Biography of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625

1567 Marriage of Mary "Queen of Scots" and James Hepburn

1580 Earldoms of Lennox and March Swapped

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1603 Main and Bye Plot

1603 James 1st Crowned

1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth

1605 Gunpowder Plot

1605 Christening of Princess Mary Stuart

1608 Masque of Beauty

1608 Masque of The Hue and Cry After Cupid

Jun 1611 Creation of Baronets

Nov 1611 Creation of Baronets

May 1611 Creation of Baronets

1612 Death of Prince Frederick

1613 Marriage of Elizabeth Stewart and Frederick V Elector Palatine

1614 Spanish Match

1623 Happy Parliament

1625 Death of James I


Family Trees

Descent

Ancestry

On 09 Sep 1543 [his mother] Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 was crowned I King Scotland: Stewart.

Around 1576 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (33).

On 24 Apr 1558 Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560 (14) and [his mother] Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (15) were married at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral. Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560 (14) by marriage King Consort Scotland.

On 22 Jul 1565 [his father] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (19) was created 1st Duke Albany (3C 1565).

On 29 Jul 1565 [his father] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (19) and [his mother] Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (22) were married (he was her half first-cousin) at Holyrood Palace, Holyrood.

On 19 Jun 1566 James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 was born to [his father] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (20) and [his mother] Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (23) at Edinburgh Castle.

On 10 Feb 1567 [his father] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (21) was murdered at Kirk O Field. Around two in the morning two barrels of gunpowder exploded beneath his room. His body and that of his valet William Taylor were found outside, surrounded by a cloak, a dagger, a chair, and a coat. Darnley was dressed only in his nightshirt. There were no visible marks on the body. He was buried at Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood.

Marriage of Mary "Queen of Scots" and James Hepburn

On 15 May 1567 James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney 1534-1578 (33) and [his mother] Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (24) were married in the Great Hall, Holyrood House, Holyrood.

On 29 Jul 1567 James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (1) was crowned VI King Scotland: Stewart.

In 1571 Charles Stewart 5th Earl Lennox 1557-1576 (13) was created 1st Earl Lennox (3C 1571) by older brother James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (4) who had inherited the Earl Lennox (2C 1488) when he became King.

On 05 May 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (29) was given the monopoly on producing miniatures and engravings of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (9) by the King.

In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (29), whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (14) who was attached to the English Embassy at the time.

Earldoms of Lennox and March Swapped

On 05 Mar 1580 Robert Stewart 1st Earl Lennox 1st Earl March 1522-1586 (58) resigned Earl Lennox (4C 1578). On the same day he (58) was created 1st Earl March (3C 1581). Elizabeth Stewart Countess Arran, Countess Lennox, Countess March 1549-1595 (31) by marriage Countess March (3C 1581).

On the same day Esmé Stewart 1st Duke Lennox 1542-1583 (38) was created 1st Earl Lennox (5C 1580) by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (13) for being his favourite. Catherine Balsac Duchess Lennox by marriage Lord Aubigny.

In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (16).

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

On 08 Feb 1587 [his mother] Mary Queen of Scots (44) was beheaded in the Great Hall in Fotheringhay Castle.
George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), Richard Knightley 1532-1615 (55) and Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624 (13) witnessed her execution.
There are few extant original sources describing Mary's execution. Those that do exist are somewhat contradictory. They include The letter-books of Sir Amias Poulet, Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots, the Calendar of State Papers, Spain (known as the Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603 and Beale's sketch of the execution. The most reliable primary source appears to be Jebb's De vita et rebus gestis serenissimæ principis Mariæ Scotorum Reginæ published in Paris in 1589 in French; there doesn't appear to be an extant translation.

08 Feb 1587.Robert Beale Clerk 1541-1601 (46) was an eye-witness to the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. Those indicted include 1 George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), 2 Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), 3 Amyas Poulett 1457-1538. The drawing appears to show three event rather than a moment in time: her being led into the Hall, her being disrobed and being beheaded.

On 23 Nov 1589 James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (23) and [his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (14) were married at Bishop's Palace. Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (14) by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

In 1590 James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (23) was appointed 375th Knight of the Garter: Elizabeth I.

On 19 Feb 1594 [his son] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince Wales 1594-1612 was born to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (27) and [his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (19) at Stirling Castle.

After 07 Feb 1612 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662. Elizabeth's standing collar of reticella is worked with the Royal coat of arms with its lion and unicorn supporters. She wears a gown of Italian silk brocade. The black armband is thought to be a sign of mourning for her brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales who died on 07 Feb 1612.

On 19 Aug 1596 [his daughter] Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 was born to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (30) and [his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (21) at Falkland Palace, Falkland, Fife.

On 24 Dec 1598 [his daughter] Margaret Stewart 1598-1600 was born to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (32) and [his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (24).

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (53) painted the portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (33).

Around 1600 John Ramsay 1st Earl Holderness 1580-1626 (20) stabbed the Earl of Gowrie to death with his dagger, helping to frustrate a plot to either kidnap or murder the James I (33).

On Mar 1600 [his daughter] Margaret Stewart 1598-1600 (1) died.

On 19 Nov 1600 [his son] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 was born to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (34) and [his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (25) at Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline.

Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.

On 18 Jan 1602 [his son] Robert Stewart 1602-1602 was born to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (35) and [his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (27).

On 27 May 1602 [his son] Robert Stewart 1602-1602 died.

Before 1603 Thomas Lucas 1559-1625 was exiled for duelling with a Mr Brooks. He was pardoned by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 and returned to England in 1603.

In 1603 Robert Killigrew 1580-1633 (23) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (36).

Death of Queen Elizabeth

On 24 Mar 1603 Elizabeth I (69) died at Richmond Palace, Richmond around three in the morning.
Her first-cousin twice-removed James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (36) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart. He was Elizabeth's second cousin being the son of [his mother] Mary Queen of Scots who was the daughter of Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 who was the daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
Immediately following her death Robert Carey 1st Earl Monmouth 1560-1639 (43) started on horseback for Edinburgh to inform James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (36) arriving at Holyrood Palace, Holyrood late on the 26 Mar 1603. His conduct met with general disapproval and merited censure as contrary to all decency, good manners and respect. George Carew -1612 and Thomas Lake 1561-1630 (41) were sent by the Council to formally inform James VI's death.

After 1585 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Around 1525 Unknown Artist. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (35).

