Biography of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701

CONTENT

1649 Execution of Charles I

1660 Coronation Charles II

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1682 Sinking of HMS Gloucester

1683 Rye House Plot

1685 Argyll's Rising

1685 Death of Charles II

1685 Coronation James II and Mary

1688 Abdication of James II

1688 Battle of Reading

1690 Battle of the Boyne


Family Trees

Descent

Ancestry

On 14 Oct 1633 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 was born to Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (23) at St James' Palace, St James', Westminster.

Around 1625 John Hoskins 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32) and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (32).

After 14 Oct 1633 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 was created 1st Duke York (5C 1633).

In 1642 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (8) was appointed 439th Knight Garter: Charles I.

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

Coronation Charles II

On 22 Apr 1660 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) rode from the Tower of London, Tower Hill, City of London to Whitehall Palace, Westminster.At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".
Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, City of London, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.
At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.
The procession included the Duke of York (26), the Lord High Constable (57) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (52)
The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond, 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660 (11).

On 03 Sep 1660 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (26) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) were married in secret.Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) by marriage Duchess York (5C 1633).

On 22 Oct 1660 Charles Stewart 1660-1661 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (27) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) at Worcester House, Worcester Park, Sutton, Surrey.

On 30 Apr 1662 Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (28) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (25) at St James' Palace, St James', Westminster.

On 12 Jul 1663 James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (29) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (26) at St James' Palace, St James', Westminster.

In 1665 Henry Savile 1642-1687 (23) was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to the Duke of York (31).

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

In 1665 John Denham 1615-1669 (50) and Margaret Brooke -1667 were married. She, thereafter, conducted a very public affair with the future King James II (31). To her husband's mortification, she insisted on being acknowledged publicly as a Royal mistress, saying that she would not, unlike her predecessor Goditha Price "go up and down the back stairs".

Around 1664 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Margaret Brooke -1667.

Around 1665 Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (16) became the mistress of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31).

Battle of Lowestoft

In 1665 Henry Brouncker 3nd Viscount Brounckner 1627-1688 (38) was elected MP New Romney which seat he held until 21 Apr 1668 when he was expelled from the House of Commons when charges were brought against him, for allowing the Dutch fleet to escape during the Battle of Lowestoft, and for ordering the sails of the English fleet to be slackened in the name of the Duke of York (31). This was essentially an act of treason. Such a military decision, taken without the Duke's (31) authority, was an incident seemingly without parallel, especially as his apparent motive was simply that he was fatigued with the stress and noise of the battle.

On 06 Feb 1665 Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31).

Battle of Lowestoft

On 13 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31), Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.
Richard Boyle -1665 was killed.
Charles Maccarthy 2nd Earl Clancarty -1666 was killed. His son Callaghan Maccarthy 3rd Earl Clancarty -1676 succeeded as 3rd Earl Clancarty (1C 1658).
Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth 1630-1665 (35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the Royal Charles. His father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (65) succeeded as 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.
Charles Weston 3rd Earl Portland 1639-1665 (26) was killed. On 13 Jun 1665 His uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl Portland 1609-1688 (55) succeeded as 4th Earl Portland (1C 1633).
Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685 (53) was present.
Admiral Jeremy Smith -1675 commanded the HMS Mary.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst 1592-1656 (63). Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (36).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

On 03 Sep 1665 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (28) were married.

On 04 Jul 1666 Charles Stewart 1st Duke Kendal 1666-1667 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (32) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (29).

In 1667 Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (33) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (29).

In 1667 King Chales II (36), his brother James (33), Prince Rupert (47) and James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (17) dined with Richard Neville 1615-1676 (51) at Billingbear House, Waltham St Lawrence, Berkshire.

On 06 Jan 1667 Margaret Brooke -1667 died. She was rumoured to have been poisoned by her husband John Denham 1615-1669 (52) by giving her a poisoned cup of chocolate. In any case rumour named several other possible poisoners, including her former lover James (33), his wife Anne Hyde (29) and his sister-in-law, Lady Rochester (21).

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Henrietta Boyle Countess Rochester 1646-1687 (19).One of the Windsor Beauties.

On 15 Sep 1667 Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1667-1671 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (33) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (30).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 02 May 1669. Lord’s Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there visit my Lord Sandwich (43), who, after about two months’ absence at Hinchingbroke, come to town last night. I saw him, and very kind; and I am glad he is so, I having not wrote to him all the time, my eyes indeed not letting me. Here with Sir Charles Herbert [Harbord] (29), and my Lord Hinchingbroke (21), and Sidney, we looked upon the picture of Tangier, designed by Charles Herbert [Harbord] (29), and drawn by Dancre, which my Lord Sandwich admires, as being the truest picture that ever he’s saw in his life: and it is indeed very pretty, and I will be at the cost of having one of them. Thence with them to White Hall, and there walked out the sermon, with one or other; and then saw the Duke of York (35) after sermon, and he talked to me a little; and so away back by water home, and after dinner got my wife (28) to read, and then by coach, she and I, to the Park, and there spent the evening with much pleasure, it proving clear after a little shower, and we mighty fine as yesterday, and people mightily pleased with our coach, as I perceived; but I had not on my fine suit, being really afeard to wear it, it being so fine with the gold lace, though not gay. So home and to supper, and my wife (28) to read, and Tom, my Nepotisme, and then to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 03 May 1669. Up, and by coach to my Lord Brouncker’s (49), where Sir G. Carteret (59) did meet Sir J. Minnes (70) and me, to discourse upon Mr. Deering’s (43) business, who was directed, in the time of the war, to provide provisions at Hamburgh, by Sir G. Carteret’s (59) direction; and now G. Carteret (59) is afeard to own it, it being done without written order. But by our meeting we do all begin to recollect enough to preserve Mr. Deering (43), I think, which, poor silly man! I shall be glad of, it being too much he should suffer for endeavouring to serve us. Thence to St. James’s, where the Duke of York (35) was playing in the Pell Mell; and so he called me to him most part of the time that he played, which was an hour, and talked alone to me; and, among other things, tells me how the King (38) will not yet be got to name anybody in the room of Pen (48), but puts it off for three or four days; from whence he do collect that they are brewing something for the Navy, but what he knows not; but I perceive is vexed that things should go so, and he hath reason; for he told me that it is likely they will do in this as in other things — resolve first, and consider it and the fitness of it afterward. Thence to White Hall, and met with Creed, and I took him to the Harp and Balls, and there drank a cup of ale, he and I alone, and discoursed of matters; and I perceive by him that he makes no doubt but that all will turn to the old religion, for these people cannot hold things in their hands, nor prevent its coming to that; and by his discourse fits himself for it, and would have my Lord Sandwich (43) do so, too, and me. After a little talk with him, and particularly about the ruinous condition of Tangier, which I have a great mind to lay before the Duke of York (35), before it be too late, but dare not, because of his great kindness to Lord Middleton (61), we parted, and I homeward; but called at Povy’s (55), and there he stopped me to dinner, there being Mr. Williamson (35), the Lieutenant of the Tower, Mr. Childe (38), and several others. And after dinner, Povy (55) and I together to talk of Tangier; and he would have me move the Duke of York (35) in it, for it concerns him particularly, more than any, as being the head of us; and I do think to do it. Thence home, and at the office busy all the afternoon, and so to supper and to bed.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641 (42). Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671 (42).

Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (43). Portrait of John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton 1608-1674.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Wednesday 05 May 1669. Up, and thought to have gone with Lord Brouncker (49) to Mr. Hooke (33) this morning betimes; but my Lord is taken ill of the gout, and says his new lodgings have infected him, he never having had any symptoms of it till now. So walked to Gresham College, to tell Hooke (33) that my Lord could not come; and so left word, he being abroad, and I to St. James’s, and thence, with the Duke of York (35), to White Hall, where the Board waited on him all the morning: and so at noon with Sir Thomas Allen (57), and Sir Edward Scott (-19), and Lord Carlingford (66), to the Spanish Embassador’s (49), where I dined the first time. The Olio not so good as Sheres’s. There was at the table himself (49) and a Spanish Countess, a good, comely, and witty lady — three Fathers and us. Discourse good and pleasant. And here was an Oxford scholar in a Doctor of Law’s gowne, sent from the College where the Embassador lay, when the Court was there, to salute him before his return to Spain: This man, though a gentle sort of scholar, yet sat like a fool for want of French or Spanish, but [knew] only Latin, which he spoke like an Englishman to one of the Fathers. And by and by he and I to talk, and the company very merry at my defending Cambridge against Oxford: and I made much use of my French and Spanish here, to my great content. But the dinner not extraordinary at all, either for quantity or quality. Thence home, where my wife (28) ill of those upon the maid’s bed, and troubled at my being abroad. So I to the office, and there till night, and then to her (28), and she read to me the Cassandre, which is very good indeed; and the better to her, because recommended by Sheres. So to supper, and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 07 May 1669. Up, and by coach to W. Coventry’s (41); and there to talk with him a great deal with great content; and so to the Duke of York (35), having a great mind to speak to him about Tangier; but, when I come to it, his interest for my Lord Middleton (61)Excise Office, having by private vows last night in prayer to God Almighty cleared my mind for the present of the thoughts of going to Deb. (18) at Greenwich, which I did long after. I passed by Guildhall, which is almost finished, and saw a poor labourer carried by, I think, dead with a fall, as many there are, I hear. So home to dinner, and then to the office a little, and so to see my Lord Brouncker (49), who is a little ill of the gout; and there Madam Williams told me that she heard that my wife (28) was going into France this year, which I did not deny, if I can get time, and I pray God I may. But I wondering how she come to know it, she tells me a woman that my wife (28) spoke to for a maid, did tell her so, and that a lady that desires to go thither would be glad to go in her company. Thence with my wife (28) abroad, with our coach, most pleasant weather; and to Hackney, and into the marshes, where I never was before, and thence round about to Old Ford and Bow; and coming through the latter home, there being some young gentlewomen at a door, and I seeming not to know who they were, my wife’s (28) jealousy told me presently that I knew well enough it was that damned place where Deb. (18) dwelt, which made me swear very angrily that it was false, as it was, and I carried [her] back again to see the place, and it proved not so, so I continued out of humour a good while at it, she being willing to be friends, so I was by and by, saying no more of it. So home, and there met with a letter from Captain Silas Taylor (44), and, with it, his written copy of a play that he hath wrote, and intends to have acted. — It is called “The Serenade or Disappointment,” which I will read, not believing he can make any good of that kind. He did once offer to show Harris (35) it, but Harris (35) told him that he would judge by one Act whether it were good or no, which is indeed a foolish saying, and we see them out themselves in the choice of a play after they have read the whole, it being sometimes found not fit to act above three times; nay, and some that have been refused at one house is found a good one at the other. This made Taylor (44) say he would not shew it him, but is angry, and hath carried it to the other house, and he thinks it will be acted there, though he tells me they are not yet agreed upon it. But I will find time to get it read to me, and I did get my wife (28) to begin a little to-night in the garden, but not so much as I could make any judgment of it. So home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Saturday 08 May 1669. Up, and to the Office, and there comes Lead to me, and at last my vizards are done, and glasses got to put in and out, as I will; and I think I have brought it to the utmost, both for easiness of using and benefit, that I can; and so I paid him 15s. for what he hath done now last, in the finishing them, and they, I hope, will do me a great deal of ease. At the Office all the morning, and this day, the first time, did alter my side of the table, after above eight years sitting on that next the fire. But now I am not able to bear the light of the windows in my eyes, I do begin there, and I did sit with much more content than I had done on the other side for a great while, and in winter the fire will not trouble my back. At noon home to dinner, and after dinner all the afternoon within, with Mr. Hater, Gibson, and W. Hewer (27), reading over and drawing up new things in the Instructions of Commanders, which will be good, and I hope to get them confirmed by the Duke of York (35), though I perceive nothing will effectually perfect them but to look over the whole body of the Instructions, of all the Officers of a ship, and make them all perfect together. This being done, comes my bookseller, and brings me home bound my collection of papers, about my Addresse to the Duke of York (35) in August, which makes me glad, it being that which shall do me more right many years hence than, perhaps, all I ever did in my life: and therefore I do, both for my own and the King’s sake, value it much. By and by also comes Browne, the mathematical instrument maker, and brings me home my instrument for perspective, made according to the description of Dr. Wren’s (45), in the late Transactions; and he hath made it, I think, very well, and that, that I believe will do the thing, and therein gives me great content; but have I fear all the content that must be received by my eyes is almost lost. So to the office, and there late at business, and then home to supper and to bed.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715 (47).

