Biography of Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658

1643 Battle of Gainsborough

1649 Siege of Drogheda

1649 Trial of Charles I

1651 Battle of Worcester

1652 Indemnity and Oblivion Act

1653 Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

1658 Death and Funeral of Oliver Cromwell

1661 Execution of Deceased Regicides


Descent

Ancestry

On 25 Apr 1599 Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 was born to [his father] Robert Cromwell 1563-1617 (36) and [his mother] Elizabeth Steward 1565-1654 (33) at Huntingdon.

On 24 Jun 1617 [his father] Robert Cromwell 1563-1617 (54) died at Huntingdon.

On 22 Aug 1620 Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (21) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (22) were married.

In 1653. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658 (54). Portrait of Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (55).

In 1621 [his son] Robert Cromwell 1621-1639 was born to Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (21) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (23).

In 1622 [his daughter] Oliver Cromwell 1622-1644 was born to Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (22) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (24).

In 1624 [his daughter] Bridget Cromwell 1624-1662 was born to Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (24) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (26).

Before 05 Aug 1661 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Bridget Cromwell 1624-1662.

On 04 Oct 1626 [his son] Richard Cromwell Lord Protector 1626-1712 was born to Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (27) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (28).

On 20 Jan 1628 [his son] Henry Cromwell 1628-1674 was born to Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (28) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (30) at Huntingdon.

On 02 Jul 1629 [his daughter] Elizabeth Cromwell 1629-1658 was born to Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (30) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (31).

In 1658 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (40). Portrait of Elizabeth Cromwell 1629-1658 (28).

In 1632 [his son] James Cromwell 1632- was born to Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (32) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (34).

In 1637 [his daughter] Mary Cromwell Countess Fauconberg 1637-1713 was born to Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (37) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (39).

In 1638 [his daughter] Frances Cromwell Baronetess Russell 1638-1720 was born to Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (38) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier 1598-1665 (40).

In 1639 [his son] Robert Cromwell 1621-1639 (18) died.

Battle of Gainsborough

On 28 Jul 1643 the Parliamentary arms commanded by Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (44) and the Royalist army commanded by Charles Cavendish 1620-1643 fought at the Battle of Gainsborough at North Scarle.
Charles Cavendish 1620-1643 was killed by James Berry -1691. He was buried at Newark on Trent.
On 04 Aug 1643 the Royalist Newdigate Poyntz 1608-1643 died probably from wounds received at the battle.

In 1644 [his daughter] Oliver Cromwell 1622-1644 (22) died of typhoid.

On 13 Jan 1646 John Claypole 1625-1688 (20) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Cromwell 1629-1658 (16) were married.

On 15 Jun 1646 Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (35) and [his daughter] Bridget Cromwell 1624-1662 (22) were married.

John Evelyn's Diary 1648 May. 4th May 1648. Came up the Essex petitioners for an agreement between his Majesty and the rebels. The 16th, the Surrey men addressed the Parliament for the same; of which some of them were slain and murdered by Oliver Cromwell's (49) guards, in the new palace yard. I now sold the impropriation of South Malling, near Lewes, in Sussex, to Messrs. Kemp and Alcock, for £3,000.

Around 1649. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658 (50). Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (49).

Trial of Charles I

On 23 Jan 1649 Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (48) was tried at Westminster Hall by Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (56). The fifty-nine signatories were:
1 John Bradshaw Judge 1602-1659 (47)
2 Thomas Grey 1623-1657 (26)
3 Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (49)
7 John Danvers 1588-1655 (60)
9 Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (38)
11 Hardress Waller Regicide 1604-1666 (45)
27 Adrian Scrope Regicide 1601-1660
34 Richard Ingoldsby Judge Regicide 1617-1685 (31)
42 John Jones Regicide 1597-1660
54 Gregory Clement Regicide 1594-1660 (55)
57 Thomas Scot Regicide -1660
58 John Carew Regicide 1622-1660

The commissioners who sat at the trial but did not sign the Death Warrant included:
William Monson 1st Viscount Monson 1599-1672 (50)

The Captain of the Guard was Daniel Axtell. The guards were ...
Francis Hacker Regicide -1660.

