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Biography of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel


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Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824-1915 Chapter IX: Deene and its History. The second Earl became a Roman Catholic, and spent most of his long life of 102 years at Deene. His daughter, Lady Anne Brudenell, was one of the most lovely of the beauties associated with the Court of Charles II. She married the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the story is well known of how she, dressed as a page, held the Duke of Buckingham's horse whilst he fought with and slew her husband.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. The Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of St. Albans were the same in England as they appeared in France: the one full of wit and vivacity, dissipated, without splendour, an immense estate upon which he had just entered: the other, a man of no great genius, had raised himself a considerable fortune from nothing, and by losing at play, and keeping a great table, made it appear greater than it was.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 November. 18th November, 1679. I dined at my Lord Mayor's, being desired by the Countess of Sunderland to carry her thither on a solemn day, that she might see the pomp and ceremony of this Prince of Citizens, there never having been any, who for the stateliness of his palace, prodigious feasting, and magnificence, exceeded him. This Lord Mayor's acquaintance had been from the time of his being apprentice to one Mr. Abbot, his uncle [Note. His mother's brother], who being a scrivener, and an honest worthy man, one who was condemned to die at the beginning of the troubles forty years past, as concerned in the commission of array for King Charles I had escaped with his life; I often used his assistance in money matters. Robert Clayton, then a boy, his nephew, became, after his uncle Abbot's death, so prodigiously rich and opulent, that he was reckoned one of the wealthiest citizens. He married a free-hearted woman, who became his hospitable disposition; and having no children, with the accession of his partner and fellow apprentice, who also left him his estate, he grew excessively rich. He was a discreet magistrate, and though envied, I think without much cause. Some believed him guilty of hard dealing, especially with the Duke of Buckingham, much of whose estate he had swallowed, but I never saw any ill by him, considering the trade he was of. The reputation and known integrity of his uncle, Abbot, brought all the royal party to him, by which he got not only great credit, but vast wealth, so as he passed this office with infinite magnificence and honor.

My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824-1915 Chapter IX: Deene and its History. Allan Fea, in his interesting book, " Nooks and Corners of Old England," describes how, " some time before the poor little plain [his wife] Duchess (of Buckingham) suspected that she had a formidable rival in the beautiful Countess, she was returning from a visit to Deene to her house at Stamford, where her reckless husband found it convenient to hide himself, as a warrant for high treason was out against him, when she noticed a suspicious little cavalcade travelling in the same direction. Ordering the horses to be whipped up, she arrived in time to give the alarm. The Duke had just then set out for Burleigh House with some ladies in his company, and the serjeant actually saw the Duke alight and lead a lady into the house, but he and his soldiers were not in time to force an entrance, and so the Duke escaped ! ".

On 05 Jan 1617 [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (24) was created 1st Earl Buckingham (5C 1617) by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (50); his favourite.

On 16 May 1620 [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (27) and [his mother] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (18) were married. Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (18) by marriage Countess Buckingham (5C 1617).

On 18 May 1623 [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (30) was created 1st Duke of Buckingham (2C 1623). [his mother] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (21) by marriage Duchess of Buckingham (2C 1623).

On 30 Jan 1628 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 was born to [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (35) and [his mother] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (25).

On 23 Aug 1628 [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (35) was murdered at Greyhound Pub, Portsmouth by a disgruntled soldier John Felton. He was buried at Westminster Abbey. His son George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham (2C 1623), 2nd Earl Buckingham (5C 1617), 19th Baron Ros Helmsley.

On 08 Jan 1634 Charles Herbert 1619-1635 (15) and [his sister] Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox, Duchess Richmond 1622-1685 (12) were married.

In 1635 Randall MacDonnell 1st Marquess of Antrim 1609-1683 (25) and [his mother] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (32) were married.

On 03 Aug 1637 James Stewart 4th Duke Lennox, 1st Duke Richmond 1612-1655 (25) and [his sister] Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox, Duchess Richmond 1622-1685 (15) were married. Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox, Duchess Richmond 1622-1685 (15) by marriage Duchess Lennox.

In 1649 [his mother] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (46) died.

In 1649 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (20) was appointed 446th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (18).

John Evelyn's Diary 1649 August. 19th August 1649. I went to salute the French King (10) and the Queen Dowager (47); and, on the 21st, returned in one of the Queen's coaches with my Lord Germain, Duke of Buckingham (21), Lord Wentworth (37), and Mr. Croftes (38), since Lord Croftes.