In 1711 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Christopher Wren Architect 1632-1723 (87).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 10 May 1669. Troubled, about three in the morning, with my wife’s (28) calling her maid up, and rising herself, to go with her coach abroad, to gather May-dew, which she did, and I troubled for it, for fear of any hurt, going abroad so betimes, happening to her; but I to sleep again, and she come home about six, and to bed again all well, and I up and with Mr. Gibson by coach to St. James’s, and thence to White Hall, where the Duke of York met the Office, and there discoursed of several things, particularly the Instructions of Commanders of ships. But here happened by chance a discourse of the Council of Trade, against which the Duke of York (35) is mightily displeased, and particularly Mr. Child (38), against whom he speaking hardly, Captain Cox did second the Duke of York (35), by saying that he was talked of for an unfayre dealer with masters of ships, about freight: to which Sir T. Littleton (48) very hotly and foolishly replied presently, that he never heard any honest man speak ill of Child (38); to which the Duke of York (35) did make a smart reply, and was angry; so as I was sorry to hear it come so far, and that I, by seeming to assent to Cox, might be observed too much by Littleton (48), though I said nothing aloud, for this must breed great heart-burnings. After this meeting done, the Duke of York (35) took the Treasurers into his closet to chide them, as Mr. Wren (45) tells me; for that my Lord Keeper (63) did last night at the Council say, when nobody was ready to say any thing against the constitution of the Navy, that he did believe the Treasurers of the Navy had something to say, which was very foul on their part, to be parties against us.
They being gone, Mr. Wren (45) [and I] took boat, thinking to dine with my Lord of Canterbury (70); but, when we come to Lambeth, the gate was shut, which is strictly done at twelve o’clock, and nobody comes in afterwards: so we lost our labour, and therefore back to White Hall, and thence walked my boy Jacke with me, to my Lord Crew (71), whom I have not seen since he was sick, which is eight months ago, I think and there dined with him: he is mightily broke. A stranger a country gentleman, was with him: and he pleased with my discourse accidentally about the decay of gentlemen’s families in the country, telling us that the old rule was, that a family might remain fifty miles from London one hundred years, one hundred miles from London two hundred years, and so farther, or nearer London more or less years. He also told us that he hath heard his father say, that in his time it was so rare for a country gentleman to come to London, that, when he did come, he used to make his will before he set out.
Thence: to St. James’s, and there met the Duke of York (35), who told me, with great content, that he did now think he should master our adversaries, for that the King (38) did tell him that he was; satisfied in the constitution of the Navy, but that it was well to give these people leave to object against it, which they having not done, he did give order to give warrant to the Duke of York (35) to direct Sir Jeremy Smith to be a Commissioner of the Navy in the room of Pen (48); which, though he be an impertinent fellow, yet I am glad of it, it showing that the other side is not so strong as it was: and so, in plain terms, the Duke of York (35) did tell me, that they were every day losing ground; and particularly that he would take care to keep out Child (38): at all which I am glad, though yet I dare not think myself secure, as the King (38) may yet be wrought upon by these people to bring changes in our Office, and remove us, ere it be long. Thence I to White Hall, and there took boat to Westminster, and to Mrs. Martin’s, who is not come to town from her husband at Portsmouth. So drank only at Cragg’s with Doll, and so to the Swan, and there baiser a new maid that is there, and so to White Hall again, to a Committee of Tangier, where I see all things going to rack in the business of the Corporation, and consequently in the place, by Middleton’s (61) going. Thence walked a little with Creed, who tells me he hears how fine my horses and coach are, and advises me to avoid being noted for it, which I was vexed to hear taken notice of, it being what I feared and Povy (55) told me of my gold-lace sleeves in the Park yesterday, which vexed me also, so as to resolve never to appear in Court with them, but presently to have them taken off, as it is fit I should, and so to my wife (28) at Unthanke’s, and coach, and so called at my tailor’s to that purpose, and so home, and after a little walk in the garden, home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 14 May 1669. Up, and to St. James’s to the Duke of York (35), and thence to White Hall, where we met about office business, and then at noon with Mr. Wren (45) to Lambeth, to dinner with the Archbishop of Canterbury (70); the first time I was ever there and I have long longed for it; where a noble house, and well furnished with good pictures and furniture, and noble attendance in good order, and great deal of company, though an ordinary day; and exceeding great cheer, no where better, or so much, that ever I think I saw, for an ordinary table: and the Bishop (70) mighty kind to me, particularly desiring my company another time, when less company there. Most of the company gone, and I going, I heard by a gentleman of a sermon that was to be there; and so I staid to hear it, thinking it serious, till by and by the gentleman told me it was a mockery, by one Cornet Bolton, a very gentleman-like man, that behind a chair did pray and preach like a Presbyter Scot that ever I heard in my life, with all the possible imitation in grimaces and voice. And his text about the hanging up their harps upon the willows: and a serious good sermon too, exclaiming against Bishops, and crying up of my good Lord Eglinton, a till it made us all burst; but I did wonder to have the Bishop (70) at this time to make himself sport with things of this kind, but I perceive it was shewn him as a rarity; and he took care to have the room-door shut, but there were about twenty gentlemen there, and myself, infinitely pleased with the novelty. So over to White Hall, to a little Committee of Tangier; and thence walking in the Gallery, I met Sir Thomas Osborne (37), who, to my great content, did of his own accord fall into discourse with me, with so much professions of value and respect, placing the whole virtue of the Office of the Navy upon me, and that for the Comptroller’s place, no man in England was fit for it but me, when Sir J. Minnes (70), as he says it is necessary, is removed: but then he knows not what to do for a man in my place; and in discourse, though I have no mind to the other, I did bring in Tom Hater to be the fittest man in the world for it, which he took good notice of. But in the whole I was mightily pleased, reckoning myself now fifty per cent. securer in my place than I did before think myself to be. Thence to Unthanke’s, and there find my wife (28), but not dressed, which vexed me, because going to the Park, it being a most pleasant day after yesterday’s rain, which lays all the dust, and most people going out thither, which vexed me. So home, sullen; but then my wife (28) and I by water, with my brother, as high as Fulham, talking and singing, and playing the rogue with the Western barge-men, about the women of Woolwich, which mads them, an so back home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 16 May 1669. Lord’s Day. My wife (28) and I at church, our pew filled with Mary Leigh, and six more that she brought with her, which vexed me at her confidence. Dined at home and W. Batelier with us, and I all the afternoon drawing up a foul draught of my petition to the Duke of York (35), about my eyes, for leave to spend three or four months out of the Office, drawing it so as to give occasion to a voyage abroad which I did, to my pretty good liking; and then with my wife (28) to Hyde Park, where a good deal of company, and good weather, and so home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 17 May 1669. Up, and to several places doing business, and then home to dinner, and then my wife (28) and I and brother John by coach to the King’s playhouse, and saw “The Spanish Curate” revived, which is a pretty good play, but my eyes troubled with seeing it, mightily. Thence carried them and Mr. Gibson, who met me at my Lord Brouncker’s (49) with a fair copy of my petition, which I thought to shew the Duke of York (35) this night, but could not, and therefore carried them to the Park, where they had never been, and so home to supper and to bed. Great the news now of the French taking St. Domingo, in Spaniola, from the Spaniards, which troubles us, that they should have it, and have the honour of taking it, when we could not.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Wednesday 19 May 1669. With my coach to St. James’s; and there finding the Duke of York (35) gone to muster his men, in Hyde Park, I alone with my boy thither, and there saw more, walking out of my coach as other gentlemen did, of a soldier’s trade, than ever I did in my life: the men being mighty fine, and their Commanders, particularly the Duke of Monmouth (20); but me-thought their trade but very easy as to the mustering of their men, and the men but indifferently ready to perform what was commanded, in the handling of their arms. Here the news was first talked of Harry Killigrew’s being wounded in nine places last night, by footmen, in the highway, going from the Park in a hackney-coach towards Hammersmith, to his house at Turnham Greene: they being supposed to be my Lady Shrewsbury’s (27) men, she being by, in her (27) coach with six horses; upon an old grudge of his saying openly that he had lain with her. Thence by and by to White Hall, and there I waited upon the King (38) and Queen (59) all dinner-time, in the Queen’s lodgings, she being in her white pinner and apron, like a woman with child; and she seemed handsomer plain so, than dressed. And by and by, dinner done, I out, and to walk in the Gallery, for the Duke of York’s (35) coming out; and there, meeting Mr. May (47), he took me down about four o’clock to Mr. Chevins’s (67) lodgings, and all alone did get me a dish of cold chickens, and good wine; and I dined like a prince, being before very hungry and empty. By and by the Duke of York (35) comes, and readily took me to his closet, and received my petition, and discoursed about my eyes, and pitied me, and with much kindness did give me his consent to be absent, and approved of my proposition to go into Holland to observe things there, of the Navy; but would first ask the King’s (38) leave, which he anon did, and did tell me that the King (38) would be a good master to me, these were his words, about my eyes, and do like of my going into Holland, but do advise that nobody should know of my going thither, but pretend that I did go into the country somewhere, which I liked well. Glad of this, I home, and thence took out my wife, and to Mr. Holliard’s (60) about a swelling in her cheek, but he not at home, and so round by Islington and eat and drink, and so home, and after supper to bed. In discourse this afternoon, the Duke of York (35) did tell me that he was the most amazed at one thing just now, that ever he was in his life, which was, that the Duke of Buckingham (41) did just now come into the Queen’s (59) bed-chamber, where the King (38) was, and much mixed company, and among others, Tom Killigrew (57), the father of Harry, who was last night wounded so as to be in danger of death, and his man is quite dead; and [Buckingham (41)] there in discourse did say that he had spoke with some one that was by (which all the world must know that it must be his whore, my Lady Shrewsbury (27)), who says that they did not mean to hurt, but beat him, and that he did run first at them with his sword; so that he do hereby clearly discover that he knows who did it, and is of conspiracy with them, being of known conspiracy with her, which the Duke of York (35) did seem to be pleased with, and said it might, perhaps, cost him his life in the House of Lords; and I find was mightily pleased with it, saying it was the most impudent thing, as well as the most foolish, that ever he knew man do in all his life.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 21 May 1669. I waited with the Office upon the Duke of York (35) in the morning. Dined at home, where Lewis Phillips the friend of his, dined with me. In the afternoon at the Office. In the evening visited by Roger Pepys (52) and Philip Packer (50) and so home.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 23 May 1669. Lord's Day. Called up by Roger Pepys (52) and his son (23) who to church with me, and then home to dinner. In the afternoon carried them to Westminster, and myself to James’s, where, not finding the Duke of York (35), back home, and with my wife (28) spent the evening taking the ayre about Hackney, with great pleasure, and places we had never seen before.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 24 May 1669. To White Hall, and there all the morning, and thence home, and giving order for some business and setting my brother to making a catalogue of my books, I back again to W. Hewer (27) to White Hall, where I attended the Duke of York (35) and was by him led to [the King (38)], who expressed great sense of my misfortune in my eyes, and concernment for their recovery; and accordingly signified, not only his assent to desire therein, but commanded me to give them rest summer, according to my late petition to the Duke of York (35). W. Hewer (27) and I dined alone at the Swan; and thence having thus waited on the King (38), spent till four o’clock in St. James’s Park, when I met my wife (28) at Unthanke’s, and so home.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 28 May 1669. To St. James’s, where the King’s (38) being with the Duke of York (35) prevented a meeting of the Tangier Commission. But, Lord! what a deal of sorry discourse did I hear between the King (38) and several Lords about him here! but very mean methought. So with Creed to the Excise Office, and back to White Hall, where, in the Park, Sir G. Carteret (59) did give me an account of his discourse lately, with the Commissioners of Accounts, who except against many things, but none that I find considerable; among others, that of the Officers of the Navy selling of the King’s (38) goods, and particularly my providing him with calico flags, which having been by order, and but once, when necessity, and the King’s (38) apparent profit, justified it, as conformable to my particular duty, it will prove to my advantage that it be enquired into. Nevertheless, having this morning received from them a demand of an account of all monies within their cognizance, received and issued by me, I was willing, upon this hint, to give myself rest, by knowing whether their meaning therein might reach only to my Treasurership for Tangier, or the monies employed on this occasion. I went, therefore, to them this afternoon, to understand what monies they meant, where they answered me, by saying, “The eleven months’ tax, customs, and prizemoney,” without mentioning, any more than I demanding, the service they respected therein; and so, without further discourse, we parted, upon very good terms of respect, and with few words, but my mind not fully satisfied about the monies they mean. At noon Mr. Gibson and I dined at the Swan, and thence doing this at Brook house, and thence calling at the Excise Office for an account of payment of my tallies for Tangier, I home, and thence with my wife (28) and brother spent the evening on the water, carrying our supper with us, as high as Chelsea; so home, making sport with the Westerne bargees, and my wife (28) and I singing, to my great content.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 30 May 1669. Whitsunday. By water to White Hall, and thence to Sir W. Coventry (41), where all the morning by his bed-side, he being indisposed. Our discourse was upon the notes I have lately prepared for Commanders’ Instructions; but concluded that nothing will render them effectual, without an amendment in the choice of them, that they be seamen, and not gentleman above the command of the Admiral, by the greatness of their relations at Court. Thence to White Hall, and dined alone with Mr. Chevin's (67) sister: whither by and by come in Mr. Progers (47) and Sir Thomas Allen (57), and by and by fine Mrs. Wells, who is a great beauty; and there I had my full gaze upon her, to my great content, she being a woman of pretty conversation. Thence to the Duke of York (35), who, with the officers of the Navy, made a good entrance on my draught of my new Instructions to Commanders, as well expressing general of a reformation among them, as liking of my humble offers towards it. Thence being called by my wife (28), Mr. Gibson and I, we to the Park, whence the rain suddenly home.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 31 May 1669. Up very betimes, and so continued all the morning with W. Hewer (27), upon examining and stating my accounts, in order to the fitting myself to go abroad beyond sea, which the ill condition of my eyes, and my neglect for a year or two, hath kept me behindhand in, and so as to render it very difficult now, and troublesome to my mind to do it; but I this day made a satisfactory entrance therein. Dined at home, and in the afternoon by water to White Hall, calling by the way at Michell’s, where I have not been many a day till just the other day, and now I met her mother there and knew her husband to be out of town. And here je did baiser elle, but had not opportunity para hazer some with her as I would have offered if je had had it. And thence had another meeting with the Duke of York (35), at White Hall, on yesterday’s work, and made a good advance: and so, being called by my wife (28), we to the Park, Mary Batelier, and a Dutch gentleman, a friend of hers, being with us. Thence to “The World’s End,” a drinking-house by the Park; and there merry, and so home late.
And thus ends all that I doubt I shall ever be able to do with my own eyes in the keeping of my journal, I being not able to do it any longer, having done now so long as to undo my eyes almost every time that I take a pen in my hand; and, therefore, whatever comes of it, I must forbear: and, therefore, resolve, from this time forward, to have it kept by my people in long-hand, and must therefore be contented to set down no more than is fit for them and all the world to know; or, if there be any thing, which cannot be much, now my amours to Deb (18). are past, and my eyes hindering me in almost all other pleasures, I must endeavour to keep a margin in my book open, to add, here and there, a note in short-hand with my own hand.
And so I betake myself to that course, which is almost as much as to see myself go into my grave: for which, and all the discomforts that will accompany my being blind, the good God prepare me!.

