Biography of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1672 Battle of Solebay

Family Trees



In 1619 [his father] Sidney Montagu -1644 and [his mother] Paulina Pepys were married.

On 27 Jul 1625 Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 was born to [his father] Sidney Montagu -1644 and [his mother] Paulina Pepys.

On 07 Nov 1642 Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (17) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (17) were married.

On 25 Feb 1644 [his father] Sidney Montagu -1644 died.

On 03 Jan 1648 [his son] Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688 was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (22) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (23) at Hinchinbrooke.

In 1649 [his daughter] Paulina Montagu 1649-1669 was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (23) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (24).

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (31). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (24).

On 28 Jul 1650 [his son] Sidney Wortley-Montagu 1650-1727 was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (25) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (25).

Around 1655 [his son] Oliver Montagu 1655-1689 was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (29) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (30).

Around 1655 [his son] John Montagu 1655-1729 was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (29) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (30).

Around 1658 [his son] Charles Montagu 1658-1721 was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (32) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (33).

Around Jun 1659 John Creed -1701 accompanied Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (33) on the Baltic voyage as Admiral's secretary and Deputy-Treasurer of the fleet.

In 1660 Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34) was appointed 460th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 January. 02 Jan 1660. Monday. In the morning before I went forth old East brought me a dozen of bottles of sack, and I gave him a shilling for his pains.
Then I went to Mr. Sheply who was drawing of sack in the wine cellar to send to other places as a gift from my Lord (34), and told me that my Lord (34) had given him order to give me the dozen of bottles.
Thence I went to the Temple to speak with Mr. Calthropp (36) about the 60l. due to my Lord (34), but missed of him, he being abroad. Then I went to Mr. Crew’s (62) and borrowed 10l. of Mr. Andrewes (NOTE. Possibly John Andrews Timber Merchant) for my own use, and so went to my office, where there was nothing to do. Then I walked a great while in Westminster Hall, where I heard that Lambert (40) was coming up to London; that my Lord Fairfax (47) was in the head of the Irish brigade, but it was not certain what he would declare for. The House was to-day upon finishing the act for the Council of State, which they did; and for the indemnity to the soldiers; and were to sit again thereupon in the afternoon. Great talk that many places have declared for a free Parliament; and it is believed that they will be forced to fill up the House with the old members. From the Hall I called at home, and so went to Mr. Crew’s (62) (my wife (19) she was to go to her father’s), thinking to have dined, but I came too late, so Mr. Moore and I and another gentleman went out and drank a cup of ale together in the new market, and there I eat some bread and cheese for my dinner. After that Mr. Moore and I went as far as Fleet-street together and parted, he going into the City, I to find Mr. Calthrop (36), but failed again of finding him, so returned to Mr. Crew’s (62) again, and from thence went along with [his wife] Mrs. Jemimah (35) home, and there she taught me how to play at cribbage. Then I went home, and finding my wife (19) gone to see Mrs. Hunt, I went to Will’s, and there sat with Mr. Ashwell talking and singing till nine o’clock, and so home, there, having not eaten anything but bread and cheese, my wife (19) cut me a slice of brawn which I received from my Lady (35); which proves as good as ever I had any. So to bed, and my wife (19) had a very bad night of it through wind and cold.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 January. 04 Jan 1660 Wednesday Early came Mr. Vanly to me for his half-year’s rent, which I had not in the house, but took his man to the office and there paid him. Then I went down into the Hall and to Will’s, where Hawly brought a piece of his Cheshire cheese, and we were merry with it. Then into the Hall again, where I met with the Clerk and Quarter Master of my Lord’s (34) troop, and took them to the Swan and gave them their morning’s draft, they being just come to town. Mr. Jenkins shewed me two bills of exchange for money to receive upon my Lord’s and my pay. It snowed hard all this morning, and was very cold, and my nose was much swelled with cold. Strange the difference of men’s talk! Some say that Lambert must of necessity yield up; others, that he is very strong, and that the Fifth-monarchy-men [will] stick to him, if he declares for a free Parliament. Chillington was sent yesterday to him with the vote of pardon and indemnity from the Parliament.
From the Hall I came home, where I found letters from Hinchingbroke and news of Mr. Sheply’s going thither the next week. I dined at home, and from thence went to Will’s to Shaw, who promised me to go along with me to Atkinson’s about some money, but I found him at cards with Spicer and D. Vines, and could not get him along with me. I was vext at this, and went and walked in the Hall, where I heard that the Parliament spent this day in fasting and prayer; and in the afternoon came letters from the North, that brought certain news that my Lord Lambert his forces were all forsaking him, and that he was left with only fifty horse, and that he did now declare for the Parliament himself; and that my Lord Fairfax did also rest satisfied, and had laid down his arms, and that what he had done was only to secure the country against my Lord Lambert his raising of money, and free quarter.
I went to Will’s again, where I found them still at cards, and Spicer had won 14s. of Shaw and Vines.
Then I spent a little time with G. Vines and Maylard at Vines’s at our viols.
So home, and from thence to Mr. Hunt’s, and sat with them and Mr. Hawly at cards till ten at night, and was much made of by them.