1616. Frans Pourbus the Younger Painter 1569-1622. Portrait of Anne Habsburg-Spain Queen Consort France 1601-1666 (14).

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (25) and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (27).

On 15 Sep 1657 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (29) and [his wife] Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720 (19) were married. Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720 (19) by marriage Duchess of Buckingham (2C 1623).

John Evelyn's Diary 1664 October. 29th October, 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett (46), Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor (55) and the Duke of Buckingham (36), who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer (57), the Dukes of Ormond (54) and Albemarle (55), Earl of Manchester (62), Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's (34) health, then the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and came home late.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

On 16 Jan 1668 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (39) fought a duel with Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (45) with whose wife Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702 (25) he was conducting a relationship. Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (45) was fatally wounded dying two months later. Following the duel George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (39) commenced living with Shrewsbury's wife Anne Maria (25). His wife [his wife] Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720 (29) returned to live with her parents.
Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692 (46) and Jenkins acted as seconds to George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (39). Jenkins was killed.
John Talbot 1630-1714 (37) and Bernard Howard 1641-1717 (27) acted as seconds to Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (45). Note. Bernard Howard a guess based on name and age.
On 16 Mar 1668 Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (45) died from wounds received duelling. He was buried at Albrighton. His son Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (7) succeeded 12th Earl Shrewsbury (2C 1442), 12th Earl Waterford.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1668 January. Friday 17 Jan 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall to attend the Council there, and here I met first by Mr. Castle the shipwright, whom I met there, and then from the whole house the discourse of the duell yesterday between the Duke of Buckingham (39), Holmes (46), and one Jenkins, on one side, and my Lord of Shrewsbury (45), Sir John Talbot (37), and one Bernard Howard (27) (??), on the other side: and all about my Lady Shrewsbury (25), who is a whore, and is at this time, and hath for a great while been, a whore to the Duke of Buckingham (39). And so her husband (45) challenged him, and they met yesterday in a close near Barne-Elmes, and there fought: and my Lord Shrewsbury (45) is run through the body, from the right breast through the shoulder: and Sir John Talbot (37) all along up one of his armes; and Jenkins killed upon the place, and the rest all, in a little measure, wounded. This will make the world think that the King (37) hath good councillors about him, when the Duke of Buckingham (39), the greatest man about him, is a fellow of no more sobriety than to fight about a whore. And this may prove a very bad accident to the Duke of Buckingham (39), but that my Baroness Castlemayne (27) do rule all at this time as much as ever she did, and she will, it is believed, keep all matters well with the Duke of Buckingham: though this is a time that the King (37) will be very backward, I suppose, to appear in such a business. And it is pretty to hear how the King (37) had some notice of this challenge a week or two ago, and did give it to my Lord Generall (59) to confine the Duke, or take security that he should not do any such thing as fight: and the Generall (59) trusted to the King (37) that he, sending for him, would do it, and the King (37) trusted to the Generall; and so, between both, as everything else of the greatest moment do, do fall between two stools. The whole House full of nothing but the talk of this business; and it is said that my Lord Shrewsbury’s (45) case is to be feared, that he may die too; and that may make it much the worse for the Duke of Buckingham (39): and I shall not be much sorry for it, that we may have some sober man come in his room to assist in the Government. Here I waited till the Council rose, and talked the while, with Creed, who tells me of Mr. Harry Howard’s (39) giving the Royal Society a piece of ground next to his house, to build a College on, which is a most generous act. And he tells me he is a very fine person, and understands and speaks well; and no rigid Papist neither, but one that would not have a Protestant servant leave his religion, which he was going to do, thinking to recommend himself to his master by it; saying that he had rather have an honest Protestant than a knavish Catholique. I was not called into the Council; and, therefore, home, first informing myself that my Lord Hinchingbroke (20) hath been married this week to my Lord Burlington’s (55) daughter; so that that great business is over; and I mighty glad of it, though I am not satisfied that I have not a Favour sent me, as I see Attorney Montagu (50) and the Vice-Chamberlain have. But I am mighty glad that the thing is done. So home, and there alone with my wife (27) and Deb (17). to dinner, and after dinner comes Betty Turner, and I carried them to the New Exchange, and thence I to White Hall and did a little business at the Treasury, and so called them there, and so home and to cards and supper, and her mother come and sat at cards with us till past 12 at night, and then broke up and to bed, after entering my journall, which made it one before I went to bed.

