost Fair

In Dec 1683 the River Thames froze for a period of six weeks during which a great Frost Fair took place on the frozen surface.
The printer Croom sold souvenir cards written with the customer's name, the date, and the fact that the card was printed on the Thames; he was making five pounds a day (ten times a labourer's weekly wage). King Charles II (53) bought one.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 Dec . 30 Dec 1683 . Dr. Sprat (48) , now made Deane of Westminster , preached to the King (53) at Whitehall , on 6 Matt. 24 . Recollecting the passages of the past yeare, I gave God thanks for his mercies, praying his blessing for the future.

On 05 Jan 1684 Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726 (13) was created 1st Duke St Albans (1C 1684) by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (53) for being his illegitimate son.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Mar . 07 Mar 1684 . Dr. Meggot , Deane of Winchester , preached an incomparable sermon, (the King (53) being now gone to Newmarket ,) on 12 Heb. 15 . shewing and pathetically pressing the care we ought to have least we come short of the grace of God. Afterwards I went to visite Dr. Tenison (47) at Kensington, whither he was retired to refresh after he had ben sick of the small pox.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Mar . 30 Mar 1684 . Easter day. The Bp. of Rochester [Dr. Turner] (46) preach'd before, the King (53) after which his Ma*, accompanied with three of his natural sonns, the Dukes of Northumberland (18) , Richmond, and St. Alban's (13) (sons of Portsmouth (34) , Cleaveland (43) , and Nelly (34) ), went up to the Altar ; ye three boyes entering before the King within the railes, at the right hand, and three Bishops on the left, viz. London (52) (who officiated), Durham (51) , and Rochester (46) , with the Sub-dean Dr. Holder. The King kneeling before the Altar, zaking his offering, the Bishop first receiv'd, and then his Ma* after which he retir'd to a canopied seate on the right hand. Note, there was perfume burnt before the Office began. I had receiv'd ye Sacrament at Whitehall early with the Lords and Household, ye Bp. of London officiating. Then went to St. Martin's , where Dr. Tenison (47) preach'd (recover'd from yc small-pox); then went againe to Whitehall as above. In the afternoone went to St. Martin's againe.

Before 1691 . John Riley 1646-1691 (44) . Portrait of Nathaniel Crew Bishop 1633-1721 (57) .

In 1698 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723 . Portrait of Nathaniel Crew Bishop 1633-1721 (64) .

Around 1675 John Greenhill 1644-1676 (31) (attributed).Portrait of Nathaniel Crew Bishop 1633-1721 (41) .