Home and so to bed, but much troubled with my nose, which was much swelled.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 January. 07 Jan 1660. Saturday. At my office as I was receiving money of the probate of wills, in came Mrs. Turner (37), Theoph. (8), Madame Morrice, and Joyce, and after I had done I took them home to my house and Mr. Hawly came after, and I got a dish of steaks and a rabbit for them, while they were playing a game or two at cards. In the middle of our dinner a messenger from Mr. Downing came to fetch me to him, so leaving Mr. Hawly there, I went and was forced to stay till night in expectation of the French Embassador, who at last came, and I had a great deal of good discourse with one of his gentlemen concerning the reason of the difference between the zeal of the French and the Spaniard. After he was gone I went home, and found my friends still at cards, and after that I went along with them to Dr. Whores (sending my wife (19) to [his daughter] Mrs. Jem's to a sack-posset), where I heard some symphony and songs of his own making, performed by Mr. May, Harding, and Mallard. Afterwards I put my friends into a coach, and went to Mrs. Jem's, where I wrote a letter to my Lord (34) by the post, and had my part of the posset which was saved for me, and so we went home, and put in at my Lord's (34) lodgings, where we staid late, eating of part of his turkey-pie, and reading of Quarles' Emblems. So home and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 January. 09 Jan 1660. Monday. For these two or three days I have been much troubled with thoughts how to get money to pay them that I have borrowed money of, by reason of my money being in my uncle's hands. I rose early this morning, and looked over and corrected my brother John's speech, which he is to make the next apposition,—[Note. Declamations at St. Paul's School, in which there were opponents and respondents.]—and after that I went towards my office, and in my way met with W. Simons, Muddiman, and Jack Price, and went with them to Harper's and in many sorts of talk I staid till two of the clock in the afternoon. I found Muddiman a good scholar, an arch rogue; and owns that though he writes new books for the Parliament, yet he did declare that he did it only to get money; and did talk very basely of many of them. Among other things, W. Simons told me how his uncle Scobel was on Saturday last called to the bar, for entering in the journal of the House, for the year 1653, these words: "This day his Excellence the Lord General Cromwell dissolved this House;" which words the Parliament voted a forgery, and demanded of him how they came to be entered. He answered that they were his own handwriting, and that he did it by virtue of his office, and the practice of his predecessor; and that the intent of the practice was to—let posterity know how such and such a Parliament was dissolved, whether by the command of the King, or by their own neglect, as the last House of Lords was; and that to this end, he had said and writ that it was dissolved by his Excellence the Lord G[eneral]; and that for the word dissolved, he never at the time did hear of any other term; and desired pardon if he would not dare to make a word himself when it was six years after, before they came themselves to call it an interruption; but they were so little satisfied with this answer, that they did chuse a committee to report to the House, whether this crime of Mr. Scobell's did come within the act of indemnity or no. Thence I went with Muddiman to the Coffee-House, and gave 18d. to be entered of the Club. Thence into the Hall, where I heard for certain that Monk (51) was coming to London, and that Bradshaw's lodgings were preparing for him. Thence to [his daughter] Mrs. Jem's, and found her in bed, and she was afraid that it would prove the small-pox. Thence back to Westminster Hall, where I heard how Sir H. Vane (46) was this day voted out of the House, and to sit no more there; and that he would retire himself to his house at Raby, as also all the rest of the nine officers that had their commissions formerly taken away from them, were commanded to their farthest houses from London during the pleasure of the Parliament. Here I met with the Quarter Master of my Lord's (34) troop, and his clerk Mr. Jenings, and took them home, and gave them a bottle of wine, and the remainder of my collar of brawn; and so good night. After that came in Mr. Hawly, who told me that I was mist this day at my office, and that to-morrow I must pay all the money that I have, at which I was put to a great loss how I should get money to make up my cash, and so went to bed in great trouble.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 January. 31 Jan 1660.
In the morning I fell to my lute till 9 o’clock. Then to my Lord’s (34) lodgings and set out a barrel of soap to be carried to Mrs. Ann. Here I met with Nick Bartlet, one that had been a servant of my Lord’s at sea and at Harper’s gave him his morning draft. So to my office where I paid; 1200l. to Mr. Frost and at noon went to Will's to give one of the Excise office a pot of ale that came to-day to tell over a bag of his that wanted; 7l. in it, which he found over in another bag. Then home and dined with my wife (19) when in came Mr. Hawly newly come from shipboard from his master, and brought me a letter of direction what to do in his lawsuit with Squib about his house and office. After dinner to Westminster Hall, where all we clerks had orders to wait upon the Committee, at the Star Chamber that is to try Colonel Jones, and were to give an account what money we had paid him; but the Committee did not sit to-day. Hence to Will's, where I sat an hour or two with Mr. Godfrey Austin, a scrivener in King Street.
Here I met and afterwards bought the answer to General Monk’s (51) letter, which is a very good one, and I keep it by me.
Thence to [his daughter] Mrs. Jem, where I found her maid in bed in a fit of the ague, and [his wife] Mrs. Jem (35) among the people below at work and by and by she came up hot and merry, as if they had given her wine, at which I was troubled, but said nothing.
After a game at cards, I went home and wrote by the post and coming back called in at Harper’s and drank with Mr. Pulford, servant to Mr. Waterhouse, who tells me, that whereas my Lord Fleetwood should have answered to the Parliament to-day, he wrote a letter and desired a little more time, he being a great way out of town. And how that he is quite ashamed of himself, and conFesses how he had deserved this, for his baseness to his brother. And that he is like to pay part of the money, paid out of the Exchequer during the Committee of Safety, out of his own purse again, which I am glad of. Home and to bed, leaving my wife (19) reading in Polixandre. I could find nothing in Mr. Downing’s (35) letter, which Hawly brought me, concerning my office; but I could discern that Hawly had a mind that I would get to be Clerk of the Council, I suppose that he might have the greater salary; but I think it not safe yet to change this for a public employment.