Around 1520 Unknown Artist. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 24 Mar 1603 [his son] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince Wales 1594-1612 (9) was created as Duke Cornwall.

On 23 Apr 1603 Gregory Cromwell was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (36) at Belvoir Castle.

On 07 May 1603 Michael Stanhope 1549-1621 (54) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (36).

Main and Bye Plot

In Jul 1603 the Main and Bye Plot led by Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham 1564-1618 (38) and Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) sought to replace James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (37) with Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (28)
Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) was sentenced to death, attainted, and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

James 1st Crowned

On 25 Jul 1603 James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (37) was crowned I King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart at Westminster Abbey.
Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (67) was appointed Lord High Steward.
Robert Chichester 1578-1627 (25) was appointed Knight of the Bath.
Francis Fane 1st Earl Westmoreland 1580-1629 (23) was appointed Knight of the Bath.
William Pope 1st Earl Downe 1573-1631 (29), Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet Clifton 1587-1666 (15), Thomas Berkeley 1575-1611 (28), Edward Montagu 1st Baron Montagu 1563-1644 (40) and William Herbert 1st Baron Powis 1573-1655 (30) were appointed Knight of the Bath. .

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Before 1619 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619. Portrait of William Pope 1st Earl Downe 1573-1631.

In 1604 Edmund Pelham 1533-1606 (71) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (37) at Greenwich.

In 1604 William Brabazon 1st Earl Meath 1580-1651 (24) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (37).

On 15 Mar 1604 John Acland 1552-1620 (52) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (37) at the Tower of London.

In 1605 [his son] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (4) was created 1st Duke York (4C 1605).

Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642 (54). Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (38) with Garter Collar and Leg Garter.

On 08 Apr 1605 [his daughter] Princess Mary Stewart 1605-1607 was born to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (38) and [his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (30) at the Palace of Placentia. Alice Dennis was chosen as midwife for which she received a reward of £100.

Christening of Princess Mary Stuart

On 05 May 1605 [his daughter] Princess Mary Stewart 1605-1607 was christened at the Palace of Placentia. Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby 1575-1627 (29) carried the child. The infant's clothing, a train of purple velvet, embroidered with gold and furred with Ermines, was supported by two countesses, being so long that it fell to the ground. Richard Bancroft Archibishop Canterbury 1544-1610 (60) performed the christening. The [his wife] Queen's (30) brother Prince Ulrik Oldenburg 1578-1624 (26), the King's (38) first cousin Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (30) and Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619 (41) were godparents. The King (38) presented Queen Anne (30) (who was not present) with new jewelry.

Gunpowder Plot

In Oct 1605 the Gunpowder Plot sought to blow up Parliament, with James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (39) and his MPs. The conspirators included Robert Catesby 1572-1605 (33), Anthony-Maria Browne 2nd Viscount Montague 1574-1629 (31) and Edward Stourton 10th Baron Stourton 1555-1633 (50).

In 1606 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (58) entertained James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (39) at Hanwell.

Gunpowder Plot The Effect Of the Indictment. On 27 Jan 1606 the trial of the conspirators took place at Westminster Hall.[Gunpowder Plot]
The Commissioners were:
Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (70)
Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (44)
Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628 (56)
Charles Blount 1st Earl Devonshire 1563-1606 (43)
Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton 1540-1614 (65)
Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (42)
John Popham Lord Chief Justice 1531-1607 (75)
Thomas Fleming Judge 1544-1613 (61)
Peter Warburton Judge 1540-1621 (66)

The Effect of the Indictment
Note. We have broken this very lengthy paragraph up into more manageable chunks.
THAT whereas our Sovereign Lord the King (39) had, by the Advice and Assent of his Council, for divers weighty and urgent Occasions concerning, his Majesty, the State, and Defence of the Church and Kingdom of England, appointed a Parliament to be holden at his City of Westminster; That Henry Garnet (50), Superior of the Jesuits within the Realm of England, (called also by the several names of Wally, Darcy, Roberts, Farmer, and Henry Philips), Oswald Tesmond Jesuit (43), otherwise called Oswald Greenwell, John Gerrard Jesuit (41), (called also by the several names of Lee and Brooke), Robert Winter (38), Thomas Winter (35), Gentlemen, Guy Fawkes (35) Gent. otherwise called Guy Johnson, Robert Keyes Gent. and Thomas Bates Yeoman, late Servant to Robert Catesby Esquire; together with the said Robert Catesby and Thomas Percy Esquires, John Wright and Christopher Wright Gentlemen, in open Rebellion and Insurrection against his Majesty, lately slain, and Francis Tresham Esq; lately dead; as false Traitors against our said Sovereign Lord the King, did traitorously meet and assemble themselves together; and being so met, the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, did maliciously, falsly, and traitorously move and persuade as well the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, That our said Sovereign Lord the King, the Nobility, Clergy, and whole Commonalty of the Realm of England, (Papists excepted) were Hereticks; and that all Hereticks were accursed and excommunicate; and that none Heretick could be a King; but that it was lawful and meritorious to kill our said Sovereign Lord the King, and all other Hereticks within this Realm of England, for the Advancing and Enlargement of the pretended and usurped Authority and Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, and for the restoring of the superstitious Romish Religion within this Realm of England.

To which traitorous Persuasions, the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, traitorously did yield their Assents: And that thereupon the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and divers other Jesuits; Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as also the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright and Francis Tresham, traitorously amongst themselves did conclude and agree, with Gunpowder, as it were with one Blast, suddenly, traitorously and barbarously to blow up and tear in pieces our said Sovereign Lord the King, the excellent, virtuous and gracious Queen Anne, his dearest Wife, the most noble Prince Henry, their eldest Son, and future Hope and Joy of England; and the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, the Reverend Judges of the Realm, the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of Parliament, and divers other faithful Subjects and Servants of the King in the said Parliament, for the Causes aforesaid, to be assembled in the House of Parliament; and all them, without any respect of Majesty, Dignity, Degree, Sex, Age or Place, most barbarously, and more than beastly, traitorously and suddenly to destroy and swallow up.