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 May . 12 May 1684 . I return'd to London, where I found the Commissioners of the Admiralty abolish'd, and the office of Admiral restor'd to ye Duke (50) , as to the disposal and ordering all Sea businesse ; but his King}{Ma* (53) sign'd all Petitions, Papers, Warrants, and Commissions, that the Duke, not acting as Admiral by commission or office, might not incur the penalty of the late Act against Papists and Dissenters holding offices, and refusing the Oath and Test. Every one was glad of this change, those in the late Commission being utterly ignorant in their duty, to the greate damage of the Navy.
The utter mine of the Low Country was threaten'd by the siege of Luxembergh, if not timely reliev'd, and by the obstinacy of the Hollanders, who refus'd to assist the Prince of Orange (33) , being corrupted by the French.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Sep . 26 Sep 1684 . The King (54) being return'd from Winchester , there was a numerous Court at White-hall. At this time the Earle of Rochester (42) was remov'd from the Treasury to the Presidentship of the Council ; Lord Godolphin (39) was made first Commissr of the Treasury in his place; Lord Middleton (34) (a Scot) made Secretary of State, in ye room of Lord Godolphin (39) . These alterations being very unexpected and mysterious, gave greate occasion of discourse. There was now an Ambassador from ye King of Siam in ye East Indies to his Majesty.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Oct . 24 Oct 1684 . I din'd at Sir Stephen Fox's (57) with the Duke of Northumberland (18) . He seem'd to be a young gentleman of good capacity, well bred, civil, and modest: newly come from travell, and had made his campaigne at the siege of Luxemburg. Of all his Ma*s (54) children (of which he had now six Dukes) this seem'd the most accomplish'd and worth the owning. He is extraordinary handsome and well shap'd. What ye Dukes of Richmond (12) and St. Alban's (14) will prove, their youth does not yet discover ; they are very pretty boys.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Oct . 26 Oct 1684 . Dr. Goodman (59) preach'd before the King (54) on 2 James 12 concerning the law of liberty: an excellent discourse and in good method. He is author of "The Prodigal Son," a treatise worth reading, and another of the old Religion.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Nov . 15 Nov 1684 . Being the Queene's (45) birth-day, there were fire-works on the Thames before Whitehall , with pageants of castles, forts, and other devices of gyrondolas, serpents, the King (54) and Queene's (45) armes and mottos, all represented in fire, such as had not ben seen here. But the most remarkable was the severall fires and skirmishes in the very water, which actually mov'd a long way, burning under the water, now and then appearing above it, giving reports like muskets and cannon, with granados and innumerable other devices. It is said it cost £.1500. It was concluded with a ball, where all the young ladys and gallants daunced in the greate hall. The Court had not ben seene so brave and rich in apparell since his Ma*'s Restauration.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Nov . 30 Nov 1684 . In the morning Dr. Fiennes, sonn of the Lord Say & Seale, preached before the King (54) on 21 Joshua 11 .

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Dec . 17 Dec 1684 . Early in the morning I went into St. James's Park to see three Turkish or Asian horses, newly brought over, and now first shewed to his Ma* (54) . There were foure, but one of them died at sea, being three weekes coming from Hamborow. They were taken from a Bashaw at the siege of Vienna, at the late famous raising that leaguer. I never beheld so delicate a creature as one of them was, of somewhat a bright bay, two white feet, a blaze ; such a head, eyes, cares, neck, breast, belly, haunches, legs, pasterns, and feete, in all reguards beautifull and proportion'd to admiration ; spirited, proud, nimble, making halt, turning with that swiftnesse, and in so small a compasse, as was admirable. With all this so gentle and tractable as call'd to mind what I remember Busbequius speakes of them, to the reproch of our groomes in Europe, who bring up their horses so churlishly as makes most of them retain their 111 habits. They trotted like does, as if they did not feele the ground. 500 guinnies was demanded for the first ; 300 for the second; and 200 for the third, wch was browne. All of them were choicely shap'd, but the two last not altogether so perfect as the first. It was judg'd by the spectators, among whom was the King (54) , Prince of Denmark, Duke of Yorke (51) , and several of the Court, noble persons, skill'd In horses, especialy Mons. Faubert and his sonn, (provost masters of yc Academie, and esteem'd of the best in Europe,) that there were never seene any horses in these parts to be compar'd with them. Add to all this, the furniture, consisting of embroidery on the saddle, houseings, quiver, bow, arrows, scymeter, sword, mace, or battle-axe a la Turcisq; the Bashaw's velvet mantle furr'd with the most perfect ermine I ever beheld ; all which, yron-worke in common furniture, being here of silver, curiously wrought and double gilt, to an incredible value. Such and so extraordinary was the embrodery, that I never saw any thing approching it. The reins and headstall were of crimson silk, cover'd with chaines of silver gilt. There was also a Turkish royal standard of an horse's taile, together with all sorts of other caparisons belonging to a general's horse, by which one may estimate how gallantly and magnificently those infidels appeare in the field, for nothing could be seene more glorious. The gentleman (a German) who rid the horse was in all this garb. They were shod with yron made round and closed at the heele, with a hole in the middle about as wide as a shilling. The hoofes most intire.

Rye House Plot

In 1685 Charles Gerard 2nd Earl Macclesfield 1659-1701 (26) was sentenced to death for his part in the Rye House Plot but was subsequently pardoned by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) .