On 10 Sep 1669 Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (59) died.

On 21 Aug 1670 James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (36) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (22).

On 09 Feb 1671 Catherine Stewart 1671-1671 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (37) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (33).

On 31 Mar 1671 Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (34) died.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

On Aug 1673 Henry Fitzjames 1st Duke Albermarle 1673-1702 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (39) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (25) at St James' Square, St James', Westminster.

On 20 Sep 1673 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (39) and Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (14) were married.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. François de Troy 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

In 1674 Arabella Fitzjames 1674-1704 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (40) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (25).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (55). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (40) wearing his Garter Robes.

On 10 Jan 1675 Catherine Laura Stewart 1675-1675 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (41) and Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (16).

Before 1676 Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester 1657-1717 (18) became the mistress of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (42).

In 1684 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester 1657-1717 (26).

On 28 Aug 1676 Isabel Stewart 1676-1681 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (42) and Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (17).

On 07 Nov 1677 Charles Stewart 1677-1677 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (44) and Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (19).

In 1679 John Robartes 1st Earl Radnor 1606-1685 (73) was created 1st Earl Radnor (1C 1679), 1st Viscount Bodmin by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (48) in reward for having supported Charles' brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (45) 's future accession.Letitia Isabella Smythe Countess Radnor 1630-1714 (49) by marriage Countess Radnor (1C 1679).

In 1680 Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby 1680-1743 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (46) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester 1657-1717 (22).

Sinking of HMS Gloucester

On 06 May 1682 Richard Hill -1682 drowned off Great Yarmouth, Norfolk during the Sinking of HMS Gloucester when it struck a sandbank. The future James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) and John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 (31) were rescued in the ship's boat.
John Hope of Hopetoun 1651-1682 drowned during the sinking of HMS Gloucester. He gave up his seat in a lifeboat to the future James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) for which his son was rewarded with an Earldom twenty-one years later when he came of age.

Rye House Plot

Before 21 Mar 1683 the Rye House Plot was an attempt to assassinate Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (52) and his brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (49) as they passed Rye House, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire when were returning from the races at Newmarket, Suffolk on 01 Apr 1683. In the event a fire at Newmarket, Suffolk on the 22 Mar 1683 the races were cancelled.

In 1684 James Darnley 1684-1685 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (50) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester 1657-1717 (26).

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 May. 12 May 1684. I return'd to London, where I found the Commissioners of the Admiralty abolish'd, and the office of Admiral restor'd to ye Duke (50), as to the disposal and ordering all Sea businesse ; but his King}{Ma* (53) sign'd all Petitions, Papers, Warrants, and Commissions, that the Duke, not acting as Admiral by commission or office, might not incur the penalty of the late Act against Papists and Dissenters holding offices, and refusing the Oath and Test. Every one was glad of this change, those in the late Commission being utterly ignorant in their duty, to the greate damage of the Navy.
The utter mine of the Low Country was threaten'd by the siege of Luxembergh, if not timely reliev'd, and by the obstinacy of the Hollanders, who refus'd to assist the Prince of Orange (33), being corrupted by the French.