And further did most traitorously conspire and conclude among themselves, That not only the whole Royal Issue-Male of our said Sovereign Lord the King should be destroyed and rooted out; but that the Persons aforesaid, together with divers other false Traitors, traitorously with them to be assembled, should surprize the Persons of the most noble Ladies Elizabeth and Mary, Daughters of our said Sovereign Lord the King, and falsly and traitorously should proclaim the said Lady Elizabeth to be Queen of this Realm: And thereupon should publish a Proclamation in the name of the said Lady Elizabeth; wherein, as it was especially agreed by and between the said Conspirators, That no mention should be made at the first, of the alteration of Religion established within within this Realm of England; neither would the said false Traitors therein acknowledge themselves to be Authors, or Actors, or Devisers of the aforesaid most wicked and horrible Treasons, until they had got sufficient Power and Strength for the assured Execution and Accomplishment of their said Conspiracy and Treason; and that then they would avow and justify the said most wicked and horrible Treasons, as Actions that were in the number of those, Quae non laudantur, nisi peracta, which be not to be commended before they be done: but by the said feign'd and traitorous Proclamation they would publish, That all and singular Abuses and Grievances within this Realm of England, should, for satisfying of the People, be reform'd.

And that as well for the better concealing, as for the more effectual accomplishing of the said horrible Treasons, as well the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, by the traitorous Advice and Procurement of the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, traitorously did further conclude and agree, that as well the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, thereupon severally and traitorously should receive several corporal Oaths upon the holy Evangelists, and the Sacrament of the Eucharist, That they the Treasons aforesaid would traitorously conceal and keep secret, and would not reveal them, directly or indirectly, by Words or Circumstances, nor ever would desist from the Execution and final Accomplishment of the said Treasons, without the consent of some three of the aforesaid false Traitors first in that behalf traitorously had: And that thereupon as well the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christ. Wright, and Francis Tresham, did traitorously take the said several corporal Oaths severally, and did receive the Sacrament of the Eucharist aforesaid, by the Hands of the said Henry Garnet (50), John Gerrard (41), Oswald Tesmond (43), and other Jesuits.

And further, that the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35),Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright,Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, by the like traitorous Advice and Counsel of the said Henry Garnet (50), John Gerrard (41), Oswald Tesmond (43), and other Jesuits, for the more effectual compassing and final execution of the said Treasons, did traitorously among themselves conclude and agree to dig a certain Mine under the said House of Parliament, and there secretly, under the said House, to bestow and place a great Quantity of Gunpowder ; and that according to the said traitorous Conclusion, the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomes Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, afterwards secretly, not without great labour and difficulty, did dig and make the said Mine unto the midst of the Foundation of the Wall of the said House of Parliament, the said Foundation being of the thickness of three yards, with a traitorous Intent to bestow and place a great Quantity of Gunpowder in the Mine aforesaid, so as aforesaid traitorously to be made for the traitorous accomplishing of their traitorous Purposes aforesaid.

And that the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, finding and perceiving the said Work to be of great difficulty, by reason of the Hardness and thickness of the said Wall ; and understanding a certain Cellar under the said House of Parliament, and adjoining to a certain House of the said Thomas Percy, then to be letten to farm for a yearly Rent, the said Thomas Percy, by the traitorous Procurement, as well of the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as of the said Robert Catesby, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, traitorously did hire the Cellar aforesaid for a certain yearly Rent and Term: and then those Traitors did remove twenty Barrels full of Gunpowder out of the said House of the said Thomas Percy, and secretly and traitorously did bestow and place them in the Cellar aforesaid, under the said House of Parliament, for the traitorous effecting of the Treason, and traitorous Purposes aforesaid.

And that afterwards the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright traitorously did meet with Robert Winter (38), John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, Esquires; and traitorously did impart to the said Robert Winter (38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, the Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid ; and did require the said Robert Winter (38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, to join themselves as well with the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, in the Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid; and traitorously to provide Horse, Armour, and other Necessaries, for the better Accomplishment and effecting of the said Treasons.

To which traitorous Motion and Request, the said Robert Winter (38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, did traitorously yield their Assents, and as well with the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), Robert Winter (38), Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, in the said Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid, traitorously did adhere and unite themselves: And thereupon several corporal Oaths, in form abovesaid, traitorously did take, and the Sacrament of the Eucharist, by the hands of the said Jesuits did receive, to such intent and Purpose, as is aforesaid; and Horses, Armour, and other Necessaries for the better effecting of the said Treasons, according to their traitorous Assents aforesaid, traitorously did provide.

And that afterwards all the said false Traitors did traitorously provide, and bring into the Cellar aforesaid ten other Barrels full of Gunpowder, newly bought, fearing lest the former Gunpowder, so as aforesaid bestow'd and placed there, was become dankish; and the said several Quantities of: Gunpowder aforesaid, with Billets and Faggots, lest they should be spy'd, secretly and traitorously did cover.

And that afterwards the said false Traitors traitorously provided, and brought into the Cellar aforesaid, four Hogsheads full of Gunpowder, and laid divers great Iron Bars and Stones upon the said four Hogsheads, and the aforesaid other Quantities of Gunpowder: And the said Quantities of Gunpowder, Bars, and Stones, with Billets and Faggots, lest they should be espy'd, secretly and traitorously did likewise cover.

And that the said Guy Fawkes (35), afterwards, for a full and final Accomplishment of the said Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid, by the traitorous Procurement, as well of the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, Robert Winter (38), Thomas Winter (35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, as of the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, traitorously had prepared, and had upon his Person Touchwood and Match, therewith traitorously to give fire to the several Barrels, Hogsheads, and Quantities of Gunpowder aforesaid, at the time appointed for the Execution of the said horrible Treasons.

And further, that after the said horrible Treasons were, by the great Favour and Mercy of God, in a wonderful manner discover'd, not many hours before it should have been executed, as well the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), Robert Winter (38), Thomas Winter (35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, traitorously did fly and withdraw themselves, to the intent traitorously to stir up and procure such Popish Persons, as they could, to join with them in actual, publick and open Rebellion against our said Sovereign Lord the King; and to that end did publish divers feigned and false Rumours, that the Papists Throats should have been cut; and that thereupon divers Papists were in Arms, and in open, publick, and actual Rebellion against our said Sovereign Lord the King, in divers Parts of this Realm of England.

In 1598 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (36).

1624. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton 1540-1614.

In 1607 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619 (56) was appointed Sarjeant Painter to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (40) sharing the office with John Critz Painter 1551-1642 (56).

In 1608 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619 (57). Portrait of Elizabeth D'Oyly nee Knightley.

In 1611 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619 (60). Portrait of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 in his Garter Robes and Leg Garter.

