Biography of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701

1626 English Coronation of Charles I

1649 Execution of Charles I

1651 Charles II Crowned King Scotland

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1662 Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1666 Four Days' Battle

1671 Woodcock and Flatfoot Race at Newmarket

1672 Battle of Solebay

1673 1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

1673 Test Act

1676 Treaty of Nimeguen

1677 Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

1682 Sinking of HMS Gloucester

1683 Rye House Plot

1683 Popish Plot

1683 Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1685 Coronation James II and Mary

1685 Argyll's Rising

1688 Test Act

1688 Seven Bishops

1688 Glorious Revolution

1688 Battle of Reading

1688 Abdication of James II

1689 Act of Poll

1689 Coronation William III and Mary II

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1694 Death of Queen Mary II

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1701 Death of King James II


Family Trees

Descent

Ancestry

In 1605 [his father] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (4) was created 1st Duke York (4C 1605).

Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.

English Coronation of Charles I

On 02 Feb 1626 [his father] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (25) was crowned I King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart at Westminster Abbey. His wife [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (16) was not crowned since she being Catholic refused to attend an Anglican service. She watched Charles at a discreet distance.
Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (52) carried the Orb. Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (3) bore the Second Sword of State. Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke, 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (41) carried the Spurs. Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 (48) bore the Rod with the Dove.
William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire 1617-1684 (8),James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651 (19), Roger Palmer 1577-1657 (49) and Mildmay Fane 2nd Earl Westmoreland 1602-1666 (24), John Maynard 1592-1658 (34) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

Around 1580 based on a work of 1565.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (6) wearing his Garter Collar and holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

Around 1615 Unknown Artist. Posthumous portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke, 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (30) wearing his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

Around 1647. Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (28). Portrait of William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire 1617-1684 (29) although the painting says somewhat curiously 2nd Earl Devonshire.

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (35). Portrait of James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651 (27) and Charlotte Thouars Countess Derby 1599-1664 (35) and their daughter.

On 14 Oct 1633 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 was born to [his father] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) and [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (23) at St James's Palace.

After 14 Oct 1633 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 was created 1st Duke York (5C 1633).

On 02 May 1641 William Orange-Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (14) and [his sister] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (9) were married.

In 1642 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (8) was appointed 439th Knight of the Garter: Charles I.

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 [his father] Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

John Evelyn's Diary 1649 September. 13th September, 1649. The [his brother] King (19) invited the Prince of Condé (28) to supper at St. Cloud; there I kissed the Duke of York's (15) hand in the tennis court, where I saw a famous match between Monsieur Saumeurs and Colonel Cooke, and so returned to Paris. It was noised about that I was knighted, a dignity I often declined.

Charles II Crowned King Scotland

On 01 Jan 1651 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (20) was crowned II King Scotland: Stewart at Scone Abbey, Scone.

John Evelyn's Diary 1651 September. 28th September, 1651. I was shown a collection of books and prints made for the Duke of York (17).

John Evelyn's Diary 1651 December. 25th December, 1651. The [his brother] King (21) and Duke (18) received the Sacrament first by themselves, the Lords Byron (52) and Wilmot (39) holding the long towel all along the altar.

John Evelyn's Diary 1657 January. 7th January, 1657. Came Mr. Matthew Wren (28) (since secretary to the Duke (23)), slain in the Dutch war, eldest son to the Bishop of Ely (71), now a prisoner in the Tower; a most worthy and honored gentleman.

On 13 May 1659 [his brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (18) was created 1st Duke Gloucester (4C 1659), 1st Earl Cambridge (5C 1659).

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 June. 4th June, 1660. I received letters of Sir Richard Browne's (55) landing at Dover, and also letters from the Queen (50), which I was to deliver at Whitehall, not as yet presenting myself to his [his brother] Majesty (30), by reason of the infinite concourse of people. The eagerness of men, women, and children, to see his Majesty (30), and kiss his hands, was so great, that he had scarce leisure to eat for some days, coming as they did from all parts of the nation; and the King (30) being as willing to give them that satisfaction, would have none kept out, but gave free access to all sorts of people.
Addressing myself to the Duke (26), I was carried to his Majesty (30), when very few noblemen were with him, and kissed his hands, being very graciously received. I then returned home, to meet Sir Richard Browne (55), who came not till the 8th, after nineteen years exile, during all which time he kept up in his chapel the Liturgy and Offices of the Church of England, to his no small honor, and in a time when it was so low, and as many thought utterly lost, that in various controversies both with Papists and Sectaries, our divines used to argue for the visibility of the Church, from his chapel and congregation.
I was all this week to and fro at court about business.

On 03 Sep 1660 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (26) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) were married in secret. Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) by marriage Duchess York (5C 1633).

On 13 Sep 1660 [his brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (20) died of smallpox. On 21 Sep 1660 Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (20) was buried at South Side Henry VII Chapel, Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 October. 7th October, 1660. There dined with me a French count, with Sir George Tuke, who came to take leave of me, being sent over to the Queen-Mother (50), to break the marriage of the Duke (26) with the [his wife] [his wife] daughter (23) of Chancellor Hyde (51). The Queen (50) would fain have undone it; but it seems matters were reconciled, on great offers of the Chancellor's (51) to befriend the Queen (50), who was much in debt, and was now to have the settlement of her affairs go through his hands.

On 22 Oct 1660 [his son] Charles Stewart 1660-1661 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (27) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) at Worcester House, Worcester Park, Sutton.

On 24 Dec 1660 [his sister] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (29) died of smallpox.

Coronation of Charles II

On 22 Apr 1661 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) rode from the Tower of London to Whitehall Palace. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".
Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.
At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.
The procession included the Duke of York (27), the Lord High Constable (58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain
The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond, 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

On 23 Apr 1661 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart at Westminster Abbey.
John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44),Francis Fane -1691 and Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) were appointed Knight of the Bath.
Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (55) was knighted.
Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland 1644-1670 (16) attended.

On 05 May 1661 [his son] Charles Stewart 1660-1661 died of smallpox at Whitehall Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 October. 1st October, 1661. I sailed this morning with his [his brother] Majesty (31) in one of his yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels not known among us till the Dutch East India Company presented that curious piece to the King (31); being very excellent sailing vessels. It was on a wager between his other new pleasure boat, built frigate-like, and one of the Duke of York's (27); the wager £100; the race from Greenwich to Gravesend and back. The King (31) lost it going, the wind being contrary, but saved stakes in returning. There were divers noble persons and lords on board, his Majesty (31) sometimes steering himself. His barge and kitchen boat attended. I brake fast this morning with the King (31) at return in his smaller vessel, he being pleased to take me and only four more, who were noblemen, with him; but dined in his yacht, where we all ate together with his Majesty (31). In this passage he was pleased to discourse to me about my book inveighing against the nuisance of the smoke of London, and proposing expedients how, by removing those particulars I mentioned, it might be reformed; commanding me to prepare a Bill against the next session of Parliament, being, as he said, resolved to have something done in it. Then he discoursed to me of the improvement of gardens and buildings, now very rare in England comparatively to other countries. He then commanded me to draw up the matter of fact happening at the bloody encounter which then had newly happened between the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the Tower, contending for precedency, at the reception of the Swedish Ambassador; giving me orders to consult Sir William Compton (36), Master of the Ordnance, to inform me of what he knew of it, and with his favorite, Sir Charles Berkeley (31), captain of the Duke's life guard, then present with his troop and three foot companies; with some other reflections and instructions, to be prepared with a declaration to take off the reports which went about of his Majesty's (31) partiality in the affairs, and of his officers' and spectators' rudeness while the conflict lasted. So I came home that night, and went next morning to London, where from the officers of the Tower, Sir William Compton (36), Sir Charles Berkeley (31), and others who were attending at this meeting of the Ambassadors three days before, having collected what I could, I drew up a Narrative in vindication of his Majesty (31), and the carriage of his officers and standers-by.
On Thursday his Majesty (31) sent one of the pages of the back stairs for me to wait on him with my papers, in his cabinet where was present only Sir Henry Bennett (43) (Privy-Purse), when beginning to read to his Majesty (31) what I had drawn up, by the time I had read half a page, came in Mr. Secretary Morice with a large paper, desiring to speak with his Majesty (31), who told him he was now very busy, and therefore ordered him to come again some other time; the Secretary replied that what he had in his hand was of extraordinary importance. So the King (31) rose up, and, commanding me to stay, went aside to a corner of the room with the Secretary; after a while, the Secretary being dispatched, his Majesty (31) returning to me at the table, a letter was brought him from Madame out of France;68 this he read and then bid me proceed from where I left off. This I did till I had ended all the narrative, to his Majesty's (31) great satisfaction; and, after I had inserted one or two more clauses, in which his Majesty (31) instructed me, commanded that it should that night be sent to the posthouse, directed to the Lord Ambassador at Paris (the Earl of St. Alban's), and then at leisure to prepare him a copy, which he would publish. This I did, and immediately sent my papers to the Secretary of State, with his Majesty's (31) express command of dispatching them that night for France. Before I went out of the King (31)'s closet, he called me back to show me some ivory statues, and other curiosities that I had not seen before.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 December. 4th December, 1661. I had much discourse with the Duke of York (28), concerning strange cures he affirmed of a woman who swallowed a whole ear of barley, which worked out at her side. I told him of the KNIFE SWALLOWED and the pins.
I took leave of the Bishop of Cape Verd, now going in the fleet to bring over our new Queen (23).

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 December. 23d December, 1661. I heard an Italian play and sing to the guitar with extraordinary skill before the Duke (28).

John Evelyn's Diary 1662 January. 12th January, 1662. At St. James's chapel preached, or rather harangued, the famous orator, Monsieur Morus, in French. There were present the [his brother] King (31), Duke (28), French Ambassador, Lord Aubigny (42), Earl of Bristol (49), and a world of Roman Catholics, drawn thither to hear this eloquent Protestant.

John Evelyn's Diary 1662 January. 16th January, 1662. Having notice of the Duke of York's (28) intention to visit my poor habitation and garden this day, I returned, when he was pleased to do me that honor of his own accord, and to stay some time viewing such things as I had to entertain his curiosity. Afterward he caused me to dine with him at the Treasurer of the Navy's house, and to sit with him covered at the same table. There were his Highness (28), the Duke of Ormond (51), and several Lords. Then they viewed some of my grounds about a project for a receptacle for ships to be moored in, which was laid aside as a fancy of Sir Nicholas Crisp (63). After this, I accompanied the Duke (28) to an East India vessel that lay at Blackwall, where we had entertainment of several curiosities. Among other spirituous drinks, as punch, etc., they gave us Canary that had been carried to and brought from the Indies, which was indeed incomparably good. I returned to London with his Highness (28). This night was acted before his [his brother] Majesty (31) "The Widow," a lewd play.

On 30 Apr 1662 [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (28) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (25) at St James's Palace.

Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

On 21 May 1662 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) were married at Portsmouth. Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) by marriage Queen Consort England.

John Evelyn's Diary 1663 January. 10th January, 1663. I saw a ball again at Court, danced by the [his brother] King (32), the Duke (29), and ladies, in great pomp.

On 12 Jul 1663 [his son] James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (29) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (26) at St James's Palace.

In 1664 [his son] James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667 was created 1st Duke Cambridge (1C 1664).

Battle of Lowestoft

In 1665 Henry Brouncker 3rd Viscount Brounckner 1627-1688 (38) was elected MP New Romney which seat he held until 21 Apr 1668 when he was expelled from the House of Commons when charges were brought against him, for allowing the Dutch fleet to escape during the Battle of Lowestoft, and for ordering the sails of the English fleet to be slackened in the name of the Duke of York (31). This was essentially an act of treason. Such a military decision, taken without the Duke's (31) authority, was an incident seemingly without parallel, especially as his apparent motive was simply that he was fatigued with the stress and noise of the battle.

In 1665 John Denham Poet 1615-1669 (50) and Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667 (25) were married. She, thereafter, conducted a very public affair with the future King James II (31). To her husband's mortification, she insisted on being acknowledged publicly as a Royal mistress, saying that she would not, unlike her predecessor Goditha Price "go up and down the back stairs".

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667 (24). One of the Windsor Beauties.

In 1665 Henry Savile 1642-1687 (23) was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to the Duke of York (31).

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Around 1665 Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (16) became the mistress of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31).

On 06 Feb 1665 [his daughter] Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27) at St James's Palace at 11:39pm being their fourth child and second daughter. She was baptised Anglican in the Chapel Royal with her elder sister [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (2) being Godparent as well as Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (13) and Gilbert Sheldon Archbishop of Canterbury 1598-1677 (66).

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 April. 20 Apr 1665. To Whitehall, to the [his brother] King (34), who called me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to me from the Duke of York (31) from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty (34) how he would have me treat them, when he commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (47) (the Secretary Bennet lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord Chancellor's (56); none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe (69), formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.

Battle of Lowestoft

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 08 Jun 1665. I went again to his Grace, thence to the Council, and moved for another privy seal for £20,000, and that I might have the disposal of the Savoy Hospital for the sick and wounded; all which was granted. Hence to the Royal Society, to refresh among the philosophers.
Came news of his [his brother] highness's (35) victory, which indeed might have been a complete one, and at once ended the war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I got to Rochester this evening. Next day I lay at Deal, where I found all in readiness: but, the fleet being hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, and went to Dover, and returned to Deal; and on the 13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and lay at Chatham, and on the 14th, I got home. On the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of State to the French King, with much other company, to dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave his Majesty (35) an account of my journey to the coasts under my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness (31), now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See the whole history of this conflict in my "History of the Dutch War.".

On 13 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31), Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.
Richard Boyle -1665 was killed.
Charles Maccarthy 2nd Earl Clancarty -1666 was killed. His son Callaghan Maccarthy 3rd Earl Clancarty -1676 succeeded 3rd Earl Clancarty (1C 1658).
Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth 1630-1665 (35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the HMS Royal Charles. His father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (65) succeeded 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.
Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland 1639-1665 (26) was killed by a cannon shot. On 13 Jun 1665 His uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl of Portland 1609-1688 (55) succeeded 4th Earl of Portland (1C 1633).
Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685 (53) was present.
Admiral Jeremy Smith -1675 commanded the HMS Mary.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 20 Jun 1665. To London, and represented the state of the sick and wounded to [his brother] His Majesty (35) in Council, for want of money, he ordered I should apply to My Lord Treasurer (58) and Chancellor of the Exchequer (43), upon what funds to raise the money promised. We also presented to his Majesty (35) divers expedients for retrenchment of the charge.
This evening making my court to the Duke (31), I spake to Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, and his Highness (31) granted me six prisoners, Embdeners, who were desirous to go to the Barbadoes with a merchant.

Battle of Lowestoft

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 23 Jun 1665. I dined with Sir Robert Paston (34), since Earl of Yarmouth, and saw the Duke of Verneuille, base brother to the Queen-Mother (55), a handsome old man, a great hunter.
The Duke of York (31) told us that, when we were in fight, his dog sought out absolutely the very securest place in all the vessel. In the afternoon, I saw the pompous reception and audience of El Conde de Molino, the Spanish Ambassador, in the Banqueting-house, both their Majesties [Note. [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (35) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26)] sitting together under the canopy of state.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 30 Jun 1665. To Chatham; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord Sandwich (39), now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke (31), and Prince Rupert (45). Here I saw the [his brother] King (35) knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty (35), who there held a General Council, which determined that his Royal Highness (35) should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's (35) yacht with my Lord Sandwich (39) and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham on Sunday morning.

On 03 Sep 1665 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (28) were married.

Four Days' Battle

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 04 Jul 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an excellent discourse before the [his brother] King (36) on the terrors of God's judgments. After sermon, I waited on my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (49) and Bishop of Winchester (47), where the Dean of Westminster (31) spoke to me about putting into my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable people of Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick and wounded seamen since the battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's (57) to joy him of his Royal Highness's (32) second [his son] son, now born at St. James's; and to desire the use of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, Painters' Hall, Queenhithe not being so convenient.

On 04 Jul 1666 [his son] Charles Stewart 1st Duke Kendal 1666-1667 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (32) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (29) at St James's Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 06 Sep 1666. Thursday. I represented to his [his brother] Majesty (36) the case of the French prisoners at war in my custody, and besought him that there might be still the same care of watching at all places contiguous to unseized houses. It is not indeed imaginable how extraordinary the vigilance and activity of the King (36) and the Duke (32) was, even laboring in person, and being present to command, order, reward, or encourage workmen; by which he showed his affection to his people, and gained theirs. Having, then, disposed of some under cure at the Savoy, I returned to Whitehall, where I dined at Mr. Offley's [Note. Not clear who Mr Offley is? John Evelyn's (45) brother George Evelyn of Wotton 1617-1699 (49) was married to Mary Offley -1664], the groom-porter, who was my relation.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 13 Sep 1666. I presented his [his brother] Majesty (36) with a survey of the ruins, and a plot for a new city, with a discourse on it; whereupon, after dinner, his Majesty (36) sent for me into the Queen's (27) bed-chamber, her Majesty (27) and the Duke (32) only being present. They examined each particular, and discoursed on them for near an hour, seeming to be extremely pleased with what I had so early thought on. The Queen (27) was now in her cavalier riding-habit, hat and feather, and horseman's coat, going to take the air.

In 1667 [his daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (33) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (29).

In 1667 [his son] Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1667-1671 was created 1st Duke Cambridge (2C 1667).

In 1667 [his brother] King Chales II (36), his brother James (33), Prince Rupert (47) and James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (17) dined with Richard Neville 1615-1676 (51) at Billingbear House, Waltham St Lawrence.

On 06 Jan 1667 Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667 (27) died. She was rumoured to have been poisoned by her husband John Denham Poet 1615-1669 (52) by giving her a poisoned cup of chocolate. In any case rumour named several other possible poisoners, including her former lover James (33), his wife [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde (29) and his sister-in-law, Lady Rochester (21).

On 22 May 1667 [his son] Charles Stewart 1st Duke Kendal 1666-1667 died.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 June. 08 Jun 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen on our fleet at Chatham, by a most audacious enterprise, entering the very river with part of their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but incredible mischief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at anchor and moored there, and all this through our unaccountable negligence in not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even to London (which they might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in the river, too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., from my house to another place. The alarm was so great that it put both country and city into fear, panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more; everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, there were land forces dispatched with the Duke of Albemarle (58), Lord Middleton (59), Prince Rupert (47), and the Duke (33), to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, fortifying Upnor Castle, and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute enemy broke through all, and set fire on our ships, and retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the rest of the fleet lying before the mouth of it.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Bridge, with the Lord Mayor's Procession on the Thames.

Around 1754. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Eton College with the new Eton College Chapel, Eton College visible in white stone and the original Tudor buildings in red brick.

On 20 Jun 1667 [his son] James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667 (3) died at Richmond Palace, Richmond. He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

On 15 Sep 1667 [his son] Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1667-1671 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (33) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (30).