In 1685 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) was elected MP Bewdley in which post he served until 1689.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jan . 25 Jan 1685 . Dr. Dove preach'd before ye King (54) . I saw this evening such a scene of profuse gaming, and the King (54) in the midst of his three concubines, as I had never before seen. Luxurious dallying and prophanenesse.

Death of Charles II

On 02 Feb 1685 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) suffered a sudden apoplectic fit.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Feb . 04 Feb 1685 . I went to London, hearing his Ma* (54) had ben the Monday before ( 02 Feb 1685 ) surpriz'd in his bed-chamber with an apoplectic fit, so that if, by God's providence, Dr. King (that excellent chirurgeon as well as physitian) had not ben accidentally present to let him blood (having his lancet in his pocket) his Ma* had certainly died that moment, which might have ben of direful consequence, there being nobody else present with the King save this Doctor and one more, as I am assur'd. It was a mark of the extraordinary dexterity, resolution, and presence of mind in the Dr, to let him bloud in the very paroxysm, without staying the coming of other physitians, which regularly should have ben don, and for want of which he must have a regular pardon, as they tell me *. This rescu'd his Ma* for the instant, but it was only a short reprieve. He still complain'd, and was relapsing, often fainting, with sometimes epileptic symptoms, till Wednesday, for which he was cupp'd, let bloud in both jugulars, had both vomit and purges, which so rellev'd him that on Thursday hopes of recovery were signified in the publiq Gazette, but that day, about noone, the physitians thought him feaverish. This they seem'd glad of, as being more easily allay'd and methodically dealt with than his former fits; so as they prescrib'd the famous Jesuits powder : but it made him worse, and some very able Doctors who were present did not think it a fever, but the effect of his frequent bleeding and other sharp operations us'd by them about his head, so that probably the powder might stop the circulation, and renew his former fits, which now made him very weake. Thus he pass'd Thursday night with greate difficulty, when complaining of a paine in his side, they drew 12 ounces more of bloud from him; this was by 6 in the morning on Friday, and it gave him reliefe, but it did not continue, for being now in much paine, and strugling for breath, he lay dozing, and after some conflicts, the physitians despairing of him, he gave up the ghost at halfe an houre after eleven in the morning, being the 06 Feb 1685 , in the 36th yeare of his reigne, and 54th of his age.
Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till he (54) expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his Majesty's (54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (68) , the Bishops of London (53) , Durham (52) , and Ely (47) , but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (56) and Feversham (44) , being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc Duke (51) , who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. He (54) also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (35) , now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the Queene (46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his Ma* (54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye Duke (51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (44) , and especialy Portsmouth (35) , and that Nelly (35) might not starve. Thus died King Charles II (54) of a vigorous and robust constitution, and in all appearance promising a long life. He was a Prince of many virtues, and many greate imperfections; debonaire, easy of accesse, not bloudy nor cruel; his countenance fierce, his voice greate, proper of person, every motion became him; a lover of the sea, and skilfull in shipping; not affecting other studies, yet he had a laboratory, and knew of many empyrical medicines, and the easier mechanical mathe matics; he lov'd planting and building, and brought in a politer way of living, which pass'd to luxury and intolerable expence. He had a particular talent in telling a story, and facetious passages, of which he had innumerable; this made some buffoons and vitious wretches too presumptuous and familiar, not worthy the favour they abus'd. He tooke delight in having a number of little spaniels follow him and lie in his bed-chamber, where he often suffer'd the bitches to puppy and give suck, which render'd it very offensive, and indeede made the whole Court nasty and stinking. He would doubtlesse have ben an excellent Prince, had he ben less addicted to women, who made him uneasy, 'and allways in want to supply their unmeasurable profusion, to ye detriment of many Indigent persons who had signaly serv'd both him and his father. He frequently and easily chang'd favorites, to his greate prejudice. As to other publiq transactions and unhappy miscarriages, .'tis not here I intend to number them; but certainly never had King more