In 1611 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619 (60). Portrait of Elizabeth Watson 1600-1624 (11). She is wearing a draped mantle—embroidered with seed pearls in a pattern of ostrich plumes—and a matching turban. The mantle knotted on one shoulder was worn in Jacobean court masques.

In 1616 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619 (65). Portrait of (possibly) Frances Cotton 1578-1620 (38).

Around 1615 John Critz Painter 1551-1642 (64). Portrait of William Parker 4th Baron Monteagle.

In 1607 Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 (20) broke his leg at a tilting match bringing him to the attention to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (40).

In 1607 George St Paul Baronet St Paul 1562-1613 (45) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (40).

On Jun 1607 [his daughter] Sophia Stewart 1607-1607 was born to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (40) and [his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (32).

On Jun 1607 [his daughter] Sophia Stewart 1607-1607 died.

On 16 Sep 1607 [his daughter] Princess Mary Stewart 1605-1607 (2) died of pneumonia at the Stanwell Park, Stanwell home of Thomas Knyvet 1st Baron Knyvet 1545-1622 (62) in whose care she had been placed. As soon as Mary died, the Earl of Worcester (57), the Earl of Leicester (43) and the Earl of Totnes (52) went to Hampton Court Palace, to inform the [his wife] Queen (32) of her daughter's death. Seeing the three men before her, Queen Anne realized what had happened and spared the men the task of telling her.

Around 1588 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Robert Sidney 1st Earl of Leicester 1563-1626 (24).

In 1608 Mervyn Tuchet 2nd Earl Castlehaven 1593-1631 (15) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (41).

Masque of Beauty

On 10 Jan 1608 the Ben Johnson Playwright 1572-1637 Masque of Beauty was performed at the Banqueting House to celebrate the completion of its refurburbishment. James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (41) attended.
The performers included:
[his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (33)
Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel (23)
Catherine Brydges Countess Bedford 1580-1657 (28)
Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby 1575-1627 (32)
Susan Vere Countess Montgomery 1587-1628 (20)
Lettice Perrot Baroness Chichester 1560-1620 (48)
Audrey Shelton 1568-1624
Catherine Somerset Baroness Windsor 1575-1654 (33)
Anne Clifford Countess Dorset, Countess Pembroke 1590-1676 (17)
Elizabeth Barkham Baronetess Garrard 1593-1632 (15)
Elizabeth Somerset 1590-1625 (18)
Elizabeth Cecil 1578-1646 (30)
Mary Neville 7th Baroness Bergavenny, 3rd Baroness Despencer 1554-1626 (54)
Catherine Somerset Baroness Windsor 1575-1654 (33)
Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (33).

Masque of The Hue and Cry After Cupid

On 09 Feb 1608 John Ramsay 1st Earl Holderness 1580-1626 (28) and Elizabeth Radclyffe -1618 were married at Whitehall Palace. James I (41) gave the bride away and sent the bride a gold cup containing a grant of lands worth an income of £600 per year, also paid off Ramsay's debts of £10,000.
The marriage was celebrated with the Masque of The Hue and Cry After Cupid in the evening of 09 Feb 1608 at the Banqueting House written by Ben Johnson Playwright 1572-1637
The principal masquers, nobles and gentlemen of the Court, appeared in the guise of the twelve signs of the Zodiac; the men, five English and seven Scottish courtiers, were:
Ludovic Stewart 2nd Duke Lennox, 1st Duke Richmond 1574-1624 (33)
Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 (22)
Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke, 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (23)
William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke 1580-1630 (27)
Esmé Stewart 3rd Duke Lennox 1579-1624 (29)
Theophilus Howard 2nd Earl Suffolk 1582-1640 (25)
James Hay 1st Earl Carlisle 1580-1636 (28)
Robert Crichton 8th Lord Sanquhar -1612
John Kennedy, Master of Mar
Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658 (20)
Mr Erskine.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

Around 1615 Unknown Artist. Posthumous portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke, 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (30) wearing his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

1624. Unknown Artist. Portrait of James Hay 1st Earl Carlisle 1580-1636 (44).

On 29 Mar 1608 John Isham 1st Baronet Isham 1582-1651 (25) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (41).

On 22 Jun 1610 William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset 1588-1660 (22) and Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) were married in secret at Palace of Placentia. For having married without permission James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (44) had Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) imprisoned in Sir Thomas Perry's House, Lambeth and he in the Tower of London.

May 1611 Creation of Baronets

On 22 May 1611 the first Baronets were created by James I (44) who granted letters patent to two hundred gentlemen of good birth with an income of at least £1,000 a year in return for which each was required to pay for the upkeep of thirty soldiers for three years. The first Baronets were:
Nicolas Bacon (71) was created 1st Baronet Bacon of Redgrave. The Premier Baronet being the first creation.
Lionel Tollemache 1st Baronet Talmash 1562-1621 (48) was created 1st Baronet Talmash of Helmingham in Suffolk.
George Booth (54) was created 1st Baronet Dunham Massey. Katherine Anderson Baronetess Dunham Massey 1568-1639 (43) by marriage Lady Dunham Massey.
Phillip Knyvet was created 1st Baronet Knyvet of Buckenham in Norfolk.
Edward Carr (20) was created 1st Baronet Carr of Sleaford in Lincolnshire.
John St John (25) was created 1st Baronet St John Lydiard Tregoze in Wiltshire (1611).
Thomas Gerard 1st Baronet Bryn 1560-1621 (51) was created 1st Baronet Gerard of Bryn.
Thomas 1st Baronet Mansel 1556-1631 (55) was created 1st Baronet Mansel of Margam.
George Savile 1st Baronet Thornhill 1550-1622 (61) was created 1st Baronet Savile Thornhill.
Thomas Temple 1st Baronet Temple 1567-1637 (44) was created 1st Baronet Temple of Stowe.
Henry Belasyse 1st Baronet 1555-1624 (55) was created 1st Baronet Belasyse of Newborough.
George Shirley 1st Baronet Staunton Harold 1559-1622 (52) was created 1st Baronet Staunton Harold in Leicestershire.
Henry Hobart 1st Baronet Hobart 1560-1625 (51) was created 1st Baronet Hobart of Intwood in Norfolk. Dorothy Bell Baronetess Hobart by marriage Lady Hobart of Intwood in Norfolk
The next creations may have been in the later creations on 29 Jun and 25 Nov ...
Henry Lee 1st Baronet Lee 1571-1631 (40) was created 1st Baronet Lee of Quarrendon in Buckinghamshire.
Moyle Finch 1st Baronet Eastwell 1550-1614 (61) was created 1st Baronet Eastwell in Kent. Elizabeth Heneage 1st Countess Winchelsea 1556-1634 (54) by marriage Lady Eastwell in Kent.
James Harrington 1st Baronet Ridlington 1542-1614 (69) was created 1st Baronet Ridlington.
Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet Clifton 1587-1666 (23) was created 1st Baronet Clifton of Clifton in Nottinghamshire.
Thomas Pelham 1st Baronet Pelham Laughton -1624 was created 1st Baronet Pelham Laughton. Mary Walsingham Baronetess Pelham Laughton 1564-1624 (47) by marriage Lady Pelham Laughton.
Thomas Penyston 1st Baronet Penyston 1591-1644 (20) was created 1st Baronet Penyston. Martha Temple Baronetess Penyston 1595-1620 (16) by marriage Lady Penyston.
George St Paul Baronet St Paul 1562-1613 (49) was created as Baronet St Paul in Snarford in Lincolnshire. Frances Wray Countess Warwick -1634 by marriage Lady St Paul in Snarford in Lincolnshire
Philip Wodehouse 3rd Baronet Woodhouse 1608-1681 (2) was created 1st Baronet Woodhouse of Wilberhall.