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (23) and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.

John Evelyn's Diary 1668 November. 14 Nov 1668. To London, invited to the consecration of that excellent person, the Dean of Ripon, Dr. Wilkins (54), now made Bishop of Chester; it was at Ely House, the Archbishop of Canterbury (70), Dr. Cosin (73), Bishop of Durham, the Bishops of Ely (77), Salisbury (51), Rochester (43), and others officiating. Dr. Tillotson (38) preached. Then, we went to a sumptuous dinner in the hall, where were the Duke of Buckingham (40), Judges, Secretaries of State, Lord-Keeper, Council, Noblemen, and innumerable other company, who were honorers of this incomparable man, universally beloved by all who knew him.
This being the Queen's birthday, great was the gallantry at Whitehall, and the night celebrated with very fine fireworks.
My poor brother (66) continuing ill, I went not from him till the 17th, when, dining at the Groom Porters, I heard Sir Edward Sutton play excellently on the Irish harp; he performs genteelly, but not approaching my worthy friend, Mr. Clark, a gentleman of Northumberland, who makes it execute lute, viol, and all the harmony an instrument is capable of; pity it is that it is not more in use; but, indeed, to play well, takes up the whole man, as Mr. Clark has assured me, who, though a gentleman of quality and parts, was yet brought up to that instrument from five years old, as I remember he told me.

Around 1822. George Perfect Harding Painter 1781-1853 (41). Portrait of John Dolben Archbishop 1625-1686. Cleary not contemporary the source of the image unknown.

In 1669 Henry Savile 1642-1687 (27) was sent to the Tower of London for a few days for having carried Thomas Coventry's (40) challenge to the Duke of Buckingham (40).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Wednesday 19 May 1669. With my coach to St. James’s; and there finding the Duke of York (35) gone to muster his men, in Hyde Park, I alone with my boy thither, and there saw more, walking out of my coach as other gentlemen did, of a soldier’s trade, than ever I did in my life: the men being mighty fine, and their Commanders, particularly the Duke of Monmouth (20); but me-thought their trade but very easy as to the mustering of their men, and the men but indifferently ready to perform what was commanded, in the handling of their arms. Here the news was first talked of Harry Killigrew’s being wounded in nine places last night, by footmen, in the highway, going from the Park in a hackney-coach towards Hammersmith, to his house at Turnham Greene: they being supposed to be my Lady Shrewsbury’s (27) men, she being by, in her (27) coach with six horses; upon an old grudge of his saying openly that he had lain with her. Thence by and by to White Hall, and there I waited upon the King (38) and Queen (59) all dinner-time, in the Queen’s lodgings, she being in her white pinner and apron, like a woman with child; and she seemed handsomer plain so, than dressed. And by and by, dinner done, I out, and to walk in the Gallery, for the Duke of York’s (35) coming out; and there, meeting Mr. May (47), he took me down about four o’clock to Mr. Chevins’s (67) lodgings, and all alone did get me a dish of cold chickens, and good wine; and I dined like a prince, being before very hungry and empty. By and by the Duke of York (35) comes, and readily took me to his closet, and received my petition, and discoursed about my eyes, and pitied me, and with much kindness did give me his consent to be absent, and approved of my proposition to go into Holland to observe things there, of the Navy; but would first ask the King’s (38) leave, which he anon did, and did tell me that the King (38) would be a good master to me, these were his words, about my eyes, and do like of my going into Holland, but do advise that nobody should know of my going thither, but pretend that I did go into the country somewhere, which I liked well. Glad of this, I home, and thence took out my wife (34), and to Mr. Holliard’s (60) about a swelling in her cheek, but he not at home, and so round by Islington and eat and drink, and so home, and after supper to bed. In discourse this afternoon, the Duke of York (35) did tell me that he was the most amazed at one thing just now, that ever he was in his life, which was, that the Duke of Buckingham (41) did just now come into the Queen’s (59) bed-chamber, where the King (38) was, and much mixed company, and among others, Tom Killigrew (57), the father of Harry, who was last night wounded so as to be in danger of death, and his man is quite dead; and [Buckingham (41)] there in discourse did say that he had spoke with some one that was by (which all the world must know that it must be his whore, my Lady Shrewsbury (27)), who says that they did not mean to hurt, but beat him, and that he did run first at them with his sword; so that he do hereby clearly discover that he knows who did it, and is of conspiracy with them, being of known conspiracy with her, which the Duke of York (35) did seem to be pleased with, and said it might, perhaps, cost him his life in the House of Lords; and I find was mightily pleased with it, saying it was the most impudent thing, as well as the most foolish, that ever he knew man do in all his life.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (25) and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (27).