glorious opportunities to have made himselfe, his people, and all Europe happy, and prevented innumerable mischeifs, had not his too easy nature resign'd him to be manag'd by crafty men, and some abandon'd and profane wretches who corrupted his otherwise sufficient parts, disciplin'd as he had ben by many afflictions during his banishment, which gave him much experience and knowledge of men and things; but those wicked creatures took him off from all application becoming so greate a King. The history of his reigne will certainely be the most wonderfull for the variety of matter and accidents, above any extant in former ages : the sad tragical death of his father, his banishment and hardships, his miraculous restauration, conspiracies against him, parliaments, wars, plagues, fires, comets, revolutions abroad happening in his time, with a thousand other particulars. He was ever kind to me, and very gracious upon all occasions, and therefore I cannot, without ingratitude, but deplore his losse, which for many respects as well as duty I do with all my soul. His Majesty being dead, the Duke, now K. James II. went immediately to Council, and before entering into any businesse, passionately declaring his sorrow, told their Lordships that since the succession had fallen to him, he would endeavour to follow the example of his predecessor in his clemency and tendernesse to his people; that, however he had ben misrepresented as affecting arbitrary power, they should find the contrary, for that the Laws of England had made ye King as greate a monarch as he could desire; that he would endeavor to maintain the Government both in Church and State, as by Law established, its principles being so firme for monarchy, and the members of it shewing themselves so good and loyal subjects; and that as he would never depart from the just rights and prerogatives of y Crown, so would he never invade any man's property; but as he had often adventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would still proceede, and preserve it in all its lawful rights and liberties. This being the substance of what he said, the Lords desir'd it might be publish'd, as ontaining matter of greate satisfaction to a jealous people upon this change, which his Ma* consented to. Then were the Counsel sworn, and a Proclamation order'd to be publish'd, that all Officers should continue in their stations, that there might be no failure of public justice, till his further pleasure should be known. Then the King rose, the Lords accompanying him to his bed-chamber, where, whilst he repos'd himselfe, tired indeede as he was with griefe and watching, they return'd againe Into the Council-chamber to take order for the proclaiming his Ma*, which (after some debate) they consented should be in the very forme his grandfather K. James I. was, after ye death of Queene Elizabeth; as likewise that the Lords, &c. should proceede in their coaches thro' the Citty for the more solemnity of it. Upon this was I, and severall other Gentlemen waiting in the Privy-gallerie, admitted into ye Council-chamber to be witnesse of what was resolv'd on. Thence with the Lords, the Lord Marshall and Heraulds, and other Crowne Officers being ready, we first went to White-hall gate, where the Lords stood on foote bare-headed, whilst the Herauld proclaim'd his Majesty's title to the Imperial Crowne and Succession according to ye forme, the trumpets and kettle-drums having first sounded 3 times, which ended with the people's acclamations. Then a Herauld call'd the Lords' coaches according to rank, myselfe accompanying the solemnity in my Lord Cornwallis's (29) coach, first to Temple Barr, where the Lord Maior and his brethren met us on horseback, in all theire formalities, and proclaim'd the King; hence to the Exchange in Cornhlll, and so we return'd in the order we set forth. Being come to Whitehall, we all went and kiss'd the King (51) and Queenes (26) hands. He had ben on ye bed, but was now risen and in his undresse. The Queene (22) was in bed in her appartment, but put forth her hand, seeming to be much afflicted, as I believe she was, having deported herselfe so decently upon all occasions since she came into England, which made her universally belov'd. Thus concluded this sad and not joyfull day.
I can never forget the inexpressible luxury and prophanenesse, gaming and all dissoluteness, and as it were total forgetfullnesse of God (it being Sunday evening) which this day se'nnight I was wit nesse of, the King sitting and toying with his concubines, Portsmouth, Cleaveland, and Mazarine, &c a French boy singing love songs, in that glorious gallery, whilst about 20 of the greate courtiers and other dissolute persons were at Basset round a large table, a bank of at least 2000 in gold before them, upon which two gentlemen who were with me made reflexions with astonishment. Six days after was all in the dust ! It was enjoyn'd that those who put on mourning should wear it as for a father, in ye most solemn manner.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely 1618-1680 . Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28) .