Before 1631. Unknown Artist, Portrait of Thomas 1st Baronet Mansel 1556-1631 and Jane Pole. Unusual for showing the couple holding hands. Sir Thomas was one of the richest and most influential people in south Wales. Not only had he acted as MP and Sheriff of Glamorgan on several occasions, he had been knighted, and in 1611 became one of the first ever to be given the title Baronet - see May 1611 Creation of Baronets. Sir Thomas wears a white doublet with delicate lace collars and cuff, and a dark tunic intricately embroidered with gold. These were not his everyday clothes, but would have been chosen especially for the portrait, to demonstrate his wealth and taste. Beards were considered a sign of virility, and were important fashion statements for men. Thomas Mansel wears his long and squared. Lady Jane wears a dark dress embroidered with gold and an elaborate lace collar and headdress, offset by a lavish triple-string of pearls. This was an age when new fashions and luxury materials like lace were being imported from abroad. Her costume was not of the latest fashion, and suggests the taste of an older generation. Lady Jane holds a marigold, also called Mary’s Gold. This may be a reference to their daughter Mary, who appears with her parents in another, almost identical portrait. Marigolds were often used to symbolise grief and comfort, so it may also refer to the death of Jane’s second husband.

In 1624 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648 (34). Portrait of Henry Hobart 1st Baronet Hobart 1560-1625 (64).

Jun 1611 Creation of Baronets

On 29 Jun 1611 another tranche of Baronets were created by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (45) as a means of generating revenue ...
William Wentworth 1st Baronet Wentworth Woodhouse 1562-1614 (49) was created 1st Baronet Wentworth Woodhouse. Possibly 20 Jun 1611.
John Molyneux 1st Baronet Molyneux Teversall 1581-1618 (30) was created 1st Baronet Molyneux of Teversall in Nottinghamshire.
Robert Cholmondeley 1st Earl Leinster 1584-1659 (27) was created 1st Baronet Cholmondley of Cholmondeley. Catherine Stanhope Countess Leinster by marriage Lady Cholmondley of Cholmondeley.
Estrange Mordaunt 1st Baronet Massingham Parva 1572-1627 (39) was created 1st Baronet Massingham Parva.
John Savage 1st Baronet Savage 1550-1615 (61) was created 1st Baronet Savage.
Edward Seymour 1st Baronet Seymour 1563-1613 (48) was created 1st Baronet Seymour of Berry Pomeroy. Elizabeth Champernowne Baronetess Seymour by marriage Lady Seymour of Berry Pomeroy.
Edward Seymour 1st Baronet Seymour 1563-1613 (48) was created 1st Baronet Seymour of Berry Pomeroy. Elizabeth Champernowne Baronetess Seymour by marriage Lady Seymour of Berry Pomeroy.
John Tufton 1st Baronet Tufton 1544-1624 (67) was created 1st Baronet Tufton of Hothfield. Christian Browne Baronetess Tufton by marriage Lady Tufton of Hothfield.
Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (63) was created 1st Baronet Hanwell. Anne Paston Baronetess Hanwell 1553-1637 (58) by marriage Lady Hanwell.
William Twisden 1st Baronet Twisden 1566-1628 (45) was created 1st Baronet Twisden of Roydon in East Peckham in Kent. Anne Finch Baronetess Twisden -1638 by marriage Lady Twisden of Roydon in East Peckham in Kent.
Richard Worsley 1st Baronet 1589-1621 (22) was created 1st Baronet Worsley of Appuldurcombe.
Richard Molyneux 1st Baronet Molyneux 1560-1622 (51) was created 1st Baronet Molyneux of Sefton. Frances Gerard Baronetess Molyneux 1569-1620 (42) by marriage Lady Molyneux of Sefton.

Nov 1611 Creation of Baronets

On 25 Nov 1611 a further tranche of Baronets was created by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (45) ...
Edward Devereux 1st Baronet Devereux 1544-1622 (67) was created 1st Baronet Devereux of Castle Bromwich. Catherine Arden Baronetess Devereux by marriage Lady Devereux of Castle Bromwich.
Francis Englefield 1st Baronet Englefield 1561-1631 (50) was created 1st Baronet Englefield of Wootton Bassett in Wiltshire.
Harbottle Grimston 1st Baronet of Bradfield 1569-1648 (42) was created 1st Baronet Grimston of Bradfield.
John Portman 1st Baronet Portman 1575-1612 (36) was created 1st Baronet Portman of Orchard Portman in Somerset.
William Wray 1st Baronet Glentworth 1555-1617 (56) was created 1st Baronet Glentworth. Frances Drury Baronetess Glentworth 1576-1637 (35) by marriage Lady Glentworth.

Before 1612 John Eyre 1580-1639 was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber and received a gift of £500 from James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625. He served to at least 1632.

In 1612 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (64) entertained James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (45) at Hanwell.

Death of Prince Frederick

On 06 Nov 1612 [his son] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince Wales 1594-1612 (18) died. The death of the heir to the throne significant; compare William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy 1103-1120, Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince Wales 1330-1376, Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502, Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751, perhaps Edward York Prince Wales 1473-1484.