On 12 Jul 1660 Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34) was created 1st Earl Sandwich. [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (35) by marriage Countess Sandwich.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 December. 31 Dec 1660. At the office all the morning and after that home, and not staying to dine I went out, and in Paul’s Churchyard I bought the play of "Henry the Fourth," and so went to the new Theatre (only calling at Mr. Crew’s (62) and eat a bit with the people there at dinner) and saw it acted; but my expectation being too great, it did not please me, as otherwise I believe it would; and my having a book, I believe did spoil it a little.
That being done I went to my Lord’s (35), where I found him private at cards with my Lord Lauderdale (44) and some persons of honour. So Mr. Shepley and I over to Harper’s, and there drank a pot or two, and so parted. My boy taking a cat home with him from my Lord’s, which Sarah had given him for my wife (20) we being much troubled with mice.
At Whitehall inquiring for a coach, there was a Frenchman with one eye that was going my way, so he and I hired the coach between us and he set me down in Fenchurch Street. Strange how the fellow, without asking, did tell me all what he was, and how he had ran away from his father and come into England to serve the King (30), and now going back again.
Home and to bed.

On 20 Aug 1661 [his daughter] Catherine Montagu 1661-1757 was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (36) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674 (36).

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (43). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (36) in his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

Before 15 Jul 1664 [his daughter] James Montagu 1664- was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674.

Battle of Lowestoft

On 13 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31), Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.
Richard Boyle -1665 was killed.
Charles Maccarthy 2nd Earl Clancarty -1666 was killed. His son Callaghan Maccarthy 3rd Earl Clancarty -1676 succeeded 3rd Earl Clancarty (1C 1658).
Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth 1630-1665 (35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the HMS Royal Charles. His father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (65) succeeded 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.
Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland 1639-1665 (26) was killed by a cannon shot. On 13 Jun 1665 His uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl of Portland 1609-1688 (55) succeeded 4th Earl of Portland (1C 1633).
Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685 (53) was present.
Admiral Jeremy Smith -1675 commanded the HMS Mary.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 30 Jun 1665. To Chatham; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord Sandwich (39), now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke (31), and Prince Rupert (45). Here I saw the King (35) knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty (35), who there held a General Council, which determined that his Royal Highness (35) should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's (35) yacht with my Lord Sandwich (39) and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham on Sunday morning.