Andrew Marvell Letter to a friend 1671. 1671. The King (40) having, upon pretence of the great preparations of his neighbours, demanded three hundred thousand pounds for his navy, (though in conclusion he hath not sent out any) and that the Parliament should pay his debts, which the ministers would never particularize to the House of Commons, our house gave several bills. You see how far things were stretched beyond reason, there being no satisfaction how these debts were contracted, and all men foreseeing that what was given would not be applied to discharge the debts, which I hear are at this day risen to four millions.
Nevertheless, such was the number of the constant courtiers, increased by the apostate patriots, who were bought off for that turn, some at six, others at ten, one at fifteen thousand pounds, in money; besides which, offices, lands, and reversions to others, that it is a mercy they gave not away the whole land and liberty of England. The Duke of Buckingham (42) is again one hundred and forty thousand pounds in debt, and, by this prorogation, his creditors have time to tear all his lands in pieces. The House of Commons have run almost to the end of their time, and are grown extremely chargeable to the King (40), and odious to the people. They have signed and sealed ten thousand pounds a-year more to the Duchess of Cleveland (30), who has likewise ten thousand pounds out of the excise of beer and ale; five thousand pounds a year out of the post-office; and, they say, the reversion of all the king's leases, the reversion of all the places in the Customhouse, and, indeed, what not? All promotions, spiritual and temporal, pass under her cognizance.

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (23) and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 May. 26 May 1671. The Earl of Bristol's (58) house in Queen's Street was taken for the Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, and furnished with rich hangings of the King (40)'s. It consisted of seven rooms on a floor, with a long gallery, gardens, etc. This day we met the Duke of Buckingham (43), Earl of Lauderdale (55), Lord Culpeper, Sir George Carteret (61), Vice-Chamberlain, and myself, had the oaths given us by the Earl of Sandwich (45), our President. It was to advise and counsel his Majesty (40), to the best of our abilities, for the well-governing of his Foreign Plantations, etc., the form very little differing from that given to the Privy Council. We then took our places at the Board in the Council-Chamber, a very large room furnished with atlases, maps, charts, globes, etc. Then came the Lord Keeper, Sir Orlando Bridgeman (65), Earl of Arlington (53), Secretary of State, Lord Ashley, Mr. Treasurer (40), Sir John Trevor (34), the other Secretary, Sir John Duncomb (49), Lord Allington (30), Mr. Grey, son to the Lord Grey, Mr. Henry Broncher, Sir Humphrey Winch (49), Sir John Finch, Mr. Waller (65), and Colonel Titus (48), of the bedchamber, with Mr. Slingsby, Secretary to the Council, and two Clerks of the Council, who had all been sworn some days before. Being all set, our Patent was read, and then the additional Patent, in which was recited this new establishment; then, was delivered to each a copy of the Patent, and of instructions: after which, we proceeded to business.
The first thing we did was, to settle the form of a circular letter to the Governors of all his Majesty's (40) Plantations and Territories in the West Indies and Islands thereof, to give them notice to whom they should apply themselves on all occasions, and to render us an account of their present state and government; but, what we most insisted on was, to know the condition of New England, which appearing to be very independent as to their regard to Old England, or his Majesty (40), rich and strong as they now were, there were great debates in what style to write to them; for the condition of that Colony was such, that they were able to contest with all other Plantations about them, and there was fear of their breaking from all dependence on this nation; his Majesty (40), therefore, commended this affair more expressly. We, therefore, thought fit, in the first place, to acquaint ourselves as well as we could of the state of that place, by some whom we heard of that were newly come from thence, and to be informed of their present posture and condition; some of our Council were for sending them a menacing letter, which those who better understood the peevish and touchy humor of that Colony, were utterly against.
A letter was then read from Sir Thomas Modiford (51), Governor of Jamaica; and then the Council broke up.
Having brought an action against one Cocke, for money which he had received for me, it had been referred to an arbitration by the recommendation of that excellent good man, the Chief-Justice Hale (61), but, this not succeeding, I went to advise with that famous lawyer, Mr. Jones, of Gray's Inn, and, 27th of May, had a trial before Chief Justice of the King (40)Lord Chief Justice Hale; and, after the lawyers had wrangled sufficiently, it was referred to a new arbitration. This was the very first suit at law that ever I had with any creature, and oh, that it might be the last!.