In 1698 . François de Troy 1645-1730 (52) . Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39) .

Around 1685 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (29) . Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) .

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710 . Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21) .

Death of Charles II

On 05 Feb 1685 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) was received into the Catholic Church.

On 06 Feb 1685 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace, Westminster . His brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) succeeded as II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart . Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) by marriages Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland .
His brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) , William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (83) , Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52) and William Sancroft Archbishop Canterbury 1617-1693 (68) were present.

Before 08 Mar 1685 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (52) . Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52) .

Around 1688 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (55) . Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685 .

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Feb . 14 Feb 1685 . The King was this, night very obscurely buried in a vault under Hen. 7th's Chapell at Westminster , without any manner of pomp, and soone forgotten after all this vanity, and the face of the whole Court was exceedingly chang'd into a more solemn and moral behaviour; the new King (34) affecting neither prophanenesse nor buffoonery. All the greate Officers broke their staves over the grave, according to form.

Death of Charles II

On 14 Feb 1685 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was buried without any manner of pomp at Westminster Abbey .

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Feb . 19 Feb 1685 . The Lord Treasurer and yc other new Officers were sworne at the Chancery Barr and the Exchequer. The late King having the revenue of Excise, Costoms, and other late duties granted for his life only, they were now farmed and lett to severall persons, upon an opinion that the late King might lett them for three yeares after his decease; some of the old Commissioners refus'd to act. The lease was made but the day before the King died; the major part of the Judges (but as some think not the best Lawyers) pronounc'd it legal, but four dissented. The Clerk of the Closet (50) had shut up the late King's private Oratorie next the Privy-chamber above, but the King caus'd it to be open'd againe, and that prayers should be said as formerly.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Mar . 05 Mar 1685 . To my griefe I saw the new pulpit set up in the Popish Oratorie at Whitehall Palace, Westminster for the Lent preaching, masse being publicly said, and the Romanists swarming at Court with greater confidence than had ever ben seene in England since the Reformation, so as every body grew jealous to what this would tend.
A Parliament was now summon'd, and greate industry us'd to obtaine elections which might promote the Court interest, most of the Corporations being now by their new Charters impower'd to make what returnes of members they pleas'd.
There came over divers envoyes and greate persons to condole the death of the late King , who were receiv'd by the Queene Dowager (46) on a bed of mourning, the whole chamber, cieling and floore hung with black, and tapers were lighted, so as nothing could be more lugubrous and solemne. The Queene Consort sat out under a state on a black foot-cloth, to entertaine the circle (as the Queene us'd to do), and hat very decently.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jul . 15 Jul 1685 . I went to see Dr. Tenison's (48) Library [in St. Martin's .].
Monmouth (36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (51) , to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (48) , whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower , had an interview with his late Dutchesse (34) , whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he profess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell , and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill ) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (51) , in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King , his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (48) , who, with the Bishops of Ely (47) and Bath and Wells (48) , were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.
Thus ended this quondam Duke, darling of his father and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to ga ther a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse , General of the King his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July . His mother , whose name was Barlow, daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney , who was familiar with his mother) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.
Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cozens to sign a certificate of the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name was Walters: this the Bishop refused. She was born of a gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sidney , then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her 50 broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) but being ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother Colonel Robert Sidney , who kept her for some time, till the King hearing of her, got her from him. On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her she is already sped and after being with the King she was so soon with child that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wort on his face. However the King owned the child. In the King's absence she behaved so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King James II. Vol I.
Had it not pleas'd God to dissipate this attempt in ye beginning, there would in all appearance have gather'd an irresistable force which would have desperately proceeded to ye ruine of ye Church and Govern ment, so general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my owne part I look'd upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an Inundation of phanatics and men of impious principles must needs have caus'd universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, an unavoidable civil war and misery without end. Blessed be God the knot was happily broken, and a faire prospect of tranquil lity for the future if we reforme, be thankful!, and make a right use of this mercy.