In 1750 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779 (49). Portrait of Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751 (42).

In 1754 Jean-Etienne Liotard 1702-1789 (51). Portrait of Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751.

Marriage of Elizabeth Stewart and Frederick V Elector Palatine

On 14 Feb 1613 Frederick Palatinate-Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (16) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (16) were married at Chapel Royal, Whitehall Palace.
A grand occasion that saw more royalty than ever visit the court of England. The marriage was an enormously popular match and was the occasion for an outpouring of public affection with the ceremony described as "a wonder of ceremonial and magnificence even for that extravagant age".
It was celebrated with lavish and sophisticated festivities both in London and Heidelberg, including mass feasts and lavish furnishings that cost nearly £50,000, and nearly bankrupted King James. Among many celebratory writings of the events was John Donne's "Epithalamion, Or Marriage Song on the Lady Elizabeth, and Count Palatine being married on St Valentine's Day". .

In 1635 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656 (42). Portrait of Frederick Palatinate-Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632.

Spanish Match

The "Spanish Match" was the proposed marriage between [his son] Prince Charles (13), the son of King James I of Great Britain (47), and Infanta Maria Anna of Spain (7), the daughter of Philip III of Spain (35). Negotiations took place over the period 1614 to 1623, and during this time became closely related to aspects of British foreign and religious policy, before breaking down completely.

Around 1580 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Philip III King Spain 1578-1621 (1).

In Aug 1614 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (21) caught the eye of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (48) at hunt at Apethorpe. Opponents of the king's favourite Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset (27), saw an opportunity to displace Somerset and began promoting Villiers. Money was raised to purchase Villiers a new wardrobe.

After Aug 1614 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 was appointed Cupbearer to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

On 11 May 1615 William Cope 2nd Baronet Hanwell -1637 was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (48) at Charterhouse, Smithfield.

In 1617 John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650 (34) was appointed Chaplain to King James I (50).

On 05 Jan 1617 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (24) was created 1st Earl Buckingham (5C 1617) by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (50); his favourite.

On 24 Aug 1617 Richard Grosvenor 1st Baronet Grosvenor 1585-1645 (32) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (51) at Vale Royal.

On 02 Mar 1619 [his wife] Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland, England and Ireland 1574-1619 (44) died.

On 19 Jul 1619 Richard Lumley 1st Viscount Lumley 1589-1663 (30) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (53) at Theobalds House, Cedars Park, Cheshunt.

On 02 Jun 1620 Thomas Gower 1st Baronet Gower 1584-1651 (36) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (53).

In 1621 John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650 (38) was appointed Bishop of Lincoln by King James I (54).

In 1621 John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650 (38) was appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal by King James I (54).

In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648 (31). Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (54) wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter.

On 22 Jan 1621 John Ramsay 1st Earl Holderness 1580-1626 (41) was created 1st Earl Holderness (1C 1621) by King James I (54).

In 1622 William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643 (35) was appointed Master of the Great Wardrobe to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (55).

On 12 Nov 1623 Christopher Wray 1601-1646 (22) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (57).

Happy Parliament

On 30 Dec 1623 the fourth Parliament of James I (57) known as the Happy Parliament was summoned.
On 19 Feb 1624 the Happy Parliament held its first session.
Roland Egerton 1st Baronet Egerton and Oulton -1646 was elected MP Wootton Bassett during the Happy Parliament
Arthur Lake 1598-1633 (25) was elected MP Minehead during the Happy Parliament
James Wriothesley 1605-1624 (18) was elected MP Winchester during the Happy Parliament
Richard Edgecumbe 1570-1639 (53) was elected MP Grampound during the Happy Parliament.

In 1624 Thomas Fanshawe 1580-1631 (44) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (57).

Death of James I

On 27 Mar 1625 James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (58) died at Theobalds House, Cedars Park, Cheshunt. His son [his son] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart.

On 07 May 1625 James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 was buried at Westminster Abbey.

In 03 Mar 1627 Bryan Maguire 1st Baron of Enniskillen 1589-1633 (38) was created 1st Baron Enniskillen by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (32). Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

John Evelyn's Diary 1675 September. 02 Sep 1675. I went to see Dulwich College, being the pious foundation of one Alleyn, a famous comedian, in King James's time. The chapel is pretty, the rest of the hospital very ill contrived; it yet maintains divers poor of both sexes. It is in a melancholy part of Camberwell parish. I came back by certain medicinal Spa waters, at a place called Sydenham Wells, in Lewisham parish, much frequented in summer.

John Evelyn's Diary 1676 July. 19 Jul 1676. Went to the funeral of Sir William Sanderson, husband to the Mother of the Maids (72), and author of two large but mean histories of King James and [his son] King Charles I. He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 February. 12 Feb 1683. This morning I received the news of the death of my father-in-law, Sir Richard Browne (78), Knt. and Bart., who died at my house at Sayes Court this day at ten in the morning, after he had labored under the gout and dropsy for nearly six months, in the 78th year of his age. The funeral was solemnized on the 19th at Deptford, with as much decency as the dignity of the person, and our relation to him, required; there being invited the Bishop Rochester (58), several noblemen, knights, and all the fraternity of the Trinity House, of which he had been Master, and others of the country. The vicar preached a short but proper discourse on Psalm xxxix. 10, on the frailty of our mortal condition, concluding with an ample and well-deserved eulogy on the defunct, relating to his honorable birth and ancestors, education, learning in Greek and Latin, modern languages, travels, public employments, signal loyalty, character abroad, and particularly the honor of supporting the Church of England in its public worship during its persecution by the late rebels' usurpation and regicide, by the suffrages of divers Bishops, Doctors of the Church, and others, who found such an asylum in his house and family at Paris, that in their disputes with the Papists (then triumphing over it as utterly lost) they used to argue for its visibility and existence from Sir R. Browne's chapel and assembly there. Then he spoke of his great and loyal sufferings during thirteen years' exile with his present Majesty (52), his return with him in the signal year 1660; his honorable employment at home, his timely Recess to recollect himself, his great age, infirmities, and death.
He gave to the Trinity Corporation that land in Deptford on which are built those almshouses for twenty-four widows of emerited seamen. He was born the famous year of the Gunpowder Treason, in 1605, and being the last [male] of his family, left my wife (48), his only daughter, heir. His grandfather, Sir Richard Browne, was the great instrument under the great Earl of Leicester (favorite to Queen Elizabeth) in his government of the Netherland. He was Master of the Household to King James, and Cofferer; I think was the first who regulated the compositions through England for the King (52)'s household, provisions, progresses,49 etc., which was so high a service, and so grateful to the whole nation, that he had acknowledgments and public thanks sent him from all the counties; he died by the rupture of a vein in a vehement speech he made about the compositions in a Parliament of King James. By his mother's side he was a Gunson, Treasurer of the Navy in the reigns of Henry VIII., Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, and, as by his large pedigree appears, related to divers of the English nobility. Thus ended this honorable person, after so many changes and tossings to and fro, in the same house where he was born. "Lord teach us so to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom!"
By a special clause in his will, he ordered that his body should be buried in the churchyard under the southeast window of the chancel, adjoining to the burying places of his ancestors, since they came out of Essex into Sayes Court, he being much offended at the novel custom of burying everyone within the body of the church and chancel; that being a favor heretofore granted to martyrs and great persons; this excess of making churches charnel houses being of ill and irreverend example, and prejudicial to the health of the living, besides the continual disturbance of the pavement and seats, and several other indecencies. Dr. Hall, the pious Bishop of Norwich, would also be so interred, as may be read in his testament.