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 October continued. 21 Oct 1671. Quitting Euston, I lodged this night at Newmarket, where I found the jolly blades racing, dancing, feasting, and reveling; more resembling a luxurious and abandoned rout, than a Christian Court. The Duke of Buckingham (43) was now in mighty favor, and had with him that impudent woman, the Countess of Shrewsbury (29), with his band of fiddlers, etc.
Next morning, in company with Sir Bernard Gascoyne (57), and Lord Hawley (63), I came in the Treasurer's coach to Bishop Stortford, where he gave us a noble supper. The following day, to London, and so home.

On 07 Dec 1671 The Rehearsal, published anonymously, but likely to have been written by George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (43), was first performed at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Convent Garden.

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 December. 14 Dec 1671. Went to see the Duke of Buckingham's (43) ridiculous farce and rhapsody, called the "The Recital" [Note. This is an error by Evelyn - he means the play The Rehearsal.] buffooning all plays, yet profane enough.

Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (56). Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (46) wearing his Garter Collar.

John Evelyn's Diary 1675 August. 09 Aug 1675. Dr. Sprat (40), prebend of Westminster, and Chaplain to the Duke of Buckingham (47), preached on the 3d Epistle of Jude, showing what the primitive faith was, how near it and how excellent that of the Church of England, also the danger of departing from it.

John Evelyn's Diary 1676 September. 19 Sep 1676. To Lambeth, to that rare magazine of marble, to take order for chimney-pieces, etc., for Mr. Godolphin's (31) house. The owner of the works had built for himself a pretty dwelling house; this Dutchman had contracted with the Genoese for all their marble. We also saw the Duke of Buckingham's (48) glasswork, where they made huge vases of metal as clear, ponderous, and thick as crystal; also looking-glasses far larger and better than any that come from Venice.

John Evelyn's Diary 1678 January. 23d January 1678. Dined with the Duke of Norfolk (49), being the first time I had seen him since the death of his elder brother, who died at Padua in Italy, where he had resided above thirty years. The Duke (49) had now newly declared his marriage to his concubine (35), whom he promised me he never would marry. I went with him to see the Duke of Buckingham (49), thence to my Lord Sunderland (36), now Secretary of State, to show him that rare piece of Vosterman's (son of old Vosterman), which was a view, or landscape of my Lord's palace, etc., at Althorpe in Northamptonshire.

Around 1675 Mary Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (41). Portrait of Lady Norwich. Probably Jane Bickerton Duchess Norfolk 1643-1693 (32) who married the Duke around 1675 being his mistress prior to their marriage.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 July. 23d July 1679. To Court: after dinner, I visited that excellent painter, Verrio (43), whose works in fresco in the King (49)'s palace, at Windsor, will celebrate his name as long as those walls last. He showed us his pretty garden, choice flowers, and curiosities, he himself being a skillful gardener.
I went to Clifden, that stupendous natural rock, wood, and prospect, of the Duke of Buckingham's (51), and buildings of extraordinary expense. The grots in the chalky rocks are pretty: it is a romantic object, and the place altogether answers the most poetical description that can be made of solitude, precipice, prospect, or whatever can contribute to a thing so very like their imaginations. The stand, somewhat like Frascati as to its front, and on the platform is a circular view to the utmost verge of the horizon, which, with the serpenting of the Thames, is admirable. The staircase is for its materials singular; the cloisters, descents, gardens, and avenue through the wood, august and stately; but the land all about wretchedly barren, and producing nothing but fern. Indeed, as I told his Majesty (49) that evening (asking me how I liked Clifden) without flattery, that it did not please me so well as Windsor for the prospect and park, which is without compare; there being but one only opening, and that narrow, which led one to any variety; whereas that of Windsor is everywhere great and unconfined.
Returning, I called at my cousin Evelyn's, who has a very pretty seat in the forest, two miles by hither Clifden, on a flat, with gardens exquisitely kept, though large, and the house a staunch good old building, and what was singular, some of the rooms floored dove tail-wise without a nail, exactly close. One of the closets is pargeted with plain deal, set in diamond, exceeding staunch and pretty.