06 Feb 1686 . John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Feb . Being the day on wcb his Ma* (52) began his reign, by order of Council it was to be solemniz'd with a particular Office and Sermon, which the Bp. of Ely (48) preach'd at Whitehall on 11 Numb. 12 ; a Court oration upon the Regal office. It was much wonder'd at that this day, weh was that of his late Ma*'s death, should be kept as a festival, and not [instead of] the day of the present King's coronation. It is said to have ben formerly ye costom, tho' not till now since ye reigne of King James I .
The Dutchesse of Monmouth (34) being in ye same seate with me at church, appear'd with a very sad and afflicted countenance.

29 Mar 1686 . John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Mar . The Duke of Northumberland (20) (a natural son of the late King by the Dutchess of Cleaveland (45) ) marrying very meanly, with the helpe of his brother Grafton (22) , attempted to spirit away his wife . A Briefe was read in all Churches for relieving the French Protestants who came here for protection from the unheard-of cruelties of their King (47) .

Before 1691 . John Riley 1646-1691 (44) . Portrait of Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 .

Death of Catherine of Braganza Dowager Queen Consort

On 31 Dec 1705 Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (67) died some twenty years after her husband Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 .

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court . Affairs wore quite a different appearance at his second voyage. The joy for the restoration of the royal family still appeared in all parts. The nation, fond of change and novelty, tasted the pleasure of a natural government, and seemed to breathe again after a long oppression. In short, the same people who, by a solemn abjuration, had excluded even the posterity of their lawful sovereign, exhausted themselves in festivals and rejoicings for his return.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court . The necessity of affairs had exposed Charles II from his earliest youth to the toils and perils of a bloody war. The fate of the king his father had left him for inheritance nothing but his misfortunes and disgraces. They overtook him everywhere; but it was not until he had struggled with his ill-fortune to the last extremity that he submitted to the decrees of Providence.
All those who were either great on account of their birth or their loyalty had followed him into exile; and all the young persons of the greatest distinction having afterwards joined him, composed a court worthy of a better fate.
Plenty and prosperity, which are thought to tend only to corrupt manners, found nothing to spoil in an indigent and wandering court. Necessity, on the contrary, which produces a thousand advantages whether we will or no, served them for education; and nothing was to be seen among them but an emulation in glory, politeness, and virtue.
With this little court, in such high esteem for merit, the King of England returned two years prior to the period we mention, to ascend a throne which, to all appearances, he was to fill as worthily as the most glorious of his predecessors. The magnificence displayed on thus occasion was renewed at his coronation.
The death of the Duke of Gloucester , and of the Princess Royal , which followed soon after, had interrupted the course of this splendour by a tedious mourning, which they quitted at last to prepare for the reception of the Infanta of Portugal .

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court . Curiosity to see a man equally famous for his crimes and his elevation, had once before induced the Chevalier de Grammont to visit England. Reasons of state assume great privileges. Whatever appears advantageous is lawful, and every thing that is necessary is honourable in politics. While the King of England sought the protection of Spain in the Low Countries, and that of the States-General in Holland, other powers sent splendid embassies to Cromwell .