On 31 Jul 1665 Philip Carteret 1628-1672 (37) and [his daughter] Jemima Montagu -1671 were married.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 September. 17 Sep 1665. Receiving a letter from Lord Sandwich (40) of a defeat given to the Dutch, I was forced to travel all Sunday. I was exceedingly perplexed to find that near 3,000 prisoners were sent to me to dispose of, being more than I had places fit to receive and guard.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 September. 25 Sep 1665. My Lord Admiral (40) being come from the fleet to Greenwich, I went thence with him to the Cock-pit, to consult with the Duke of Albemarle (56). I was peremptory that, unless we had £10,000 immediately, the prisoners would starve, and it was proposed it should be raised out of the East India prizes now taken by Lord Sandwich (40). They being but two of the commission, and so not empowered to determine, sent an express to his Majesty (35) and Council, to know what they should do. In the meantime, I had five vessels, with competent guards, to keep the prisoners in for the present, to be placed as I should think best. After dinner (which was at the General's) I went over to visit his Grace, the Archbishop of Canterbury (67), at Lambeth.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 November. 27 Nov 1665. The Duke of Albemarle (56) was going to Oxford, where both Court and Parliament had been most part of the summer. There was no small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich (40) having permitted divers commanders, who were at the taking of the East India prizes, to break bulk, and to take to themselves jewels, silks, etc.: though I believe some whom I could name filled their pockets, my Lord Sandwich (40) himself had the least share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and prepossessed the Lord General (56), for he spoke to me of it with much zeal and concern, and I believe laid load enough on Lord Sandwich (40) at Oxford.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 December. 08 Dec 1665. To my Lord of Albemarle (57) (now returned from Oxford), who was declared General at Sea, to the no small mortification of that excellent person, the Earl of Sandwich (40), whom the Duke of Albemarle not only suspected faulty about the prizes, but less valiant; himself imagining how easy a thing it were to confound the Hollanders, as well now as heretofore he fought against them upon a more disloyal interest.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 June. 06 Jun 1666. Came Sir Daniel Harvey from the General and related the dreadful encounter, on which his Majesty (36) commanded me to dispatch an extraordinary physician and more chirurgeons. It was on the solemn Fast-day when the news came; his Majesty (36) being in the chapel made a sudden stop to hear the relation, which being with much advantage on our side, his Majesty (36) commanded that public thanks should immediately be given as for a victory. The Dean of the chapel going down to give notice of it to the other Dean officiating; and notice was likewise sent to St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey. But this was no sooner over, than news came that our loss was very great both in ships and men; that the Prince frigate was burnt, and as noble a vessel of ninety brass guns lost; and the taking of Sir George Ayscue (50), and exceeding shattering of both fleets; so as both being obstinate, both parted rather for want of ammunition and tackle than courage; our General retreating like a lion; which exceedingly abated of our former joy. There were, however, orders given for bonfires and bells; but, God knows, it was rather a deliverance than a triumph. So much it pleased God to humble our late overconfidence that nothing could withstand the Duke of Albemarle (57), who, in good truth, made too forward a reckoning of his success now, because he had once beaten the Dutch in another quarrel; and being ambitious to outdo the Earl of Sandwich (40), whom he had prejudicated as deficient in courage.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of George Ayscue 1616-1672 (49). One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

Before 17 Mar 1668 [his son] Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688 and Mary Anne Boyle Countess Sandwich -1671 were married.

John Evelyn's Diary 1668 April. 09 Apr 1668. To London, about finishing my grand account of the sick and wounded, and prisoners at war, amounting to above £34,000.
I heard Sir R. Howard (42) impeach Sir William Penn (46), in the House of Lords, for breaking bulk, and taking away rich goods out of the East India prizes, formerly taken by Lord Sandwich (42).

John Evelyn's Diary 1668 November. 25 Nov 1668. I waited on Lord Sandwich (43), who presented me with a Sembrador [A type of seed drill] he brought out of Spain, showing me his two books of observations made during his embassy and stay at Madrid, in which were several rare things he promised to impart to me.