Around 1822. George Perfect Harding Painter 1781-1853 (41). Portrait of John Dolben Archbishop 1625-1686. Cleary not contemporary the source of the image unknown.

Around 1575 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 (42).

Around 1575 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 (42) wearing his Garter Collar.

Gunpowder Plot The Verdicts. Note. All eight Conspirators were to be hanged, drawn quartered. The narrative provides the rationale for why this particlar punishment was applied.
The Conclusion shall be from the admirable Clemency and Moderation of the King, in that howsoever these Traitors have exceeded all others their Predecessors in Mischief, and so Crescente Malitia, crescere debuit & Pæna; yet neither will the King exceed the usual Punishment of Law, nor invent any new Torture or Torment for them; but is graciously pleased to afford them as well an ordinary Course of Trial, as an ordinary Punishment, much inferior to their Offence.
And surely worthy of Observation is the Punishment by Law provided and appointed for High-Treason, which we call Crimen læsæ Majestatis. For first, after a Traitor hath had his just Trial, and is convicted and attainted, he shall have his Judgement to be drawn to the place of Execution from his Prison, as being not worthy any more to tread upon the Face of the Earth whereof he was made:
Also for that he hath been retrograde to Nature, therefore is he drawn backward at a Horse-Tail. And whereas God hath made the Head of Man the highest and most supreme Part, as being his chief Grace and Ornament, Pronaque cum spectent Animalia cætera terram, Os homini sublime dedit; he must be drawn with his Head declining downward, and lying so near the Ground as may be, being thought unfit to take benefit of the common Air. For which Cause also he shall be strangled, being hanged up by the Neck between Heaven and Earth, as deemed unworthy of both, or either; as likewise, that the Eyes of Men may behold, and their Hearts contemn him. Then he is to be cut down alive, and to have his Privy Parts cut off and burnt before his Face, as being unworthily begotten, and unfit to leave any Generation after him. His Bowels and inlay'd Parts taken out and burnt, who inwardly had conceived and harboured in his heart such horrible Treason. After, to have his Head cut off, which had imagined the Mischief. And lastly, his Body to be quartered, and the Quarters set up in some high and eminent Place, to the View and Detestation of Men, and to become a Prey for the Fowls of the Air.

And this is a Reward due to Traitors, whose Hearts be hardened: For that it is Physic of State and Government, to let out corrupt Blood from the Heart. But, Pænitentia vera numquam, sera sed pænitentia sera raro vera: True Repentance is indeed never too late; but late Repentance is seldom found true: Which yet I pray the merciful Lord to grant unto them, that having a Sense of their Offences, they may make a true and sincere ConFession both for their Souls Health, and for the Good and Safety of the King and this State. And for the rest that are not yet apprehended, my Prayer to God is, Ut aut convertantur ne pereant, aut confundantur ne noceant; that either they may be converted, to the End they perish not, or else confounded, that they hurt not.
After this by the Direction of Master Attorney-General, were their several Examinations (subscribed by themselves) shewed particularly unto them, and acknowledged by them to be their own, and true, wherein every one had conFessed the Treason. Then did Master Attorney desire, That albeit that which had been already done and conFessed at the Bar, might be all-sufficient for the Declaration and Justification of the Course of Justice then held, especially seeing we have Reos confitentes, the Traitors own voluntary ConFessions at the Bar; yet for further Satisfaction to so great a Presence and Audience, and their better Memory of the Carriage of these Treasons, the voluntary and free ConFessions of all the said several Traitors in writing subscribed with their own proper Hands, and acknowledged at the Bar, by themselves to be true, were openly and distinctly read; By which, amongst other things, it appeared that Bates was absolved for what he undertook concerning the Powder-Treason, and being therein warranted by the Jesuits. Also it appeared, that Hammond the Jesuit, after that he knew the Powder-Treason was discovered, and that these Traitors had been in actual Rebellion, conFessed them, and gave them Absolution: And this was on Thursday the 7th of November.

Here also was Mention made by Master Attorney of the ConFessions of Watson and Clarke, Seminary Priests, upon their Apprehension; who affirmed, that there was some Treason intended by the Jesuits, and then in Hand; as might appear.
1 By their continual negotiating at that Time with Spain, which they assured themsleves tended to nothing but a preparation for a foreign Commotion.
2 By their collecting and gathering together such great Sums of Money, as then they had done, therewith to levy an Army when Time should serve.
3 For that sundry of the Jesuits had been tampering with Catholicks, as well to dissuade them from Acceptance of the King at his first coming, saying, That they ought rather to Die, than to admit of any Heretick (as they continually termed his Majesty) to the Crown; and that they might not, under pain of Excommunication, accept of any but a Catholick for their Sovereign; as also to dissuade Catholicks from their Loyalty after the State was settled.

Lastly, In that they had both bought up store of great Horses throughout the Country, and conveyed Powder and Shot, and Artillery secretly to their Friends; wishing them not stir, but keep themselves quiet until they heard from them.
After the reading of their several Examinations, ConFessions, and voluntary Declaration as well of themselves, as of some of their dead Confederates, they were all by the Verdict of the Jury found guilty of the Treasons contained in their Indictment.