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court . It was in the height of the rejoicings they were making for this new queen , in all the splendour of a brilliant court, that the Chevalier de Grammont arrived to contribute to its magnificence and diversions.
Accustomed as he was to the grandeur of the court of France, he was surprised at the politeness and splendour of the court of England. The king was inferior to none, either in shape or air; his wit was pleasant; his disposition easy and affable; his soul, susceptible of opposite impressions, was compassionate to the unhappy, inflexible to the wicked, and tender even to excess; he showed great abilities in urgent affairs, but was incapable of application to any that were not so: his heart was often the dupe, but oftener the slave, of his engagements.
The character of the Duke of York was entirely different he had the reputation of undaunted courage, an inviolable attachment for his word, great economy in his affairs, hauteur, application, arrogance, each in their turn: a scrupulous observer of the rules of duty and the laws of justice; he was accounted a faithful friend, and an implacable enemy.
His morality and justice, struggling for some time with prejudice, had at last triumphed, by his acknowledging for his wife Miss Hyde , maid of honour to the Princess Royal , whom he had secretly married in Holland. Her father , from that time prime minister of England, supported by this new interest, soon rose to the head of affairs, and had almost ruined them: not that he wanted capacity, but he was too self-sufficient.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court . The Duke of Ormond’s sons and his nephews had been in the king’s court during his exile, and were far from diminishing its lustre after his return. The Earl of Arran had a singular address in all kinds of exercises, played well at tennis and on the guitar, and was pretty successful in gallantry: his elder brother, the Earl of Ossory , was not so lively, but of the most liberal sentiments, and of great probity.

Spencer Compton 2nd Earl Northampton 1601-1643 was appointed as Master of the Robes to the Prince of Wales .

Memoirs of Jean Francois Paul de Gondi Cardinal de Retz Book 1 . The Prince de Conde was enraged at the declaration published by the Prince de Conti and M. de Longueville , which cast the Court, then at Saint Germain, into such a despair that the Cardinal was upon the point of retiring. I was abused there without mercy, as appeared by a letter sent to Madame de Longueville from the Princess, her mother , in which I read this sentence: “They rail here plentifully against the Coadjutor, whom yet I cannot forbear thanking for what he has done for the poor Queen of England .” This circumstance is very curious. You must know that a few days before the King left Paris I visited the Queen of England , whom I found in the apartment of her daughter , since Madame d’Orleans. “You see, monsieur,” said the Queen , “I come here to keep Henriette company; the poor child has lain in bed all day for want of a fire.” The truth is, the Cardinal having stopped the Queen’s pension six months, tradesmen were unwilling to give her credit, and there was not a chip of wood in the house. You may be sure I took care that a Princess of Great Britain should not be confined to her bed next day, for want of a fagot; and a few days after I exaggerated the scandal of this desertion, and the Parliament sent the Queen a present of 40,000 livres. Posterity will hardly believe that the Queen of England , granddaughter of Henri the Great , wanted a fagot to light a fire in the month of January, in the Louvre, and at the Court of France. Note. daughter of Henry IV King France 1553-1610 if he is referring to Henrietta Queen Consort of England.
There are many passages in history less monstrous than this which make us shudder, and this mean action of the Court made so little impression upon the minds of the generality of the people at that time that I have reflected a thousand times since that we are far more moved at the hearing of old stories than of those of the present time; we are not shocked at what we see with our own eyes, and I question whether our surprise would be as great as we imagine at the story of Caligula’s promoting his horse to the dignity of a consul were he and his horse now living.

Around 1672 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (53) . Postumous portrait of Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670 Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (55) Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

Andrew Marvell Letter to a friend 1671 . The King having, upon pretence of the great preparations of his neighbours, demanded three hundred thousand pounds for his navy, (though in conclusion he hath not sent out any) and that the Parliament should pay his debts, which the ministers would never particularize to the House of Commons, our house gave several bills. You see how far things were stretched beyond reason, there being no satisfaction how these debts were contracted, and all men foreseeing that what was given would not be applied to discharge the debts, which I hear are at this day risen to four millions.
Nevertheless, such was the number of the constant courtiers, increased by the apostate patriots, who were bought off for that turn, some at six, others at ten, one at fifteen thousand pounds, in money; besides which, offices, lands, and reversions to others, that it is a mercy they gave not away the whole land and liberty of England. The Duke of Buckingham is again one hundred and forty thousand pounds in debt, and, by this prorogation, his creditors have time to tear all his lands in pieces. The House of Commons have run almost to the end of their time, and are grown extremely chargeable to the King , and odious to the people. They have signed and sealed ten thousand pounds a-year more to the Duchess of Cleveland , who has likewise ten thousand pounds out of the excise of beer and ale; five thousand pounds a year out of the post-office; and, they say, the reversion of all the king's leases, the reversion of all the places in the Customhouse, and, indeed, what not? All promotions, spiritual and temporal, pass under her cognizance.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Stewart