In 1669 [his daughter] Paulina Montagu 1649-1669 (20) died.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 02 May 1669. Lord’s Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there visit my Lord Sandwich (43), who, after about two months’ absence at Hinchingbroke, come to town last night. I saw him, and very kind; and I am glad he is so, I having not wrote to him all the time, my eyes indeed not letting me. Here with Sir Charles Herbert [Harbord] (29), and my [his son] Lord Hinchingbroke (21), and Sidney, we looked upon the picture of Tangier, designed by Charles Herbert [Harbord] (29), and drawn by Dancre, which my Lord Sandwich admires, as being the truest picture that ever he’s saw in his life: and it is indeed very pretty, and I will be at the cost of having one of them. Thence with them to White Hall, and there walked out the sermon, with one or other; and then saw the Duke of York (35) after sermon, and he talked to me a little; and so away back by water home, and after dinner got my wife (28) to read, and then by coach, she and I, to the Park, and there spent the evening with much pleasure, it proving clear after a little shower, and we mighty fine as yesterday, and people mightily pleased with our coach, as I perceived; but I had not on my fine suit, being really afeard to wear it, it being so fine with the gold lace, though not gay. So home and to supper, and my wife (28) to read, and Tom, my Nepotisme, and then to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 03 May 1669. Up, and by coach to my Lord Brouncker’s (49), where Sir G. Carteret (59) did meet Sir J. Minnes (70) and me, to discourse upon Mr. Deering’s (43) business, who was directed, in the time of the war, to provide provisions at Hamburgh, by Sir G. Carteret’s (59) direction; and now G. Carteret (59) is afeard to own it, it being done without written order. But by our meeting we do all begin to recollect enough to preserve Mr. Deering (43), I think, which, poor silly man! I shall be glad of, it being too much he should suffer for endeavouring to serve us. Thence to St. James’s, where the Duke of York (35) was playing in the Pell Mell; and so he called me to him most part of the time that he played, which was an hour, and talked alone to me; and, among other things, tells me how the King (38) will not yet be got to name anybody in the room of Pen (48), but puts it off for three or four days; from whence he do collect that they are brewing something for the Navy, but what he knows not; but I perceive is vexed that things should go so, and he hath reason; for he told me that it is likely they will do in this as in other things — resolve first, and consider it and the fitness of it afterward. Thence to White Hall, and met with Creed, and I took him to the Harp and Balls, and there drank a cup of ale, he and I alone, and discoursed of matters; and I perceive by him that he makes no doubt but that all will turn to the old religion, for these people cannot hold things in their hands, nor prevent its coming to that; and by his discourse fits himself for it, and would have my Lord Sandwich (43) do so, too, and me. After a little talk with him, and particularly about the ruinous condition of Tangier, which I have a great mind to lay before the Duke of York (35), before it be too late, but dare not, because of his great kindness to Lord Middleton (61), we parted, and I homeward; but called at Povy’s (55), and there he stopped me to dinner, there being Mr. Williamson (35), the Lieutenant of the Tower, Mr. Childe (38), and several others. And after dinner, Povy (55) and I together to talk of Tangier; and he would have me move the Duke of York (35) in it, for it concerns him particularly, more than any, as being the head of us; and I do think to do it. Thence home, and at the office busy all the afternoon, and so to supper and to bed.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Tuesday 04 May 1669. Up, and to the office, and then my wife (28) being gone to see her mother at Deptford, I before the office sat went to the Excise Office, and thence being alone stepped into Duck Lane, and thence tried to have sent a porter to Deb.’s (18), but durst not trust him, and therefore having bought a book to satisfy the bookseller for my stay there, a 12d. book, Andronicus of Tom Fuller, I took coach, and at the end of Jewen Street next Red Cross Street I sent the coachman to her lodging, and understand she is gone for Greenwich to one Marys’s, a tanner’s, at which I, was glad, hoping to have opportunity to find her out; and so, in great fear of being seen, I to the office, and there all the morning, dined at home, and presently after dinner comes home my wife (28), who I believe is jealous of my spending the day, and I had very good fortune in being at home, for if Deb. (18) had been to have been found it is forty to one but I had been abroad, God forgive me. So the afternoon at the office, and at night walked with my wife (28) in the garden, and my Lord Brouncker (49) with us, who is newly come to W. Pen’s (48) lodgings; and by and by comes Mr. Hooke (33); and my Lord (43), and he, and I into my Lord’s lodgings, and there discoursed of many fine things in philosophy, to my great content, and so home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Wednesday 12 May 1669. Up, and to Westminster Hall, where the term is, and this the first day of my being there, and here by chance met Roger Pepys (52), come to town the last night: I was glad to see him. After some talk with him and others, and among others Sir Charles Harbord (29) and [his son] Sidney Montagu (18), the latter of whom is to set out tomorrow towards Flanders and Italy, I invited them to dine with me to-morrow, and so to Mrs. Martin’s lodging, who come to town last night, and there je did hazer her, she having been a month, I think, at Portsmouth with her husband, newly come home from the Streights. But, Lord! how silly the woman talks of her great entertainment there, and how all the gentry come to visit her, and that she believes her husband is worth 6 or 700l., which nevertheless I am glad of, but I doubt they will spend it a fast. Thence home, and after dinner my wife (28) and I to the Duke of York’s playhouse, and there, in the side balcony, over against the musick, did hear, but not see, a new play, the first day acted, "The Roman Virgin," an old play, and but ordinary, I thought; but the trouble of my eyes with the light of the candles did almost kill me. Thence to my Lord Sandwich’s (43), and there had a promise from Sidney (18) to come and dine with me to-morrow; and so my wife (34) and I home in our coach, and there find my brother John, as I looked for, come to town from Ellington, where, among other things, he tell me the first news that my sister Jackson (28) is with child, and far gone, which I know not whether it did more trouble or please me, having no great care for my friends to have children; though I love other people’s. So, glad to see him, we to supper, and so to bed.