Siege of Drogheda

Between 03 Sep 1649 and 11 Sep 1649 Drogheda, under the command of the Royalist Arthur Aston Soldier 1590-1649, was besieged by the Parliamentary army commanded by Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (50). When the Royalist forces surrendered they were killed once they had laid down their arms.
Arthur Aston Soldier 1590-1649 was killed.

Battle of Worcester

On 03 Sep 1651 at the Battle of Worcester Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle 1629-1685 (22). In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (28), Thomas Blagge 1613-1660 (38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (60) was captured. Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (36) provided 300 gold pieces to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) following his defeat.
Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet 1624-1693 (27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet Musgrave of Eden Hall 1607-1678 (44) fought for th Royalists.

In 1652 Charles Fleetwood 1618-1692 (34) and [his daughter] Bridget Cromwell 1624-1662 (28) were married.

John Evelyn's Diary 1652 March. 06 Mar 1652. Saw the magnificent funeral of that arch-rebel, Ireton, carried in pomp from Somerset House to Westminster, accompanied with divers regiments of soldiers, horse and foot; then marched the mourners, General Cromwell (52) (his father-in-law), his mock-parliament-men, officers, and forty poor men in gowns, three led horses in housings of black cloth, two led in black velvet, and his charging horse, all covered over with embroidery and gold, on crimson velvet; then the guidons, ensigns, four heralds, carrying the arms of the State (as they called it), namely, the red cross and Ireland, with the casque, wreath, sword, spurs, etc.; next, a chariot canopied of black velvet, and six horses, in which was the corpse; the pall held up by the mourners on foot; the mace and sword, with other marks of his charge in Ireland (where he died of the plague), carried before in black scarfs. Thus, in a grave pace, drums covered with cloth, soldiers reversing their arms, they proceeded through the streets in a very solemn manner. This Ireton was a stout rebel, and had been very bloody to the King (21)'s party, witness his severity at Colchester, when in cold blood he put to death those gallant gentlemen, Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle. My cousin, R. Fanshawe (43), came to visit me, and informed me of many considerable affairs. Sir Henry Herbert (57) presented me with his brother, my Lord Cherbury's book, "De Veritate.".

John Evelyn's Diary 1652 March. 15 Mar 1652. I saw the "Diamond" and "Ruby" launched in the Dock at Deptford, carrying forty-eight brass cannon each; Cromwell (52) and his grandees present, with great acclamations.

Indemnity and Oblivion Act

John Evelyn's Diary 1652 April. 05 Apr 1652. My brother George (34) brought to Sayes Court Cromwell's (52) Act of Oblivion to all that would submit to the Government.

On 10 May 1653 [his son] Henry Cromwell 1628-1674 (25) and Elizabeth Russell -1687 were married.

Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

On 16 Dec 1653 Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (54) was appointed Lord Protector.

In 1654 William Lockhart of Lee Ambassador 1621-1675 (33) and Robina Sewster 1630-1733 (24) were married. She being a niece of Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (54).

John Evelyn's Diary 1654 February. 08 Feb 1654. Ash Wednesday. In contradiction to all custom and decency, the usurper, Cromwell (54), feasted at the Lord Mayor's, riding in triumph through the city.

On 30 May 1654 Hugh Wyndham Baron of the Exchequer 1602-1684 (52) was appointed Justice of the Common Pleas by Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (55).

On 18 Nov 1654 [his mother] Elizabeth Steward 1565-1654 (89) died.

John Evelyn's Diary 1655 April. 9th April 1655. I went to see the great ship newly built by the usurper, Oliver (55), carrying ninety-six brass guns, and 1,000 tons burden. In the prow was Oliver (55) on horseback, trampling six nations under foot, a Scot, Irishman, Dutchman, Frenchman, Spaniard, and English, as was easily made out by their several habits. A Fame held a laurel over his insulting head; the word, God with us.