Christopher Villiers 1st Earl Anglesey 1593-1630 was appointed Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

Christopher Villiers 1st Earl Anglesey 1593-1630 was appointed Master of the Robes to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Stewart

Descendants Family Trees:

Edward IV King England 1442-1483

Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509

Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541

James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 21 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 12 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd 1100-1170

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 18 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth 880-950

Kings Powys: Great x 13 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132

Kings England: Great x 2 Grand Son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509

Kings Scotland: Grand Son of James V King Scotland 1512-1542

Kings Franks: Great x 12 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Great x 5 Grand Son of Charles "Beloved, Mad" VI King France 1368-1422

Ancestry

Father: Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 Great Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 Stewart Arms

GrandFather: Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox 1516-1571 4 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great GrandFather: John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 1490-1526 5 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: Matthew Stewart 2nd Earl Lennox -1513 10 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Stewart 1st Earl Lennox 1429-1495 9 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Alan Stewart 1406-1439 Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Catherine Seton 8 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Montgomerie Countess Lennox

Great x 4 GrandFather: Alexander Montgomerie 1st Lord Montgomerie -1470

Great x 2 GrandMother: Elizabeth Hamilton Countess Lennox 1474- 4 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: James Hamilton 1st Lord Hamilton 1415-1479

Great x 4 GrandFather: James Hamilton 1396-1440

Great x 3 GrandMother: Mary Stewart Countess Arran 1453-1488 3 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: James II King Scotland 1430-1460 2 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Mary Egmont Queen Consort Scotland 1434-1463 6 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great GrandMother: Isabel or Elizabeth Stewart Countess Lennox 1495-1564 3 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: John Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 1440- 2 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: James "Black Knight of Lorn" Stewart 1394-1451 Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Stewart 1350-1421 Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Isabel Macdougall

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland 1404-1445 Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Beaufort Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset, 1st Marquess Dorset 1373-1410 Grandson of King Edward III England Beaufort Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 2 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Holand Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Eleanor Sinclair Countess Atholl 1457-1518 7 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Sinclair 3rd Earl Orkney, 1st Earl Caithness 1410-1484 6 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandFather: Henry Sinclair 2nd Earl Orkney 1375-1420

Great x 4 GrandMother: Egidia "Fair Maid of Nithsdale" Douglas Countess Orkney 1380-1438 5 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Douglas Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Marjory Sutherland Countess Orkney, Countess Caithness

GrandMother: Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox 1515-1578 Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 Douglas Arms

Great GrandFather: Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 1489-1557 10 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Douglas Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: George Douglas 1469-1513 9 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Douglas Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Archibald "Bell the Cat" Douglas 5th Earl Angus 1449-1513 8 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Douglas Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: George Douglas 4th Earl Angus 1427-1463 7 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Douglas Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Isabella Sibbald Countess Angus

Great x 3 GrandMother: Elizabeth Boyd Countess Angus

Great x 4 GrandFather: Robert 1st Lord Boyd

Great x 2 GrandMother: Elizabeth Drummond

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Drummond 1st Lord Drummond -1519

Great GrandMother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 Daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 3 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 5 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Owen Tudor 1400-1461 4 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandMother: Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 5 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Valois Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 2 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Beaufort Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 Great Grandson of King Edward III England Beaufort Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1410-1482 6 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Beauchamp Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 Daughter of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 York Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Edward IV King England 1442-1483 2 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England York Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 Great Grandson of King Edward III England York Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Neville Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Woodville Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 Woodville Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Jacquetta of Luxembourg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 5 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Mother: Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 Stewart Arms

GrandFather: James V King Scotland 1512-1542 Grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 Stewart Arms

Great GrandFather: James IV King Scotland 1473-1513 4 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: James III King Scotland 1451-1488 3 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: James II King Scotland 1430-1460 2 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: James I King Scotland 1394-1437 5 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Stewart Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland 1404-1445 Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Beaufort Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Mary Egmont Queen Consort Scotland 1434-1463 6 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Arnold Egmont 1st Duke Guelders 1410-1473

Great x 4 GrandMother: Catherine Marck 1417-1479 5 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 2 GrandMother: Margaret Oldenburg Queen Consort Scotland 1456-1486

Great x 3 GrandFather: Christian I King Denmark 1426-1481

Great GrandMother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 Daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 3 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 5 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Owen Tudor 1400-1461 4 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandMother: Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 5 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Valois Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 2 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Beaufort Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 Great Grandson of King Edward III England Beaufort Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1410-1482 6 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Beauchamp Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 Daughter of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 York Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Edward IV King England 1442-1483 2 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England York Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 Great Grandson of King Edward III England York Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Neville Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Woodville Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 Woodville Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Jacquetta of Luxembourg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 5 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

GrandMother: Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 6 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: Claude Lorraine 1st Duke Guise 1496-1550 7 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 2 GrandFather: René Lorraine II Duke Lorraine, Duke Bar 1451-1508 7 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandFather: Frederick Lorraine Count Vaudémont 1428-1470

Great x 3 GrandMother: Yolande Valois-Anjou 1428-1483 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: René Valois-Anjou I Duke Anjou 1409-1480 5 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Isabella Metz Duchess Anjou, I Duchess Lorraine 1400-1453 8 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 2 GrandMother: Philippa Egmont Duchess Bar, Duchess Lorraine 1467-1547 6 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandFather: Adolf Egmont 2nd Duke Guelders 1438-1477 6 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Arnold Egmont 1st Duke Guelders 1410-1473

Great x 4 GrandMother: Catherine Marck 1417-1479 5 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandMother: Catherine Bourbon Duchess Guelders 1440-1469 5 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 1401-1456 5 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Agnes Valois-Burgundy Duchess Bourbon 1404-1476 4 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great GrandMother: Antoinette Bourbon 1493-1583 5 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Francis Bourbon Count Vendôme 1470-1495 8 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Bourbon VIII Count Vendôme 1428-1477 7 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Louis Bourbon 1st Count Vendôme, 1st Count Castres 1376-1446 6 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Jeanne Unknown Count Vendôme, Count Castres

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabelle Beauvau Count Vendôme

Great x 2 GrandMother: Marie Luxembourg Count Vendôme 4 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Peter Luxembourg II Count Saint-Pol 1440-1492 3 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: Louis Luxembourg I Count Saint-Pol 1418-1475 5 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Jeanne Bar 1415-1462 2 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Savoy Count Saint-Pol 1439-1495 5 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Louis Savoy I Count Savoy 1413-1465 4 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandMother: Anne Cyprus Count Savoy