John Evelyn's Diary 1670 June. 18 Jun 1670. Dined at Goring House, whither my Lord Arlington (52) carried me from Whitehall with the Marquis of Worcester (41); there, we found Lord Sandwich (44), Viscount Stafford (55), the Lieutenant of the Tower, and others. After dinner, my Lord communicated to me his Majesty's (40) desire that I would engage to write the history of our late war with the Hollanders, which I had hitherto declined; this I found was ill taken, and that I should disoblige his Majesty (40), who had made choice of me to do him this service, and, if I would undertake it, I should have all the assistance the Secretary's office and others could give me, with other encouragements, which I could not decently refuse.
Lord Stafford (55) rose from the table, in some disorder, because there were roses stuck about the fruit when the dessert was set on the table; such an antipathy, it seems, he had to them as once Lady Selenger also had, and to that degree that, as Sir Kenelm Digby tells us, laying but a rose upon her cheek when she was asleep, it raised a blister: but Sir Kenelm was a teller of strange things.

In 1671 [his daughter] Jemima Montagu -1671 died.

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 May. 26 May 1671. The Earl of Bristol's house in Queen's Street was taken for the Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, and furnished with rich hangings of the King (40)'s. It consisted of seven rooms on a floor, with a long gallery, gardens, etc. This day we met the Duke of Buckingham (43), Earl of Lauderdale (55), Lord Culpeper, Sir George Carteret (61), Vice-Chamberlain, and myself, had the oaths given us by the Earl of Sandwich (45), our President. It was to advise and counsel his Majesty (40), to the best of our abilities, for the well-governing of his Foreign Plantations, etc., the form very little differing from that given to the Privy Council. We then took our places at the Board in the Council-Chamber, a very large room furnished with atlases, maps, charts, globes, etc. Then came the Lord Keeper, Sir Orlando Bridgeman (65), Earl of Arlington (53), Secretary of State, Lord Ashley, Mr. Treasurer (40), Sir John Trevor (34), the other Secretary, Sir John Duncomb (49), Lord Allington (30), Mr. Grey, son to the Lord Grey, Mr. Henry Broncher, Sir Humphrey Winch (49), Sir John Finch, Mr. Waller (65), and Colonel Titus (48), of the bedchamber, with Mr. Slingsby, Secretary to the Council, and two Clerks of the Council, who had all been sworn some days before. Being all set, our Patent was read, and then the additional Patent, in which was recited this new establishment; then, was delivered to each a copy of the Patent, and of instructions: after which, we proceeded to business.
The first thing we did was, to settle the form of a circular letter to the Governors of all his Majesty's (40) Plantations and Territories in the West Indies and Islands thereof, to give them notice to whom they should apply themselves on all occasions, and to render us an account of their present state and government; but, what we most insisted on was, to know the condition of New England, which appearing to be very independent as to their regard to Old England, or his Majesty (40), rich and strong as they now were, there were great debates in what style to write to them; for the condition of that Colony was such, that they were able to contest with all other Plantations about them, and there was fear of their breaking from all dependence on this nation; his Majesty (40), therefore, commended this affair more expressly. We, therefore, thought fit, in the first place, to acquaint ourselves as well as we could of the state of that place, by some whom we heard of that were newly come from thence, and to be informed of their present posture and condition; some of our Council were for sending them a menacing letter, which those who better understood the peevish and touchy humor of that Colony, were utterly against.
A letter was then read from Sir Thomas Modiford (51), Governor of Jamaica; and then the Council broke up.
Having brought an action against one Cocke, for money which he had received for me, it had been referred to an arbitration by the recommendation of that excellent good man, the Chief-Justice Hale (61), but, this not succeeding, I went to advise with that famous lawyer, Mr. Jones, of Gray's Inn, and, 27th of May, had a trial before Chief Justice of the King (40)Lord Chief Justice Hale; and, after the lawyers had wrangled sufficiently, it was referred to a new arbitration. This was the very first suit at law that ever I had with any creature, and oh, that it might be the last!.