John Evelyn's Diary 1655 November. 27th November, 1655. To London about Sir Nicholas Crisp's (56) designs.
I went to see York House and gardens, belonging to the former great Buckingham, but now much ruined through neglect.
Thence, to visit honest and learned Mr. Hartlib (55), a public spirited and ingenious person, who had propagated many useful things and arts. He told me of the castles which they set for ornament on their stoves in Germany (he himself being a Lithuanian, as I remember), which are furnished with small ordnance of silver on the battlements, out of which they discharge excellent perfumes about the rooms, charging them with a little powder to set them on fire, and disperse the smoke: and in truth no more than need, for their stoves are sufficiently nasty. He told me of an ink that would give a dozen copies, moist sheets of paper being pressed on it; and remain perfect; and a receipt how to take off any print without the least injury to the original. This gentleman was master of innumerable curiosities, and very communicative. I returned home that evening by water; and was afflicted for it with a cold that had almost killed me.
This day, came forth the Protector's (56) Edict, or Proclamation, prohibiting all ministers of the Church of England from preaching or teaching any schools, in which he imitated the apostate, Julian; with the decimation of all the royal party's revenues throughout England.

John Evelyn's Diary 1655 December. 25th December, 1655. There was no more notice taken of Christmas-day in churches.
I went to London, where Dr. Wild preached the funeral sermon of Preaching, this being the last day; after which Cromwell's (56) proclamation was to take place, that none of the Church of England should dare either to preach, or administer Sacraments, teach schools, etc., on pain of imprisonment, or exile. So this was the most mournful day that in my life I had seen, or the Church of England herself, since the Reformation; to the great rejoicing of both Papist and Presbyter.54 So pathetic was his discourse, that it drew many tears from the auditory. Myself, wife (20), and some of our family, received the Communion, God make me thankful, who hath hitherto provided for us the food of our souls as well as bodies! The Lord Jesus pity our distressed Church, and bring back the captivity of Zion!.

John Evelyn's Diary 1656 February. 10th February 1656. I heard Dr. Wilkins (41) preach before the Lord Mayor in St. Paul's, showing how obedience was preferable to sacrifice. He was a most obliging person, who had married the Protector's (56) sister, and took great pains to preserve the Universities from the ignorant, sacrilegious commanders and soldiers, who would fain have demolished all places and persons that pretended to learning.

John Evelyn's Diary 1656 July. 10th July 1656. I returned homeward, passing again through Colchester; and, by the way, near the ancient town of Chelmsford, saw New Hall, built in a park by Henry VII. and VIII., and given by Queen Elizabeth to the Earl of Sussex, who sold it to the late great Duke of Buckingham, and since seized on by Oliver Cromwell (57) (pretended Protector). It is a fair old house, built with brick, low, being only of two stories, as the manner then was; the gate-house better; the court, large and pretty; the staircase, of extraordinary wideness, with a piece representing Sir Francis Drake's action in the year 1580, an excellent sea-piece; the galleries are trifling; the hall is noble; the garden a fair plot, and the whole seat well accommodated with water; but, above all, I admired the fair avenue planted with stately lime trees, in four rows, for near a mile in length. It has three descents, which is the only fault, and may be reformed. There is another fair walk of the same at the mall and wilderness, with a tennis-court, and pleasant terrace toward the park, which was well stored with deer and ponds.

John Evelyn's Diary 1656 August. 20th August 1656. Was a confused election of Parliament called by the Usurper (57).

John Evelyn's Diary 1656 September. 14th September 1656. Now was old Sir Henry Vane (43) sent to Carisbrook Castle, in Wight, for a foolish book he published; the pretended Protector (57) fortifying himself exceedingly, and sending many to prison.

After 1657 Colonel Silius Titus 1623-1704 was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 for having published a pamphlet "Killing No Muder" advocating the assassination of Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658.

John Evelyn's Diary 1657 February. 10th February 1657. I went to visit the governor of Havannah, a brave, sober, valiant Spanish gentleman, taken by Captain Young, of Deptford, when, after twenty years being in the Indies, and amassing great wealth, his lady and whole family, except two sons, were burned, destroyed, and taken within sight of Spain, his eldest son, daughter, and wife, perishing with immense treasure. One son, of about seventeen years old, with his brother of one year old, were the only ones saved. The young gentleman, about seventeen, was a well-complexioned youth, not olive-colored; he spoke Latin handsomely, was extremely well-bred, and born in the Caraccas, 1,000 miles south of the equinoctial, near the mountains of Potosi; he had never been in Europe before. The Governor was an ancient gentleman of great courage, of the order of St. Jago, sorely wounded in his arm, and his ribs broken; he lost for his own share £100,000 sterling, which he seemed to bear with exceeding indifference, and nothing dejected. After some discourse, I went with them to Arundel House, where they dined. They were now going back into Spain, having obtained their liberty from Cromwell (57). An example of human vicissitude!.