John Evelyn's Diary 1668 May. 13 May 1668. Invited by that expert commander, Captain Cox, master of the lately built "Charles II" now the best vessel of the fleet, designed for the Duke of York (34), I went to Erith, where we had a great dinner.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 02 May 1669. Lord’s Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there visit my Lord Sandwich (43), who, after about two months’ absence at Hinchingbroke, come to town last night. I saw him, and very kind; and I am glad he is so, I having not wrote to him all the time, my eyes indeed not letting me. Here with Sir Charles Herbert [Harbord] (29), and my Lord Hinchingbroke (21), and Sidney, we looked upon the picture of Tangier, designed by Charles Herbert [Harbord] (29), and drawn by Dancre, which my Lord Sandwich admires, as being the truest picture that ever he’s saw in his life: and it is indeed very pretty, and I will be at the cost of having one of them. Thence with them to White Hall, and there walked out the sermon, with one or other; and then saw the Duke of York (35) after sermon, and he talked to me a little; and so away back by water home, and after dinner got my wife (28) to read, and then by coach, she and I, to the Park, and there spent the evening with much pleasure, it proving clear after a little shower, and we mighty fine as yesterday, and people mightily pleased with our coach, as I perceived; but I had not on my fine suit, being really afeard to wear it, it being so fine with the gold lace, though not gay. So home and to supper, and my wife (28) to read, and Tom, my Nepotisme, and then to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 03 May 1669. Up, and by coach to my Lord Brouncker’s (49), where Sir G. Carteret (59) did meet Sir J. Minnes (70) and me, to discourse upon Mr. Deering’s (43) business, who was directed, in the time of the war, to provide provisions at Hamburgh, by Sir G. Carteret’s (59) direction; and now G. Carteret (59) is afeard to own it, it being done without written order. But by our meeting we do all begin to recollect enough to preserve Mr. Deering (43), I think, which, poor silly man! I shall be glad of, it being too much he should suffer for endeavouring to serve us. Thence to St. James’s, where the Duke of York (35) was playing in the Pell Mell; and so he called me to him most part of the time that he played, which was an hour, and talked alone to me; and, among other things, tells me how the [his brother] King (38) will not yet be got to name anybody in the room of Pen (48), but puts it off for three or four days; from whence he do collect that they are brewing something for the Navy, but what he knows not; but I perceive is vexed that things should go so, and he hath reason; for he told me that it is likely they will do in this as in other things — resolve first, and consider it and the fitness of it afterward. Thence to White Hall, and met with Creed, and I took him to the Harp and Balls, and there drank a cup of ale, he and I alone, and discoursed of matters; and I perceive by him that he makes no doubt but that all will turn to the old religion, for these people cannot hold things in their hands, nor prevent its coming to that; and by his discourse fits himself for it, and would have my Lord Sandwich (43) do so, too, and me. After a little talk with him, and particularly about the ruinous condition of Tangier, which I have a great mind to lay before the Duke of York (35), before it be too late, but dare not, because of his great kindness to Lord Middleton (61), we parted, and I homeward; but called at Povy’s (55), and there he stopped me to dinner, there being Mr. Williamson (35), the Lieutenant of the Tower, Mr. Childe (38), and several others. And after dinner, Povy (55) and I together to talk of Tangier; and he would have me move the Duke of York (35) in it, for it concerns him particularly, more than any, as being the head of us; and I do think to do it. Thence home, and at the office busy all the afternoon, and so to supper and to bed.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Wednesday 05 May 1669. Up, and thought to have gone with Lord Brouncker (49) to Mr. Hooke (33) this morning betimes; but my Lord is taken ill of the gout, and says his new lodgings have infected him, he never having had any symptoms of it till now. So walked to Gresham College, to tell Hooke (33) that my Lord could not come; and so left word, he being abroad, and I to St. James’s, and thence, with the Duke of York (35), to White Hall, where the Board waited on him all the morning: and so at noon with Sir Thomas Allen (57), and Sir Edward Scott, and Lord Carlingford (66), to the Spanish Embassador’s (49), where I dined the first time. The Olio not so good as Sheres’s. There was at the table himself (49) and a Spanish Countess, a good, comely, and witty lady — three Fathers and us. Discourse good and pleasant. And here was an Oxford scholar in a Doctor of Law’s gowne, sent from the College where the Embassador lay, when the Court was there, to salute him before his return to Spain: This man, though a gentle sort of scholar, yet sat like a fool for want of French or Spanish, but [knew] only Latin, which he spoke like an Englishman to one of the Fathers. And by and by he and I to talk, and the company very merry at my defending Cambridge against Oxford: and I made much use of my French and Spanish here, to my great content. But the dinner not extraordinary at all, either for quantity or quality. Thence home, where my wife (28) ill of those upon the maid’s bed, and troubled at my being abroad. So I to the office, and there till night, and then to her (28), and she read to me the Epistle of Cassandra, which is very good indeed; and the better to her, because recommended by Sheres. So to supper, and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 07 May 1669. Up, and by coach to W. Coventry’s (41); and there to talk with him a great deal with great content; and so to the Duke of York (35), having a great mind to speak to him about Tangier; but, when I come to it, his interest for my Lord Middleton (61)Excise Office, having by private vows last night in prayer to God Almighty cleared my mind for the present of the thoughts of going to Deb. (18) at Greenwich, which I did long after. I passed by Guildhall, which is almost finished, and saw a poor labourer carried by, I think, dead with a fall, as many there are, I hear. So home to dinner, and then to the office a little, and so to see my Lord Brouncker (49), who is a little ill of the gout; and there Madam Williams told me that she heard that my wife (28) was going into France this year, which I did not deny, if I can get time, and I pray God I may. But I wondering how she come to know it, she tells me a woman that my wife (28) spoke to for a maid, did tell her so, and that a lady that desires to go thither would be glad to go in her company. Thence with my wife (28) abroad, with our coach, most pleasant weather; and to Hackney, and into the marshes, where I never was before, and thence round about to Old Ford and Bow; and coming through the latter home, there being some young gentlewomen at a door, and I seeming not to know who they were, my wife’s (28) jealousy told me presently that I knew well enough it was that damned place where Deb. (18) dwelt, which made me swear very angrily that it was false, as it was, and I carried [her] back again to see the place, and it proved not so, so I continued out of humour a good while at it, she being willing to be friends, so I was by and by, saying no more of it. So home, and there met with a letter from Captain Silas Taylor (44), and, with it, his written copy of a play that he hath wrote, and intends to have acted. — It is called "The Serenade or Disappointment," which I will read, not believing he can make any good of that kind. He did once offer to show Harris (35) it, but Harris (35) told him that he would judge by one Act whether it were good or no, which is indeed a foolish saying, and we see them out themselves in the choice of a play after they have read the whole, it being sometimes found not fit to act above three times; nay, and some that have been refused at one house is found a good one at the other. This made Taylor (44) say he would not shew it him, but is angry, and hath carried it to the other house, and he thinks it will be acted there, though he tells me they are not yet agreed upon it. But I will find time to get it read to me, and I did get my wife (28) to begin a little to-night in the garden, but not so much as I could make any judgment of it. So home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Saturday 08 May 1669. Up, and to the Office, and there comes Lead to me, and at last my vizards are done, and glasses got to put in and out, as I will; and I think I have brought it to the utmost, both for easiness of using and benefit, that I can; and so I paid him 15s. for what he hath done now last, in the finishing them, and they, I hope, will do me a great deal of ease. At the Office all the morning, and this day, the first time, did alter my side of the table, after above eight years sitting on that next the fire. But now I am not able to bear the light of the windows in my eyes, I do begin there, and I did sit with much more content than I had done on the other side for a great while, and in winter the fire will not trouble my back. At noon home to dinner, and after dinner all the afternoon within, with Mr. Hater, Gibson, and W. Hewer (27), reading over and drawing up new things in the Instructions of Commanders, which will be good, and I hope to get them confirmed by the Duke of York (35), though I perceive nothing will effectually perfect them but to look over the whole body of the Instructions, of all the Officers of a ship, and make them all perfect together. This being done, comes my bookseller, and brings me home bound my collection of papers, about my Addresse to the Duke of York (35) in August, which makes me glad, it being that which shall do me more right many years hence than, perhaps, all I ever did in my life: and therefore I do, both for my own and the [his brother] King (38)’s sake, value it much. By and by also comes Browne, the mathematical instrument maker, and brings me home my instrument for perspective, made according to the description of Dr. Wren’s in the late Transactions; and he hath made it, I think, very well, and that, that I believe will do the thing, and therein gives me great content; but have I fear all the content that must be received by my eyes is almost lost. So to the office, and there late at business, and then home to supper and to bed.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715 (47).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 10 May 1669. Troubled, about three in the morning, with my wife’s (28) calling her maid up, and rising herself, to go with her coach abroad, to gather May-dew, which she did, and I troubled for it, for fear of any hurt, going abroad so betimes, happening to her; but I to sleep again, and she come home about six, and to bed again all well, and I up and with Mr. Gibson by coach to St. James’s, and thence to White Hall, where the Duke of York met the Office, and there discoursed of several things, particularly the Instructions of Commanders of ships. But here happened by chance a discourse of the Council of Trade, against which the Duke of York (35) is mightily displeased, and particularly Mr. Child (38), against whom he speaking hardly, Captain Cox did second the Duke of York (35), by saying that he was talked of for an unfayre dealer with masters of ships, about freight: to which Sir T. Littleton (48) very hotly and foolishly replied presently, that he never heard any honest man speak ill of Child (38); to which the Duke of York (35) did make a smart reply, and was angry; so as I was sorry to hear it come so far, and that I, by seeming to assent to Cox, might be observed too much by Littleton (48), though I said nothing aloud, for this must breed great heart-burnings. After this meeting done, the Duke of York (35) took the Treasurers into his closet to chide them, as Mr. Wren (45) tells me; for that my Lord Keeper (63) did last night at the Council say, when nobody was ready to say any thing against the constitution of the Navy, that he did believe the Treasurers of the Navy had something to say, which was very foul on their part, to be parties against us.
They being gone, Mr. Wren (45) [and I] took boat, thinking to dine with my Lord of Canterbury (70); but, when we come to Lambeth, the gate was shut, which is strictly done at twelve o’clock, and nobody comes in afterwards: so we lost our labour, and therefore back to White Hall, and thence walked my boy Jacke with me, to my Lord Crew (71), whom I have not seen since he was sick, which is eight months ago, I think and there dined with him: he is mightily broke. A stranger a country gentleman, was with him: and he pleased with my discourse accidentally about the decay of gentlemen’s families in the country, telling us that the old rule was, that a family might remain fifty miles from London one hundred years, one hundred miles from London two hundred years, and so farther, or nearer London more or less years. He also told us that he hath heard his father say, that in his time it was so rare for a country gentleman to come to London, that, when he did come, he used to make his will before he set out.
Thence: to St. James’s, and there met the Duke of York (35), who told me, with great content, that he did now think he should master our adversaries, for that the [his brother] King (38) did tell him that he was; satisfied in the constitution of the Navy, but that it was well to give these people leave to object against it, which they having not done, he did give order to give warrant to the Duke of York (35) to direct Sir Jeremy Smith to be a Commissioner of the Navy in the room of Pen (48); which, though he be an impertinent fellow, yet I am glad of it, it showing that the other side is not so strong as it was: and so, in plain terms, the Duke of York (35) did tell me, that they were every day losing ground; and particularly that he would take care to keep out Child (38): at all which I am glad, though yet I dare not think myself secure, as the King (38) may yet be wrought upon by these people to bring changes in our Office, and remove us, ere it be long. Thence I to White Hall, and there took boat to Westminster, and to Mrs. Martin’s, who is not come to town from her husband at Portsmouth. So drank only at Cragg’s with Doll, and so to the Swan, and there baiser a new maid that is there, and so to White Hall again, to a Committee of Tangier, where I see all things going to rack in the business of the Corporation, and consequently in the place, by Middleton’s (61) going. Thence walked a little with Creed, who tells me he hears how fine my horses and coach are, and advises me to avoid being noted for it, which I was vexed to hear taken notice of, it being what I feared and Povy (55) told me of my gold-lace sleeves in the Park yesterday, which vexed me also, so as to resolve never to appear in Court with them, but presently to have them taken off, as it is fit I should, and so to my wife (28) at Unthanke’s, and coach, and so called at my tailor’s to that purpose, and so home, and after a little walk in the garden, home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 14 May 1669. Up, and to St. James’s to the Duke of York (35), and thence to White Hall, where we met about office business, and then at noon with Mr. Wren (45) to Lambeth, to dinner with the Archbishop of Canterbury (70); the first time I was ever there and I have long longed for it; where a noble house, and well furnished with good pictures and furniture, and noble attendance in good order, and great deal of company, though an ordinary day; and exceeding great cheer, no where better, or so much, that ever I think I saw, for an ordinary table: and the Bishop (70) mighty kind to me, particularly desiring my company another time, when less company there. Most of the company gone, and I going, I heard by a gentleman of a sermon that was to be there; and so I staid to hear it, thinking it serious, till by and by the gentleman told me it was a mockery, by one Cornet Bolton, a very gentleman-like man, that behind a chair did pray and preach like a Presbyter Scot that ever I heard in my life, with all the possible imitation in grimaces and voice. And his text about the hanging up their harps upon the willows: and a serious good sermon too, exclaiming against Bishops, and crying up of my good Lord Eglinton, a till it made us all burst; but I did wonder to have the Bishop (70) at this time to make himself sport with things of this kind, but I perceive it was shewn him as a rarity; and he took care to have the room-door shut, but there were about twenty gentlemen there, and myself, infinitely pleased with the novelty. So over to White Hall, to a little Committee of Tangier; and thence walking in the Gallery, I met Sir Thomas Osborne (37), who, to my great content, did of his own accord fall into discourse with me, with so much proFessions of value and respect, placing the whole virtue of the Office of the Navy upon me, and that for the Comptroller’s place, no man in England was fit for it but me, when Sir J. Minnes (70), as he says it is necessary, is Removed: but then he knows not what to do for a man in my place; and in discourse, though I have no mind to the other, I did bring in Tom Hater to be the fittest man in the world for it, which he took good notice of. But in the whole I was mightily pleased, reckoning myself now fifty per cent. securer in my place than I did before think myself to be. Thence to Unthanke’s, and there find my wife (28), but not dressed, which vexed me, because going to the Park, it being a most pleasant day after yesterday’s rain, which lays all the dust, and most people going out thither, which vexed me. So home, sullen; but then my wife (28) and I by water, with my brother, as high as Fulham, talking and singing, and playing the rogue with the Western barge-men, about the women of Woolwich, which mads them, an so back home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 16 May 1669. Lord’s Day. My wife (28) and I at church, our pew filled with Mrs. Backewell, and six more that she brought with her, which vexed me at her confidence. Dined at home and W. Batelier with us, and I all the afternoon drawing up a foul draught of my petition to the Duke of York (35), about my eyes, for leave to spend three or four months out of the Office, drawing it so as to give occasion to a voyage abroad which I did, to my pretty good liking; and then with my wife (28) to Hyde Park, where a good deal of company, and good weather, and so home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 17 May 1669. Up, and to several places doing business, and then home to dinner, and then my wife (28) and I and brother John by coach to the King’s playhouse, and saw "The Spanish Curate" revived, which is a pretty good play, but my eyes troubled with seeing it, mightily. Thence carried them and Mr. Gibson, who met me at my Lord Brouncker’s (49) with a fair copy of my petition, which I thought to shew the Duke of York (35) this night, but could not, and therefore carried them to the Park, where they had never been, and so home to supper and to bed. Great the news now of the French taking St. Domingo, in Spaniola, from the Spaniards, which troubles us, that they should have it, and have the honour of taking it, when we could not.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Wednesday 19 May 1669. With my coach to St. James’s; and there finding the Duke of York (35) gone to muster his men, in Hyde Park, I alone with my boy thither, and there saw more, walking out of my coach as other gentlemen did, of a soldier’s trade, than ever I did in my life: the men being mighty fine, and their Commanders, particularly the Duke of Monmouth (20); but me-thought their trade but very easy as to the mustering of their men, and the men but indifferently ready to perform what was commanded, in the handling of their arms. Here the news was first talked of Harry Killigrew’s being wounded in nine places last night, by footmen, in the highway, going from the Park in a hackney-coach towards Hammersmith, to his house at Turnham Greene: they being supposed to be my Lady Shrewsbury’s (27) men, she being by, in her (27) coach with six horses; upon an old grudge of his saying openly that he had lain with her. Thence by and by to White Hall, and there I waited upon the [his brother] King (38) and Queen (59) all dinner-time, in the Queen’s lodgings, she being in her white pinner and apron, like a woman with child; and she seemed handsomer plain so, than dressed. And by and by, dinner done, I out, and to walk in the Gallery, for the Duke of York’s (35) coming out; and there, meeting Mr. May (47), he took me down about four o’clock to Mr. Chevins’s (67) lodgings, and all alone did get me a dish of cold chickens, and good wine; and I dined like a prince, being before very hungry and empty. By and by the Duke of York (35) comes, and readily took me to his closet, and received my petition, and discoursed about my eyes, and pitied me, and with much kindness did give me his consent to be absent, and approved of my proposition to go into Holland to observe things there, of the Navy; but would first ask the King’s (38) leave, which he anon did, and did tell me that the King (38) would be a good master to me, these were his words, about my eyes, and do like of my going into Holland, but do advise that nobody should know of my going thither, but pretend that I did go into the country somewhere, which I liked well. Glad of this, I home, and thence took out my wife (34), and to Mr. Holliard’s (60) about a swelling in her cheek, but he not at home, and so round by Islington and eat and drink, and so home, and after supper to bed. In discourse this afternoon, the Duke of York (35) did tell me that he was the most amazed at one thing just now, that ever he was in his life, which was, that the Duke of Buckingham (41) did just now come into the Queen’s (59) bed-chamber, where the King (38) was, and much mixed company, and among others, Tom Killigrew (57), the father of Harry, who was last night wounded so as to be in danger of death, and his man is quite dead; and [Buckingham (41)] there in discourse did say that he had spoke with some one that was by (which all the world must know that it must be his whore, my Lady Shrewsbury (27)), who says that they did not mean to hurt, but beat him, and that he did run first at them with his sword; so that he do hereby clearly discover that he knows who did it, and is of conspiracy with them, being of known conspiracy with her, which the Duke of York (35) did seem to be pleased with, and said it might, perhaps, cost him his life in the House of Lords; and I find was mightily pleased with it, saying it was the most impudent thing, as well as the most foolish, that ever he knew man do in all his life.

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (25) and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (27).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 21 May 1669. I waited with the Office upon the Duke of York (35) in the morning. Dined at home, where Lewis Phillips the friend of his, dined with me. In the afternoon at the Office. In the evening visited by Roger Pepys (52) and Philip Packer (50) and so home.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 23 May 1669. Lord's Day. Called up by Roger Pepys (52) and his son (23) who to church with me, and then home to dinner. In the afternoon carried them to Westminster, and myself to James’s, where, not finding the Duke of York (35), back home, and with my wife (28) spent the evening taking the ayre about Hackney, with great pleasure, and places we had never seen before.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 24 May 1669. To White Hall, and there all the morning, and thence home, and giving order for some business and setting my brother to making a catalogue of my books, I back again to W. Hewer (27) to White Hall, where I attended the Duke of York (35) and was by him led to [the [his brother] King (38)], who expressed great sense of my misfortune in my eyes, and concernment for their recovery; and accordingly signified, not only his assent to desire therein, but commanded me to give them rest summer, according to my late petition to the Duke of York (35). W. Hewer (27) and I dined alone at the Swan; and thence having thus waited on the King (38), spent till four o’clock in St. James’s Park, when I met my wife (28) at Unthanke’s, and so home.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 28 May 1669. To St. James’s, where the [his brother] King’s (38) being with the Duke of York (35) prevented a meeting of the Tangier Commission. But, Lord! what a deal of sorry discourse did I hear between the King (38) and several Lords about him here! but very mean methought. So with Creed to the Excise Office, and back to White Hall, where, in the Park, Sir G. Carteret (59) did give me an account of his discourse lately, with the Commissioners of Accounts, who except against many things, but none that I find considerable; among others, that of the Officers of the Navy selling of the King’s (38) goods, and particularly my providing him with calico flags, which having been by order, and but once, when necessity, and the King’s (38) apparent profit, justified it, as conformable to my particular duty, it will prove to my advantage that it be enquired into. Nevertheless, having this morning received from them a demand of an account of all monies within their cognizance, received and issued by me, I was willing, upon this hint, to give myself rest, by knowing whether their meaning therein might reach only to my Treasurership for Tangier, or the monies employed on this occasion. I went, therefore, to them this afternoon, to understand what monies they meant, where they answered me, by saying, "The eleven months’ tax, customs, and prizemoney," without mentioning, any more than I demanding, the service they respected therein; and so, without further discourse, we parted, upon very good terms of respect, and with few words, but my mind not fully satisfied about the monies they mean. At noon Mr. Gibson and I dined at the Swan, and thence doing this at Brook house, and thence calling at the Excise Office for an account of payment of my tallies for Tangier, I home, and thence with my wife (28) and brother spent the evening on the water, carrying our supper with us, as high as Chelsea; so home, making sport with the Westerne bargees, and my wife (28) and I singing, to my great content.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 30 May 1669. Whitsunday. By water to White Hall, and thence to Sir W. Coventry (41), where all the morning by his bed-side, he being indisposed. Our discourse was upon the notes I have lately prepared for Commanders’ Instructions; but concluded that nothing will render them effectual, without an amendment in the choice of them, that they be seamen, and not gentleman above the command of the Admiral, by the greatness of their relations at Court. Thence to White Hall, and dined alone with Mr. Chevin's (67) sister: whither by and by come in Mr. Progers (47) and Sir Thomas Allen (57), and by and by fine Mrs. Wells, who is a great beauty; and there I had my full gaze upon her, to my great content, she being a woman of pretty conversation. Thence to the Duke of York (35), who, with the officers of the Navy, made a good entrance on my draught of my new Instructions to Commanders, as well expressing general of a reformation among them, as liking of my humble offers towards it. Thence being called by my wife (28), Mr. Gibson and I, we to the Park, whence the rain suddenly home.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 31 May 1669. Up very betimes, and so continued all the morning with W. Hewer (27), upon examining and stating my accounts, in order to the fitting myself to go abroad beyond sea, which the ill condition of my eyes, and my neglect for a year or two, hath kept me behindhand in, and so as to render it very difficult now, and troublesome to my mind to do it; but I this day made a satisfactory entrance therein. Dined at home, and in the afternoon by water to White Hall, calling by the way at Michell’s, where I have not been many a day till just the other day, and now I met her mother there and knew her husband to be out of town. And here je did baiser elle, but had not opportunity para hazer some with her as I would have offered if je had had it. And thence had another meeting with the Duke of York (35), at White Hall, on yesterday’s work, and made a good advance: and so, being called by my wife (28), we to the Park, Mary Batelier, and a Dutch gentleman, a friend of hers, being with us. Thence to "The World’s End," a drinking-house by the Park; and there merry, and so home late.
And thus ends all that I doubt I shall ever be able to do with my own eyes in the keeping of my journal, I being not able to do it any longer, having done now so long as to undo my eyes almost every time that I take a pen in my hand; and, therefore, whatever comes of it, I must forbear: and, therefore, resolve, from this time forward, to have it kept by my people in long-hand, and must therefore be contented to set down no more than is fit for them and all the world to know; or, if there be any thing, which cannot be much, now my amours to Deb (18). are past, and my eyes hindering me in almost all other pleasures, I must endeavour to keep a margin in my book open, to add, here and there, a note in short-hand with my own hand.
And so I betake myself to that course, which is almost as much as to see myself go into my grave: for which, and all the discomforts that will accompany my being blind, the good God prepare me!.

On 10 Sep 1669 [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (59) died.

On 21 Aug 1670 [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (36) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (22).

John Evelyn's Diary 1670 August. 28 Aug 1670. One of the Canons preached; then followed the offering of the Knights of the Order, according to custom; first the poor Knights, in procession, then, the Canons in their formalities, the Dean and Chancellor, then his [his brother] Majesty (40) (the Sovereign), the Duke of York (36), Prince Rupert (50); and, lastly, the Earl of Oxford (43), being all the Knights that were then at Court.
I dined with the Treasurer (40), and consulted with him what pieces I was to add; in the afternoon the King (40) took me aside into the balcony over the terrace, extremely pleased with what had been told him I had begun, in order to his commands, and enjoining me to proceed vigorously in it. He told me he had ordered the Secretaries of State to give me all necessary assistance of papers and particulars relating to it and enjoining me to make it a LITTLE KEEN, for that the Hollanders had very unhandsomely abused him in their pictures, books, and libels.
Windsor was now going to be repaired, being exceedingly ragged and ruinous. Prince Rupert (50), the Constable, had begun to trim up the keep or high round Tower, and handsomely adorned his hall with furniture of arms, which was very singular, by so disposing the pikes, muskets, pistols, bandoleers, holsters, drums, back, breast, and headpieces, as was very extraordinary. Thus, those huge steep stairs ascending to it had the walls invested with this martial furniture, all new and bright, so disposing the bandoleers, holsters, and drums, as to represent festoons, and that without any confusion, trophy-like. From the hall we went into his bedchamber, and ample rooms hung with tapestry, curious and effeminate pictures, so extremely different from the other, which presented nothing but war and horror.
The King (40) passed most of his time in hunting the stag, and walking in the park, which he was now planting with rows of trees.

On 09 Feb 1671 [his daughter] Catherine Stewart 1671-1671 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (37) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (33).

On 31 Mar 1671 [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (34) died.

On 08 Jun 1671 [his son] Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1667-1671 (3) died.