In 1685 [his sister] Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox, Duchess Richmond 1622-1685 (63) died.

On 16 Apr 1687 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (59) died. On 02 Jun 1687 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (59) was buried in the Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

John Evelyn's Diary 1696 June. 11 Jun 1696. Dined at Lord Pembroke's (40), Lord Privy Seal, a very worthy gentleman. He showed me divers rare pictures of very many of the old and best masters, especially one of M. Angelo of a man gathering fruit to give to a woman, and a large book of the best drawings of the old masters. Sir John Fenwick (51), one of the conspirators, was taken. Great subscriptions in Scotland to their East India Company. Want of current money to carry on the smallest concerns, even for daily provisions in the markets. Guineas lowered to twenty-two shillings, and great sums daily transported to Holland, where it yields more, with other treasure sent to pay the armies, and nothing considerable coined of the new and now only current stamp, cause such a scarcity that tumults are every day feared, nobody paying or receiving money; so imprudent was the late Parliament to condemn the old though clipped and corrupted, till they had provided supplies. To this add the fraud of the bankers and goldsmiths, who having gotten immense riches by extortion, keep up their treasure in expectation of enhancing its value. Duncombe, not long since a mean goldsmith, having made a purchase of the late Duke of Buckingham's estate at nearly £90,000, and reputed to have nearly as much in cash. Banks and lotteries every day set up.

On 20 Oct 1704 [his former wife] Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720 (66) died.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Villiers

Royal Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 23 Grand Son of Æthelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 15 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd 1100-1170

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 20 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth 880-950

Kings Powys: Great x 16 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132

Kings England: Great x 9 Grand Son of King Edward III England

Kings Scotland: Great x 14 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland 1143-1214

Kings Franks: Great x 14 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Great x 11 Grand Son of Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314

Royal Descendants

Ancestry

Father: George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 8 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

GrandFather: George Villiers of Brokesby 1544-1606

Great GrandFather: William Villiers of Brooksby Leicestershire 1492-1558

Great x 2 GrandFather: John Villiers 1456-1506

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Villiers 1433-1481

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Villiers 1400-1442

Great GrandMother: Collette Clarke 1491-1539

Great x 2 GrandFather: Richard Clarke

GrandMother: Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham 1570-1632 7 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: Anthony Beaumont 1522-1614 6 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: William Beaumont 1478-1529 5 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: George Beaumont -1531 4 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Beaumont 1428-1461 5 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Joan Darcy 1430- 3 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandMother: George Pauncefote

Great x 2 GrandMother: Mary Bassett 1470-1539 13 x Great Granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Bassett 1436-1498 12 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Bassett 1406-1472 11 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great GrandMother: Anne Armstrong 1544-

Great x 2 GrandFather: Thomas Armstrong 1510-1587

Mother: Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 8 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

GrandFather: Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 7 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: John Manners 4th Earl Rutland 1559-1588 6 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry Manners 2nd Earl Rutland 1526-1563 5 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 4 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: George Manners 11th Baron Ros Helmsley 1470-1513 6 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandMother: Anne St Leger Baroness Ros Helmsley 1476-1526 3 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Paston 1479-1554

Great x 4 GrandMother: Bridget Heydon 1485-1554

Great x 2 GrandMother: Margaret Neville -1559 6 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 5 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: Ralph Neville -1498 4 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Edith Sandys Baroness Darcy Darcy Templehurst -1529

Great x 3 GrandMother: Katherine Stafford Countess Westmoreland 1499-1555 5 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 4 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham -1530 4 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great GrandMother: Elizabeth Charlton Countess Rutland

Great x 2 GrandFather: Francis Charlton

GrandMother: Frances Knyvet 1566-1605 9 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great GrandFather: Henry Knyvet 1540-1598 8 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire 1510-1547 7 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandFather: Thomas Knyvet 1485-1512 9 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Knyvet 1461-1504 8 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 3 GrandMother: Muriel Howard Viscountess Lisle 1485-1511 6 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 5 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandMother: Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 8 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 2 GrandMother: Anne Pickering 1514-1582 7 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandFather: Christopher Pickering 1490-1516 6 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: James Pickering 1454-1519 5 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandMother: Jane Lewknor 1492- 7 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: Roger Lewknor 1469-1543

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor Tuchet 1470- 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great GrandMother: Elizabeth Stumpe