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Dec. 17 Dec 1684. Early in the morning I went into St. James's Park to see three Turkish or Asian horses, newly brought over, and now first shewed to his Ma* (54). There were foure, but one of them died at sea, being three weekes coming from Hamborow. They were taken from a Bashaw at the siege of Vienna, at the late famous raising that leaguer. I never beheld so delicate a creature as one of them was, of somewhat a bright bay, two white feet, a blaze ; such a head, eyes, cares, neck, breast, belly, haunches, legs, pasterns, and feete, in all reguards beautifull and proportion'd to admiration ; spirited, proud, nimble, making halt, turning with that swiftnesse, and in so small a compasse, as was admirable. With all this so gentle and tractable as call'd to mind what I remember Busbequius speakes of them, to the reproch of our groomes in Europe, who bring up their horses so churlishly as makes most of them retain their 111 habits. They trotted like does, as if they did not feele the ground. 500 guinnies was demanded for the first ; 300 for the second; and 200 for the third, wch was browne. All of them were choicely shap'd, but the two last not altogether so perfect as the first. It was judg'd by the spectators, among whom was the King (54), Prince of Denmark, Duke of Yorke (51), and several of the Court, noble persons, skill'd In horses, especialy Mons. Faubert and his sonn, (provost masters of yc Academie, and esteem'd of the best in Europe,) that there were never seene any horses in these parts to be compar'd with them. Add to all this, the furniture, consisting of embroidery on the saddle, houseings, quiver, bow, arrows, scymeter, sword, mace, or battle-axe a la Turcisq; the Bashaw's velvet mantle furr'd with the most perfect ermine I ever beheld ; all which, yron-worke in common furniture, being here of silver, curiously wrought and double gilt, to an incredible value. Such and so extraordinary was the embrodery, that I never saw any thing approching it. The reins and headstall were of crimson silk, cover'd with chaines of silver gilt. There was also a Turkish royal standard of an horse's taile, together with all sorts of other caparisons belonging to a general's horse, by which one may estimate how gallantly and magnificently those infidels appeare in the field, for nothing could be seene more glorious. The gentleman (a German) who rid the horse was in all this garb. They were shod with yron made round and closed at the heele, with a hole in the middle about as wide as a shilling. The hoofes most intire.

Argyll's Rising

In 1685 Argyll's Rising was a plot to overthrow James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) led by Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (55).
Of the rebels 177 were transported to Jamaica and 100 to New Jersey.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Feb. 04 Feb 1685. I went to London, hearing his Ma* (54) had ben the Monday before (02 Feb 1685) surpriz'd in his bed-chamber with an apoplectic fit, so that if, by God's providence, Dr. King (that excellent chirurgeon as well as physitian) had not ben accidentally present to let him blood (having his lancet in his pocket) his Ma* had certainly died that moment, which might have ben of direful consequence, there being nobody else present with the King save this Doctor and one more, as I am assur'd. It was a mark of the extraordinary dexterity, resolution, and presence of mind in the Dr, to let him bloud in the very paroxysm, without staying the coming of other physitians, which regularly should have ben don, and for want of which he must have a regular pardon, as they tell me *. This rescu'd his Ma* for the instant, but it was only a short reprieve. He still complain'd, and was relapsing, often fainting, with sometimes epileptic symptoms, till Wednesday, for which he was cupp'd, let bloud in both jugulars, had both vomit and purges, which so rellev'd him that on Thursday hopes of recovery were signified in the publiq Gazette, but that day, about noone, the physitians thought him feaverish. This they seem'd glad of, as being more easily allay'd and methodically dealt with than his former fits; so as they prescrib'd the famous Jesuits powder : but it made him worse, and some very able Doctors who were present did not think it a fever, but the effect of his frequent bleeding and other sharp operations us'd by them about his head, so that probably the powder might stop the circulation, and renew his former fits, which now made him very weake. Thus he pass'd Thursday night with greate difficulty, when complaining of a paine in his side, they drew 12 ounces more of bloud from him; this was by 6 in the morning on Friday, and it gave him reliefe, but it did not continue, for being now in much paine, and strugling for breath, he lay dozing, and after some conflicts, the physitians despairing of him, he gave up the ghost at halfe an houre after eleven in the morning, being the 06 Feb 1685, in the 36th yeare of his reigne, and 54th of his age.
Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till he (54) expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his Majesty's (54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (68), the Bishops of London (53), Durham (52), and Ely (47), but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (56) and Feversham (44), being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc Duke (51), who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. He (54) also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (35), now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the Queene (46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his Ma* (54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye Duke (51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (44), and especialy Portsmouth (35), and that Nelly (35) might not starve. Thus died King Charles II (54) of a vigorous and robust constitution, and in all appearance promising a long life. He was a Prince of many virtues, and many greate imperfections; debonaire, easy of accesse, not bloudy nor cruel; his countenance fierce, his voice greate, proper of person, every motion became him; a lover of the sea, and skilfull in shipping; not affecting other studies, yet he had a laboratory, and knew of many empyrical medicines, and the easier mechanical mathe matics; he lov'd planting and building, and brought in a politer way of living, which pass'd to luxury and intolerable expence. He had a particular talent in telling a story, and facetious passages, of which he had innumerable; this made some buffoons and vitious wretches too presumptuous and familiar, not worthy the favour they abus'd. He tooke delight in having a number of little spaniels follow him and lie in his bed-chamber, where he often suffer'd the bitches to puppy and give suck, which render'd it very offensive, and indeede made the whole Court nasty and stinking. He would doubtlesse have ben an excellent Prince, had he ben less addicted to women, who made him uneasy, 'and allways in want to supply their unmeasurable profusion, to ye detriment of many Indigent persons who had signaly serv'd both him and his father. He frequently and easily chang'd favorites, to his greate prejudice. As to other publiq transactions and unhappy miscarriages, .'tis not here I intend to number them; but certainly never had King more glorious opportunities to have made himselfe, his people, and all Europe happy, and prevented innumerable mischeifs, had not his too easy nature resign'd him to be manag'd by crafty men, and some abandon'd and profane wretches who corrupted his otherwise sufficient parts, disciplin'd as he had ben by many afflictions during his banishment, which gave him much experience and knowledge of men and things; but those wicked creatures took him off from all application becoming so greate a King. The history of his reigne will certainely be the most wonderfull for the variety of matter and accidents, above any extant in former ages : the sad tragical death of his father, his banishment and hardships, his miraculous restauration, conspiracies against him, parliaments, wars, plagues, fires, comets, revolutions abroad happening in his time, with a thousand other particulars. He was ever kind to me, and very gracious upon all occasions, and therefore I cannot, without ingratitude, but deplore his losse, which for many respects as well as duty I do with all my soul. His Majesty being dead, the Duke, now K. James II. went immediately to Council, and before entering into any businesse, passionately declaring his sorrow, told their Lordships that since the succession had fallen to him, he would endeavour to follow the example of his predecessor in his clemency and tendernesse to his people; that, however he had ben misrepresented as affecting arbitrary power, they should find the contrary, for that the Laws of England had made ye King as greate a monarch as he could desire; that he would endeavor to maintain the Government both in Church and State, as by Law established, its principles being so firme for monarchy, and the members of it shewing themselves so good and loyal subjects; and that as he would never depart from the just rights and prerogatives of y Crown, so would he never invade any man's property; but as he had often adventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would still proceede, and preserve it in all its lawful rights and liberties. This being the substance of what he said, the Lords desir'd it might be publish'd, as ontaining matter of greate satisfaction to a jealous people upon this change, which his Ma* consented to. Then were the Counsel sworn, and a Proclamation order'd to be publish'd, that all Officers should continue in their stations, that there might be no failure of public justice, till his further pleasure should be known. Then the King rose, the Lords accompanying him to his bed-chamber, where, whilst he repos'd himselfe, tired indeede as he was with griefe and watching, they return'd againe Into the Council-chamber to take order for the proclaiming his Ma*, which (after some debate) they consented should be in the very forme his grandfather K. James I. was, after ye death of Queene Elizabeth; as likewise that the Lords, &c. should proceede in their coaches thro' the Citty for the more solemnity of it. Upon this was I, and severall other Gentlemen waiting in the Privy-gallerie, admitted into ye Council-chamber to be witnesse of what was resolv'd on. Thence with the Lords, the Lord Marshall and Heraulds, and other Crowne Officers being ready, we first went to White-hall gate, where the Lords stood on foote bare-headed, whilst the Herauld proclaim'd his Majesty's title to the Imperial Crowne and Succession according to ye forme, the trumpets and kettle-drums having first sounded 3 times, which ended with the people's acclamations. Then a Herauld call'd the Lords' coaches according to rank, myselfe accompanying the solemnity in my Lord Cornwallis's (29) coach, first to Temple Barr, where the Lord Maior and his brethren met us on horseback, in all theire formalities, and proclaim'd the King; hence to the Exchange in Cornhlll, and so we return'd in the order we set forth. Being come to Whitehall, we all went and kiss'd the King (51) and Queenes (26) hands. He had ben on ye bed, but was now risen and in his undresse. The Queene (22) was in bed in her appartment, but put forth her hand, seeming to be much afflicted, as I believe she was, having deported herselfe so decently upon all occasions since she came into England, which made her universally belov'd. Thus concluded this sad and not joyfull day.
I can never forget the inexpressible luxury and prophanenesse, gaming and all dissoluteness, and as it were total forgetfullnesse of God (it being Sunday evening) which this day se'nnight I was wit nesse of, the King sitting and toying with his concubines, Portsmouth, Cleaveland, and Mazarine, &c a French boy singing love songs, in that glorious gallery, whilst about 20 of the greate courtiers and other dissolute persons were at Basset round a large table, a bank of at least 2000 in gold before them, upon which two gentlemen who were with me made reflexions with astonishment. Six days after was all in the dust ! It was enjoyn'd that those who put on mourning should wear it as for a father, in ye most solemn manner.

Before 1691. John Riley 1646-1691 (44). Portrait of Nathaniel Crew Bishop 1633-1721 (57).

In 1698 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Nathaniel Crew Bishop 1633-1721 (64).

Around 1675 John Greenhill 1644-1676 (31) (attributed).Portrait of Nathaniel Crew Bishop 1633-1721 (41).

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler 1634-1687 (52). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (48).

Around 1663 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel.The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head.She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (62). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (57).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (62). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (57).

Around 1664 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (23) and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.

Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (73).

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (62). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (31).

In 1670 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (35). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (20).