Woodcock and Flatfoot Race at Newmarket

09 Oct 1671 - Use of the Term Miss. 09 Oct 1671 and 10 Oct 1671. I went, after evening service, to London, in order to a journey of refreshment with Mr. Treasurer (41), to Newmarket, where the [his brother] King (41) then was, in his coach with six brave horses, which we changed thrice, first, at Bishop-Stortford, and last, at Chesterford; so, by night, we got to Newmarket, where Mr. Henry Jermain (35) (nephew to the Earl of St. Alban (66)) lodged me very civilly. We proceeded immediately to Court, the King (41) and all the English gallants being there at their autumnal sports. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's; and, the next day, after dinner, I was on the heath, where I saw the great match run between Woodcock and Flatfoot, belonging to the King (41), and to Mr. Eliot, of the bedchamber, many thousands being spectators; a more signal race had not been run for many years.
This over, I went that night with Mr. Treasurer (41) to Euston, a palace of Lord Arlington's (53), where we found Monsieur Colbert (46) (the French Ambassador), and the famous new French Maid of Honor, Mademoiselle Querouaille (22), now coming to be in great favor with the King (41). Here was also the Countess of Sunderland (25), and several lords and ladies, who lodged in the house.
During my stay here with Lord Arlington (53), near a fortnight, his Majesty (41) came almost every second day with the Duke (37), who commonly returned to Newmarket, but the King (41) often lay here, during which time I had twice the honor to sit at dinner with him (41), with all freedom. It was universally reported that the fair lady —— [Note. Probably Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (22)], was bedded one of these nights, and the stocking flung, after the manner of a married bride; I acknowledge she was for the most part in her undress all day, and that there was fondness and toying with that young wanton; nay, it was said, I was at the former ceremony; but it is utterly false; I neither saw nor heard of any such thing while I was there, though I had been in her chamber, and all over that apartment late enough, and was myself observing all passages with much curiosity. However, it was with confidence believed she was first made a Miss, as they called these unhappy creatures, with solemnity at this time.
On Sunday, a young Cambridge divine preached an excellent sermon in the chapel, the King (41) and the Duke of York (37) being present.

Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

In 1670 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (35). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (20).

In 1673 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (38). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (23).

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

On 05 Dec 1671 [his daughter] Catherine Stewart 1671-1671 died.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 May. 10 May 1672. I was ordered, by letter from the Council, to repair forthwith to his [his brother] Majesty (41), whom I found in the Pall-Mall, in St. James's Park, where his Majesty (41) coming to me from the company, commanded me to go immediately to the seacoast, and to observe the motion of the Dutch fleet and ours, the Duke (38) and so many of the flower of our nation being now under sail, coming from Portsmouth, through the Downs, where it was believed there might be an encounter.

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 May. 14 May 1672. To Dover; but the fleet did not appear till the 16th, when the Duke of York (38) with his and the French squadron, in all 170 ships (of which above 100 were men-of-war), sailed by, after the Dutch, who were newly withdrawn. Such a gallant and formidable navy never, I think, spread sail upon the seas. It was a goodly yet terrible sight, to behold them as I did, passing eastward by the straits between Dover and Calais in a glorious day. The wind was yet so high, that I could not well go aboard, and they were soon got out of sight. The next day, having visited our prisoners and the Castle, and saluted the Governor, I took horse for Margate. Here, from the North Foreland Lighthouse top (which is a pharos, built of brick, and having on the top a cradle of iron, in which a man attends a great sea-coal fire all the year long, when the nights are dark, for the safeguard of sailors), we could see our fleet as they lay at anchor. The next morning, they weighed, and sailed out of sight to the N. E.

1672 Battle of Solebay

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 June. 02 Jun 1672. Trinity Sunday, I passed at Rochester; and, on the 5th, there was buried in the Cathedral Monsieur Rabiniére, Rear Admiral of the French squadron, a gallant person, who died of the wounds he received in the fight. This ceremony lay on me, which I performed with all the decency I could, inviting the Mayor and Aldermen to come in their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins was there with his guards; and the Dean and Prebendaries: one of his countrymen pronouncing a funeral oration at the brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug in the choir. This is more at large described in the "Gazette" of that day; Colonel Reymes (58), my colleague in commission, assisting, who was so kind as to accompany me from London, though it was not his district; for indeed the stress of both these wars lay more on me by far than on any of my brethren, who had little to do in theirs. I went to see Upnor Castle, which I found pretty well defended, but of no great moment.
Next day I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy of the "Nore," where I met his [his brother] Majesty (42), the Duke (38), Lord Arlington (54), and all the great men, in the "Charles," lying miserably shattered; but the miss of Lord Sandwich redoubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazarding so brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for no provocation but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all things but envy.
At Sheerness, I gave his Majesty (42) and his Royal Highness (38) an account of my charge, and returned to Queenborough; next day dined at Major Dorel's, Governor of Sheerness; thence, to Rochester; and the following day, home.

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 August. 18 Aug 1672. Sir James Hayes (35), Secretary to Prince Rupert (52), dined with me; after dinner I was sent to Gravesend to dispose of no fewer than 800 sick men. That night I got to the fleet at the Buoy of the Nore, where I spoke with the [his brother] King (42) and the Duke (38); and, after dinner next day, returned to Gravesend.

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 March. 30 Mar 1673. Easter day. Myself and son received the blessed Communion, it being his first time, and with that whole week's more extraordinary preparation. I beseech God to make him a sincere and good Christian, while I endeavor to instill into him the fear and love of God, and discharge the duty of a father.
At the sermon coram Rege, preached by Dr. Sparrow (61), Bishop of Exeter, to a most crowded auditory; I stayed to see whether, according to custom, the Duke of York (39) received the Communion with the [his brother] King (42); but he did not, to the amazement of everybody. This being the second year he had forborne, and put it off, and within a day of the Parliament sitting, who had lately made so severe an Act against the increase of Popery, gave exceeding grief and scandal to the whole nation, that the heir of it, and the son of a martyr for the Protestant religion, should apostatize. What the consequence of this will be, God only knows, and wise men dread.

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 May. 25 May 1673. My son (18) was made a younger brother of the Trinity House. The new master was Sir J. Smith, one of the Commissioners of the Navy, a stout seaman, who had interposed and saved the Duke (39) from perishing by a fire ship in the late war.

1673 Test Act

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 July. 25 Jul 1673. I went to Tunbridge Wells, to visit my Lord Clifford (42), late Lord Treasurer, who was there to divert his mind more than his body; it was believed that he had so engaged himself to the Duke (39), that rather than take the Test, without which he was not capable of holding any office, he would resign that great and honorable station. This, I am confident, grieved him to the heart, and at last broke it; for, though he carried with him music, and people to divert him, and, when I came to see him, lodged me in his own apartment, and would not let me go from him, I found he was struggling in his mind; and being of a rough and ambitious nature, he could not long brook the necessity he had brought on himself, of submission to this conjuncture. Besides, he saw the Dutch war, which was made much by his advice, as well as the shutting up of the Exchequer, very unprosperous. These things his high spirit could not support. Having stayed here two or three days, I obtained leave of my Lord to return.
In my way, I saw my Lord of Dorset's (50) house at Knowle, near Sevenoaks, a great old-fashioned house.

On Aug 1673 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzjames 1st Duke Albemarle 1673-1702 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (39) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (25) at St James' Square.

1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 August. 18 Aug 1673. My Lord Clifford (43), being about this time returned from Tunbridge, and preparing for Devonshire, I went to take my leave of him at Wallingford House; he was packing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, etc. I found him in his study, and restored to him several papers of state, and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, on engaging me to write the "History of the Holland War," with other private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arlington (55), who from a private gentleman of a very noble family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners of sick and wounded, on which occasion we sat long together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of Lord Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by letters to Lord Arlington (55), which that Lord showed me, begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the very height of his ambition. These were written with such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of Southampton then dying, he was made one of the Commissioners of the Treasury. His [his brother] Majesty (43) inclining to put it into one hand, my Lord Clifford (43), under pretense of making all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington (55), cut the grass under his feet, and procured it for himself, assuring the King (43) that Lord Arlington (55) did not desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington (55) protested to me that his confidence in Lord Clifford (43) made him so remiss and his affection to him was so particular, that he was absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord Clifford (43), all the world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet, now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. This was the great ingratitude Lord Clifford (43) showed, keeping my Lord Arlington (55) in ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which was the Duke's (39) into whose great favor Lord Clifford (43) was now gotten; but which certainly cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so irrevocably far in his interest.
For the rest, my Lord Clifford (43) was a valiant, incorrupt gentleman, ambitious, not covetous; generous, passionate, a most constant, sincere friend, to me in particular, so as when he laid down his office, I was at the end of all my hopes and endeavors. These were not for high matters, but to obtain what his Majesty (43) was really indebted to my father-in-law, which was the utmost of my ambition, and which I had undoubtedly obtained, if this friend had stood. Sir Thomas Osborn (41), who succeeded him, though much more obliged to my father-in-law and his family, and my long and old acquaintance, being of a more haughty and far less obliging nature, I could hope for little; a man of excellent natural parts; but nothing of generous or grateful.
Taking leave of my Lord Clifford (43), he wrung me by the hand, and, looking earnestly on me, bid me God-b'ye, adding, "Mr. Evelyn, I shall never see thee more." "No!" said I, "my Lord, what's the meaning of this? I hope I shall see you often, and as great a person again." "No, Mr. Evelyn, do not expect it, I will never see this place, this city, or Court again," or words of this sound. In this manner, not without almost mutual tears, I parted from him; nor was it long after, but the news was that he was dead, and I have heard from some who I believe knew, he made himself away, after an extraordinary melancholy. This is not confidently affirmed, but a servant who lived in the house, and afterward with Sir Robert Clayton (44), Lord Mayor, did, as well as others, report it, and when I hinted some such thing to Mr. Prideaux, one of his trustees, he was not willing to enter into that discourse.
It was reported with these particulars, that, causing his servant to leave him unusually one morning, locking himself in, he strangled himself with his cravat upon the bed-tester; his servant, not liking the manner of dismissing him, and looking through the keyhole (as I remember), and seeing his master hanging, broke in before he was quite dead, and taking him down, vomiting a great deal of blood, he was heard to utter these words: "Well; let men say what they will, there is a God, a just God above"; after which he spoke no more. This, if true, is dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of the Dutch war, and of all that blood which was lost at Bergen in attacking the Smyrna fleet, and that whole quarrel.
This leads me to call to mind what my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52) affirmed, not to me only, but to all my brethren the Council of Foreign Plantations, when not long after, this accident being mentioned as we were one day sitting in Council, his Lordship told us this remarkable passage: that, being one day discoursing with him when he was only Sir Thomas Clifford, speaking of men's advancement to great charges in the nation, "Well," says he, "my Lord, I shall be one of the greatest men in England. Don't impute what I say either to fancy, or vanity; I am certain that I shall be a mighty man; but it will not last long; I shall not hold it, but die a bloody death." "What," says my Lord, "your horoscope tells you so?" "No matter for that, it will be as I tell you." "Well," says my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52), "if I were of that opinion, I either would not be a great man, but decline preferment, or prevent my danger."
This my Lord affirmed in my hearing before several gentlemen and noblemen sitting in council at Whitehall. And I the rather am confident of it, remembering what Sir Edward Walker (62) (Garter King at Arms) had likewise affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was first made a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord Clifford on his being created a peer, and, finding him busy, he bade him go into his study and divert himself there till he was at leisure to discourse with him about some things relating to his family; there lay, said Sir Edward, on his table, his horoscope and nativity calculated, with some writing under it, where he read that he should be advanced to the highest degree in the state that could be conferred upon him, but that he should not long enjoy it, but should die, or expressions to that sense; and I think, (but cannot confidently say) a bloody death. This Sir Edward affirmed both to me and Sir Richard Browne; nor could I forbear to note this extraordinary passage in these memoirs..

On 20 Sep 1673 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (39) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (14) were married.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. Francois de Troy 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 November. 05 Nov 1673. This night the youths of the city burned the Pope in effigy, after they had made procession with it in great triumph, they being displeased at the Duke (40) for altering his religion and marrying an Italian lady (15).

In 1674 [his illegitimate daughter] Arabella Fitzjames 1674-1704 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (40) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (25).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

John Evelyn's Diary 1674 July. 22 Jul 1674. I went to Windsor with my wife (39) and son (19) to see my daughter Mary (9), who was there with my Lady Tuke and to do my duty to his [his brother] Majesty (44). Next day, to a great entertainment at Sir Robert Holmes's (52) at Cranbourne Lodge, in the Forest; there were his Majesty (44), the Queen (35), Duke (40), Duchess (15), and all the Court. I returned in the evening with Sir Joseph Williamson (40), now declared Secretary of State. He was son of a poor clergyman somewhere in Cumberland, brought up at Queen's College, Oxford, of which he came to be a fellow; then traveled with ... and returning when the King (44) was restored, was received as a clerk under Mr. Secretary Nicholas. Sir Henry Bennett (56) (now Lord Arlington) succeeding, Williamson is transferred to him, who loving his ease more than business (though sufficiently able had he applied himself to it) remitted all to his man Williamson; and, in a short time, let him so into the secret of affairs, that (as his Lordship himself told me) there was a kind of necessity to advance him; and so, by his subtlety, dexterity, and insinuation, he got now to be principal Secretary; absolutely Lord Arlington's creature, and ungrateful enough. It has been the fate of this obliging favorite to advance those who soon forgot their original. Sir Joseph was a musician, could play at Jeu de Goblets, exceedingly formal, a severe master to his servants, but so inward with my Lord O'Brien (32), that after a few months of that gentleman's death, he married his widow (34), who, being sister and heir of the Duke of Richmond, brought him a noble fortune. It was thought they lived not so kindly after marriage as they did before. She was much censured for marrying so meanly, being herself allied to the Royal family.

John Evelyn's Diary 1674 August. 21 Aug 1674. In one of the meadows at the foot of the long Terrace below the Windsor Castle, works were thrown up to show the [his brother] King (44) a representation of the city of Maestricht, newly taken by the French. Bastians, bulwarks, ramparts, palisadoes, graffs, horn-works, counter-scarps, etc., were constructed. It was attacked by the Duke of Monmouth (25) (newly come from the real siege) and the Duke of York (40), with a little army, to show their skill in tactics. On Saturday night they made their approaches, opened trenches, raised batteries, took the counter-scarp and ravelin, after a stout defense; great guns fired on both sides, grenadoes shot, mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts of raising the siege, prisoners taken, parleys; and, in short, all the circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and, what is most strange all without disorder, or ill accident, to the great satisfaction of a thousand spectators. Being night, it made a formidable show. The siege being over, I went with Mr. Pepys (41) back to London, where we arrived about three in the morning.

John Evelyn's Diary 1674 December. 22 Dec 1674. Was at the repetition of the "Pastoral," on which occasion Mrs. Blagg (22) had about her near £20,000 worth of jewels, of which she lost one worth about £80, borrowed of the Countess of Suffolk (52). The press was so great, that it is a wonder she lost no more. The Duke (41) made it good.

In 1673. Unknown Artist, possibly Matthew Dixon. Portrait of Margaret Blagge Maid of Honour 1652-1678 (20).

On 10 Jan 1675 [his daughter] Catherine Laura Stewart 1675-1675 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (41) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (16).

John Evelyn's Diary 1675 July. 11 Jul 1675. We heard the speeches, and saw the ceremony of creating doctors in Divinity, Law and Physic. I had, early in the morning, heard Dr. Morison, Botanic Professor, read on divers plants in the Physic Garden; and saw that rare collection of natural curiosities of Dr. Plot's, of Magdalen Hall, author of "The Natural History of Oxfordshire," all of them collected in that shire, and indeed extraordinary, that in one county there should be found such variety of plants, shells, stones, minerals, marcasites, fowls, insects, models of works, crystals, agates, and marbles. He was now intending to visit Staffordshire, and, as he had of Oxfordshire, to give us the natural, topical, political, and mechanical history. Pity it is that more of this industrious man's genius were not employed so to describe every county of England; it would be one of the most useful and illustrious works that was ever produced in any age or nation.
I visited also the Bodleian Library and my old friend, the learned Obadiah Walker (59), head of University College, which he had now almost rebuilt, or repaired. We then proceeded to Northampton, where we arrived the next day.
In this journey, went part of the way Mr. James Graham (26) (since Privy Purse to the Duke (41)), a young gentleman exceedingly in love with Mrs. Dorothy Howard (24), one of the maids of honor in our company. I could not but pity them both, the mother not much favoring it. This lady was not only a great beauty, but a most virtuous and excellent creature, and worthy to have been wife to the best of men. My advice was required, and I spoke to the advantage of the young gentleman, more out of pity than that she deserved no better match; for, though he was a gentleman of good family, yet there was great inequality.

On 03 Oct 1675 [his daughter] Catherine Laura Stewart 1675-1675 died of convulsions.

Before 1676 Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717 became the mistress of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.

John Evelyn's Diary 1676 March. 30 Mar 1676. Dining with my Lady Sunderland (30), I saw a fellow swallow a knife, and divers great pebble stones, which would make a plain rattling one against another. The knife was in a sheath of horn.
Dr. North (30), son of my Lord North (74), preached before the [his brother] King (45), on Isaiah liii. 57, a very young but learned and excellent person. Note. This was the first time the Duke (42) appeared no more in chapel, to the infinite grief and threatened ruin of this poor nation.

Around 1628. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Dudley North 4th Baron North 1602-1677 (26).

Treaty of Nimeguen

John Evelyn's Diary 1676 May. 07 May 1676. I spoke to the Duke of York (42) about my Lord Berkeley's (74) going to Nimeguen. Thence, to the Queen's Council at Somerset House, about Mrs. Godolphin's (23) lease of Spalding, in Lincolnshire.

John Evelyn's Diary 1676 August. 01 Aug 1676. In the afternoon, after prayers at St. James's Chapel, was christened a daughter of Dr. Leake's (34), the Duke's (42) Chaplain: godmothers were [his daughter] Lady Mary (14), daughter of the Duke of York (42), and the Duchess of Monmouth (25): godfather, the Earl of Bath (47).

On 28 Aug 1676 [his daughter] Isabel Stewart 1676-1681 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (42) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (17).

John Evelyn's Diary 1677 October. 23d October, 1677. Saw again the Prince of Orange (26); his marriage with the [his daughter] Lady Mary (15), eldest daughter to the Duke of York (44), by [his wife] [his wife] Mrs. Hyde, the late Duchess, was now declared.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

On 04 Nov 1677 [his nephew] William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (27) and [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (15) were married (he was her first-cousin). Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (15) by marriage Prince Orange.

On 07 Nov 1677 [his son] Charles Stewart 1677-1677 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (44) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (19).

On 12 Dec 1677 [his son] Charles Stewart 1677-1677 died of smallpox.

In 1679 John Robartes 1st Earl Radnor 1606-1685 (73) was created 1st Earl Radnor (1C 1679), 1st Viscount Bodmin by [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (48) in reward for having supported Charles' brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (45) 's future accession. Letitia Isabella Smythe Countess Radnor 1630-1714 (49) by marriage Countess Radnor (1C 1679).

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 April. 24th April, 1679. The Duke of York (45), voted against by the Commons for his recusancy, went over to Flanders; which made much discourse.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 July. 6th July, 1679. Now were there papers, speeches, and libels, publicly cried in the streets against the Dukes of York (45) and Lauderdale (63), etc., obnoxious to the Parliament, with too much and indeed too shameful a liberty; but the people and Parliament had gotten head by reason of the vices of the great ones.
There was now brought up to London a child, son of one Mr. Wotton, formerly amanuensis to Dr. Andrews, Bishop of Winton, who both read and perfectly understood Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Syriac, and most of the modern languages; disputed in divinity, law, and all the sciences; was skillful in history, both ecclesiastical and profane; in politics; in a word, so universally and solidly learned at eleven years of age, that he was looked on as a miracle. Dr. Lloyd (42), one of the most deeply learned divines of this nation in all sorts of literature, with Dr. Burnet (35), who had severely examined him, came away astonished, and they told me they did not believe there had the like appeared in the world. He had only been instructed by his father, who being himself a learned person, confessed that his son knew all that he himself knew. But, what was more admirable than his vast memory, was his judgment and invention, he being tried with divers hard questions, which required maturity of thought and experience. He was also dexterous in chronology, antiquities, mathematics. In sum, an intellectus universalis, beyond all that we read of Picus Mirandula, and other precocious wits, and yet withal a very humble child.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 September. 13th September, 1679. To Windsor, to congratulate his [his brother] Majesty (49) on his recovery; I kissed the Duke's (45) hand, now lately returned from Flanders to visit his brother the King (49), on which there were various bold and foolish discourses, the Duke of Monmouth (30) being sent away.

On Nov 1679 Charles "Bewitched" II King Spain 1661-1700 (17) and [his niece] Marie Louise Bourbon Queen Consort Spain 1662-1689 (17) were married (he was her first-cousin once-removed). Marie Louise Bourbon Queen Consort Spain 1662-1689 (17) by marriage Queen Consort Spain.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 November. 28th November, 1679. Came over the Duke of Monmouth (30) from Holland unexpectedly to his [his brother] Majesty (49); while the Duke of York (46) was on his journey to Scotland, whither the King (49) sent him to reside and govern. The bells and bonfires of the city at this arrival of the Duke of Monmouth (30) publishing their joy, to the no small regret of some at Court. This Duke (30), whom for distinction they called the Protestant Duke (though the son of an abandoned woman), the people made their idol.

In 1680 [his illegitimate daughter] Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby 1680-1743 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (46) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717 (22).

John Evelyn's Diary 1680 November. 22d December, 1680. A solemn public Fast that God would prevent all Popish plots, avert his judgments, and give a blessing to the proceedings of Parliament now assembled, and which struck at the succession of the Duke of York (47).

On 04 Mar 1681 [his daughter] Isabel Stewart 1676-1681 (4) died.

Sinking of HMS Gloucester

On 06 May 1682 Richard Hill -1682 drowned off Great Yarmouth during the Sinking of HMS Gloucester when it struck a sandbank. The future James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) and John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 (31) were rescued in the ship's boat.
John Hope of Hopetoun 1651-1682 drowned during the sinking of HMS Gloucester. He gave up his seat in a lifeboat to the future James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) for which his son was rewarded with an Earldom twenty-one years later when he came of age.

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 known as The Triumph of the John, 1st Duke of Marlborough.