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 June. 20 Jun 1671. To carry Colonel Middleton to Whitehall (63), to my Lord Sandwich (45), our President, for some information which he was able to give of the state of the Colony in New England.

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 August. 03 Aug 1671. A full appearance at the Council. The matter in debate was, whether we should send a deputy to New England, requiring them of the Massachusetts to restore such to their limits and respective possessions, as had petitioned the Council; this to be the open commission only; but, in truth, with secret instructions to inform us of the condition of those Colonies, and whether they were of such power, as to be able to resist his Majesty (41) and declare for themselves as independent of the Crown, which we were told, and which of late years made them refractory. Colonel Middleton (63), being called in, assured us they might be curbed by a few of his Majesty's (41) first-rate frigates, to spoil their trade with the islands; but, though my Lord President (46) was not satisfied, the rest were, and we did resolve to advise his Majesty (41) to send Commissioners with a formal commission for adjusting boundaries, etc., with some other instructions.

1672 Battle of Solebay

On 28 May 1672 Philip Carteret 1628-1672 (44) and Winston Churchill -1672 were killed at Solebay, Southwold.
Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (46) was killed. His son [his son] Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688 (24) succeeded 2nd Earl Sandwich. Mary Anne Boyle Countess Sandwich -1671 by marriage Countess Sandwich.
George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (25) fought.
Charles Harbord 1640-1672 (32) died. The inscription on his. Monument in Westminster Abbey reads ... Sr. Charles Harbord Knt. his Majesties Surveyor General, and First Lieutenant of the Royall James, under the most noble and illustrious captain Edward, Earle of Sandwich (46), Vice Admirall of England, which after a terrible fight maintained to admiration against a squadron of the Holland fleet for above six houres, neere the Suffolk coast, having put off two fireships, at last being utterly disSabled and few of her men remaining unhurt, was by a third unfortunately set on fire: but he (though he swam well) neglected to save himselfe as some did, and out of the perfect love to that worthy lord (whom for many yeares he had constantly accompanyed in all his honourable imployments, and in all the engagements of the former warr) dyed with him at the age of XXXIII, much bewailed of his father whom he never offended, and much beloved of all for his knowne piety, vertue, loyalty, fortitude and fidelity.
Captain John Cox -1672 was killed in action.
Admiral John Holmes 1640-1683 (32) fought as commander of HMS Rupert.

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 May. 31 May 1672. I received another command to repair to the seaside; so I went to Rochester, where I found many wounded, sick, and prisoners, newly put on shore after the engagement on the 28th, in which the Earl of Sandwich, that incomparable person and my particular friend, and divers more whom I loved, were lost. My Lord (who was Admiral of the Blue) was in the "Prince," which was burnt, one of the best men-of-war that ever spread canvas on the sea. There were lost with this brave man, a son of Sir Charles Cotterell (57) (Master of the Ceremonies), and a son of Sir Charles Harbord (his Majesty's (42) Surveyor-General), two valiant and most accomplished youths, full of virtue and courage, who might have saved themselves; but chose to perish with my Lord, whom they honored and loved above their own lives.
Here, I cannot but make some reflections on things past. It was not above a day or two that going to Whitehall to take leave of his Lordship, who had his lodgings in the Privy-Garden, shaking me by the hand he bid me good-by, and said he thought he would see me no more, and I saw, to my thinking, something boding in his countenance: "No," says he, "they will not have me live. Had I lost a fleet (meaning on his return from Bergen when he took the East India prize) I should have fared better; but, be as it pleases God—I must do something, I know not what, to save my reputation." Something to this effect, he had hinted to me; thus I took my leave. I well remember that the Duke of Albemarle, and my now Lord Clifford (41), had, I know not why, no great opinion of his courage, because, in former conflicts, being an able and experienced seaman (which neither of them were), he always brought off his Majesty's (42) ships without loss, though not without as many marks of true courage as the stoutest of them; and I am a witness that, in the late war, his own ship was pierced like a colander. But the business was, he was utterly against this war from the beginning, and abhorred the attacking of the Smyrna fleet; he did not favor the heady expedition of Clifford at Bergen, nor was he so furious and confident as was the Duke of Albemarle, who believed he could vanquish the Hollanders with one squadron. My Lord Sandwich was prudent as well as valiant, and always governed his affairs with success and little loss; he was for deliberation and reason, they for action and slaughter without either; and for this, whispered as if my Lord Sandwich was not so gallant, because he was not so rash, and knew how fatal it was to lose a fleet, such as was that under his conduct, and for which these very persons would have censured him on the other side. This it was, I am confident, grieved him, and made him enter like a lion, and fight like one too, in the midst of the hottest service, where the stoutest of the rest seeing him engaged, and so many ships upon him, dared not, or would not, come to his succor, as some of them, whom I know, might have done. Thus, this gallant person perished, to gratify the pride and envy of some I named.
Deplorable was the loss of one of the best accomplished persons, not only of this nation, but of any other. He was learned in sea affairs, in politics, in mathematics, and in music: he had been on divers embassies, was of a sweet and obliging temper, sober, chaste, very ingenious, a true nobleman, an ornament to the Court and his Prince; nor has he left any behind him who approach his many virtues.
He had, I confess, served the tyrant Cromwell, when a young man, but it was without malice, as a soldier of fortune; and he readily submitted, and that with joy, bringing an entire fleet with him from the Sound, at the first tidings of his Majesty's (42) restoration. I verily believe him as faithful a subject as any that were not his friends. I am yet heartily grieved at this mighty loss, nor do I call it to my thoughts without emotion.