On 11 Nov 1657 Robert Rich 1634-1658 (23) and [his daughter] Frances Cromwell Baronetess Russell 1638-1720 (19) were married. He died three months later.

On 18 Nov 1657 Thomas Belasyse 1st Earl Fauconberg 1627-1700 (30) and [his daughter] Mary Cromwell Countess Fauconberg 1637-1713 (20) were married.

On 02 Aug 1658 [his daughter] Elizabeth Cromwell 1629-1658 (29) died.

Death and Funeral of Oliver Cromwell

John Evelyn's Diary 1658 September. 3d September 1658. Died that arch-rebel, Oliver Cromwell (59), called Protector.

On 03 Sep 1658 Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (59) died at Whitehall Palace. His son [his son] Richard Cromwell Lord Protector 1626-1712 (31) succeeded Lord Protector.

Death and Funeral of Oliver Cromwell

John Evelyn's Diary 1658 October. 22d October, 1658. Saw the superb funeral of the protector. He was carried from Somerset House in a velvet bed of state, drawn by six horses, housed with the same; the pall held by his new lords; Oliver lying in effigy, in royal robes, and crowned with a crown, sceptre, and globe, like a king. The pendants and guidons were carried by the officers of the army; the imperial banners, achievements, etc., by the heralds in their coats; a rich caparisoned horse, embroidered all over with gold; a knight of honor, armed cap-a-pie, and, after all, his guards, soldiers, and innumerable mourners. In this equipage, they proceeded to Westminster: but it was the most joyful funeral I ever saw; for there were none that cried but dogs, which the soldiers hooted away with a barbarous noise, drinking and taking tobacco in the streets as they went.
I returned not home till the 17th of November.
I was summoned again to London by the commissioners for new foundations to be erected within such a distance of London.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 January. 30th January 1661. Was the first solemn fast and day of humiliation to deplore the sins which had so long provoked God against this afflicted church and people, ordered by Parliament to be annually celebrated to expiate the guilt of the execrable murder of the late King.
This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Cromwell, Bradshawe (the judge who condemned his Majesty (30)), and Ireton (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster among the King (30)s, to Tyburn, and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious. Monument in a deep pit; thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being spectators. Look back at October 22, 1658, and be astonished! and fear God and honor the King (30); but meddle not with them who are given to change!.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1661 January. 30 Jan 1661..Fast day1. The first time that this day hath been yet observed: and Mr. Mills made a most excellent sermon, upon "Lord forgive us our former iniquities;" speaking excellently of the justice of God in punishing men for the sins of their ancestors.
Home, and John Goods comes, and after dinner I did pay him 30l. for my Lady (36), and after that Sir W. Pen (39) and I into Moorfields and had a brave talk, it being a most pleasant day, and besides much discourse did please ourselves to see young Davis and Whitton, two of our clerks, going by us in the field, who we observe to take much pleasure together, and I did most often see them at play together.
Back to the Old James in Bishopsgate Street, where Sir W. Batten and Sir Wm. Rider met him about business of the Trinity House. So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John, a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion.
Then to my Lady Batten’s; where wife (20) and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn. Then I home.
Note 1. 30 Jan the anniversary of the execution of Charles I and was regarded as a Fast Day.