John Evelyn's Diary 1682 May. 25 May 1682. I was desired by Sir Stephen Fox (55) and Sir Christopher Wren (58) to accompany them to Lambeth, with the plot and design of the college to be built at Chelsea, to have the Archbishop's approbation. It was a quadrangle of 200 feet square, after the dimensions of the larger quadrangle at Christ church, Oxford, for the accommodation of 440 persons, with Governor of and officers. This was agreed on.
The Duke (48) and James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) and Duchess of York (23) were just now come to London, after his escape and shipwreck, as he went by sea for Scotland. See Sinking of HMS Gloucester.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 February. 02 Feb 1683. I made my court at St. James's, when I saw the sea charts of Captain Collins (40), which that industrious man now brought to show the Duke (49), having taken all the coasting from the mouth of the Thames, as far as Wales, and exactly measuring every creek, island, rock, soundings, harbors, sands, and tides, intending next spring to proceed till he had finished the whole island, and that measured by chains and other instruments: a most exact and useful undertaking. He affirmed, that of all the maps put out since, there are none extant so true as those of Joseph Norden, who gave us the first in Queen Elizabeth's time; all since him are erroneous.

Rye House Plot

Before 21 Mar 1683 the Rye House Plot was an attempt to assassinate [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 and his brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 as they passed Rye House, Hoddesdon when were returning from the races at Newmarket on 01 Apr 1683. In the event a fire at Newmarket on the 22 Mar 1683 the races were cancelled.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 June. 11 Jun 1683. The Lord Dartmouth (10) was elected Master of the Trinity House; son to George Legge (36), late Master of the Ordnance, and one of the grooms of the bedchamber; a great favorite of the Duke's (49), an active and understanding gentleman in sea affairs.

Popish Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 June. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the [his brother] King (53) and the Duke (49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower, the Lord Russell (43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (60), son to the old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King (53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (60) and Russell (43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King (53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!
Was born my granddaughter at Sayes Court, and christened by the name of Martha Maria, our Vicar officiating. I pray God bless her, and may she choose the better part!.

Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (53). Postumous portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700 (55)Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

Rye House Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 July. 13 Jul 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady, in Covent Garden, the astonishing news was brought to us of the Earl of Essex (52) having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower, and this happened on the very day and instant that Lord Russell (43) was on his trial, and had sentence of death [See Rye House Plot.]. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex (52) being so well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to the [his brother] King (53). It is certain the King (53) and Duke (49) were at the Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when my Lord (52) asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were odd reflections upon it.
The fatal news coming to Hicks's Hall upon the article of my Lord Russell's (43) trial, was said to have had no little influence on the Jury and all the Bench to his prejudice. Others said that he had himself on some occasions hinted that in case he should be in danger of having his life taken from him by any public misfortune, those who thirsted for his estate should miss of their aim; and that he should speak favorably of that Earl of Northumberland, and some others, who made away with themselves; but these are discourses so unlike his sober and prudent conversation that I have no inclination to credit them. What might instigate him to this devilish act, I am not able to conjecture. My Lord Clarendon, his brother-in-law, who was with him but the day before, assured me he was then very cheerful, and declared it to be the effect of his innocence and loyalty; and most believe that his Majesty (53) had no severe intentions against him, though he was altogether inexorable as to Lord Russell (43) and some of the rest. For my part, I believe the crafty and ambitious Earl of Shaftesbury had brought them into some dislike of the present carriage of matters at Court, not with any design of destroying the monarchy (which Shaftesbury had in confidence and for unanswerable reasons told me he would support to his last breath, as having seen and felt the misery of being under mechanic tyranny), but perhaps of setting up some other whom he might govern, and frame to his own platonic fancy, without much regard to the religion established under the hierarchy, for which he had no esteem; but when he perceived those whom he had engaged to rise, fail of his expectations, and the day past, reproaching his accomplices that a second day for an exploit of this nature was never successful, he gave them the slip, and got into Holland, where the fox died, three months before these unhappy Lords and others were discovered or suspected. Every one deplored Essex (52) and Russell (43), especially the last, as being thought to have been drawn in on pretense only of endeavoring to rescue the King (53) from his present councilors, and secure religion from Popery, and the nation from arbitrary government, now so much apprehended; while the rest of those who were fled, especially Ferguson and his gang, had doubtless some bloody design to get up a Commonwealth, and turn all things topsy-turvy. Of the same tragical principles is Sydney.
I had this day much discourse with Monsieur Pontaq, son to the famous and wise prime President of Bordeaux. This gentleman was owner of that excellent vignoble of Pontaq and O'Brien, from whence come the choicest of our Bordeaux wines; and I think I may truly say of him, what was not so truly said of St. Paul, that much learning had made him mad. He had studied well in philosophy, but chiefly the Rabbins, and was exceedingly addicted to cabalistical fancies, an eternal hablador [romancer], and half distracted by reading abundance of the extravagant Eastern Jews. He spoke all languages, was very rich, had a handsome person, and was well bred, about forty-five years of age.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 July. 19 Jul 1683. George, Prince of Denmark (30), who had landed this day, came to marry the [his daughter] Lady Anne (18), daughter to the Duke (49); so I returned home, having seen the young gallant at dinner at Whitehall.

Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

On 28 Jul 1683 Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland 1653-1708 (30) and [his daughter] Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (18) were married (he was her half second-cousin once-removed) at Chapel Royal, St James's Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 July. 28 Jul 1683. He (30) was married to the [his daughter] Lady Anne (18) at Whitehall. Her Court and household to be modeled as the Duke's, her father (49), had been, and they to continue in England. See Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 September. 18 Sep 1683. I went to London to visit the Duchess of Grafton (28), now great with child, a most virtuous and beautiful lady. Dining with her at my Lord Chamberlain's, met my Lord of St. Alban's (78), now grown so blind, that he could not see to take his meat. He has lived a most easy life, in plenty even abroad, while his [his brother] Majesty (53) was a sufferer; he has lost immense sums at play, which yet, at about eighty years old, he continues, having one that sits by him to name the spots on the cards. He ate and drank with extraordinary appetite. He is a prudent old courtier, and much enriched since his Majesty's (53) return.
After dinner, I walked to survey the sad demolition of Clarendon House, that costly and only sumptuous palace of the late Lord Chancellor Hyde, where I have often been so cheerful with him, and sometimes so sad: happening to make him a visit but the day before he fled from the angry Parliament, accusing him of maladministration, and being envious at his grandeur, who from a private lawyer came to be father-in-law to the Duke of York (49), and as some would suggest, designing his Majesty's (53) marriage with the Infanta of Portugal (44), not apt to breed. To this they imputed much of our unhappiness; and that he, being sole minister and favorite at his Majesty's (53) restoration, neglected to gratify the King (53)'s suffering party, preferring those who were the cause of our troubles. But perhaps as many of these things were injuriously laid to his charge, so he kept the government far steadier than it has proved since. I could name some who I think contributed greatly to his ruin,—the buffoons and the MISSIS, to whom he was an eye-sore. It is true he was of a jolly temper, after the old English fashion; but France had now the ascendant, and we were become quite another nation. The Chancellor gone, and dying in exile, the Earl his successor sold that which cost £50,000 building, to the young Duke of Albemarle (30) for £25,000, to pay debts which how contracted remains yet a mystery, his son (30) being no way a prodigal. Some imagine the Duchess his daughter (29) [Note. Daughter-in-law?] had been chargeable to him. However it were, this stately palace is decreed to ruin, to support the prodigious waste the Duke of Albemarle (30) had made of his estate, since the old man died. He sold it to the highest bidder, and it fell to certain rich bankers and mechanics, who gave for it and the ground about it, £35,000; they design a new town, as it were, and a most magnificent piazza [square]. It is said they have already materials toward it with what they sold of the house alone, more worth than what they paid for it. See the vicissitudes of earthly things! I was astonished at this demolition, nor less at the little army of laborers and artificers leveling the ground, laying foundations, and contriving great buildings at an expense of £200,000, if they perfect their design.

On 29 Nov 1683 Henry Waldegrave 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset 1661-1689 (22) and [his daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 (16) were married.

In 1684 [his illegitimate son] James Darnley 1684-1685 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (50) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717 (26).

On 10 Apr 1684 Victor Amadeus King Sardinia 1666-1732 (17) and [his niece] Anne Marie Bourbon Queen Consort Sardinia 1669-1728 (14) were married. Anne Marie Bourbon Queen Consort Sardinia 1669-1728 (14) by marriage Duchess Savoy.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 May. 12 May 1684. I return'd to London, where I found the Commissioners of the Admiralty abolish'd, and the office of Admiral restor'd to ye Duke (50), as to the disposal and ordering all Sea businesse ; but his [his brother] King}{Ma* (53) sign'd all Petitions, Papers, Warrants, and Commissions, that the Duke, not acting as Admiral by commission or office, might not incur the penalty of the late Act against Papists and Dissenters holding offices, and refusing the Oath and Test. Every one was glad of this change, those in the late Commission being utterly ignorant in their duty, to the greate damage of the Navy.
The utter mine of the Low Country was threaten'd by the siege of Luxembergh, if not timely reliev'd, and by the obstinacy of the Hollanders, who refus'd to assist the Prince of Orange (33), being corrupted by the French.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 December. 17 Dec 1684. Early in the morning I went into St. James's Park to see three Turkish or Asian horses, newly brought over, and now first shewed to his [his brother] Ma* (54). There were foure, but one of them died at sea, being three weekes coming from Hamborow. They were taken from a Bashaw at the siege of Vienna, at the late famous raising that leaguer. I never beheld so delicate a creature as one of them was, of somewhat a bright bay, two white feet, a blaze ; such a head, eyes, cares, neck, breast, belly, haunches, legs, pasterns, and feete, in all reguards beautifull and proportion'd to admiration ; spirited, proud, nimble, making halt, turning with that swiftnesse, and in so small a compasse, as was admirable. With all this so gentle and tractable as call'd to mind what I remember Busbequius speakes of them, to the reproch of our groomes in Europe, who bring up their horses so churlishly as makes most of them retain their 111 habits. They trotted like does, as if they did not feele the ground. 500 guinnies was demanded for the first ; 300 for the second; and 200 for the third, wch was browne. All of them were choicely shap'd, but the two last not altogether so perfect as the first. It was judg'd by the spectators, among whom was the King (54), Prince of Denmark (31), Duke of Yorke (51), and several of the Court, noble persons, skill'd In horses, especialy Mons. Faubert and his sonn, (provost masters of yc Academie, and esteem'd of the best in Europe,) that there were never seene any horses in these parts to be compar'd with them. Add to all this, the furniture, consisting of embroidery on the saddle, houseings, quiver, bow, arrows, scymeter, sword, mace, or battle-axe a la Turcisq; the Bashaw's velvet mantle furr'd with the most perfect Ermine I ever beheld ; all which, yron-worke in common furniture, being here of silver, curiously wrought and double gilt, to an incredible value. Such and so extraordinary was the embrodery, that I never saw any thing approching it. The reins and headstall were of crimson silk, cover'd with chaines of silver gilt. There was also a Turkish royal standard of an horse's taile, together with all sorts of other caparisons belonging to a general's horse, by which one may estimate how gallantly and magnificently those infidels appeare in the field, for nothing could be seene more glorious. The gentleman (a German) who rid the horse was in all this garb. They were shod with yron made round and closed at the heele, with a hole in the middle about as wide as a shilling. The hoofes most intire.

Argyll's Rising

In 1685 Argyll's Rising was a plot to overthrow James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) led by Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (55).
Of the rebels 177 were transported to Jamaica and 100 to New Jersey.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 February. 04 Feb 1685. I went to London, hearing his [his brother] Ma* (54) had ben the Monday before (02 Feb 1685) surpriz'd in his bed-chamber with an apoplectic fit, so that if, by God's providence, Dr. King (that excellent chirurgeon as well as physitian) had not ben accidentally present to let him blood (having his lancet in his pocket) his Ma* had certainly died that moment, which might have ben of direful consequence, there being nobody else present with the King (54) save this Doctor and one more, as I am assur'd. It was a mark of the extraordinary dexterity, resolution, and presence of mind in the Dr, to let him bloud in the very paroxysm, without staying the coming of other physitians, which regularly should have ben don, and for want of which he must have a regular pardon, as they tell me *. This rescu'd his Ma* for the instant, but it was only a short reprieve. He still complain'd, and was relapsing, often fainting, with sometimes epileptic symptoms, till Wednesday, for which he was cupp'd, let bloud in both jugulars, had both vomit and purges, which so rellev'd him that on Thursday hopes of recovery were signified in the publiq Gazette, but that day, about noone, the physitians thought him feaverish. This they seem'd glad of, as being more easily allay'd and methodically dealt with than his former fits; so as they prescrib'd the famous Jesuits powder : but it made him worse, and some very able Doctors who were present did not think it a fever, but the effect of his frequent bleeding and other sharp operations us'd by them about his head, so that probably the powder might stop the circulation, and renew his former fits, which now made him very weake. Thus he pass'd Thursday night with greate difficulty, when complaining of a paine in his side, they drew 12 ounces more of bloud from him; this was by 6 in the morning on Friday, and it gave him reliefe, but it did not continue, for being now in much paine, and strugling for breath, he lay dozing, and after some conflicts, the physitians despairing of him, he gave up the ghost at halfe an houre after eleven in the morning, being the sixth of February, 1685, in the 36th yeare of his reigne, and 54th of his age.
Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till he (54) expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his Majesty's (54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (68), the Bishops of London (53), Durham (52), and Ely (47), but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (56) and Feversham (44), being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc Duke (51), who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. He (54) also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (35), now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the Queene (46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his Ma* (54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye Duke (51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (44), and especialy Portsmouth (35), and that Nelly (35) might not starve. Thus died King Charles II (54) of a vigorous and robust constitution, and in all appearance promising a long life. He was a Prince of many virtues, and many greate imperfections; debonaire, easy of accesse, not bloudy nor cruel; his countenance fierce, his voice greate, proper of person, every motion became him; a lover of the sea, and skilfull in shipping; not affecting other studies, yet he had a laboratory, and knew of many empyrical medicines, and the easier mechanical mathe matics; he lov'd planting and building, and brought in a politer way of living, which pass'd to luxury and intolerable expence. He had a particular talent in telling a story, and facetious passages, of which he had innumerable; this made some buffoons and vitious wretches too presumptuous and familiar, not worthy the favour they abus'd. He tooke delight in having a number of little spaniels follow him and lie in his bed-chamber, where he often suffer'd the bitches to puppy and give suck, which render'd it very offensive, and indeede made the whole Court nasty and stinking. He would doubtlesse have ben an excellent Prince, had he ben less addicted to women, who made him uneasy, 'and allways in want to supply their unmeasurable profusion, to ye detriment of many Indigent persons who had signaly serv'd both him and his father. He frequently and easily chang'd favorites, to his greate prejudice. As to other publiq transactions and unhappy miscarriages, .'tis not here I intend to number them; but certainly never had King more glorious opportunities to have made himselfe, his people, and all Europe happy, and prevented innumerable mischeifs, had not his too easy nature resign'd him to be manag'd by crafty men, and some abandon'd and profane wretches who corrupted his otherwise sufficient parts, disciplin'd as he had ben by many afflictions during his banishment, which gave him much experience and knowledge of men and things; but those wicked creatures took him off from all application becoming so greate a King. The history of his reigne will certainely be the most wonderfull for the variety of matter and accidents, above any extant in former ages : the sad tragical death of his father, his banishment and hardships, his miraculous restauration, conspiracies against him, parliaments, wars, plagues, fires, comets, revolutions abroad happening in his time, with a thousand other particulars. He was ever kind to me, and very gracious upon all occasions, and therefore I cannot, without ingratitude, but deplore his losse, which for many respects as well as duty I do with all my soul. His Majesty (54) being dead, the Duke, now K. James II. went immediately to Council, and before entering into any businesse, passionately declaring his sorrow, told their Lordships that since the succession had fallen to him, he would endeavour to follow the example of his predecessor in his clemency and tendernesse to his people; that, however he had ben misrepresented as affecting arbitrary power, they should find the contrary, for that the Laws of England had made ye King as greate a monarch as he could desire; that he would endeavor to maintain the Government both in Church and State, as by Law established, its principles being so firme for monarchy, and the members of it shewing themselves so good and loyal subjects; and that as he would never depart from the just rights and prerogatives of y Crown, so would he never invade any man's property; but as he had often adventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would still proceede, and preserve it in all its lawful rights and liberties. This being the substance of what he said, the Lords desir'd it might be publish'd, as ontaining matter of greate satisfaction to a jealous people upon this change, which his Ma* consented to. Then were the Counsel sworn, and a Proclamation order'd to be publish'd, that all Officers should continue in their stations, that there might be no failure of public justice, till his further pleasure should be known. Then the King (54) rose, the Lords accompanying him to his bed-chamber, where, whilst he repos'd himselfe, tired indeede as he was with griefe and watching, they return'd againe Into the Council-chamber to take order for the proclaiming his Ma*, which (after some debate) they consented should be in the very forme his grandfather K. James I. was, after ye death of Queene Elizabeth; as likewise that the Lords, &c. should proceede in their coaches thro' the Citty for the more solemnity of it. Upon this was I, and severall other Gentlemen waiting in the Privy-gallerie, admitted into ye Council-chamber to be witnesse of what was resolv'd on. Thence with the Lords, the Lord Marshall and Heraulds, and other Crowne Officers being ready, we first went to White-hall gate, where the Lords stood on foote bare-headed, whilst the Herauld proclaim'd his Majesty's (54) title to the Imperial Crowne and Succession according to ye forme, the trumpets and kettle-drums having first sounded 3 times, which ended with the people's acclamations. Then a Herauld call'd the Lords' coaches according to rank, myselfe accompanying the solemnity in my Lord Cornwallis's (29) coach, first to Temple Barr, where the Lord Maior and his brethren met us on horseback, in all theire formalities, and proclaim'd the King (54); hence to the Exchange in Cornhill, and so we return'd in the order we set forth. Being come to Whitehall, we all went and kiss'd the King (51) and Queenes (26) hands. He had ben on ye bed, but was now risen and in his undresse. The [his daughter] Queene (22) was in bed in her appartment, but put forth her hand, seeming to be much afflicted, as I believe she was, having deported herselfe so decently upon all occasions since she came into England, which made her universally belov'd. Thus concluded this sad and not joyfull day.
I can never forget the inexpressible luxury and prophanenesse, gaming and all dissoluteness, and as it were total forgetfullnesse of God (it being Sunday evening) which this day se'nnight I was wit nesse of, the King (54) sitting and toying with his concubines, Portsmouth, Cleaveland, and Mazarine, &c a French boy singing love songs, in that glorious gallery, whilst about 20 of the greate courtiers and other dissolute persons were at Basset round a large table, a bank of at least 2000 in gold before them, upon which two gentlemen who were with me made reflexions with astonishment. Six days after was all in the dust ! It was enjoyn'd that those who put on mourning should wear it as for a father, in ye most solemn manner..

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (23) and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.

Death and Burial of Charles II

On 06 Feb 1685 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace. His brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart. [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) by marriage Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland.
His brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51), William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (83), Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52) and William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury 1617-1693 (68) were present.

Before 08 Mar 1685 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.

Around 1688 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (55). Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 February. 10 Feb 1685. Being sent to by the Sheriff of the County to appeare and assist in proclayming the King (51), I went the next day to Bromely, where I met the Sheriff of and the Commander of the Kentish Troop, with an appearance, I suppose, of above 500 horse, and innumerable people, two of his Ma*'s trumpets and a Serjeant with other officers, who having drawn up the horse in a large field neere the towne, march'd thence, wifh swords drawne, to the market-place, where making a ring, after sound of trumpets and silence made, the High Sheriff of read the pro claiming titles to his Bailiffe, who repeated them aloud, and then after many shouts of the people, his Ma*'s health being drunk in a flint glasse of a yard long, by the Sheriff, Commander, Officers and cheife Gentlemen, they all dispers'd, and I return'd.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 February. 14 Feb 1685. The [his brother] King was this, night very obscurely buried in a vault under Hen. 7th's Chapell at Westminster, without any manner of pomp, and soone forgotten after all this vanity, and the face of the whole Court was exceedingly chang'd into a more solemn and moral behaviour; the new King (51) affecting neither prophanenesse nor buffoonery. All the greate Officers broke their staves over the grave, according to form..

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 February. 15 Feb 1685. Dr. Tenison (48) preach'd to the Household. The second sermon should have ben before the King (51); but he, to the greate griefe of his subjects, did now for the first time go to masse publickly in ye little Oratorie at the Duke's lodgings, the doors being set wide open. Note. the 'greate grief' being the [his brother] King going to a Catholic Mass.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 February. 17 Feb 1685. This morning his Ma* (51) restor'd the staffe and key to Lord Arlington (67), Chamberlaine; to Mr. Savell (43), Vice-chamberlaine; to Lords Newport (64) and Malnard (62), Treasurer and Comptroler of the Household;.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 March. 26 Mar 1685. I was invited to the funerall of Capt. Gunman, that excellent pilot and seaman, who had behav'd himselfe so valiantly in the Dutch warr. He died of a gangrene, occasion'd by his fall from the pier of Calais. This was the Captain of the yacht carrying the Duke (51) (now King) to Scotland, and was accus'd for not giving timely warning when she split on the sands, where so many perish'd; but I am most confident he was no ways guilty, either of negligence or designe, as he made appeare not onely at the examination of the matter of fact, but in the Vindication he shew'd me, and which must needes give any man of reason satisfaction. He was a sober, frugal, cheerfull, and temperate man; we have few such seamen left.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 April. 08 Apr 1685. Being now somewhat compos'd after my greate affliction, I went to London to hear Dr. Tenison (48) (it being on a Wednesday in Lent) at Whitehall. I observ'd that tho' the King (51) was not in his seate above in the chapell, the Doctor made his three congees, which they were not us'd to do when the late King was absent, making then one bowing onely. I ask'd the reason; it was sayd he had a special order so to do. The Princesse of Denmark (34) was in the [his brother] King's Closet, but sat on the left hand of the chaire, the Clearke of the Closet (50) standing by His Ma*s chaire, as If he had ben present. I met the Queene Dowager (46) going now first from Whitehall to dwell at Somerset-house. This day my brother of Wotton and Mr. Onslow (30) were candidates for Surrey against Sr Adam Brown and my cousin Sr Edwd Evelyn, and were circumvented in their election by a trick of the Sheriff's* taking advantage of my brother's party going out of the small village of Leatherhead to seek shelter and lodging, the afternoone being tempestuous, proceeding to the Election when they were gon; they expecting the next morning; whereas before and then they exceeded the other party by many hundreds, as I am assur'd. The Duke of Norfolk (30) led Sr Edw. Evelyn's and Sr Adam Brown's party. For this Parliament, very meane and slight persons (some of them gentlemen's servants, clearkes, and persons neither of reputation nor interest) were set up, but the country would choose my brother whether he would or no, and he miss'd it by the trick above mentioned. Sr Adam Brown was so deafe that he could not heare one word. S1 Edw. Evelyn was an honest gent much in favour with his Majesty.