In 1673 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (38). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (23).

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (66). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (51).

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (66). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (51).

Before 08 Oct 1699 Mary Cradock 1633-1699 (66) (attributed). Portrait of Nell Gwyn 1650-1687.

Around1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn 1650-1687 (29).

Before 14 Nov 1687 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn 1650-1687 (37).

Death of Charles II

On 06 Feb 1685 Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace, Westminster. His brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) succeeded as II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart. Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) by marriages Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland.
His brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51), William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (83), Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52) and William Sancroft Archbishop Canterbury 1617-1693 (68) were present.

Before 08 Mar 1685 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (52). Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52).

Around 1688 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (55). Portrait of Richard Mason 1633-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Feb. 10 Feb 1685. Being sent to by the Sheriff of the County to appeare and assist in proclayming the King (51), I went the next day to Bromely, where I met the Sheriff and the Commander of the Kentish Troop, with an appearance, I suppose, of above 500 horse, and innumerable people, two of his Ma*'s trumpets and a Serjeant with other officers, who having drawn up the horse in a large field neere the towne, march'd thence, wifh swords drawne, to the market-place, where making a ring, after sound of trumpets and silence made, the High Sheriff read the pro claiming titles to his Bailiffe, who repeated them aloud, and then after many shouts of the people, his Ma*'s health being drunk in a flint glasse of a yard long, by the Sheriff, Commander, Officers and cheife Gentlemen, they all dispers'd, and I return'd.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Feb. 15 Feb 1685. Dr. Tenison (48) preach'd to the Household. The second sermon should have ben before the King (51); but he, to the greate griefe of his subjects, did now for the first time go to masse publickly in ye little Oratorie at the Duke's lodgings, the doors being set wide open. Note. the 'greate grief' being the King going to a Catholic Mass.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Feb. 17 Feb 1685. This morning his Ma* (51) restor'd the staffe and key to Lord Arlington (67), Chamberlaine; to Mr. Savell (43), Vice-chamberlaine; to Lords Newport (64) and Malnard (62), Treasurer and Comptroler of the Household;.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Mar. 26 Mar 1685. I was invited to the funerall of Capt. Gunman, that excellent pilot and seaman, who had behav'd himselfe so valiantly in the Dutch warr. He died of a gangrene, occasion'd by his fall from the pier of Calais. This was the Captain of the yacht carrying the Duke (51) (now King) to Scotland, and was accus'd for not giving timely warning when she split on the sands, where so many perish'd; but I am most confident he was no ways guilty, either of negligence or designe, as he made appeare not onely at the examination of the matter of fact, but in the Vindication he shew'd me, and which must needes give any man of reason satisfaction. He was a sober, frugal, cheerfull, and temperate man; we have few such seamen left.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Apr. 08 Apr 1685. Being now somewhat compos'd after my greate affliction, I went to London to hear Dr. Tenison (48) (it being on a Wednesday in Lent) at Whitehall. I observ'd that tho' the King (51) was not in his seate above in the chapell, the Doctor made his three congees, which they were not us'd to do when the late King was absent, making then one bowing onely. I ask'd the reason; it was sayd he had a special order so to do. The Princesse of Denmark (34) was in the King's Closet, but sat on the left hand of the chaire, the Clearke of the Closet (50) standing by His Ma*s chaire, as If he had ben present. I met the Queene Dowager (46) going now first from Whitehall to dwell at Somerset-house. This day my brother of Wotton and Mr. Onslow were candidates for Surrey against Sr Adam Brown and my cousin Sr Edwd Evelyn, and were circumvented in their election by a trick of the Sheriff's* taking advantage of my brother's party going out of the small village of Leatherhead to seek shelter and lodging, the afternoone being tempestuous, proceeding to the Election when they were gon; they expecting the next morning; whereas before and then they exceeded the other party by many hundreds, as I am assur'd. The Duke of Norfolk (30) led Sr Edw. Evelyn's and Sr Adam Brown's party. For this Parliament, very meane and slight persons (some of them gentlemen's servants, clearkes, and persons neither of reputation nor interest) were set up, but the country would choose my brother whether he would or no, and he miss'd it by the trick above mentioned. Sr Adam Brown was so deafe that he could not heare one word. S1 Edw. Evelyn was an honest gent much in favour with his Majesty.

Coronation James II and Mary

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Apr. 23 Apr 1685. Was the Coronation of the King (51) and Queene (26). The solemnity was magnificent, as is set forth in print. The Bp. of Ely (47) preach'd; but, to the greate sorrow of the people, no Sacrament, as ought to have ben. However the King begins his reigne with greate expectations, and hopes of much reformation as to the late vices and prophanenesse both of Court and Country. Having ben present at the late King's Coronation, I was not ambitious of seeing this ceremonie.

On 23 Apr 1685 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart by William Sancroft Archbishop Canterbury 1617-1693 (68). Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) crowned Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland.
Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) preached the sermon.
John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham 1656-1710 (29) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at Westminster Abbey.
Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 (21) was appointed as Lord High Constable.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 May. 10 May 1685. The Scots valueing themselves exceedingly to have ben ye first Parliament call'd by his Ma* (51), gave the Excise and Costomes to him and his successors for ever; yfc D. of Queensberry (48) making eloquent speeches, and especialy minding them of a speedy suppression of those late despe rate Field-Conventiclers who had done such unheard-of assassinations. In the meane time elections for the ensueing Parliament in England were thought to be very indirectly carried on in most places. God grant a better issue of it than some expect!.