On 30 Jan 1661 the remains of Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658, Henry Ireton 1611-1651 and John Bradshaw were exhumed from and mutilated in a posthumous execution.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 August. 9th August 1661. I tried several experiments on the sensitive plant and humilis, which contracted with the least touch of the sun through a burning glass, though it rises and opens only when it shines on it.
I first saw the famous Queen Pine brought from Barbadoes, and presented to his Majesty (31); but the first that were ever seen in England were those sent to Cromwell four years since.
I dined at Mr. Palmer's in Gray's Inn, whose curiosity excelled in clocks and pendules, especially one that had innumerable motions, and played nine or ten tunes on the bells very finely, some of them set in parts: which was very harmonious. It was wound up but once in a quarter. He had also good telescopes and mathematical instruments, choice pictures, and other curiosities. Thence, we went to that famous mountebank, Jo. Punteus.
Sir Kenelm Digby (58) presented every one of us his "Discourse of the Vegetation of Plants"; and Mr. Henshaw (43), his "History of Saltpeter and Gunpowder." I assisted him to procure his place of French Secretary to the King (31), which he purchased of Sir Henry De Vic (62).
I went to that famous physician, Sir Fr. Prujean, who showed me his laboratory, his workhouse for turning, and other mechanics; also many excellent pictures, especially the Magdalen of Caracci; and some incomparable paysages done in distemper; he played to me likewise on the polythore, an instrument having something of the harp, lute, and theorbo; by none known in England, nor described by any author, nor used, but by this skillful and learned Doctor.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. Curiosity to see a man equally famous for his crimes and his elevation, had once before induced the Chevalier de Grammont to visit England. Reasons of state assume great privileges. Whatever appears advantageous is lawful, and every thing that is necessary is honourable in politics. While the King of England sought the protection of Spain in the Low Countries, and that of the States-General in Holland, other powers sent splendid embassies to Cromwell.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. This man, whose ambition had opened him a way to sovereign power by the greatest crimes, maintained himself in it by accomplishments which seemed to render him worthy of it by their lustre. The nation, of all Europe the least submissive, patiently bore a yoke which did not even leave her the shadow of that liberty of which she is so jealous; and Cromwell, master of the Commonwealth, under the title of Lord Protector, feared at home, but yet more dreaded abroad, was at his highest pitch of glory when he was seen by the Chevalier de Grammont; but the Chevalier did not see any appearance of a court. One part of the nobility proscribed, the other Removed from employments; an affectation of purity of manners, instead of the luxury which the pomp of courts displays all taken together, presented nothing but sad and serious objects in the finest city in the world; and therefore the Chevalier acquired nothing by this voyage but the idea of some merit in a profligate man, and the admiration of some concealed beauties he had found means to discover.

John Evelyn's Diary Introduction. Returned to England, Evelyn strictly follows the line of the average English country gentleman, execrating the execution of Charles I., disgusted beyond measure with the suppression of the Church of England service, but submissive to the powers that be until there are evident indications of a change, which he promotes in anything but a Quixotic spirit. Although he is sincerely attached to the monarchy, the condition of the Church is evidently a matter of greater concern to him: Oliver Cromwell would have done much to reconcile the royalists to his government, had it been possible for him to have restored the liturgy and episcopacy. The same lesson is to be derived from his demeanor during the reigns of Charles and James. The exultation with which the Restoration is at first hailed soon evaporates. The scandals of the Court are an offense, notwithstanding Evelyn's personal attachment to the King. But the chief point is not vice or favoritism or mismanagement, but alliances with Roman Catholic powers against Protestant nations. Evelyn is enraged to see Charles missing the part so clearly pointed out to him by Providence as the protector of the Protestant religion all over Europe. The conversion of the Duke of York is a fearful blow, James's ecclesiastical policy after his accession adds to Evelyn's discontent day by day, while political tyranny passes almost without remark. At last the old cavalier is glad to welcome the Prince of Orange as deliverer, and though he has no enthusiasm for William in his character as King, he remains his dutiful subject. Just because Evelyn was by no means an extraordinary person, he represents the plain straightforward sense of the English gentry. The questions of the seventeenth century were far more religious than political. The synthesis "Church and King" expressed the dearest convictions of the great majority of English country families, but when the two became incompatible they left no doubt which held the first place in their hearts. They acted instinctively on the principle of the Persian lady who preferred her brother to her husband. It was not impossible to find a new King, but there was no alternative to the English Church.