On 22 Apr 1685 [his illegitimate son] James Darnley 1684-1685 (1) died.

Coronation James II and Mary

On 23 Apr 1685 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart by William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury 1617-1693 (68). [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) crowned Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland.
Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) preached the sermon.
John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham 1656-1710 (29) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at Westminster Abbey.
Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (21) was appointed Lord High Constable.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 April. 23 Apr 1685. Was the Coronation of the King (51) and Queene (26). The solemnity was magnificent, as is set forth in print. The Bp. of Ely (47) preach'd; but, to the greate sorrow of the people, no Sacrament, as ought to have ben. However the [his brother] King begins his reigne with greate expectations, and hopes of much reformation as to the late vices and prophanenesse both of Court and Country. Having ben present at the late King's Coronation, I was not ambitious of seeing this ceremonie.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 May. 10 May 1685. The Scots valueing themselves exceedingly to have ben ye first Parliament call'd by his Ma* (51), gave the Excise and Costomes to him and his successors for ever; yfc D. of Queensberry (48) making eloquent speeches, and especialy minding them of a speedy suppression of those late despe rate Field-Conventiclers who had done such unheard-of assassinations. In the meane time elections for the ensueing Parliament in England were thought to be very indirectly carried on in most places. God grant a better issue of it than some expect!.

Argyll's Rising

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 May. 22 May 1685. In the morning I went with a French gentleman, and my Lord Privy Seale, to the House of Lords, where we were plac'd by his lordship next the Bar, just below yc Bishops, very commodiously both for hearing and seeing. After a short space came in ye Queene (26) and [his daughter] Princesse of Denmark (20), and stood next above the Archbishops, at the side of the House on the right hand of the throne. In the interim divers of the Lords, who had not finish'd before, tooke the Test and usual Oathes, so that her Ma*, the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind the throne, heard the Pope and worship of the Virgin Mary, &c. renounc'd very decently, as likewise the prayers which follow'd, standing all the while. Then came in the King (51), the Crowne on his head, and being seated, the Commons were introduced, and the House being full, he drew forth a paper containing his speech, which he read distinctly enough, to this effect : " That he resolv'd to call a Parliament from the moment of his brother's decease, as the best meanes to settle all the concernes of the Nation, so as to be most easy and happy to himselfe and his subjects; that he would confirme whatever he had said in his declaration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the principles of the Church of England, for their loyaltie, and would defend and support it, and preserve its government as by law now establish'd; that, as he would invade no man's property, so he would never depart from his owne prerogative; and as he had ventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would proceede to do still; that, having given this assurance of his care of our Religion (his word was your Religion) and Property (wch he had not said by chance but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable returnes of his subjects duty and kindnesse, especialy as to settling his Revenue for life, for yte many weighty necessities of go vernment, weh he would not suffer to be precarious; that some might possibly suggest that it were better to feede and supply him from time to time only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments, but that that would be a very improper method to take with him, since the best way to engage him to meete oftener would be always to use him well, and therefore he expected their compliance speedily, that this Session being but short, they might meet againe to satisfaction." At every period of this the House gave loud shouts. Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of Argyle's (56) being landed in the West High lands of Scotland from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he had published, which he would communicate to them, and that he should take the best care he could it should meete with the reward It deserv'd, not questioning the Parliament's zeale and readinesse to assist him as he desir'd; at which there follow'd another Vive le Roi, and so his Ma* retlr'd.
So soone as ye Commons were return'd and had put themselves into a grand Committee, they immediately put the question, and unanimously voted the Revenue to his Ma* for life. Mr. Seymour made a bold speech against many Elections, and would have had those members who (he pretended) were obnoxious, to withdraw, till they had clear'd the matter of their being legally return'd; but no one seconded him. The truth is, there were many of the new members whose Elections and Returns were universally censur'd, many of them being persons of no condition or interest in the Nation, or places for which they serv'd, especially in Devon, Cornwall, Norfolk, &c. said to have ben recommended by the Court and from the effect of the new charters changing ye electors. It was reported that Lord Bath (56) carried down with him [into Cornwall] no fewer than 15 charters, so that some call'd him the Prince Elector; whence Seymour told the House in his speech that if this was digested, they might introduce what religion and lawes they pleas'd, and that tho' he never gave heed to ye feares and jealousies of the people before, he now was really apprehensive of Popery. By the printed list of Members of 505 there did not appeare to be above 135 who had ben in former Parliaments, especialy that lately held at Oxford. In ye Lords House Lord Newport (65) made an exception against two or three young Peeres, who wanted some moneths, and some only four or five daies of being of age.
The Popish Lords who had ben sometime before releas'd from their confinement about the Plot, were now discharg'd of their impeachment, of wch I gave Lord Arundel of Wardour (52) joy.
Oates (35), who had but two dayes before ben pilloried at severall places and whipt at ye carts taile from Newgate to Aldgate, was this day plac'd on a sledge, being not able to go by reason of so late scourging, and dragg'd from prison to Tyburn, and whipt againe all ye way, which some thought to be very severe and extraordinary; but if he was guilty of the perjuries, and so of the death of many innocents, as I feare he was, his punishment was but what he deserv'd. I chanc'd to pass just as execution was doing on him. A strange revolution!.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 June. 17 Jun 1685. The Duke (36) landed with but 150 men, but the whole Kingdom was alarm'd, fearing triat the disaffected would joyn them, many of the train'd bands flocking to him. At his landing he (36) publish'd a declaration, charging his Ma* (51) with usurpation and several horrid crimes, on pretence of his owne title, and offering to call a free Parliament. This declaration was order'd to be burnt by the hangman, the Duke proclaim'd a traytor, and a reward of £5,000 to any who should kill him. At this time the words engraved on the. Monument in London, intimating that the Papists fir'd the Citty, were erased and cut out.
The exceeding drowth still continues.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 July. 09 Jul 1685. Just as I was coming into the lodgings at Whitehall, a little before dinner, my Lord of Devonshire (45) standing very neere his Ma's (51) bed-chamber doore in the lobby, came Col. Culpeper (50), and in a rude manner looking my Lord in the face, asked whether this was a time and place for excluders to appeare; my Lord at first tooke little notice of what he said, knowing him to be a hot-headed fellow, but he reiterating it, my Lord ask'd Culpeper whether he meant him; he said, yes, he meant his Lordship. My Lord told him he was no excluder (as indeed he was not); the other affirming it againe, my Lord told him he lied, on which Culpeper struck him a box on the eare, which my Lord return'd and fell'd him. They were soone parted, Culpeper was seiz'd, and his Ma*, who was all the while in his bed-chamber, order'd him to be carried to the Green Cloth Officer, who sent him to the Marshalsea as he deserv'd. My Lord Devon had nothing said to him. I supp'd this night at Lambeth at my old friend's Mr. Elias Ashmole's (68), with my Lady Clarendon, ye Bishop of St. Asaph (57), and Dr. Tenison (48), when we were treated at a greate feast.

Around 1655. Unknown Artist. Portrait of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707 (14).

Around 1682. John Riley Painter 1646-1691 (36). Portrait of Elias Ashmole Antiquary 1617-1692 (64).

In 1687. John Riley Painter 1646-1691 (41). Portrait of Elias Ashmole Antiquary 1617-1692 (69).

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 July. 15 Jul 1685. I went to see Dr. Tenison's (48) Library [in St. Martin's.].
Monmouth (36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower, had an interview with his late Dutchesse (34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he proFess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the [his brother] late King, his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (47) and Bath and Wells (48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.
Thus ended this quondam Duke, darling of his father and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to ga ther a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July. His mother, whose name was Barlow, daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney, who was familiar with his mother) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.
Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cozens to sign a certificate of the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name was Walters: this the Bishop refused. She was born of a gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sidney, then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her 50 broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) but being ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother Colonel Robert Sidney, who kept her for some time, till the King hearing of her, got her from him. On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her she is already sped and after being with the King she was so soon with child that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wort on his face. However the King owned the child. In the King's absence she behaved so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King James II. Vol I.
Had it not pleas'd God to dissipate this attempt in ye beginning, there would in all appearance have gather'd an irresistable force which would have desperately proceeded to ye ruine of ye Church and Govern ment, so general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my owne part I look'd upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an Inundation of phanatics and men of impious principles must needs have caus'd universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, an unavoidable civil war and misery without end. Blessed be God the knot was happily broken, and a faire prospect of tranquil lity for the future if we reforme, be thankful!, and make a right use of this mercy.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 July. 18 Jul 1685. I went to see the muster of the 6 Scotch and English regiments whom the Prince of Orange (34) had lately sent to his Ma* (51) out of Holland upon this rebellion, but which were now returning, there having ben no occasion for their use. They were all excellently clad and well disciplin'd, and were incamped on Blackheath with their tents: the [his brother] King and Queene came to see them exercise, and the man ner of their incampment, which was very neate and magnificent. By a grosse mistake of the Secretary of his Ma*'s forces, it had ben order'd that they should be quarter'd in private houses, contrary to an Act of Parliament, but on my informing his Ma* timely of it, It was prevented. The two horsemen wch my son and myselfe sent into the county troopes, were now come home, after a moneth's being out to our greate charge.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 September. 05 Sep 1685. I accompanied his Lordship to Windsor (dining by the way at Sir Henry Capel's (47) at Kew), where his Ma* (51) receiving me with extra ordinary kindnesse, I kiss'd his hand. I told him how. sensible I was of his Ma*s (51) gracious favour to me, that I would endeavour to serve him with all sincerity, diligence, and loyalty, not more out of my duty than inclination. He said he doubted not of it, and was glad he had the opportunity to shew me the kindnesse he had for me. After this came aboundance of greate men to give me joy.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 September. 06 Sep 1685. Sunday. I went to prayer in the Chapell, and heard Dr. Standish. The second sermon was preach'd by Dr. Creighton (46), on 1 Thess. 4, 11, persuading to unity and peace, and to be mindfull of our owne businesse, according to the advise of the Apostle. Then I went to heare a Frenchman who preached before the King (51) and Queene (26) in that splendid Chapell next St. George's Hall. Their Maties going to masse, I withdrew to consider the stupendous painting of ye Hall, which, both for the art and invention, deserve the inscription in honour of the painter, Signior Verrio (49). The history is Edward the 3rd receiving the Black Prince, coming towards him in a Roman triumph. The whole roofe is the history of St. George. The throne, the carvings, &e. are incomparable, and I think equal to any, and in many circumstances exceeding any, I have seene abroad.
I din'd at Lord Sunderland's (44), with (amongst others) Sr Wm Soames (40), design'd Ambass. to Constantinople.
About 6 o'clock came Sl Dudley (44) and his brother Roger North (32), and brought the greate seale from my Lord Keeper, who died ye day before at his house in Oxfordshire. the [his brother] King went immediately to Council; every body guessing who was most likely to succeed this greate officer; most believing it could be no other than my Lord Chief Justice Jefferies (40), who had so vigorously prosecuted the late rebells, and was now gone the Western circuit, to punish the rest that were secur'd in the several counties, and was now neere upon his returne. I tooke my leave of his Ma* (51), who spake very graciously to me, and supping that night at Sr Stephen Fox's (58), I promis'd to dine there the next day.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 September. 15 Sep 1685. I accompanied Mr. Pepys (52) to Portsmouth, whither his Ma* (51) was going the first time since his coming to the Crowne, to see in what state the fortifications were. We tooke coach and six horses, late after dinner, yet got to Bagshot that night. Whilst supper was making ready I went and made a visit to Mrs. Graham (34), some time maid of honour to ye Queene Dowager (46), now wife to James Graham, Esq (36) of the privy purse to the [his brother] King; her house being a walke in the forest, within a little quarter of a mile from Bagshot towne. Very importunate she was that I would sup, and abide there that night, but being obliged by my companion, I return'd to our inn, after she had shew'd me her house, wch was very commodious and well furnish'd, as she was an excellent housewife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There is a parke full of red deere about it. Her eldest son was now sick there of the small-pox, but in a likely way of recovery, and other of her children run about, and among the infected, wnh she said she let them do on purpose that they might whilst young pass that fatal disease she fancied they were to undergo one time or other, and that this would be the best: the severity of this cruell disease so lately in my poore family confirming much of what she affirmed.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 September. 16 Sep 1685. The next morning setting out early, we ariv'd soon enough at Winchester to waite on the King (51), who was lodg'd at the Dean's (Dr. Meggot). I found very few with him besides my Lords Feversham, Arran [Note. Not clear which Earl of Arran], Newport (65), and the Bishop of Bath and Wells (48). His Ma* (51) was discoursing with the Bishops concerning miracles, and what strange things the Saludadors would do in Spaine, as by creeping into heated ovens without hurt, and that they had a black crosse in the roofe of their mouthes, but yet were commonly notorious and profane wretches; upon which his Majesty (51) further said, that he was so extreamly difficult of miracles, for feare of being impos'd upon, that if he should chance to see one himselfe, without some other witness, he should apprehend it a delusion of his senses. Then they spake of ye boy who was pretended to have a wanting leg restor'd him, so confidently asserted by Fr. de Sta Clara and others. To all which the Bishop added a greate miracle happening In Winchester to his certaine knowledge, of a poor miserably sick and decrepit child (as I remember long kept unbaptiz'd), who immediately on his baptism recover'd; as also of yc salutary effect of K. Charles his Ma*s father's blood, in healing one that was blind.
There was something said of the second sight happening to some persons, especialy Scotch; upon which his Ma*, and I think Lord Arran, told us that Mons a French nobleman, lately here in England, seeing the late Duke of Monmouth come into yc play-house at London, suddenly cried out to somebody sitting in the same box, Voila Monsieur comme il entre sans tete. Afterwards his Ma* (51) spoke of some reliques that had effected strange cures, particularly a piece of our Bl. Saviour's Crosse, that heal'd a gentleman's rotten nose by onely touching; and speaking of the golden crosse and chaine taken out of the coffin of St. Edward the Confessor at Westmr*, by one of the singing men, who, as the scaffolds were taking down after his Ma*s coronation, espying a hole in the tomb, and something glisten, put his hand in, and brought it to the Deane, and he to the [his brother] King; his Maty began to put the Bishop in mind how earnestly the late King (his brother) call'd upon him, during his agonie, to take out what he had in his pocket. I had thought, said the King, it had ben for some keys, which might lead to some cabinet that his Ma* would have me secure; but, says he, you well remember that I found nothing in any of his pockets but a crosse of gold, and a few insignificant papers; and thereupon he shew'd us the crosse, and was pleas'd to put it into my hand. It was of gold, about three inches long, having on one side a crucifix enamell'd and emboss'd, the rest was grav'd and garnish'd with goldsmiths' work, and two pretty broad table amethists (as I conceiv'd), and at the bottom a pendant pearle; within was inchas'd a little fragment, as was thought, of the true Crosse, and a Latine inscription in gold and Roman letters. More company coming in, this discourse ended. I may not forget a resolution which his Ma* made, and had a little before enter'd upon it at ye Council Board at Windsor or Whitehall, that the Negroes in the Plantations should all be baptiz'd, exceedingly declaiming against that impiety of their masters prohibiting it, out of a mistaken opinion that they would be ipso facto free; but his Ma* persists in his resolution to have them christen'd, wch piety ye Bishop blessed him for.
I went out to see the new Palace the late King had began, and brought almost to the covering. It is plac'd on the side of the hill where formerly stood the old Castle. It is a stately fabric, of three sides and a corridor, all built of brick, and cornish'd, windows and columns at the break and entrance of free-stone. It was intended for a hunting-house when his Ma* should come to these parts, and has an incomparable prospect. I believe there had already ben £20,000 and more expended, but his now Majesty did not seeme to encourage the finishing It, at least for a while.
Hence I went to see the Cathedral, a reverend pile, and in good repaire. There are still the coffins of the six Saxon Kings, whose bones had ben scatter'd by the sacrilegious Rebells of 1641, in expectation, I suppose, of finding some valuable reliques, and afterwards gather'd up againe and put into new chests, wch stand above the stalls of the Choir.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 September. 17 Sep 1685. Early next morning we went to Portsmouth, something before his Ma* (51) ariv'd. We found all the way full of people, the women in their best dress, in expectation of seeing the [his brother] King pass by, which he did riding on horseback a good part of the way. We found the Maior and Aldermen with their mace, and in their formalities, standing at the entrance of the fort, a mile on this side of the towne, where the Maior made a speech to the King, and then the guns of the fort were fired, as were those of the garrison so soone as the King was come into Portsmouth. All the souldiers (neere 3000) were drawn up, and lining the streetes and platforme to God's-house (the name of the Governor's house), where, after he had view'd the new fortifications and ship-yard, his Ma* was entertain'd at a magnificent dinner by Sir Slingsby yc Lieut. Governor (47)Sir Rob Holmes, Gov of ye Isle of Wight, to dine with him at a private house, where likewise we had a very sumptuous and plentiful repast of excellent venison, fowle, fish, and fruit.
After dinner I went to wait on his Ma* (51) againe, who was pulling on his bootes in ye Townehall, adjoyning the house where he din'd, and then having saluted some ladys, who came to kiss his hand, he tooke horse for Winchester, whither he returned that night. This hall is artificialy hung round with armes of all sorts, like the Hall and Keep at Windsor.
I went hence to see the ship-yard and dock, the fortifications, and other things.
Portsmouth when finish'd will be very strong, and a noble key.
There were now 32 men of war in ye harbour. I was invited by Sir R. Beach ye Commissioner, where, after a greate supper, Mr. Secretary and myselfe lay that night, and the next morning set out for Guildford, where we ariv'd in good hour, and so the day after to London. I had twice before ben at Portsmouth, ye Isle of Wight, &c. many yeares since I found this part of Hampshire bravely wooded, especialy about ye house and estate of Col. Norton, who, tho' now in being, having formerly made his peace by means of Col. Legg, was formerly a very fierce commander in the first Rebellion. His house is large, and standing low, on the road from Winchester to Portsmouth. By what I observ'd in this journey, is that infinite industry, sedulity, gravity, and greate understanding and experience of affaires, in his Ma*, that I cannot but predict much happiness to yc Nation, as to its political government; and if he so persist, there could be nothing more desir'd to accomplish our prosperity but that he was of the National Religion.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 October. 15 Oct 1685. Being the King's (52) birthday, there was a solemne ball at Court, and before it musiq of instruments and voices. At the musiq I happen'd by accident to stand the very next to the Queene (27) and the King (52), who talk'd with me about the musick.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 October. 18 Oct 1685. The King (52) was now building all that range from East to West by ye Court and Garden to the streete, and making a new Chapel for ye Queene (27), whose lodgings were to be in this new building, as also a new Council chamber and offices next ye South end of yc Banquetting house. I returned home next morning to London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 October. 31 Oct 1685. I din'd at our greate Lord Chancellor Jefferies (40), who us'd me with much respect. This was the late Chief Justice who had newly ben the Western Circuit to try the Monmouth conspirators, and had formerly don such severe justice amongst the obnoxious in Westmr Hall, for which his Ma* (52) dignified him by creating him first a Baron, and now Lord Chancellor. He had some years past ben conversant at Deptford; is of an assur'd and undaunted spirit, and has serv'd the Court interest on all the hardiest occasions; is of nature cruel and a slave of the Court.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 November. 09 Nov 1685. Began the Parliament; the King (52) in his speech required continuance of a standing force instead of a militia, and indemnity and dispensation to Popish officers from the Test; demands very unexpected and unpleasing to the Commons. He also requir'd a supply of revenue, which they granted, but return'd no thanks to the [his brother] King for his speech, till farther consideration.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 November. 20 Nov 1685. The Parliament was adjourn'd to February, severall both of Lords and Commons excepting against some passage of his Majesty's (52) speech relating to the Test, and continuance of Popish officers in command. This was a greate surprize in a Parliament which people believ'd would have complied in all things.
Popish pamphlets and pictures sold publickly; no books nor answers to them appearing till long after.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 December. 13 Dec 1685. Dr Patrick, Dean of Peterborough (59), preach'd at Whitehall before ye [his daughter] Princesse of Denmark (20); who since his Ma* (52) came to the Crown, allways sate in the [his brother] King's closet, and had the same bowings and ceremonies applied to the place where she was, as his Ma* had when there in person.
Dining at Mr. Pepys's, Dr. Slayer shewed us an experiment of a wonderful nature, pouring first a very cold liquor into a glass, and super-fusing on it another, to appearance cold and cleare liquor also; it first produced a white cloud, then boiling, divers cormscations and actual flames of fire mingled with the liquor, which being a little shaken together, fixed divers sunns and starrs of real fire, perfectly globular, on the sides of the glasse, and which there stuck like so many constellations, burning most vehemently, and resembling starrs and heavenly bodies, and that for a long space. It seemed to exhiblte a theorie of the eduction of light out of the chaos, and the fixing or gathering of the universal light into luminous bodys. This matter or phosphorus was made out of human blood and urine, elucidating the vital flame or heate in animal bodys. A very noble experiment.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 December. 18 Dec 1685. I din'd at the greate entertainment his Ma* (52) gave ye Venetian Ambassadors, Sign. Zenno and Justiniani, accompanied with 10 more noble Venetians of their most illustrious families, Cornaro, Maccenigo, &c. who came to congratulate their Maties coming to ye Crowne. The dinner was most magnificent and plentifull, at four tables, with music, kettle drums, and trumpets, wcb sounded upon a whistle at every health. The banquet [desert] was 12 vast chargers pil'd up so high that those who sat one against another could hardly see each other. Of these sweetemeates, weh doubtless were some days piling up in that exquisite manner, the Ambassadors touch'd not, but leaving them to ye spectators who came out of curiosity to see the dinner, were exceedingly pleas'd to see in what a moment of time all that curious work was demolished, the comfitures voided, and the tables clear'd. Thus his Ma* entertain'd them three days, which (for the table only) cost him £600, as the Cleark of the Greene cloth (Sr Wm Bbreman (73)) assur'd me. Dinner ended, I saw their procession or cavalcade to Whitehall, innumerable coaches attending. The two Ambass. had 4 coaches of their owne and 50 footemen (as I remember), besides other equipage as splendid as ye occasion would permitt, the Court being still in mourning. Thence I went to the audience wch they had in the Queene's presence chamber, the Banquetting house being full of goods and furniture till the galleries on the garden side, Council chamber, and new Chapell now in building, were finish'd. They went to their audience in those plain black gownes and caps which they constantly weare in the Citty of Venice. I was invited to have accompanied the 2 Ambassadors in their coach to supper that night, returning now to their own lodgings, as no longer at the [his brother] King's expence; but being weary I excus'd myself.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 December. 22 Dec 1685. Our patent for executing the office of Privy Seal during the absence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, being this day seal'd by the Lord Chancellor (40), we went afterwards to St James's, where the Court then was on occasion of building at Whitehall; his Ma* (52) deliver'd the seale to my Lord Tivlot and myselfe, the other Commissioners not being come, and then gave us his hand to kisse. There were the two Venetian Ambassadors, and a world of company; amongst the rest the first Popish Nuncio that had ben in England since the Reformation, so wonderfully were things chang'd, to the universal jealousy.