Argyll's Rising

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 May. 22 May 1685. In the morning I went with a French gentleman, and my Lord Privy Seale, to the House of Lords, where we were plac'd by his lordship next the Bar, just below yc Bishops, very commodiously both for hearing and seeing. After a short space came in ye Queene (26) and Princesse of Denmark (34), and stood next above the Archbishops, at the side of the House on the right hand of the throne. In the interim divers of the Lords, who had not finish'd before, tooke the Test and usual Oathes, so that her Ma*, the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind the throne, heard the Pope and worship of the Virgin Mary, &c. renounc'd very decently, as likewise the prayers which follow'd, standing all the while. Then came in the King (51), the Crowne on his head, and being seated, the Commons were introduced, and the House being full, he drew forth a paper containing his speech, which he read distinctly enough, to this effect : " That he resolv'd to call a Parliament from the moment of his brother's decease, as the best meanes to settle all the concernes of the Nation, so as to be most easy and happy to himselfe and his subjects; that he would confirme whatever he had said in his declaration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the principles of the Church of England, for their loyaltie, and would defend and support it, and preserve its government as by law now establish'd; that, as he would invade no man's property, so he would never depart from his owne prerogative; and as he had ventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would proceede to do still; that, having given this assurance of his care of our Religion (his word was your Religion) and Property (wch he had not said by chance but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable returnes of his subjects duty and kindnesse, especialy as to settling his Revenue for life, for yte many weighty necessities of go vernment, weh he would not suffer to be precarious; that some might possibly suggest that it were better to feede and supply him from time to time only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments, but that that would be a very improper method to take with him, since the best way to engage him to meete oftener would be always to use him well, and therefore he expected their compliance speedily, that this Session being but short, they might meet againe to satisfaction." At every period of this the House gave loud shouts. Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of Argyle's (56) being landed in the West High lands of Scotland from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he had published, which he would communicate to them, and that he should take the best care he could it should meete with the reward It deserv'd, not questioning the Parliament's zeale and readinesse to assist him as he desir'd; at which there follow'd another Vive le Roi, and so his Ma* retlr'd.
So soone as ye Commons were return'd and had put themselves into a grand Committee, they immediately put the question, and unanimously voted the Revenue to his Ma* for life. Mr. Seymour made a bold speech against many Elections, and would have had those members who (he pretended) were obnoxious, to withdraw, till they had clear'd the matter of their being legally return'd; but no one seconded him. The truth is, there were many of the new members whose Elections and Returns were universally censur'd, many of them being persons of no condition or interest in the Nation, or places for which they serv'd, especially in Devon, Cornwall, Norfolk, &c. said to have ben recommended by the Court and from the effect of the new charters changing ye electors. It was reported that Lord Bath (56) carried down with him [into Cornwall] no fewer than 15 charters, so that some call'd him the Prince Elector; whence Seymour told the House in his speech that if this was digested, they might introduce what religion and lawes they pleas'd, and that tho' he never gave heed to ye feares and jealousies of the people before, he now was really apprehensive of Popery. By the printed list of Members of 505 there did not appeare to be above 135 who had ben in former Parliaments, especialy that lately held at Oxford. In ye Lords House Lord Newport (65) made an exception against two or three young Peeres, who wanted some moneths, and some only four or five daies of being of age.
The Popish Lords who had ben sometime before releas'd from their confinement about the Plot, were now discharg'd of their impeachment, of wch I gave Lord Arundel of Wardour (52) joy.
Oates (35), who had but two dayes before ben pilloried at severall places and whipt at ye carts taile from Newgate to Aldgate, was this day plac'd on a sledge, being not able to go by reason of so late scourging, and dragg'd from prison to Tyburn, and whipt againe all ye way, which some thought to be very severe and extraordinary; but if he was guilty of the perjuries, and so of the death of many innocents, as I feare he was, his punishment was but what he deserv'd. I chanc'd to pass just as execution was doing on him. A strange revolution!.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jun. 17 Jun 1685. The Duke (36) landed with but 150 men, but the whole Kingdom was alarm'd, fearing triat the disaffected would joyn them, many of the train'd bands flocking to him. At his landing he (36) publish'd a declaration, charging his Ma* (51) with usurpation and several horrid crimes, on pretence of his owne title, and offering to call a free Parliament. This declaration was order'd to be burnt by the hangman, the Duke proclaim'd a traytor, and a reward of £5,000 to any who should kill him. At this time the words engraved on the monument in London, intimating that the Papists fir'd the Citty, were erased and cut out.
The exceeding drowth still continues.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jul. 09 Jul 1685. Just as I was coming into the lodgings at Whitehall, a little before dinner, my Lord of Devonshire (45) standing very neere his Ma's (51) bed-chamber doore in the lobby, came Col. Culpeper (50), and in a rude manner looking my Lord in the face, asked whether this was a time and place for excluders to appeare; my Lord at first tooke little notice of what he said, knowing him to be a hot-headed fellow, but he reiterating it, my Lord ask'd Culpeper whether he meant him; he said, yes, he meant his Lordship. My Lord told him he was no excluder (as indeed he was not); the other affirming it againe, my Lord told him he lied, on which Culpeper struck him a box on the eare, which my Lord return'd and fell'd him. They were soone parted, Culpeper was seiz'd, and his Ma*, who was all the while in his bed-chamber, order'd him to be carried to the Green Cloth Officer, who sent him to the Marshalsea as he deserv'd. My Lord Devon had nothing said to him. I supp'd this night at Lambeth at my old friend's Mr. Elias Ashmole's (68), with my Lady Clarendon, ye Bishop of St. Asaph (57), and Dr. Tenison (48), when we were treated at a greate feast.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jul. 15 Jul 1685. I went to see Dr. Tenison's (48) Library [in St. Martin's.].
Monmouth (36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower, had an interview with his late Dutchesse (34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he profess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (47) and Bath and Wells (48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.
Thus ended this quondam Duke, darling of his father and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to ga ther a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July. His mother, whose name was Barlow, daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney, who was familiar with his mother) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.
Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cozens to sign a certificate of the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name was Walters: this the Bishop refused. She was born of a gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sidney, then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her 50 broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) but being ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother Colonel Robert Sidney, who kept her for some time, till the King hearing of her, got her from him. On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her she is already sped and after being with the King she was so soon with child that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wort on his face. However the King owned the child. In the King's absence she behaved so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King James II. Vol I.
Had it not pleas'd God to dissipate this attempt in ye beginning, there would in all appearance have gather'd an irresistable force which would have desperately proceeded to ye ruine of ye Church and Govern ment, so general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my owne part I look'd upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an Inundation of phanatics and men of impious principles must needs have caus'd universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, an unavoidable civil war and misery without end. Blessed be God the knot was happily broken, and a faire prospect of tranquil lity for the future if we reforme, be thankful!, and make a right use of this mercy.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Jul. 18 Jul 1685. I went to see the muster of the 6 Scotch and English regiments whom the Prince of Orange (34) had lately sent to his Ma* (51) out of Holland upon this rebellion, but which were now returning, there having ben no occasion for their use. They were all excellently clad and well disciplin'd, and were incamped on Blackheath with their tents: the King and Queene came to see them exercise, and the man ner of their incampment, which was very neate and magnificent. By a grosse mistake of the Secretary of his Ma*'s forces, it had ben order'd that they should be quarter'd in private houses, contrary to an Act of Parliament, but on my informing his Ma* timely of it, It was prevented. The two horsemen wch my son and myselfe sent into the county troopes, were now come home, after a moneth's being out to our greate charge.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Sep. 05 Sep 1685. I accompanied his Lordship to Windsor (dining by the way at Sir Henry Capel's (47) at Kew), where his Ma* (51) receiving me with extra ordinary kindnesse, I kiss'd his hand. I told him how. sensible I was of his Ma*s (51) gracious favour to me, that I would endeavour to serve him with all sincerity, diligence, and loyalty, not more out of my duty than inclination. He said he doubted not of it, and was glad he had the opportunity to shew me the kindnesse he had for me. After this came aboundance of greate men to give me joy.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Sep. 06 Sep 1685. Sunday. I went to prayer in the Chapell, and heard Dr. Standish. The second sermon was preach'd by Dr. Creighton, on 1 Thess. 4, 11, persuading to unity and peace, and to be mindfull of our owne businesse, according to the advise of the Apostle. Then I went to heare a Frenchman who preached before the King (51) and Queene (26) in that splendid Chapell next St. George's Hall. Their Maties going to masse, I withdrew to consider the stupendous painting of ye Hall, which, both for the art and invention, deserve the inscription in honour of the painter, Signior Verrio (49). The history is Edward the 3rd receiving the Black Prince, coming towards him in a Roman triumph. The whole roofe is the history of St. George. The throne, the carvings, &e. are incomparable, and I think equal to any, and in many circumstances exceeding any, I have seene abroad.
I din'd at Lord Sunderland's (44), with (amongst others) Sr Wm Soames (40), design'd Ambass. to Constantinople.
About 6 o'clock came Sl Dudley (44) and his brother Roger North (32), and brought the greate seale from my Lord Keeper, who died ye day before at his house in Oxfordshire. The King went immediately to Council; every body guessing who was most likely to succeed this greate officer; most believing it could be no other than my Lord Chief Justice Jefferies (40), who had so vigorously prosecuted the late rebells, and was now gone the Western circuit, to punish the rest that were secur'd in the several counties, and was now neere upon his returne. I tooke my leave of his Ma* (51), who spake very graciously to me, and supping that night at Sr Stephen Fox's (58), I promis'd to dine there the next day.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Sep. 15 Sep 1685. I accompanied Mr. Pepys (52) to Portsmouth, whither his Ma* (51) was going the first time since his coming to the Crowne, to see in what state the fortifications were. We tooke coach and six horses, late after dinner, yet got to Bagshot that night. Whilst supper was making ready I went and made a visit to Mrs. Graham (34), some time maid of honour to ye Queene Dowager (46), now wife to James Graham, Esq. (36) of the privy purse to the King; her house being a walke in the forest, within a little quarter of a mile from Bagshot towne. Very importunate she was that I would sup, and abide there that night, but being obliged by my companion, I return'd to our inn, after she had shew'd me her house, wch was very commodious and well furnish'd, as she was an excellent housewife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There is a parke full of red deere about it. Her eldest son was now sick there of the small-pox, but in a likely way of recovery, and other of her children run about, and among the infected, wnh she said she let them do on purpose that they might whilst young pass that fatal disease she fancied they were to undergo one time or other, and that this would be the best: the severity of this cruell disease so lately in my poore family confirming much of what she affirmed.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Sep. 16 Sep 1685. The next morning setting out early, we ariv'd soon enough at Winchester to waite on the King (51), who was lodg'd at the Dean's (Dr. Meggot). I found very few with him besides my Lords Feversham (-222), Arran [Note. Not clear which Earl of Arran], Newport (65), and the Bishop of Bath and Wells (48). His Ma* (51) was discoursing with the Bishops concerning miracles, and what strange things the Saludadors would do in Spaine, as by creeping into heated ovens without hurt, and that they had a black crosse in the roofe of their mouthes, but yet were commonly notorious and profane wretches; upon which his Majesty (51) further said, that he was so extreamly difficult of miracles, for feare of being impos'd upon, that if he should chance to see one himselfe, without some other witness, he should apprehend it a delusion of his senses. Then they spake of ye boy who was pretended to have a wanting leg restor'd him, so confidently asserted by Fr. de Sta Clara and others. To all which the Bishop added a greate miracle happening In Winchester to his certaine knowledge, of a poor miserably sick and decrepit child (as I remember long kept unbaptiz'd), who immediately on his baptism recover'd; as also of yc salutary effect of K. Charles his Ma*s father's blood, in healing one that was blind.
There was something said of the second sight happening to some persons, especialy Scotch; upon which his Ma*, and I think Lord Arran, told us that Mons a French nobleman, lately here in England, seeing the late Duke of Monmouth come into yc play-house at London, suddenly cried out to somebody sitting in the same box, Voila Monsieur comme il entre sans tete. Afterwards his Ma* (51) spoke of some reliques that had effected strange cures, particularly a piece of our Bl. Saviour's Crosse, that heal'd a gentleman's rotten nose by onely touching; and speaking of the golden crosse and chaine taken out of the coffin of St. Edward the Confessor at Westmr*, by one of the singing men, who, as the scaffolds were taking down after his Ma*s coronation, espying a hole in the tomb, and something glisten, put his hand in, and brought it to the Deane, and he to the King; his Maty began to put the Bishop in mind how earnestly the late King (his brother) call'd upon him, during his agonie, to take out what he had in his pocket. I had thought, said the King, it had ben for some keys, which might lead to some cabinet that his Ma* would have me secure; but, says he, you well remember that I found nothing in any of his pockets but a crosse of gold, and a few insignificant papers; and thereupon he shew'd us the crosse, and was pleas'd to put it into my hand. It was of gold, about three inches long, having on one side a crucifix enamell'd and emboss'd, the rest was grav'd and garnish'd with goldsmiths' work, and two pretty broad table amethists (as I conceiv'd), and at the bottom a pendant pearle; within was inchas'd a little fragment, as was thought, of the true Crosse, and a Latine inscription in gold and Roman letters. More company coming in, this discourse ended. I may not forget a resolution which his Ma* made, and had a little before enter'd upon it at ye Council Board at Windsor or Whitehall, that the Negroes in the Plantations should all be baptiz'd, exceedingly declaiming against that impiety of their masters prohibiting it, out of a mistaken opinion that they would be ipso facto free; but his Ma* persists in his resolution to have them christen'd, wch piety ye Bishop blessed him for.
I went out to see the Kings' House, Winchester the late King had began, and brought almost to the covering. It is plac'd on the side of the hill where formerly stood the old Castle. It is a stately fabric, of three sides and a corridor, all built of brick, and cornish'd, windows and columns at the break and entrance of free-stone. It was intended for a hunting-house when his Ma* should come to these parts, and has an incomparable prospect. I believe there had already ben £20,000 and more expended, but his now Majesty did not seeme to encourage the finishing It, at least for a while.
Hence I went to see the Cathedral, a reverend pile, and in good repaire. There are still the coffins of the six Saxon Kings, whose bones had ben scatter'd by the sacrilegious Rebells of 1641, in expectation, I suppose, of finding some valuable reliques, and afterwards gather'd up againe and put into new chests, wch stand above the stalls of the Choir.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Sep. 17 Sep 1685. Early next morning we went to Portsmouth, something before his Ma* (51) ariv'd. We found all the way full of people, the women in their best dress, in expectation of seeing the King pass by, which he did riding on horseback a good part of the way. We found the Maior and Aldermen with their mace, and in their formalities, standing at the entrance of the fort, a mile on this side of the towne, where the Maior made a speech to the King, and then the guns of the fort were fired, as were those of the garrison so soone as the King was come into Portsmouth. All the souldiers (neere 3000) were drawn up, and lining the streetes and platforme to God's-house (the name of the Governor's house), where, after he had view'd the new fortifications and ship-yard, his Ma* was entertain'd at a magnificent dinner by Sir Slingsby yc Lieut. Governor (47)Sir Rob Holmes, Gov of ye Isle of Wight, to dine with him at a private house, where likewise we had a very sumptuous and plentiful repast of excellent venison, fowle, fish, and fruit.
After dinner I went to wait on his Ma* (51) againe, who was pulling on his bootes in ye Townehall, adjoyning the house where he din'd, and then having saluted some ladys, who came to kiss his hand, he tooke horse for Winchester, whither he returned that night. This hall is artificialy hung round with armes of all sorts, like the Hall and Keep at Windsor.
I went hence to see the ship-yard and dock, the fortifications, and other things.
Portsmouth when finish'd will be very strong, and a noble key.
There were now 32 men of war in ye harbour. I was invited by Sir R. Beach ye Commissioner, where, after a greate supper, Mr. Secretary and myselfe lay that night, and the next morning set out for Guildford, where we ariv'd in good hour, and so the day after to London.I had twice before ben at Portsmouth, ye Isle of Wight, &c. many yeares since I found this part of Hampshire bravely wooded, especialy about ye house and estate of Col. Norton, who, tho' now in being, having formerly made his peace by means of Col. Legg, was formerly a very fierce commander in the first Rebellion. His house is large, and standing low, on the road from Winchester to Portsmouth. By what I observ'd in this journey, is that infinite industry, sedulity, gravity, and greate understanding and experience of affaires, in his Ma*, that I cannot but predict much happiness to yc Nation, as to its political government; and if he so persist, there could be nothing more desir'd to accomplish our prosperity but that he was of the National Religion.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Oct. 15 Oct 1685. Being the King's (52) birthday, there was a solemne ball at Court, and before it musiq of instruments and voices. At the musiq I happen'd by accident to stand the very next to the Queene (27) and the King (52), who talk'd with me about the musick.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Oct. 18 Oct 1685. The King (52) was now building all that range from East to West by ye Court and Garden to the streete, and making a new Chapel for ye Queene (27), whose lodgings were to be in this new building, as also a new Council chamber and offices next ye South end of yc Banquetting house. I returned home next morning to London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Oct. 31 Oct 1685. I din'd at our greate Lord Chancellor Jefferies (40), who us'd me with much respect. This was the late Chief Justice who had newly ben the Western Circuit to try the Monmouth conspirators, and had formerly don such severe justice amongst the obnoxious in Westmr Hall, for which his Ma* (52) dignified him by creating him first a Baron, and now Lord Chancellor. He had some years past ben conversant at Deptford; is of an assur'd and undaunted spirit, and has serv'd the Court interest on all the hardiest occasions; is of nature cruel and a slave of the Court.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Nov. 09 Nov 1685. Began the Parliament; the King (52) in his speech required continuance of a standing force instead of a militia, and indemnity and dispensation to Popish officers from the Test; demands very unexpected and unpleasing to the Commons. He also requir'd a supply of revenue, which they granted, but return'd no thanks to the King for his speech, till farther consideration.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Nov. 20 Nov 1685. The Parliament was adjourn'd to February, severall both of Lords and Commons excepting against some passage of his Majesty's (52) speech relating to the Test, and continuance of Popish officers in command. This was a greate surprize in a Parliament which people believ'd would have complied in all things.
Popish pamphlets and pictures sold publickly; no books nor answers to them appearing till long after.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Dec. 13 Dec 1685. Dr Patrick, Dean of Peterborough (59), preach'd at Whitehall before ye Princesse of Denmark (35); who since his Ma* (52) came to the Crown, allways sate in the King's closet, and had the same bowings and ceremonies applied to the place where she was, as his Ma* had when there in person.
Dining at Mr. Pepys's, Dr. Slayer shewed us an experiment of a wonderful nature, pouring first a very cold liquor into a glass, and super-fusing on it another, to appearance cold and cleare liquor also; it first produced a white cloud, then boiling, divers cormscations and actual flames of fire mingled with the liquor, which being a little shaken together, fixed divers sunns and starrs of real fire, perfectly globular, on the sides of the glasse, and which there stuck like so many constellations, burning most vehemently, and resembling starrs and heavenly bodies, and that for a long space. It seemed to exhiblte a theorie of the eduction of light out of the chaos, and the fixing or gathering of the universal light into luminous bodys. This matter or phosphorus was made out of human blood and urine, elucidating the vital flame or heate in animal bodys. A very noble experiment.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Dec. 18 Dec 1685. I din'd at the greate entertainment his Ma* (52) gave ye Venetian Ambassadors, Sign. Zenno and Justiniani, accompanied with 10 more noble Venetians of their most illustrious families, Cornaro, Maccenigo, &c. who came to congratulate their Maties coming to ye Crowne. The dinner was most magnificent and plentifull, at four tables, with music, kettle drums, and trumpets, wcb sounded upon a whistle at every health. The banquet [desert] was 12 vast chargers pil'd up so high that those who sat one against another could hardly see each other. Of these sweetemeates, weh doubtless were some days piling up in that exquisite manner, the Ambassadors touch'd not, but leaving them to ye spectators who came out of curiosity to see the dinner, were exceedingly pleas'd to see in what a moment of time all that curious work was demolished, the comfitures voided, and the tables clear'd. Thus his Ma* entertain'd them three days, which (for the table only) cost him £600, as the Cleark of the Greene cloth (Sr Wm Bbreman (73)) assur'd me. Dinner ended, I saw their procession or cavalcade to Whitehall, innumerable coaches attending. The two Ambass. had 4 coaches of their owne and 50 footemen (as I remember), besides other equipage as splendid as ye occasion would permitt, the Court being still in mourning. Thence I went to the audience wch they had in the Queene's presence chamber, the Banquetting house being full of goods and furniture till the galleries on the garden side, Council chamber, and new Chapell now in building, were finish'd. They went to their audience in those plain black gownes and caps which they constantly weare in the Citty of Venice. I was invited to have accompanied the 2 Ambassadors in their coach to supper that night, returning now to their own lodgings, as no longer at the King's expence; but being weary I excus'd myself.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Dec. 22 Dec 1685. Our patent for executing the office of Privy Seal during the absence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, being this day seal'd by the Lord Chancellor (40), we went afterwards to St James's, where the Court then was on occasion of building at Whitehall; his Ma* (52) deliver'd the seale to my Lord Tivlot and myselfe, the other Commissioners not being come, and then gave us his hand to kisse. There were the two Venetian Ambassadors, and a world of company; amongst the rest the first Popish Nuncio that had ben in England since the Reformation, so wonderfully were things chang'd, to the universal jealousy.