Descendants Family Trees:

James VI King Scotland I King England Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 22 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 14 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd 1100-1170

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 20 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth 880-950

Kings Powys: Great x 15 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132

Kings England: Son of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649

Kings Scotland: Grand Son of James VI King Scotland I King England Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625

Kings Franks: Great x 13 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Grand Son of Henry IV King France 1553-1610

Ancestry

Father: Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 Son of James VI King Scotland I King England Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625


GrandFather: James VI King Scotland I King England Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625 Great x 2 Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great GrandFather: Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 Great Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 2 GrandFather: Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox 1516-1571 Great x 4 Grandson of Edward III King England 1312-1377


Great x 3 GrandFather: John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 1490-1526 Great x 5 Grandson of Edward III King England 1312-1377


Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabel or Elizabeth Stewart Countess Lennox 1495-1564 Great x 3 Granddaughter of Edward III King England 1312-1377


Great x 2 GrandMother: Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox 1515-1578 Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 3 GrandFather: Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 1489-1557 Great x 10 Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216


Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 Daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great GrandMother: Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 2 GrandFather: James V King Scotland 1512-1542 Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 3 GrandFather: James IV King Scotland 1473-1513 Great x 4 Grandson of Edward III King England 1312-1377


Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 Daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 2 GrandMother: Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 Great x 6 Granddaughter of Edward III King England 1312-1377


Great x 3 GrandFather: Claude Lorraine 1st Duke Guise 1496-1550 Great x 7 Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


Great x 3 GrandMother: Antoinette Bourbon 1493-1583 Great x 5 Granddaughter of Edward III King England 1312-1377


GrandMother: Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619


Great GrandFather: Frederick II King Denmark 1534-1588


Great x 2 GrandFather: Christian III King Denmark 1503-1559


Great x 3 GrandFather: Frederick I King Denmark 1471-1533


Mother: Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 Great x 8 Granddaughter of Edward III King England 1312-1377


GrandFather: Henry IV King France 1553-1610 Great x 7 Grandson of Edward III King England 1312-1377


Great GrandFather: Antoine King Navarre 1518-1562 Great x 6 Grandson of Edward III King England 1312-1377


Great x 2 GrandFather: Charles Bourbon Duke Vendôme 1489-1537 Great x 5 Grandson of Edward III King England 1312-1377


Great x 3 GrandFather: Francis Bourbon Count Vendôme 1470-1495 Great x 8 Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189


Great x 3 GrandMother: Marie Luxembourg Count Vendôme Great x 4 Granddaughter of Edward III King England 1312-1377


Great x 2 GrandMother: Françoise Valois-Alençon Count Vendôme Great x 6 Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandFather: Rene Valois-Alençon Duke Alençon 1454-1492 Great x 5 Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Lorraine Duchess Alençon 1463-1521 Great x 7 Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great GrandMother: Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre 1528-1572 Great x 8 Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry II King Navarre 1503-1555 Great x 8 Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandFather: Jean III King Navarre 1469-1516 Great x 10 Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189


Great x 3 GrandMother: Catherine Grailly I Queen Navarre -1517 Great x 7 Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 2 GrandMother: Marguerite Valois-Orleans Queen Consort Navarre 1492-1549 Great x 7 Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandFather: Charles Valois-Orleans Count Angoulême 1459-1496 Great x 6 Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandMother: Louise Savoy Count Angoulême


GrandMother: Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 1575-1642


Great GrandFather: Francesco I de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany 1541-1587


Great x 2 GrandFather: Cosimo I de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany 1519-1574


Great x 3 GrandFather: Lodovico de Medici aka Giovanni delle Bande Nere 1498-1526