In 1686 Henry Waldegrave 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset 1661-1689 (25) was created 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset (1C 1686) by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (52) three years after Henry Waldegrave 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset 1661-1689 (25) married the King's illegitimate daughter [his daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 (19). Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 (19) by marriage Baroness Waldegrave Chewton Somerset (1C 1686).

In 1686 Samuel Parker Bishop of Oxford 1640-1688 (46) was appointed Bishop of Oxford by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (52).

In 1686 Thomas Cartwright Bishop of Chester 1634-1689 (52) was appointed Bishop of Chester by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (52).

Before 1680 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Thomas Cartwright Bishop of Chester 1634-1689.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 January. 06 Jan 1686. Passed the Privie Seale, amongst others, the creation of Mrs. Sedley J (concubine to) Countesse of Dorchester (28), which the Queene took very grievously (27), so as for two dinners, standing neere her I observed she hardly eate one morsel, nor spake one word to the King (52), or to any about her, tho' at other times she us'd to be extreamly pleasant, full of discourse and good humour. The Roman Catholics were also very angry, because they had so long valu'd the sanctity of their religion and proselytes. Dryden (54) the famous playwriter, and his two sonns, and Mrs. Nelly (35) (Misse to ye late) were said to go to masse ; such proselytes were no greate losse to the church. This night was burnt to the ground my Lord Mountague's palace in Bloomsbury, than wch for painting and furniture there was nothing more glorious in England. This happen'd by the negligence of a servant, airing, as they call it, some of the goods by the fire in a moist season ; indeede so wet and mild a winter had scarce ben seene in man's memory. At this Seale there also pass'd the creation of Sr H. Walgrave (25) to be a Peere. He had married one of the [his daughter] King's natural daughters (19) by [his wife] [his wife] Mrs. Churchill. These two Seales my brother Commissioners pass'd in the morning before I came to towne, at. wch I was not displeas'd. We likewise pass'd Privy Seales for 5.2/6,000 upon severall accounts, pensions, guards, wardrobes, pri vie purse, &c. besides divers pardons, and one more wch I must not forget (and wch by Providence I was not present at) one Mr. Lytcott to be Secretary to the Ambassador to Rome. We being three Commissioners, any two were a quorum.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 February. 06 Feb 1686. Being the day on wcb his Ma* (52) began his reign, by order of Council it was to be solemniz'd with a particular Office and Sermon, which the Bp. of Ely (48) preach'd at Whitehall on 11 Numb. 12; a Court oration upon the Regal office. It was much wonder'd at that this day, weh was that of his [his brother] late Ma*'s death, should be kept as a festival, and not [instead of] the day of the present King's coronation. It is said to have ben formerly ye costom, tho' not till now since ye reigne of King James I.
The Dutchesse of Monmouth (34) being in ye same seate with me at church, appear'd with a very sad and afflicted countenance.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 February. 19 Feb 1686. Many bloody and notorious duels were fought about this time. The Duke of Grafton (22) kill'd Mr. Stanley, brother to the Earle of Shrewsbury (25), indeede upon an almost insufferable provocation. It is to be hop'd his Ma* (52) will at last severely remedy this unchristian custome. Lord Sunderland (44) was now Secretary of State, President of the Council, and Premier Minister.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 March. 01 Mar 1686. Came Sir Gilbert Gerrard to treate with me about his sonn's marrying my daughter Susanna (17). The father being obnoxious, and in some suspicion and displeasure of the King (52), I would receive no proposal till his Ma* (52) had given me leave, wch he was pleas'd to do ; but after severall meetings we brake off on his not being willing to secure any thing competent for my daughter's children ; besides that I found most of his estate was in ye coal pits as far off as Newcastle, and on leases from the Bishop of Durham, who had power to make concurrent leases, with other difficulties.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 March. 12 Mar 1686. A docquet was to be seal' d importing a lease of 21 yeares to one Hall, who styl'd himselfe his Ma*'s (52) printer (he lately turn'd Papist) for the printing Missalls, Offices, Lives of Saints, Portals, Primers, &c. books expressly forbidden to be printed or sold, by divers Acts of Parliament ; I refus'd to put the seale to it, making my exceptions, so it was laied by.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 March. 16 Mar 1686. I was at a review of the Army about London, in Hide Park, about 6000 horse and foote, in excellent order ; his Ma* (52) and infinity of people being present.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 May. 05 May 1686. There being a Seale It was fear'd we should be requir'd to passe a doquett dispensing with Dr Obadiah Walker (70) and four more, whereof one was an apostate curate of Putney, ye others officers of University College, Oxford, to hold their masterships, fellowships, and cures, and keepe publiq schooles, and enjoy all former emoluments, notwithstanding they no more frequented or us'd the public formes of prayers or communion with ye Church of England, or took yc test and oathes of allegiance and supremacy, contrary to 20 Acts of Parliament; which dispensation being also contrary to his Ma*'s (52) owne gracious declaration at ye beginning of his reigne, gave umbrage (as well it might) to every good Protestant, nor could we safely have pass'd it under the Privy Seale, wherefore it was done by immediate warrant, sign'd by Mr. Solicitor. This Walker (70) was a learned person, of a monkish life, to whose tuition I had more than 30 yeares since recommended the sonns of my worthy friend Mr. Hyldyard of Horsly in Surrey, believing him to be far from what he prov'd, an hypocritical conceal'd Papist, by wch he perverted the eldest sonn of Mr. Hyldyard, Sr Edwd Hale's (41) eldest sonn, and severall more, to the greate disturbance of the whole Nation, as well as of the University, as by his now publiq defection appear'd. All engines being now at work to bring in Popery, wch God in mercy prevent ! This day was burnt in the old Exchange, by the common hangman, a translation of a booke written by ye famous Monsr Claude, relating onely matters of fact concerning the horrid massacres and barbarous proceedings of ye French King (47) against his Protestant subjects, without any refutation of any facts therein ; so mighty a power and ascendant here had the French Ambass', who was doubtlesse in greate indignation at the pious and truly generous charity of all the Nation, for ye reliefe of those miserable sufferers who came over for shelter. About this time also the Duke of Savoy (19), instigated by ye French King to extirpate the Protestants of Piedmont, slew many thousands of those innocent people, so that there seem'd to be an universal designe to destroy all that would not go to masse, throughout Europe. Quod avertat D. O. M ! No faith in Princes!.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 June. 02 Jun 1686. Such storms, raine and foul weather, seldom known at this time of the yeare. The camp at Hounslow Heath, from sicknesse and other inconveniences of weather, forc'd to retire to quarters ; ye storms being succeeded by excessive hot weather, many grew sick. Greate feasting there, especialy in Lord Dunbarton's (51) quarters. There were many jealousies and discourses of what was the meaning of this incampment. A Seale this day, mostly pardons and discharges of Kn* Baronets fees, wch having ben pass'd over for so many yeares, did greatly dis oblige several families who had serv'd his Ma* (52). Lord Tirconnell (56) gon to Ireland, with greate powers and commissions, giving as much cause of talke as the camp, especialy 19 new privy councillors and judges being now made, amongst wch but three Protestants, and Tirconnell made Generall.
New Judges also here, amongst wch was Milton (70), a Papist (brother to that Milton who wrote for ye Regicides), who presum'd to take his place without passing ye Test*. Scotland refuses to grant liberty of masse to the Papists there. The French persecution more inhuman than ever. The Protestants in Savoy successfully resist the French dragoons sent to murder them.
The King's chiefe physician (45) in Scotland apostatizing from the Protestant religion, does of his own accord publish his recantation at Edinburgh.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 June. 25 Jun 1686. Now his Ma* (52), beginning with Dr Sharp (41) and Tully, proceeded to silence and suspend divers excellent divines for preaching against Popery.

In 1687 [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (16) was created 1st Duke Berwick by his father James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (53).

In 1687 Samuel Parker Bishop of Oxford 1640-1688 (47) was appointed Magdalen College by the Ecclesiastical Commission when the fellows refused to elect any of the king's nominees. This act became one of the most celebrated episodes leading up to King James's (53) abdication.

John Evelyn's Diary 1687 March. 10 Mar 1687. His Majesty (53) sent for the Commissioners of the Privy Seal this morning into his bedchamber, and told us that though he had thought fit to dispose of the Seal into a single hand, yet he would so provide for us, as it should appear how well he accepted our faithful and loyal service with many gracious expressions to this effect; upon which we delivered the Seal into his hands. It was by all the world both hoped and expected, that he would have restored it to my Lord Clarendon; but they were astonished to see it given to Lord Arundel, of Wardour (80), a zealous Roman Catholic. Indeed it was very hard, and looked very unkindly, his Majesty (53) (as my Lord Clarendon protested to me, on my going to visit him and long discoursing with him about the affairs of Ireland) finding not the least failure of duty in him during his government of that kingdom, so that his recall plainly appeared to be from the stronger influence of the Papists, who now got all the preferments.
Most of the great officers, both in the Court and country, Lords and others, were dismissed, as they would not promise his [his brother] Majesty their consent to the repeal of the test and penal statutes against Popish Recusants. To this end, most of the Parliament men were spoken to in his Majesty's closet, and such as refused, if in any place of office or trust, civil or military, were put out of their employments. This was a time of great trial; but hardly one of them assented, which put the Popish interest much backward. The English clergy everywhere preached boldly against their superstition and errors, and were wonderfully followed by the people. Not one considerable proselyte was made in all this time. The party were exceedingly put to the worst by the preaching and writing of the Protestants in many excellent treatises, evincing the doctrine and discipline of the reformed religion, to the manifest disadvantage of their adversaries. To this did not a little contribute the sermon preached at Whitehall before the [his daughter] Princess of Denmark (22) and a great crowd of people, and at least thirty of the greatest nobility, by Dr. Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells (49), on John viii. 46 (the Gospel of the day), describing through his whole discourse the blasphemies, perfidy, wresting of Scripture, preference of tradition before it, spirit of persecution, superstition, legends, and fables of the Scribes and Pharisees, so that all the auditory understood his meaning of a parallel between them and the Romish priests, and their new Trent religion. He exhorted his audience to adhere to the written Word, and to persevere in the Faith taught in the Church of England, whose doctrine for Catholic and soundness he preferred to all the communities and churches of Christians in the world; concluding with a kind of prophecy, that whatever it suffered, it should after a short trial emerge to the confusion of her adversaries and the glory of God.
I went this evening to see the order of the boys and children at Christ's Hospital. There were near 800 boys and girls so decently clad, cleanly lodged, so wholesomely fed, so admirably taught, some the mathematics, especially the forty of the late King's foundation, that I was delighted to see the progress some little youths of thirteen or fourteen years of age had made. I saw them at supper, visited their dormitories, and much admired the order, economy, and excellent government of this most charitable seminary. Some are taught for the Universities, others designed for seamen, all for trades and callings. The girls are instructed in all such work as becomes their sex and may fit them for good wives, mistresses, and to be a blessing to their generation. They sang a psalm before they sat down to supper in the great Hall, to an organ which played all the time, with such cheerful harmony, that it seemed to me a vision of angels. I came from the place with infinite satisfaction, having never seen a more noble, pious, and admirable charity. All these consisted of orphans only. The foundation was of that pious Prince King Edward VI., whose picture (held to be an original of Holbein is in the court where the Governors meet to consult on the affairs of the Hospital, and his statue in white marble stands in a niche of the wall below, as you go to the church, which is a modern, noble, and ample fabric. This foundation has had, and still has, many benefactors.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (30). Known as "Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling". The subject is believed to be Anne Ashby -1539 wife of Francis Lovell -1552 (18). The starling is probably intended as a rhyming pun of East Harling, where the family had recently inherited the estate of East Harling Hall, East Harling. Squirrels nibbling on nuts feature on the heraldry of the Lovell family: the windows of the Church of St Peter and St Paul, East Harling include two of the family’s arms in stained glass, each showing six red squirrels. The commission may commemorate the birth of a son to the couple in the spring of 1526, but it also showed off their new status as wealthy landowners.

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (30). Portrait of Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) wearing the Garter and Inter-twined Knots Collar with St George Pendant. Standing three-quarter length, richly dressed in velvet, fur and cloth-of-gold. Holbein has meticulously shown the varied texture of his cloth-of-gold double which is woven into a pomegranate pattern with a variety of different weaves including loops of gold thread. Similarly, he has carefully articulated the band of black satin running down Guildford’s arm against the richer black of the velvet of his sleeve. A lavish use of both shell-gold paint and gold leaf (which has been used to emulate the highlights of the gold thread in the material) emphasises the luxuriousness of the sitter’s dress and his high status. In his right-hand he holds the Comptroller of the Household Staff of Office.

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (30). Portrait of Mary Wotton 1499-1535 (28) when she was thirty-two commissioned with that of her husband Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) possibly to celebrate their marriage. Hung with gold chains and embellished with pearls, Lady Guildford embodies worldly prosperity, and with her prayer book she is also the very image of propriety.

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (36). Drawing of Thomas Elyot 1490-1546 (43).

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (36). Drawing of Margaret Barrow 1500-1560 (33).

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (39). Drawing of Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542 (33).

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (39). Drawing of Margaret More 1505-1544 (31) known by her married name of "Margaret Roper".

Around 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (40). Drawing of Elizabeth Jenks Baroness Rich Leez 1510-1558 (27).

Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (41). Drawing of the wife of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (55). He had three wives. The sitter is believed to his third wife.

After 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Elizabeth Grey Baroness Audley Waldon -1564 based on she having become Lady Audley on 29 Nov 1538. Coloured chalks, silverpoint, pen and ink on pink-primed paper, 29.2 × 20.7 cm, Royal Collection, Windsor Castle. The drawing is inscribed, by a later hand than Holbein's, "The Lady Audley".

Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (42). Portrait of Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England 1515-1557 (23).

Around 1542 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (45). Drawing of William Sharington 1495-1553 (47).

John Evelyn's Diary 1687 October. 29 Oct 1687. An Anabaptist, a very odd ignorant person, a mechanic, I think, was Lord Mayor. The King (54) and Queen (29), and Dadi, the Pope's Nuncio, invited to a feast at Guildhall. A strange turn of affairs, that those who scandalized the Church of England as favorers of Popery, should publicly invite an emissary from Rome, one who represented the very person of their Antichrist!.

Test Act

In 1688 Admiral Arthur Herbert 1st Earl Torrington 1648-1716 (40) was dismissed by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (54) for refusing to sign the Test Act.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 May. 08 May 1688. His Majesty (54), alarmed by the great fleet of the Dutch (while we had a very inconsiderable one), went down to Chatham; their fleet was well prepared, and out, before we were in any readiness, or had any considerable number to have encountered them, had there been occasion, to the great reproach of the nation; while being in profound peace, there was a mighty land army, which there was no need of, and no force at sea, where only was the apprehension; but the army was doubtless kept and increased, in order to bring in and countenance Popery, the [his brother] King beginning to discover his intention, by many instances pursued by the Jesuits, against his first resolution to alter nothing in the Church Establishment, so that it appeared there can be no reliance on Popish promises.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 May. 18 May 1688. King (54) enjoining the ministers to read his Declaration for giving liberty of conscience (as it was styled) in all churches of England, this evening, six Bishops, Bath and Wells (50), Peterborough (60), Ely (50), Chichester (64), St. Asaph (60), and Bristol (38), in the name of all the rest of the Bishops, came to his [his brother] Majesty to petition him, that he would not impose the reading of it to the several congregations within their dioceses; not that they were averse to the publishing it for want of due tenderness toward dissenters, in relation to whom they should be willing to come to such a temper as should be thought fit, when that matter might be considered and settled in Parliament and Convocation; but that, the Declaration being founded on such a dispensing power as might at pleasure set aside all laws ecclesiastical and civil, it appeared to them illegal, as it had done to the Parliament in 1661 and 1672, and that it was a point of such consequence, that they could not so far make themselve parties to it, as the reading of it in church in time of divine service amounted to.
The King (54) was so far incensed at this address, that he with threatening expressions commanded them to obey him in reading it at their perils, and so dismissed them.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 May. 25 May 1688. All the discourse now was about the Bishops refusing to read the injunction for the abolition of the Test, etc. It seems the injunction came so crudely from the Secretary's office, that it was neither sealed nor signed in form, nor had any lawyer been consulted, so as the Bishops who took all imaginable advice, put the Court to great difficulties how to proceed against them. Great were the consults, and a proclamation was expected all this day; but nothing was done. The action of the Bishops was universally applauded, and reconciled many adverse parties, Papists only excepted, who were now exceedingly perplexed, and violent courses were every moment expected. Report was, that the Protestant secular Lords and Nobility would abet the Clergy.
The Queen Dowager (49), hitherto bent on her return into Portugal, now on the sudden, on allegation of a great debt owing her by his Majesty (54) disabling her, declares her resolution to stay.
News arrived of the most prodigious earthquake that was almost ever heard of, subverting the city of Lima and country in Peru, with a dreadful inundation following it.

On 10 Jun 1688 [his son] James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (54) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (29). Winifred Trentham 1645-1725 (43) was present.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of Winifred Trentham 1645-1725 (34).

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 July. 08 Jul 1688. One of the King's (54) chaplains preached before the [his daughter] Princess (26) on Exodus xiv. 13, "Stand still, and behold the salvation of the Lord," which he applied so boldly to the present conjuncture of the Church of England, that more could scarce be said to encourage desponders. The Popish priests were not able to carry their cause against their learned adversaries, who confounded them both by their disputes and writings.

Seven Bishops

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 October. 07 Oct 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on 2 Tim. iii. 16, showing the Scriptures to be our only rule of faith, and its perfection above all traditions. After which, near 1,000 devout persons partook of the Communion. The sermon was chiefly occasioned by a Jesuit, who in the Masshouse on the Sunday before had disparaged the Scripture and railed at our translation, which some present contradicting, they pulled him out of the pulpit, and treated him very coarsely, insomuch that it was like to create a great disturbance in the city.
Hourly expectation of the Prince of Orange's (37) invasion heightened to that degree, that his Majesty (54) thought fit to abrogate the Commission for the dispensing Power (but retaining his own right still to dispense with all laws) and restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. In the meantime, he called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued to remove Protestants and put in Papists at Portsmouth and other places of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, that they seemed passionately to long for and desire the landing of that Prince (37), whom they looked on to be their deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying incessantly for an east wind, which was said to be the only hindrance of his expedition with a numerous army ready to make a descent. To such a strange temper, and unheard of in former times, was this poor nation reduced, and of which I was an eyewitness. The apprehension was (and with reason) that his Majesty's (54) forces would neither at land nor sea oppose them with that vigor requisite to repel invaders.
The late imprisoned Bishops were now called to reconcile matters, and the Jesuits hard at work to foment confusion among the Protestants by their usual tricks. A letter was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), informing him, from good hands, of what was contriving by them. A paper of what the Bishops advised his [his brother] Majesty was published. The Bishops were enjoined to prepare a form of prayer against the feared invasion. A pardon published. Soldiers and mariners daily pressed.
NOTE. The Letter was written by John Evelyn ...
My Lord, The honor and reputation which your Grace's piety, prudence, and signal courage, have justly merited and obtained, not only from the sons of the Church of England, but even universally from those Protestants among us who are Dissenters from her discipline; God Almighty's Providence and blessing upon your Grace's vigilancy and extraordinary endeavors will not suffer to be diminished in this conjuncture. The conversation I now and then have with some in place who have the opportunity of knowing what is doing in the most secret recesses and cabals of our Church's adversaries, obliges me to acquaint you, that the calling of your Grace and the rest of the Lords Bishops to Court, and what has there of late been required of you, is only to create a jealousy and suspicion among well-meaning people of such compliances, as it is certain they have no cause to apprehend. The plan of this and of all that which is to follow of seeming favor thence, is wholly drawn by the Jesuits, who are at this time more than ever busy to make divisions among us, all other arts and mechanisms having hitherto failed them. They have, with other things contrived that your Lordships the Bishops should give his Majesty advice separately, without calling any of the rest of the Peers, which, though maliciously suggested, spreads generally about the town. I do not at all question but your Grace will speedily prevent the operation of this venom, and that you will think it highly necessary so to do, that your Grace is also enjoined to compose a form of prayer, wherein the Prince of Orange is expressly to be named the Invader: of this I presume not to say anything; but for as much as in all the Declarations, etc., which have hitherto been published in pretended favor of the Church of England, there is not once the least mention of the Reformed or Protestant Religion, but only of the Church of England as by Law Established, which Church the Papists tell us is the Church of Rome, which is (say they) the Catholic Church of England—that only is established by Law; the Church of England in the Reformed sense so established, is but by an usurped authority. The antiquity of THAT would by these words be explained, and utterly defeat this false and subdolous construction, and take off all exceptions whatsoever; if, in all extraordinary offices, upon these occasions, the words Reformed and Protestant were added to that of the Church of England by Law established. And whosoever threatens to invade or come against us, to the prejudice of that Church, in God's name, be they Dutch or Irish, let us heartily pray and fight against them. My Lord, this is, I confess, a bold, but honest period; and, though I am well assured that your Grace is perfectly acquainted with all this before, and therefore may blame my impertinence, as that does αλλοτριοεπισκοπειν; yet I am confident you will not reprove the zeal of one who most humbly begs your Grace's pardon, with your blessing. Lond., 10 Oct 1688.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 October. 14 Oct 1688. The King's (55) birthday. No guns from the Tower as usual. The sun eclipsed at its rising. This day signal for the victory of William the Conqueror against Harold, near Battel, in Sussex. The wind, which had been hitherto west, was east all this day. Wonderful expectation of the Dutch fleet. Public prayers ordered to be read in the churches against invasion.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 October. 29 Oct 1688. Lady Sunderland (42) acquainted me with his Majesty's (55) taking away the Seals from Lord Sunderland (47), and of her being with the Queen (30) to intercede for him. It is conceived that he had of late grown remiss in pursuing the interest of the Jesuitical counsels; some reported one thing, some another; but there was doubtless some secret betrayed, which time may discover.
There was a Council called, to which were summoned the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), the Judges, the Lord Mayor, etc. The Queen Dowager (49), and all the ladies and lords who were present at the Queen Consort's (30) labor, were to give their testimony upon oath of the [his son] Prince of Wales's birth, recorded both at the Council Board and at the Chancery a day or two after. This procedure was censured by some as below his Majesty (55) to condescend to, on the talk of the people. It was remarkable that on this occasion the Archbishop (71), Marquis of Halifax (54), the Earls of Clarendon and Nottingham (41), refused to sit at the Council table among Papists, and their bold telling his Majesty (55) that whatever was done while such sat among them was unlawful and incurred praemunire;—at least, if what I heard be true.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 October. 31 Oct 1688. My birthday, being the 68th year of my age. O blessed Lord, grant that as I grow in years, so may I improve in grace! Be thou my protector this following year, and preserve me and mine from those dangers and great confusions that threaten a sad revolution to this sinful nation! Defend thy church, our holy religion, and just laws, disposing his Majesty (55) to listen to sober and healing counsels, that if it be thy blessed will, we may still enjoy that happy tranquility which hitherto thou hast continued to us! Amen, Amen!.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 November. 01 Nov 1688. Dined with Lord Preston (39), with other company, at Sir Stephen Fox's (61). Continual alarms of the Prince of Orange (37), but no certainty. Reports of his great losses of horse in the storm, but without any assurance. A man was taken with divers papers and printed manifestoes, and carried to Newgate, after examination at the Cabinet Council. There was likewise a declaration of the States for satisfaction of all public ministers at The Hague, except to the English and the French. There was in that of the Prince's an expression, as if the Lords both spiritual and temporal had invited him over, with a deduction of the causes of his enterprise. This made his Majesty (55) convene my Lord of Canterbury (71) and the other Bishops now in town, to give an account of what was in the manifesto, and to enjoin them to clear themselves by some public writing of this disloyal charge.

Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 November. 05 Nov 1688. I went to London; heard the news of the Prince (38) having landed at Torbay, coming with a fleet of near 700 sail, passing through the Channel with so favorable a wind, that our navy could not intercept, or molest them. This put the King (55) and Court into great consternation, they were now employed in forming an army to stop their further progress, for they were got into Exeter, and the season and ways very improper for his [his brother] Majesty's forces to march so great a distance.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (71) and some few of the other Bishops and Lords in London, were sent for to Whitehall, and required to set forth their abhorrence of this invasion. They assured his Majesty (55) that they had never invited any of the Prince's (38) party, or were in the least privy to it, and would be ready to show all testimony of their loyalty; but, as to a public declaration, being so few, they desired that his Majesty (55) would call the rest of their brethren and Peers, that they might consult what was fit to be done on this occasion, not thinking it right to publish anything without them, and till they had themselves seen the Prince's (38) manifesto, in which it was pretended he was invited in by the Lords, spiritual and temporal. This did not please the King; so they departed.
A declaration was published, prohibiting all persons to see or read the Prince's (38) manifesto, in which was set forth at large the cause of his expedition, as there had been one before from the States.
These are the beginnings of sorrow, unless God in his mercy prevent it by some happy reconciliation of all dissensions among us. This, in all likelihood, nothing can effect except a free Parliament; but this we cannot hope to see, while there are any forces on either side. I pray God to protect and direct the King (55) for the best and truest interest of his people!—I saw his Majesty (55) touch for the evil, Piten the Jesuit, and Warner officiating..

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 November. 18 Nov 1688. It was now a very hard frost. The King (55) goes to Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and return to London. Lord Delamere (36) appears for the Prince (38) in Cheshire. The nobility meet in Yorkshire. The Archbishop of Canterbury (71) and some Bishops, and such Peers as were in London, address his Majesty (55) to call a Parliament. The King (55) invites all foreign nations to come over. The French take all the Palatinate, and alarm the Germans more than ever..

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 December. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (55) and Earl of Nottingham (41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth declared for the Prince (38). Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (38) coming to Oxford. The [his son] Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover (52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution..

1688 Battle of Reading

On 09 Dec 1688 the Battle of Reading was fought between supporters of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55) and [his nephew] William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38). William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) was victorious. Thereafter James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55) fled to France and William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) acceeded.

Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 December. 13 Dec 1688. The King (55) flies to sea, puts in at Faversham for ballast; is rudely treated by the people; comes back to Whitehall.
The Prince of Orange (38) is advanced to Windsor, is invited by the King (55) to St. James's, the messenger sent was the Earl of Faversham (47), the General of the Forces, who going without trumpet, or passport, is detained prisoner by the Prince (38), who accepts the invitation, but requires his Majesty (38) to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may be quartered about the palace and city. This is taken heinously and the King (38) goes privately to Rochester; is persuaded to come back; comes on the Sunday; goes to mass, and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I was present)..

On 13 Dec 1688 Elizabeth Waller 1st Baroness Shelburne 1636-1708 (52) was created 1st Baron Shelburne (1C 1688) by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55). On the same day her son Charles Petty 1st Baron Shelburne 1673-1696 (15) was created 1st Baron Shelburne (2C 1688).

On 13 Dec 1688 Thomas Thynne 1st Viscount Weymouth 1640-1714 (48), along with the Earl of Pembroke, carried an invitation to the Prince of Orange who was at Henley-on-Thames after the flight of King James II (55).

Before 1714 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Thynne 1st Viscount Weymouth 1640-1714.

Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 December. 18 Dec 1688. I saw the King (55) take barge to Gravesend at twelve o'clock—a sad sight! The Prince (38) comes to St. James's, and fills Whitehall with Dutch guards. A Council of Peers meet about an expedient to call a Parliament; adjourn to the House of Lords. The Chancellor, Earl of Peterborough (67), and divers others taken. The Earl of Sunderland (47) flies; Sir Edward Hale (43), Walker, and others, taken and secured.
All the world go to see the Prince (38) at St. James's, where there is a great Court. There I saw him, and several of my acquaintance who came over with him. He is very stately, serious and reserved. The English soldiers sent out of town to disband them; not well pleased..

Abdication of James II

On 23 Dec 1688 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55) abdicated II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart. His daughter [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland: William and Mary. His nephew [his nephew] William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) succeeded IIi King England Scotland and Ireland: William and Mary.

Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 December. 24 Dec 1688. The King (55) passes into France, whither the Queen (30) and [his son] child were gone a few days before..

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 January. 15 Jan 1689. I visited the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), where I found the Bishops of St. Asaph (61), Ely (51), Bath and Wells (51), Peterborough (61), and Chichester (65), the Earls of Aylesbury (33) and Clarendon, Sir George Mackenzie (53), Lord-Advocate of Scotland, and then came in a Scotch Archbishop, etc. After prayers and dinner, divers serious matters were discoursed, concerning the present state of the Public, and sorry I was to find there was as yet no accord in the judgments of those of the Lords and Commons who were to convene; some would have the [his daughter] Princess (26) made Queen without any more dispute, others were for a Regency; there was a Tory party (then so called), who were for inviting his Majesty (55) again upon conditions; and there were Republicans who would make the Prince of Orange (38) like a Stadtholder. The Romanists were busy among these several parties to bring them into confusion: most for ambition or other interest, few for conscience and moderate resolutions. I found nothing of all this in this assembly of Bishops, who were pleased to admit me into their discourses; they were all for a Regency, thereby to salve their oaths, and so all public matters to proceed in his Majesty's (55) name, by that to facilitate the calling of Parliament, according to the laws in being. Such was the result of this meeting.
My Lord of Canterbury (71) gave me great thanks for the advertisement I sent him in October, and assured me they took my counsel in that particular, and that it came very seasonably.
I found by the Lord-Advocate (53) that the Bishops of Scotland (who were indeed little worthy of that character, and had done much mischief in that Church) were now coming about to the true interest, in this conjuncture which threatened to abolish the whole hierarchy in that kingdom; and therefore the Scottish Archbishop (55) and Lord-Advocate (53) requested the Archbishop of Canterbury (71) to use his best endeavors with the Prince (55) to maintain the Church there in the same state, as by law at present settled.
It now growing late, after some private discourse with his Grace (71), I took my leave, most of the Lords being gone.
The trial of the bishops was now printed.
The great convention being assembled the day before, falling upon the question about the government, resolved that King James (55) having by the advice of the Jesuits and other wicked persons endeavored to subvert the laws of the Church and State, and deserted the [his brother] Kingdom, carrying away the seals, etc., without any care for the management of the government, had by demise abdicated himself and wholly vacated his right; they did therefore desire the Lords' concurrence to their vote, to place the crown on the next heir, the Prince of Orange (38), for his life, then to the Princess (26), his wife, and if she died without issue, to the [his daughter] Princess of Denmark (23), and she failing, to the heirs of the Prince (55), excluding forever all possibility of admitting a Roman Catholic.
Note. The reference to Prince is somewhat abiguous. It may refer to [his nephew] William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38).

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 January. 29 Jan 1689. The votes of the House of Commons being carried up by Mr. Hampden (36), their chairman, to the Lords, I got a station by the Prince's (55) lodgings at the door of the lobby to the House, and heard much of the debate, which lasted very long. Lord Derby (34) was in the chair (for the House was resolved into a grand committee of the whole House); after all had spoken, it came to the question, which was carried by three voices against a Regency, which 51 were for, 54 against; the minority alleging the danger of dethroning Kings, and scrupling many passages and expressions in the vote of the Commons, too long to set down particularly. Some were for sending to his [his brother] Majesty with conditions: others that the King (55) could do no wrong, and that the maladministration was chargeable on his ministers. There were not more than eight or nine bishops, and but two against the Regency; the archbishop (71) was absent, and the clergy now began to change their note, both in pulpit and discourse, on their old passive obedience, so as people began to talk of the bishops being cast out of the House. In short, things tended to dissatisfaction on both sides; add to this, the morose temper of the Prince of Orange (38), who showed little countenance to the noblemen and others, who expected a more gracious and cheerful reception when they made their court. The English army also was not so in order, and firm to his interest, nor so weakened but that it might give interruption. Ireland was in an ill posture as well as Scotland. Nothing was yet done toward a settlement. God of his infinite mercy compose these things, that we may be at last a Nation and a Church under some fixed and sober establishment!.

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 February. 06 Feb 1689. The King's (55) coronation day was ordered not to be observed, as hitherto it had been.
The Convention of the Lords and Commons now declare the Prince (38) and [his daughter] Princess (26) of Orange King and Queen of England, France, and Ireland (Scotland being an independent kingdom), the Prince (38) and Princess (26) being to enjoy it jointly during their lives; but the executive authority to be vested in the Prince (38) during life, though all proceedings to run in both names, and that it should descend to their issue, and for want of such, to the [his daughter] Princess Anne of Denmark (24) and her issue, and in want of such, to the heirs of the body of the Prince, if he survive, and that failing, to devolve to the Parliament, as they should think fit. These produced a conference with the Lords, when also there was presented heads of such new laws as were to be enacted. It is thought on these conditions they will be proclaimed.
There was much contest about the King's (38) abdication, and whether he had vacated the government. The Earl of Nottingham (41) and about twenty Lords, and many Bishops, entered their protests, but the concurrence was great against them.
The Princess (26) hourly expected. Forces sending to Ireland, that kingdom being in great danger by the Earl of Tyrconnel's (59) army, and expectations from France coming to assist them, but that King was busy in invading Flanders, and encountering the German Princes. It is likely that this will be the most remarkable summer for action, which has happened in many years.

On 12 Feb 1689 [his niece] Marie Louise Bourbon Queen Consort Spain 1662-1689 (26) died.

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 February. 21 Feb 1689. Dr. Burnet (45) preached at St. James's on the obligation to walk worthy of God's particular and signal deliverance of the nation and church.
I saw the new [his daughter] Queen (26) and King (38), with great acclamation and general good reception. Bonfires, bells, guns, etc. It was believed that both, especially the Princess (26), would have shown some (seeming) reluctance at least, of assuming her father's (55) crown, and made some apology, testifying by her regret that he should by his mismanagement necessitate the nation to so extraordinary a proceeding, which would have shown very handsomely to the world, and according to the character given of her piety; consonant also to her husband's (38) first declaration, that there was no intention of deposing the King (55), but of succoring the nation; but nothing of all this appeared; she (26) came into Whitehall laughing and jolly, as to a wedding, so as to seem quite transported. She (26) rose early the next morning, and in her undress, as it was reported, before her women were up, went about from room to room to see the convenience of Whitehall; lay in the same bed and apartment where the late Queen (30) lay, and within a night or two sat down to play at basset, as the Queen (30), her predecessor used to do. She smiled upon and talked to everybody, so that no change seemed to have taken place at Court since her last going away, save that infinite crowds of people thronged to see her, and that she went to our prayers. This carriage was censured by many. She seems to be of a good nature, and that she takes nothing to heart: while the Prince (38), her husband, has a thoughtful countenance, is wonderfully serious and silent, and seems to treat all persons alike gravely, and to be very intent on affairs: Holland, Ireland, and France calling for his care.
Divers Bishops and Noblemen are not at all satisfied with this so sudden assumption of the Crown, without any previous sending, and offering some conditions to the absent King; or on his not returning, or not assenting to those conditions, to have proclaimed him Regent; but the major part of both Houses prevailed to make them King and Queen immediately, and a crown was tempting. This was opposed and spoken against with such vehemence by Lord Clarendon (her own uncle), that it put him by all preferment, which must doubtless have been as great as could have been given him. My Lord of Rochester (46), his brother, overshot himself, by the same carriage and stiffness, which their friends thought they might have well spared when they saw how it was like to be overruled, and that it had been sufficient to have declared their dissent with less passion, acquiescing in due time.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (72) and some of the rest, on scruple of conscience and to salve the oaths they had taken, entered their protests and hung off, especially the Archbishop, who had not all this while so much as appeared out of Lambeth. This occasioned the wonder of many who observed with what zeal they contributed to the Prince's (38) expedition, and all the while also rejecting any proposals of sending again to the absent King (55); that they should now raise scruples, and such as created much division among the people, greatly rejoicing the old courtiers, and especially the Papists.
Another objection was, the invalidity of what was done by a convention only, and the as yet unabrogated laws; this drew them to make themselves on the 22d a Parliament, the new King (38) passing the act with the crown on his head. The lawyers disputed, but necessity prevailed, the government requiring a speedy settlement.
Innumerable were the crowds, who solicited for, and expected offices; most of the old ones were turned out. Two or three white staves were disposed of some days before, as Lord Steward, to the Earl of Devonshire (49); Treasurer of the household, to Lord Newport; Lord Chamberlain to the [his brother] King, to my Lord of Dorset (46); but there were as yet none in offices of the civil government save the Marquis of Halifax (55) as Privy Seal. A council of thirty was chosen, Lord Derby (34) president, but neither Chancellor nor Judges were yet declared, the new Great Seal not yet finished.

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 March. 08 Mar 1689. Dr. Tillotson (58), Dean of Canterbury, made an excellent discourse on Matt. v. 44, exhorting to charity and forgiveness of enemies; I suppose purposely, the new Parliament being furious about impeaching those who were obnoxious, and as their custom has ever been, going on violently, without reserve, or modification, while wise men were of opinion the most notorious offenders being named and excepted, an Act of Amnesty would be more seasonable, to pacify the minds of men in so general a discontent of the nation, especially of those who did not expect to see the government assumed without any regard to the absent King, or proving a spontaneous abdication, or that the birth of the Prince of Wales was an imposture; five of the Bishops also still refusing to take the new oath.
In the meantime, to gratify the people, the hearth-tax was remitted forever; but what was intended to supply it, besides present great taxes on land, is not named.
The King (55) abroad was now furnished by the French King (50) with money and officers for an expedition to Ireland. The great neglect in not more timely preventing that from hence, and the disturbances in Scotland, give apprehensions of great difficulties, before any settlement can be perfected here, while the Parliament dispose of the great offices among themselves. The Great Seal, Treasury and Admiralty put into commission of many unexpected persons, to gratify the more; so that by the present appearance of things (unless God Almighty graciously interpose and give success in Ireland and settle Scotland) more trouble seems to threaten the nation than could be expected. In the interim, the new King refers all to the Parliament in the most popular manner, but is very slow in providing against all these menaces, besides finding difficulties in raising men to send abroad; the former army, which had never seen any service hitherto, receiving their pay and passing their summer in an idle scene of a camp at Hounslow, unwilling to engage, and many disaffected, and scarce to be trusted.

In 1734 William Hogarth Painter 1697-1764 (36). Titled "Edwards Hamilton family on a Terrace" the subjects are Anne Hamilton 1709-1748 (24) and Mary Edwards 1704-1743 (30) and their child Gerard Edwardes of Welham Grove 1734-1773. In her left hand she holds Addison’s Spectator No.580 that describes the need to fill the mind with an awareness of the Divine Being. The books on the table beside her include poetry or sermons of Edward Young, the works of Swift, Pope’s translation of the Iliad, and the devotional writings of Damuel Bowens and Archbishop Tillotson.

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 March. 29 Mar 1689. The new King (38) much blamed for neglecting Ireland, now likely to be ruined by the Lord Tyrconnel (59) and his Popish party, too strong for the Protestants. Wonderful uncertainty where King James (55) was, whether in France or Ireland. The Scots seem as yet to favor King William (38), rejecting King James's letter to them, yet declaring nothing positively. Soldiers in England discontented. Parliament preparing the coronation oath. Presbyterians and Dissenters displeased at the vote for preserving the Protestant religion as established by law, without mentioning what they were to have as to indulgence.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (58) and four other Bishops refusing to come to Parliament, it was deliberated whether they should incur Praemunire; but it was thought fit to let this fall, and be connived at, for fear of the people, to whom these Prelates were very dear, for the opposition they had given to Popery.
Court offices distributed among Parliament men. No considerable fleet as yet sent forth. Things far from settled as was expected, by reason of the slothful, sickly temper of the new King, and the Parliament's unmindfulness of Ireland, which is likely to prove a sad omission.
The Confederates beat the French out of the Palatinate, which they had most barbarously ruined.

Coronation William III and Mary II

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 April. 12 Apr 1689. I went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to visit my Lord of Canterbury (58) at Lambeth, who had excused himself from officiating at the coronation, which was performed by the Bishop of London (57), assisted by the Archbishop of York (74). We had much private and free discourse with his Grace (58) concerning several things relating to the Church, there being now a bill of comprehension to be brought from the Lords to the Commons. I urged that when they went about to reform some particulars in the Liturgy, Church discipline, Canons, etc., the baptizing in private houses without necessity might be reformed, as likewise so frequent burials in churches; the one proceeding much from the pride of women, bringing that into custom which was only indulged in case of imminent danger, and out of necessity during the rebellion, and persecution of the clergy in our late civil wars; the other from the avarice of ministers, who, in some opulent parishes, made almost as much of permission to bury in the chancel and the church, as of their livings, and were paid with considerable advantage and gifts for baptizing in chambers. To this they heartily assented, and promised their endeavor to get it reformed, utterly disliking both practices as novel and indecent.
We discoursed likewise of the great disturbance and prejudice it might cause, should the new oath, now on the anvil, be imposed on any, save such as were in new office, without any retrospect to such as either had no office, or had been long in office, who it was likely would have some scruples about taking a new oath, having already sworn fidelity to the government as established by law. This we all knew to be the case of my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (58), and some other persons who were not so fully satisfied with the Convention making it an abdication of King James, to whom they had sworn allegiance.
King James (55) was now certainly in Ireland with the Marshal d'Estrades, whom he made a Privy Councillor; and who caused the King (55) to remove the Protestant Councillors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit, telling him that the King of France (50), his master, would never assist him if he did not immediately do it; by which it is apparent how the poor Prince (55) is managed by the French.
Scotland declares for King William (38) and [his daughter] Queen Mary (26), with the reasons of their setting aside King James (55), not as abdicating, but forfeiting his right by maladministration; they proceeded with much more caution and prudence than we did, who precipitated all things to the great reproach of the nation, all which had been managed by some crafty, ill-principled men. The new Privy Council have a Republican spirit, manifestly undermining all future succession of the Crown and prosperity of the Church of England, which yet I hope they will not be able to accomplish so soon as they expect, though they get into all places of trust and profit.

Act of Poll

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 April. 26 Apr 1689. I heard the lawyers plead before the Lords the writ of error in the judgment of Oates (39), as to the charge against him of perjury, which after debate they referred to the answer of Holloway, etc., who were his judges. I then went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to the Archbishop (72) at Lambeth, where they entered into discourse concerning the final destruction of Antichrist, both concluding that the third trumpet and vial were now pouring out. My Lord St. Asaph (61) considered the killing of the two witnesses, to be the utter destruction of the Cevennes Protestants by the French and Duke of Savoy, and the other the Waldenses and Pyrenean Christians, who by all appearance from good history had kept the primitive faith from the very Apostles' time till now. The doubt his Grace suggested was, whether it could be made evident that the present persecution had made so great a havoc of those faithful people as of the other, and whether there were not yet some among them in being who met together, it being stated from the text, Apoc. xi., that they should both be slain together. They both much approved of Mr. Mede's way of interpretation, and that he only failed in resolving too hastily on the King of Sweden's (Gustavus Adolphus) success in Germany. They agreed that it would be good to employ some intelligent French minister to travel as far as the Pyrenees to understand the present state of the Church there, it being a country where hardly anyone travels.
There now came certain news that King James (55) had not only landed in Ireland, but that he had surprised Londonderry, and was become master of that kingdom, to the great shame of our government, who had been so often solicited to provide against it by timely succor, and which they might so easily have done. This is a terrible beginning of more troubles, especially should an army come thence into Scotland, people being generally disaffected here and everywhere else, so that the seamen and landmen would scarce serve without compulsion.
A new oath was now fabricating for all the clergy to take, of obedience to the present Government, in abrogation of the former oaths of allegiance, which it is foreseen many of the bishops and others of the clergy will not take. The penalty is to be the loss of their dignity and spiritual preferment. This is thought to have been driven on by the Presbyterians, our new governors. God in mercy send us help, and direct the counsels to his glory and good of his Church!
Public matters went very ill in Ireland: confusion and dissensions among ourselves, stupidity, inconstancy, emulation, the governors employing unskillful men in greatest offices, no person of public spirit and ability appearing,—threaten us with a very sad prospect of what may be the conclusion, without God's infinite mercy.
A fight by Admiral Herbert (41) with the French, he imprudently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and little honor—so strangely negligent and remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new King and Queen on conditions. Act of Poll money came forth, sparing none. Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office according to law, with several other clauses. A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate the King (38) and [his daughter] Queen (26) on their accession to the crown.