In 1686 Henry Waldegrave 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset 1661-1689 (25) was created 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset (1C 1686) by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (52) three years after Henry Waldegrave 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset 1661-1689 (25) married the King's illegitimate daughter Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 (19). Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 (19) by marriage Baroness Waldegrave Chewton Somerset (1C 1686).

In 1686 Thomas Cartwright Bishop Chester 1634-1689 (52) was appointed Bishop Chester by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (52).

Before 1680 Gilbert Soest 1605-1681 (74). Portrait of Thomas Cartwright Bishop Chester 1634-1689 (45).

06 Jan 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Jan. Passed the Privie Seale, amongst others, the creation of Mrs. Sedley J (concubine to) Countesse of Dorchester (28), which the Queene took very grievously (27), so as for two dinners, standing neere her I observed she hardly eate one morsel, nor spake one word to the King (52), or to any about her, tho' at other times she us'd to be extreamly pleasant, full of discourse and good humour. The Roman Catholics were also very angry, because they had so long valu'd the sanctity of their religion and proselytes. Dryden (54) the famous playwriter, and his two sonns, and Mrs. Nelly (35) (Misse to ye late) were said to go to masse ; such proselytes were no greate losse to the church. This night was burnt to the ground my Lord Mountague's palace in Bloomsbury, than wch for painting and furniture there was nothing more glorious in England. This happen'd by the negligence of a servant, airing, as they call it, some of the goods by the fire in a moist season ; indeede so wet and mild a winter had scarce ben seene in man's memory. At this Seale there also pass'd the creation of Sr H. Walgrave (25) to be a Peere. He had married one of the King's natural daughters (19) by Mrs. Churchill. These two Seales my brother Commissioners pass'd in the morning before I came to towne, at. wch I was not displeas'd. We likewise pass'd Privy Seales for 5.2/6,000 upon severall accounts, pensions, guards, wardrobes, pri vie purse, &c. besides divers pardons, and one more wch I must not forget (and wch by Providence I was not present at) one Mr. Lytcott to be Secretary to the Ambassador to Rome. We being three Commissioners, any two were a quorum.

Before 1691. John Riley 1646-1691 (44). Portrait of John Dryden Poet 1631-1700 (59).

06 Feb 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Feb. Being the day on wcb his Ma* (52) began his reign, by order of Council it was to be solemniz'd with a particular Office and Sermon, which the Bp. of Ely (48) preach'd at Whitehall on 11 Numb. 12; a Court oration upon the Regal office. It was much wonder'd at that this day, weh was that of his late Ma*'s death, should be kept as a festival, and not [instead of] the day of the present King's coronation. It is said to have ben formerly ye costom, tho' not till now since ye reigne of King James I.
The Dutchesse of Monmouth (34) being in ye same seate with me at church, appear'd with a very sad and afflicted countenance.

19 Feb 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Feb. Many bloody and notorious duels were fought about this time. The Duke of Grafton (22) kill'd Mr. Stanley, brother to the Earle of Shrewsbury (25), indeede upon an almost insufferable provocation. It is to be hop'd his Ma* (52) will at last severely remedy this unchristian custome. Lord Sunderland (44) was now Secretary of State, President of the Council, and Premier Minister.

01 Mar 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Mar. Came Sir Gilbert Gerrard to treate with me about his sonn's marrying my daughter Susanna (17). The father being obnoxious, and in some suspicion and displeasure of the King (52), I would receive no proposal till his Ma* (52) had given me leave, wch he was pleas'd to do ; but after severall meetings we brake off on his not being willing to secure any thing competent for my daughter's children ; besides that I found most of his estate was in ye coal pits as far off as Newcastle, and on leases from the Bishop of Durham, who had power to make concurrent leases, with other difficulties.

12 Mar 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Mar. A docquet was to be seal' d importing a lease of 21 yeares to one Hall, who styl'd himselfe his Ma*'s (52) printer (he lately turn'd Papist) for the printing Missalls, Offices, Lives of Saints, Portals, Primers, &c. books expressly forbidden to be printed or sold, by divers Acts of Parliament ; I refus'd to put the seale to it, making my exceptions, so it was laied by.