John Evelyn's Diary Editor's Introduction. Evelyn lived in the busy and important times of King Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, King Charles II., King James II., and King William, and early accustomed himself to note such things as occurred, which he thought worthy of remembrance. He was known to, and had much personal intercourse with, the Kings Charles II. and James II.; and he was in habits of great intimacy with many of the ministers of these two monarchs, and with many of the eminent men of those days, as well among the clergy as the laity. Foreigners distinguished for learning, or arts, who came to England, did not leave it without visiting him.
The following pages contribute extensive and important particulars of this eminent man. They show that he did not travel merely to count steeples, as he expresses himself in one of his Letters: they develop his private character as one of the most amiable kind. With a strong predilection for monarchy, with a personal attachment to Kings Charles II. and James II., formed when they resided at Paris, he was yet utterly averse to the arbitrary measures of these monarchs.
Strongly and steadily attached to the doctrine and practice of the Church of England, he yet felt the most liberal sentiments for those who differed from him in opinion. He lived in intimacy with men of all persuasions; nor did he think it necessary to break connection with anyone who had ever been induced to desert the Church of England, and embrace the doctrines of that of Rome. In writing to the brother of a gentleman thus circumstanced, in 1659, he expresses himself in this admirable manner: "For the rest, we must commit to Providence the success of times and mitigation of proselytical fervors; having for my own particular a very great charity for all who sincerely adore the Blessed Jesus, our common and dear Saviour, as being full of hope that God (however the present zeal of some, and the scandals taken by others at the instant [present] affliction of the Church of England may transport them) will at last compassionate our infirmities, clarify our judgments, and make abatement for our ignorances, superstructures, passions, and errors of corrupt times and interests, of which the Romish persuasion can no way acquit herself, whatever the present prosperity and secular polity may pretend. But God will make all things manifest in his own time, only let us possess ourselves in patience and charity. This will cover a multitude of imperfections.".

John Evelyn's Diary Editor's Introduction. He speaks with great moderation of the Roman Catholics in general, admitting that some of the laws enacted against them might be mitigated; but of the Jesuits he had the very worst opinion, considering them as a most dangerous Society, and the principal authors of the misfortunes which befell King James II., and of the horrible persecutions of the Protestants in France and Savoy.
He must have conducted himself with uncommon prudence and address, for he had personal friends in the Court of Cromwell, at the same time that he was corresponding with his father-in-law, Sir Richard Browne, the Ambassador of King Charles II. at Paris; and at the same period that he paid his court to the King, he maintained his intimacy with a disgraced minister.
In his travels, he made acquaintance not only with men eminent for learning, but with men ingenious in every art and profession.

John Evelyn's Diary Editor's Introduction. After he had settled at Deptford, which was in the time of Cromwell, he kept up a constant correspondence with Sir Richard Browne (his father-in-law), the King's Ambassador at Paris; and though his connection must have been known, it does not appear that he met with any interruption from the government here. Indeed, though he remained a decided Royalist, he managed so well as to have intimate friends even among those nearly connected with Cromwell; and to this we may attribute his being able to avoid taking the Covenant, which he says he never did take. In 1659, he published "An Apology for the Royal Party"; and soon after printed a paper which was of great service to the King, entitled "The Late News, or Message from Brussels Unmasked," which was an answer to a pamphlet designed to represent the King in the worst light.

John Evelyn's Diary 1657 March. The Protector Oliver, now affecting kingship, is petitioned to take the title on him by all his newly-made sycophant lords, etc.; but dares not, for fear of the fanatics, not thoroughly purged out of his rebel army.

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 25 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings England: Great x 17 Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Kings Franks: Great x 25 Grand Son of Louis "Pious" King Aquitaine, I King Franks 778-840

Kings France: Great x 20 Grand Son of Robert "Pious" II King France 972-1031

Ancestry

Father: Robert Cromwell 1563-1617 16 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

GrandFather: Henry Cromwell 1535- 15 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great GrandFather: Richard Cromwell 1495-1544 14 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Morgan Williams

Great x 2 GrandMother: Katherine Cromwell 13 x Great Granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Walter Cromwell 1453-1510 12 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Cromwell 1437-1480 11 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Katherine Glossop

Great GrandMother: Frances Mirfyn

GrandMother: Joan Warren 1545-1584

Great GrandFather: Ralph Warren Lord Mayor London 1486-1553

Mother: Elizabeth Steward 1565-1654

GrandFather: William Steward 1538-