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 June. 16 Jun 1689. King James's (55) declaration was now dispersed, offering pardon to all, if on his landing, or within twenty days after, they should return to their obedience.
Our fleet not yet at sea, through some prodigious sloth, and men minding only their present interest; the French riding masters at sea, taking many great prizes to our wonderful reproach. No certain news from Ireland; various reports of Scotland; discontents at home. The King of Denmark (43) at last joins with the Confederates, and the two Northern Powers are reconciled. The East India Company likely to be dissolved by Parliament for many arbitrary actions. Oates acquitted of perjury, to all honest men's admiration.

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 January. 12 Jan 1690. There was read at St. Ann's Church an exhortatory letter to the clergy of London from the Bishop, together with a Brief for relieving the distressed Protestants, and Vaudois, who fled from the persecution of the French and Duke of Savoy, to the Protestant Cantons of Switzerland.
The Parliament was unexpectedly prorogued to 2d of April to the discontent and surprise of many members who, being exceedingly averse to the settling of anything, proceeding with animosities, multiplying exceptions against those whom they pronounced obnoxious, and producing as universal a discontent against King William (39) and themselves, as there was before against King James (56). The new King (39) resolved on an expedition into Ireland in person. About 150 of the members who were of the more royal party, meeting at a feast at the Apollo Tavern near St. Dunstan's, sent some of their company to the King (39), to assure him of their service; he returned his thanks, advising them to repair to their several counties and preserve the peace during his absence, and assuring them that he would be steady to his resolution of defending the Laws and Religion established. The great Lord suspected to have counselled this prorogation, universally denied it. However, it was believed the chief adviser was the Marquis of Carmarthen (57), who now seemed to be most in favor.

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 February. 16 Feb 1690. The Duchess of Monmouth's (39) chaplain preached at St. Martin's an excellent discourse exhorting to peace and sanctity, it being now the time of very great division and dissension in the nation; first, among the Churchmen, of whom the moderate and sober part were for a speedy reformation of divers things, which it was thought might be made in our Liturgy, for the inviting of Dissenters; others more stiff and rigid, were for no condescension at all. Books and pamphlets were published every day pro and con; the Convocation were forced for the present to suspend any further progress. There was fierce and great carousing about being elected in the new Parliament. The King (39) persists in his intention of going in person for Ireland, whither the French are sending supplies to King James (56), and we, the Danish horse to Schomberg (74).

Battle of the Boyne

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 June. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower, on suspicion of being affected to King James (56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the [his daughter] Queen's (28) uncle. King William (39) having vanquished King James (56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (74) was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (60), was taken. It is reported that King James (56) is gone back to France. Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William (39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici." But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

On 01 Jul 1690 the Battle of the Boyne was fought between the armies of Protestant [his nephew] William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) and Catholic James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (56).
The English army was commanded by Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg 1615-1690 (74)
The English or Protestant army included Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough 1650-1721 (40), Osmund Mordaunt -1690 and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (49).
For the Irish or Catholic army [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (19) and Henry Hobart 4th Baronet Hobart 1657-1698 (33) fought. Richard Hamilton -1717 was captured.

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 August. 03 Aug 1690. The French landed some soldiers at Teignmouth, in Devon, and burned some poor houses. The French fleet still hovering about the western coast, and we having 300 sail of rich merchant-ships in the bay of Plymouth, our fleet began to move toward them, under three admirals. The country in the west all on their guard. A very extraordinary fine season; but on the 12th was a very great storm of thunder and lightning, and on the 15th the season much changed to wet and cold. The militia and trained bands, horse and foot, which were up through England, were dismissed. The French King having news that King William (39) was slain, and his army defeated in Ireland, caused such a triumph at Paris, and all over France, as was never heard of; when, in the midst of it, the unhappy King James (56) being vanquished, by a speedy flight and escape, himself brought the news of his own defeat.

Battle of the Boyne

On or before 15 Aug 1690 Charles Tuke 2nd Baronet 1671-1690 (19) died of wound received at the Battle of the Boyne fighting for James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (56).

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 August. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

John Evelyn's Diary 1691 January. 18 Jan 1691. Lord Preston (41) condemned about a design to bring in King James (57) by the French. Ashton executed. The Bishop of Ely (53), Mr. Graham, etc., absconded.

Around May 1691 Dr Henry Dove -1694 was appointed Chaplain to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (57).

John Evelyn's Diary 1691 July. 18 Jul 1691. To London to hear Mr. Stringfellow preach his first sermon in the newly erected Church of Trinity, in Conduit Street; to which I did recommend him to Dr. Tenison (54) for the constant preacher and lecturer. This Church, formerly built of timber on Hounslow-Heath by King James (57) for the mass priests, being begged by Dr. Tenison (54), rector of St. Martin's, was set up by that public-minded, charitable, and pious man near my son's dwelling in Dover Street, chiefly at the charge of the Doctor (54). I know him to be an excellent preacher and a fit person. This Church, though erected in St. Martin's, which is the Doctor's parish, he was not only content, but was the sole industrious mover, that it should be made a separate parish, in regard of the neighborhood having become so populous. Wherefore to countenance and introduce the new minister, and take possession of a gallery designed for my son's family, I went to London, where, [NOTE. Text runs out?].

John Evelyn's Diary 1692 January. 24 Jan 1692. A frosty and dry season continued; many persons die of apoplexy, more than usual. Lord Marlborough (41), Lieutenant-General of the [his brother] King's army in England, gentleman of the bedchamber, etc., dismissed from all his charges, military and other, for his excessive taking of bribes, covetousness, and extortion on all occasions from his inferior officers. Note, this was the Lord who was entirely advanced by King James (58), and was the first who betrayed and forsook his master. He was son of Sir Winston Churchill of the Greencloth.

John Evelyn's Diary 1692 April. 06 Apr 1692. A fast. King James (58) sends a letter written and directed by his own hand to several of the Privy Council, and one to his [his daughter] daughter (29), the Queen Regent, informing them of the Queen (33) being ready to be brought to bed, and summoning them to be at the birth by the middle of May, promising as from the French King (53), permission to come and return in safety.

On 28 Jun 1692 [his daughter] Louisa Maria Teresa Stewart 1692-1712 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (58) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (33).

John Evelyn's Diary 1693 May. 14 May 1693. Nothing yet of action from abroad. Muttering of a design to bring forces under color of an expected descent, to be a standing army for other purposes. Talk of a declaration of the French King (54), offering mighty advantages to the confederates, exclusive of King William (42); and another of King James (59), with an universal pardon, and referring the composing of all differences to a Parliament. These were yet but discourses; but something is certainly under it. A declaration or manifesto from King James (59), so written, that many thought it reasonable, and much more to the purpose than any of his former.

John Evelyn's Diary 1693 June. 21 Jun 1693. I saw a great auction of pictures in the Banqueting house, Whitehall. They had been my Lord Melford's (42), now Ambassador from King James (59) at Rome, and engaged to his creditors here. Lord Mulgrave (45) and Sir Edward Seymour (60) came to my house, and desired me to go with them to the sale. Divers more of the great lords, etc., were there, and bought pictures dear enough. There were some very excellent of Vandyke, Rubens, and Bassan. Lord Godolphin (48) bought the picture of the Boys, by Murillo the Spaniard, for 80 guineas, dear enough; my nephew Glanville, the old Earl of Arundel's head by Rubens, for £20. Growing late, I did not stay till all were sold.

Around 1621 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (21). Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel.

Around 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of James Stewart 4th Duke Lennox.

Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (34). Portrait of James Stewart 4th Duke Lennox wearing his Leg Garter and Garter Collar.

Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (34). Portrait of Frederick Henry Orange-Nassau II Prince Orange 1584-1647 (49).

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (36). Portrait of James Stewart 4th Duke Lennox.

Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (36). Portrait of Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel and Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Mary Ruthven Countess Atholl.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox.

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Diana Cecil Countess Oxford.

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Thomas Hanmer 2nd Baronet Hamner 1612-1678 (26).

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Mary Hill 1615-1690 (23).

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Anne Boteler 1st Countess Newport.

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Isabella Edmondes 4th Baroness De La Warr 1607-1677 (31).

Around 1640 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (40). Portrait of Charles Seton 2nd Earl Dunfermline 1615-1672 (24).

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Death of Queen Mary II

On 28 Dec 1694 [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (32) died of smallpox shortly after midnight at Kensington Palace. Her body lay in state at the Banqueting House.
On 05 Mar 1695 she was buried in Westminster Abbey. Thomas Tenison Archbishop of Canterbury 1636-1715 (58) preached the sermon.
She had reigned for five years. Her husband [his nephew] William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (44) continued to reign for a further eight years.

On 26 Mar 1695 [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (24) and Honora Burke Duchess Berwick 1674-1698 (21) were married at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines. Honora Burke Duchess Berwick 1674-1698 (21) by marriage Duchess Berwick.

On 03 Apr 1695 Piers Butler 1st Earl Newcastle 1652-1740 (43) and [his daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 (28) were married. Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 (28) by marriage Countess Newcastle in Limerick.

On 13 Jan 1696 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzjames 1st Duke Albemarle 1673-1702 (22) was created 1st Duke Albemarle (Jacobite 1C 1696).

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

John Evelyn's Diary 1696 February. 26 Feb 1696. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder King William (45) on the first opportunity of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to Calais, an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great army in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a general insurrection here, the [his illegitimate son] Duke of Berwick (25) having secretly come to London to head them, King James (62) attending at Calais with the French army. It was discovered by some of their own party. £1,000 reward was offered to whoever could apprehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who were engaged in it, were taken and secured. The Parliament, city, and all the nation, congratulate the discovery; and votes and resolutions were passed that, if King William (45) should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged on the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of Association drawing up to empower the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown should be disposed of according to the late settlement at the Revolution. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten miles from London. This put the nation into an incredible disturbance and general animosity against the French King and King James. The militia of the nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, and all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. This was so timed by the enemy, that while we were already much discontented by the greatness of the taxes, and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have had very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it pleased God that Admiral Rooke (46) wanting a wind to pursue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others at Portsmouth and other places, were still in the Channel, and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships which could be got together, so that there is hope this plot may be broken. I look on it as a very great deliverance and prevention by the providence of God. Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, this design of assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated many o£ his friends, and was likely to produce a more perfect establishment of King William.

John Evelyn's Diary 1696 April. 28 Apr 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, and a numerous train of gallants. More executions this week of the assassins. Oates (46) dedicated a most villainous, reviling book against King James (62), which he presumed to present to King William (45), who could not but abhor it, speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved [his daughter] Queen's own father.

In 1698 David Colyear 1698-1728 was born to David Colyear 1st Earl Portmore 1656-1730 (42) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717 (40). Given his mother was a recent mistress of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (64) it is possible the father was James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (64).

On Oct 1699 James Annesley 3rd Earl Anglesey 1674-1702 (25) and [his illegitimate daughter] Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby 1680-1743 (19) were married. Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby 1680-1743 (19) by marriage Countess Anglesey (2C 1661).

On 27 Aug 1700 Charles Colyear 2nd Earl Portmore 1700-1785 was born to David Colyear 1st Earl Portmore 1656-1730 (44) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717 (42). Given his mother was a recent mistress of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (66) it is possible the father was James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (66).

In 1758 Joshua Reynolds Painter 1723-1788 (34). Portrait of Charles Colyear 2nd Earl Portmore 1700-1785 (57).

1701 Death of King James II

John Evelyn's Diary 1701. 02 Sep 1701. I went to Kensington, and saw the house, plantations, and gardens, the work of Mr. Wise, who was there to receive me.
The death of King James (67), happening on the 15th of this month, N. S., after two or three days' indisposition, put an end to that unhappy Prince's troubles, after a short and unprosperous reign, indiscreetly attempting to bring in Popery, and make himself absolute, in imitation of the French, hurried on by the impatience of the Jesuits; which the nation would not endure.
Died the Earl of Bath, whose contest with Lord Montague (40) about the Duke of Albemarle's estate, claiming under a will supposed to have been forged, is said to have been worth £10,000 to the lawyers. His eldest son (40) shot himself a few days after his father's death; for what cause is not clear. He was a most hopeful young man, and had behaved so bravely against the Turks at the siege of Vienna, that the Emperor made him a Count of the Empire. It was falsely reported that Sir Edward Seymour (68) was dead, a great man; he had often been Speaker, Treasurer of the Navy, and in many other lucrative offices. He was of a hasty spirit, not at all sincere, but head of the party at any time prevailing in Parliament.

On 16 Sep 1701 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (67) died at Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines. He was buried in the Church of the English Benedictines.

On 13 Apr 1703 David Colyear 1st Earl Portmore 1656-1730 (47) was created 1st Earl Portmore. Possibly for having married the King's former mistress Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717 (45). Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717 (45) by marriage Countess Portmore.

Sinking of HMS Gloucester

On 15 Apr 1703 Charles Hope 1st Earl Hopetoun 1681-1742 (22) was created 1st Earl Hopetoun by [his daughter] Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (38) in recognitions of his father having given up his seat in a lifeboat to the Duke of York during the Sinking of HMS Gloucester; his father subsequently drowned.

John Evelyn's Diary Introduction. Returned to England, Evelyn strictly follows the line of the average English country gentleman, execrating the execution of Charles I., disgusted beyond measure with the suppression of the Church of England service, but submissive to the powers that be until there are evident indications of a change, which he promotes in anything but a Quixotic spirit. Although he is sincerely attached to the monarchy, the condition of the Church is evidently a matter of greater concern to him: Oliver Cromwell would have done much to reconcile the royalists to his government, had it been possible for him to have restored the liturgy and episcopacy. The same lesson is to be derived from his demeanor during the reigns of Charles and James. The exultation with which the Restoration is at first hailed soon evaporates. The scandals of the Court are an offense, notwithstanding Evelyn's personal attachment to the King. But the chief point is not vice or favoritism or mismanagement, but alliances with Roman Catholic powers against Protestant nations. Evelyn is enraged to see Charles missing the part so clearly pointed out to him by Providence as the protector of the Protestant religion all over Europe. The conversion of the Duke of York is a fearful blow, James's ecclesiastical policy after his accession adds to Evelyn's discontent day by day, while political tyranny passes almost without remark. At last the old cavalier is glad to welcome the Prince of Orange as deliverer, and though he has no enthusiasm for William in his character as King, he remains his dutiful subject. Just because Evelyn was by no means an extraordinary person, he represents the plain straightforward sense of the English gentry. The questions of the seventeenth century were far more religious than political. The synthesis "Church and King" expressed the dearest convictions of the great majority of English country families, but when the two became incompatible they left no doubt which held the first place in their hearts. They acted instinctively on the principle of the Persian lady who preferred her brother to her husband. It was not impossible to find a new King, but there was no alternative to the English Church.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. It was in the height of the rejoicings they were making for this new queen, in all the splendour of a brilliant court, that the Chevalier de Grammont arrived to contribute to its magnificence and diversions.
Accustomed as he was to the grandeur of the court of France, he was surprised at the politeness and splendour of the court of England. The [his brother] king was inferior to none, either in shape or air; his wit was pleasant; his disposition easy and affable; his soul, susceptible of opposite impressions, was compassionate to the unhappy, inflexible to the wicked, and tender even to excess; he showed great abilities in urgent affairs, but was incapable of application to any that were not so: his heart was often the dupe, but oftener the slave, of his engagements.
The character of the Duke of York was entirely different he had the reputation of undaunted courage, an inviolable attachment for his word, great economy in his affairs, hauteur, application, arrogance, each in their turn: a scrupulous observer of the rules of duty and the laws of justice; he was accounted a faithful friend, and an implacable enemy.
His morality and justice, struggling for some time with prejudice, had at last triumphed, by his acknowledging for his [his wife] [his wife] wife Miss Hyde, maid of honour to the [his sister] Princess Royal, whom he had secretly married in Holland. Her father, from that time prime minister of England, supported by this new interest, soon rose to the head of affairs, and had almost ruined them: not that he wanted capacity, but he was too self-sufficient.

Battle of Lowestoft

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. Sir George Berkeley, afterwards Earl of Falmouth, was the confidant and favourite of the King: he commanded the Duke of York’s regiment of guards, and governed the Duke himself. He had nothing very remarkable either in his wit, or his person; but his sentiments were worthy of the fortune which awaited him, when, on the very point of his elevation, he was killed at sea. Never did disinterestedness so perfectly characterise the greatness of the soul: he had no views but what tended to the glory of his master: his credit was never employed but in advising him to reward services, or to confer favours on merit: so polished in conversation, that the greater his power, the greater was his humility; and so sincere in all his proceedings, that he would never have been taken for a courtier.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 December. 29 Dec 1686. I went to hear the music of the Italians in the new chapel, now first opened publicly at Whitehall for the Popish Service. Nothing can be finer than the magnificent marble work and architecture at the end, where are four statues, representing St. John, St. Peter, St. Paul, and the Church, in white marble, the work of Mr. Gibbons, with all the carving and Pillars of exquisite art and great cost. The altar piece is the Salutation; the volto in fresco, the Assumption of the blessed Virgin, according to their tradition, with our blessed Savior, and a world of figures painted by Verrio. The throne where the King and Queen sit is very glorious, in a closet above, just opposite to the altar. Here we saw the Bishop in his mitre and rich copes, with six or seven Jesuits and others in rich copes, sumptuously habited, often taking off and Putting on the Bishop's mitre, who sat in a chair with arms pontifically, was adored and censed by three Jesuits in their copes; then he went to the altar and made divers cringes, then censing the images and glorious tabernacle placed on the altar, and now and then changing place: the crosier, which was of silver, was put into his hand with a world of mysterious ceremony, the music playing, with singing. I could not have believed I should ever have seen such things in the [his brother] King of England's palace, after it had pleased God to enlighten this nation; but our great sin has, for the present, eclipsed the blessing, which I hope he will in mercy and his good time restore to its purity.
Little appearance of any winter as yet.

[his illegitimate son] Charles Darnley was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Stewart

Descendants Family Trees:

Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541

James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 22 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 14 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd 1100-1170

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 20 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth 880-950

Kings Powys: Great x 15 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132

Kings England: Son of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649

Kings Scotland: Grand Son of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625

Kings Franks: Great x 13 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Grand Son of Henry IV King France 1553-1610

Ancestry

Father: Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 Son of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 Stewart Arms

GrandFather: James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 2 x Great Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 Stewart Arms

Great GrandFather: Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 Great Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 Stewart Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox 1516-1571 4 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 1490-1526 5 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Matthew Stewart 2nd Earl Lennox -1513 10 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Elizabeth Hamilton Countess Lennox 1474- 4 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabel or Elizabeth Stewart Countess Lennox 1495-1564 3 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 1440- 2 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor Sinclair Countess Atholl 1457-1518 7 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 2 GrandMother: Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox 1515-1578 Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 Douglas Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 1489-1557 10 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Douglas Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: George Douglas 1469-1513 9 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Douglas Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Elizabeth Drummond

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 Daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509

Great x 4 GrandFather: Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 3 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 Daughter of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 York Arms

Great GrandMother: Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 Stewart Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: James V King Scotland 1512-1542 Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 Stewart Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: James IV King Scotland 1473-1513 4 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: James III King Scotland 1451-1488 3 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Oldenburg Queen Consort Scotland 1456-1486

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 Daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509

Great x 4 GrandFather: Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 3 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 Daughter of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 York Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 6 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Claude Lorraine 1st Duke Guise 1496-1550 7 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: René Lorraine II Duke Lorraine, Duke Bar 1451-1508 7 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa Egmont Duchess Bar, Duchess Lorraine 1467-1547 6 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandMother: Antoinette Bourbon 1493-1583 5 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: Francis Bourbon Count Vendôme 1470-1495 8 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Marie Luxembourg Count Vendôme 4 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

GrandMother: Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619

Great GrandFather: Frederick II King Denmark 1534-1588

Great x 2 GrandFather: Christian III King Denmark 1503-1559

Great x 3 GrandFather: Frederick I King Denmark 1471-1533

Great x 4 GrandFather: John King Denmark, King Norway, King Sweden 1455-1513

Mother: Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 8 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

GrandFather: Henry IV King France 1553-1610 7 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: Antoine King Navarre 1518-1562 6 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Charles Bourbon Duke Vendôme 1489-1537 5 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Francis Bourbon Count Vendôme 1470-1495 8 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Bourbon VIII Count Vendôme 1428-1477 7 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Isabelle Beauvau Count Vendôme

Great x 3 GrandMother: Marie Luxembourg Count Vendôme 4 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: Peter Luxembourg II Count Saint-Pol 1440-1492 3 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Savoy Count Saint-Pol 1439-1495 5 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 2 GrandMother: Françoise Valois-Alençon Count Vendôme 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandFather: Rene Valois-Alençon Duke Alençon 1454-1492 5 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: Jean Valois-Alençon II Duke Alençon 1409-1476 4 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Marie Armagnac Duchess Alençon 1420-1473 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Lorraine Duchess Alençon 1463-1521 7 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: Frederick Lorraine Count Vaudémont 1428-1470

Great x 4 GrandMother: Yolande Valois-Anjou 1428-1483 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great GrandMother: Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre 1528-1572 8 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry II King Navarre 1503-1555 8 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandFather: Jean III King Navarre 1469-1516 10 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Alain "Great" Albret 1440-1522 9 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Francois Chatillon

Great x 3 GrandMother: Catherine Grailly I Queen Navarre 1468-1517 7 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: Gaston Grailly V Count Foix 1443-1470 7 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Magdalena Valois Count Foix 1443-1495 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Valois Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Marguerite Valois-Orleans Queen Consort Navarre 1492-1549 7 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandFather: Charles Valois-Orleans Count Angoulême 1459-1496 6 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Valois-Orleans 1399-1467 5 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Marguerite Rohan

Great x 3 GrandMother: Louise Savoy Countess Angoulême

GrandMother: Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 1575-1642

Great GrandFather: Francesco I de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany 1541-1587

Great x 2 GrandFather: Cosimo I de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany 1519-1574

Great x 3 GrandFather: Lodovico de Medici aka Giovanni delle Bande Nere 1498-1526

Great x 4 GrandFather: Giovanni de' Medici 1467-1498