16 Mar 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Mar. I was at a review of the Army about London, in Hide Park, about 6000 horse and foote, in excellent order ; his Ma* (52) and infinity of people being present.

05 May 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 May. There being a Seale It was fear'd we should be requir'd to passe a doquett dispensing with Dr Obadiah Walker (70) and four more, whereof one was an apostate curate of Putney, ye others officers of University College, Oxford, to hold their masterships, fellowships, and cures, and keepe publiq schooles, and enjoy all former emoluments, notwithstanding they no more frequented or us'd the public formes of prayers or communion with ye Church of England, or took yc test and oathes of allegiance and supremacy, contrary to 20 Acts of Parliament; which dispensation being also contrary to his Ma*'s (52) owne gracious declaration at ye beginning of his reigne, gave umbrage (as well it might) to every good Protestant, nor could we safely have pass'd it under the Privy Seale, wherefore it was done by immediate warrant, sign'd by Mr. Solicitor. This Walker (70) was a learned person, of a monkish life, to whose tuition I had more than 30 yeares since recommended the sonns of my worthy friend Mr. Hyldyard of Horsly in Surrey, believing him to be far from what he prov'd, an hypocritical conceal'd Papist, by wch he perverted the eldest sonn of Mr. Hyldyard, Sr Edwd Hale's (41) eldest sonn, and severall more, to the greate disturbance of the whole Nation, as well as of the University, as by his now publiq defection appear'd. All engines being now at work to bring in Popery, wch God in mercy prevent ! This day was burnt in the old Exchange, by the common hangman, a translation of a booke written by ye famous Monsr Claude, relating onely matters of fact concerning the horrid massacres and barbarous proceedings of ye French King (47) against his Protestant subjects, without any refutation of any facts therein ; so mighty a power and ascendant here had the French Ambass', who was doubtlesse in greate indignation at the pious and truly generous charity of all the Nation, for ye reliefe of those miserable sufferers who came over for shelter. About this time also the Duke of Savoy (19), instigated by ye French King to extirpate the Protestants of Piedmont, slew many thousands of those innocent people, so that there seem'd to be an universal designe to destroy all that would not go to masse, throughout Europe. Quod avertat D. O. M ! No faith in Princes!.

Around 1685. John Riley 1646-1691 (39). Believed to be a portrait of Frances Windebank wife of Edward Hales 3rd Baronet Hales Woodchurch and Tunstall 1645-1695 (40).

02 Jun 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Jun. Such storms, raine and foul weather, seldom known at this time of the yeare. The camp at Hounslow Heath, from sicknesse and other inconveniences of weather, forc'd to retire to quarters ; ye storms being succeeded by excessive hot weather, many grew sick. Greate feasting there, especialy in Lord Dunbarton's (51) quarters. There were many jealousies and discourses of what was the meaning of this incampment. A Seale this day, mostly pardons and discharges of Kn* Baronets fees, wch having ben pass'd over for so many yeares, did greatly dis oblige several families who had serv'd his Ma* (52). Lord Tirconnell (56) gon to Ireland, with greate powers and commissions, giving as much cause of talke as the camp, especialy 19 new privy councillors and judges being now made, amongst wch but three Protestants, and Tirconnell made Generall.
New Judges also here, amongst wch was Milton (70), a Papist (brother to that Milton who wrote for ye Regicides), who presum'd to take his place without passing ye Test*. Scotland refuses to grant liberty of masse to the Papists there. The French persecution more inhuman than ever. The Protestants in Savoy successfully resist the French dragoons sent to murder them.
The King's chiefe physician (45) in Scotland apostatizing from the Protestant religion, does of his own accord publish his recantation at Edinburgh.

25 Jun 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Jun. Now his Ma* (52), beginning with Dr Sharp (41) and Tully, proceeded to silence and suspend divers excellent divines for preaching against Popery.

In 1687 James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (16) was created 1st Duke Berwick by his father James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (53).

On 10 Jun 1688 James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (54) and Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (29). Winifred Trentham 1645-1725 (43) was present.

1688 Battle of Reading

On 09 Dec 1688 the Battle of Reading was fought between supporters of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55) and William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38). William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) was victorious. Thereafter James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55) fled to France and William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) acceeded.

On 13 Dec 1688 Thomas Thynne 1st Viscount Weymouth 1640-1714 (48), along with the Earl of Pembroke, carried an invitation to the Prince of Orange who was at Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire after the flight of King James II (55).

Abdication of James II

On 23 Dec 1688 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (55) abdicated II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart. His daughter Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26) succeeded as II King England Scotland and Ireland: William and Mary. His nephew William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) succeeded as IIi King England Scotland and Ireland: William and Mary.

Battle of the Boyne

On 01 Jul 1690 the Battle of the Boyne was fought between the armies of Protestant William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) and Catholic James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (56).
The English army was commanded by Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg 1615-1690 (74)
The English or Protestant army included Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough 1650-1721 (40), Osmund Mordaunt -1690 and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (49).
For the Irish or Catholic army James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (19) and Henry Hobart 4th Baronet Hobart 1657-1698 (33) fought.Richard Hamilton -1717 was captured.

On 28 Jun 1692 Louisa Maria Teresa Stewart 1692-1712 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (58) and Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (33).

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694 (76). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (60) when Duke of York.

On 16 Sep 1701 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (67) died at Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines. He was buried in the Church of the English Benedictines.

Sinking of HMS Gloucester

On 15 Apr 1703 Charles Hope 1st Earl Hopetoun 1681-1742 (22) was created 1st Earl Hopetoun by Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (38) in recognitions of his father having given up his seat in a lifeboat to the Duke of York during the Sinking of HMS Gloucester; his father subsequently drowned.

On 07 May 1718 Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (59) died.

Charles Darnley was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester 1657-1717.

Battle of Lowestoft

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. Sir George Berkeley, afterwards Earl of Falmouth, was the confidant and favourite of the King: he commanded the Duke of York’s regiment of guards, and governed the Duke himself. He had nothing very remarkable either in his wit, or his person; but his sentiments were worthy of the fortune which awaited him, when, on the very point of his elevation, he was killed at sea. Never did disinterestedness so perfectly characterise the greatness of the soul: he had no views but what tended to the glory of his master: his credit was never employed but in advising him to reward services, or to confer favours on merit: so polished in conversation, that the greater his power, the greater was his humility; and so sincere in all his proceedings, that he would never have been taken for a courtier.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. It was in the height of the rejoicings they were making for this new queen, in all the splendour of a brilliant court, that the Chevalier de Grammont arrived to contribute to its magnificence and diversions.
Accustomed as he was to the grandeur of the court of France, he was surprised at the politeness and splendour of the court of England. The king was inferior to none, either in shape or air; his wit was pleasant; his disposition easy and affable; his soul, susceptible of opposite impressions, was compassionate to the unhappy, inflexible to the wicked, and tender even to excess; he showed great abilities in urgent affairs, but was incapable of application to any that were not so: his heart was often the dupe, but oftener the slave, of his engagements.
The character of the Duke of York was entirely different he had the reputation of undaunted courage, an inviolable attachment for his word, great economy in his affairs, hauteur, application, arrogance, each in their turn: a scrupulous observer of the rules of duty and the laws of justice; he was accounted a faithful friend, and an implacable enemy.
His morality and justice, struggling for some time with prejudice, had at last triumphed, by his acknowledging for his wife Miss Hyde, maid of honour to the Princess Royal, whom he had secretly married in Holland. Her father, from that time prime minister of England, supported by this new interest, soon rose to the head of affairs, and had almost ruined them: not that he wanted capacity, but he was too self-sufficient.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Stewart

Descendants Family Trees:

James VI King Scotland I King England Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 22 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 14 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd 1100-1170

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 20 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth 880-950

Kings Powys: Great x 15 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132

Kings England: Son of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649

Kings Scotland: Grand Son of James VI King Scotland I King England Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625

Kings Franks: Great x 13 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Grand Son of Henry IV King France 1553-1610

Ancestry

Father: Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 Son of James VI King Scotland I King England Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625


GrandFather: James VI King Scotland I King England Scotland and Ireland 1566-1625 2 x Great Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great GrandFather: Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 Great Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 2 GrandFather: Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox 1516-1571 6 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


Great x 3 GrandFather: John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 1490-1526 7 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabel or Elizabeth Stewart Countess Lennox 1495-1564 5 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


Great x 2 GrandMother: Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox 1515-1578 Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 3 GrandFather: Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 1489-1557 10 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216


Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 Daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great GrandMother: Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 2 GrandFather: James V King Scotland 1512-1542 Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 3 GrandFather: James IV King Scotland 1473-1513 6 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 Daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509


Great x 2 GrandMother: Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 8 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


Great x 3 GrandFather: Claude Lorraine 1st Duke Guise 1496-1550 7 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


Great x 3 GrandMother: Antoinette Bourbon 1493-1583 7 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


GrandMother: Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619


Great GrandFather: Frederick II King Denmark 1534-1588


Great x 2 GrandFather: Christian III King Denmark 1503-1559


Great x 3 GrandFather: Frederick I King Denmark 1471-1533


Mother: Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 9 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


GrandFather: Henry IV King France 1553-1610 8 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great GrandFather: Antoine King Navarre 1518-1562 7 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 2 GrandFather: Charles Bourbon Duke Vendôme 1489-1537 7 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


Great x 3 GrandFather: Francis Bourbon Count Vendôme 1470-1495 8 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189


Great x 3 GrandMother: Marie Luxembourg Count Vendôme 6 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307


Great x 2 GrandMother: Françoise Valois-Alençon Count Vendôme 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandFather: Rene Valois-Alençon Duke Alençon 1454-1492 5 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Lorraine Duchess Alençon 1463-1521 7 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great GrandMother: Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre 1528-1572 8 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry II King Navarre 1503-1555 8 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandFather: Jean III King Navarre 1469-1516 10 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189


Great x 3 GrandMother: Catherine Grailly I Queen Navarre -1517 7 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 2 GrandMother: Marguerite Valois-Orleans Queen Consort Navarre 1492-1549 7 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandFather: Charles Valois-Orleans Count Angoulême 1459-1496 6 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272


Great x 3 GrandMother: Louise Savoy Count Angoulême


GrandMother: Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 1575-1642


Great GrandFather: Francesco I de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany 1541-1587


Great x 2 GrandFather: Cosimo I de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany 1519-1574


Great x 3 GrandFather: Lodovico de Medici aka Giovanni delle Bande Nere 1498-1526