1672 Battle of Solebay

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 June. 02 Jun 1672. Trinity Sunday, I passed at Rochester; and, on the 5th, there was buried in the Cathedral Monsieur Rabiniére, Rear Admiral of the French squadron, a gallant person, who died of the wounds he received in the fight. This ceremony lay on me, which I performed with all the decency I could, inviting the Mayor and Aldermen to come in their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins was there with his guards; and the Dean and Prebendaries: one of his countrymen pronouncing a funeral oration at the brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug in the choir. This is more at large described in the "Gazette" of that day; Colonel Reymes (58), my colleague in commission, assisting, who was so kind as to accompany me from London, though it was not his district; for indeed the stress of both these wars lay more on me by far than on any of my brethren, who had little to do in theirs. I went to see Upnor Castle, which I found pretty well defended, but of no great moment.
Next day I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy of the "Nore," where I met his Majesty (42), the Duke (38), Lord Arlington (54), and all the great men, in the "Charles," lying miserably shattered; but the miss of Lord Sandwich redoubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazarding so brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for no provocation but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all things but envy.
At Sheerness, I gave his Majesty (42) and his Royal Highness (38) an account of my charge, and returned to Queenborough; next day dined at Major Dorel's, Governor of Sheerness; thence, to Rochester; and the following day, home.

[his daughter] Jemima Montagu -1671 was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674.

[his daughter] Anne Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Montagu


Kings Wessex: Great x 24 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings England: Great x 10 Grand Son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Kings Scotland: Great x 16 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093

Kings Franks: Great x 14 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Great x 15 Grand Son of Louis "Fat" VI King France 1081-1137


Father: Sidney Montagu -1644 9 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

GrandFather: Edward Montagu 1530-1602 8 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great GrandFather: Edward Montagu 1485-1557 7 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 2 GrandFather: Thomas Montagu 1452-1517 6 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Ladde Montagu 1425-1455 5 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Montagu 1397-1419 4 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandMother: Alice Holcot

Great x 2 GrandMother: Agnes Dudley 1454-1501

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Dudley 1422-1505

Great x 4 GrandFather: Richard Dudley 1374-1465

Great GrandMother: Helen Roper 1500-1563

Great x 2 GrandFather: John Roper of Well Hall 1453-1524

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Roper 1405-1488

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Roper 1360-1433

GrandMother: Elizabeth Harrington 1545-1618

Great GrandFather: James Harrington 1511-1592

Great x 2 GrandFather: John Alexander Harrington 1497-1553

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Harrington 1480-1524

Great x 4 GrandFather: Robert Harrington 1465-1501

Great GrandMother: Lucy Sidney 1520-1591

Great x 2 GrandFather: William Sidney 1482-1554

Great x 3 GrandFather: Nicholas Sidney 1447-1512

Great x 4 GrandFather: William IV Sidney 1417-1477

Great x 3 GrandMother: Anne Brandon

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Brandon 1425-1491

Great x 2 GrandMother: Anne Pakenham 1485-1544

Great x 3 GrandFather: Hugh Pakenham 1470-1512

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Pakenham 1433-1485

Mother: Paulina Pepys

GrandFather: John Pepys of Cottenham Cambridgeshire -1605