Biography of Richard III King England 1452-1485

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot (possibly)

1461 Coronation of Edward IV

1461 Battle of Tewkesbury Trial of the Captured

1464 Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

1465 George Neville's Enthronement as Archbishop of York

1468 Meeting at Salisbury

1469 Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

1470 Angers Agreement

1470 Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury

1471 Battle of Barnet

1472 Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1475 Treaty of Picquigny

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1482 Capture of Berwick

1483 Death of Edward IV

1483 Richard III's Dinner with the Woodvilles

1483 Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

1483 Death of George Neville

1483 Richard III appointed Lord Protector

1483 Execution of Hastings

1483 Richard III elected King by the Three Estates

1483 Richard III Rewards his Supporters

1483 Coronation of Richard III

1483 Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

1483 Edward of Middleham created Prince of Wales

1483 Buckingham's Rebellion

1484 Opening Parliament

1484 Richard III Secures Elizabeth Woodville's Daughters

1484 Death of King Richard III's Heir

1484 Titulus Regius

1485 Richard III publicly denies that he intended to marry his niece Elizabeth

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1485 Queen Consort Anne Neville Dies


Family Trees

Descent

Ancestry

On Oct 1429 [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (18) and [his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (14) were married (he was her second-cousin). Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (14) by marriage Countess Cambridge (3C 1414) Countess Ulster. She was the youngest sister of Richard's brother-in-arms Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (29).

In 1446 [his brother] Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (2) was created 1st Earl Rutland (2C 1446).

Before 30 Jul 1447 Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 and [his sister] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 were married (he was her half second-cousin).

On 02 Oct 1452 Richard III King England 1452-1485 was born to [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (41) and [his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (37) at Fotheringay Castle.

Before Feb 1458 John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and [his sister] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 were married (he was her half third-cousin). Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 by marriage Marchioness Suffolk (1C).

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33) and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
[his father] Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was killed. His son [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) succeeded 4th Duke York (1C 1385), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge (3C 1414).
Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (29), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed. Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed. Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle [his brother] Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

In 1461 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) was created 1st Duke Gloucester (3C 1461).

In 1461 [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (11) was created 1st Duke Clarence (3C 1461).

Battle of Tewkesbury Trial of the Captured

On 05 May 1461 those captured at the Battle of Tewkesbury were tried in the Market Square, Tewkesbury by John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (36) and the Duke of Gloucester (8): Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471, Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471, Gervase Clifton 1405-1471, Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 and Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot (possibly)

Around Jun 1461 , the record is very vague, Edward IV King England 1442-1483 and Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 (25) were possibly secretly married by Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41) provided the information to the future Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since [his brother] Edward IV's (19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and [his brother] George Duke of Clarence's (11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder. .

Coronation of Edward IV

On 28 Jun 1461 [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) was crowned IV King England: Plantagenet York by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (43) who was assisted by William Booth Archbishop of York 1388-1464 at Westminster Abbey during the Coronation of Edward IV.

On 28 Feb 1463 John Lovell 8th Baron Lovel 5th Baron Holand 1433-1463 (30) died. On 28 Feb 1463 His son Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (7) succeeded 9th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, 6th Baron Holand at around eight years of age. He became a ward of [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (20) who gave his wardship to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (35) spending his childhood at Middleham Castle, Middleham with the young (future) Richard III King England 1452-1485 (10).

Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

Around May 1464 [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (27) were married at Grafton Regis. Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (49), Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness. .

In 1465 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (12) was appointed 198th Knight of the Garter by [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22).

George Neville's Enthronement as Archbishop of York

On 06 Sep 1465 George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (33) was enthroned as Archbishop of York at Cawood Castle, Cawood, North Yorkshire. Isabel Neville 1451-1476 (14), [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (9) and Richard III King England 1452-1485 (12) were present. .

Meeting at Salisbury

On 10 May 1468 [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26), his brother Richard III King England 1452-1485 (15), John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (41) and John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (42) met in the Chapter House, Salisbury Cathedral. .

Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

On 11 Jul 1469 [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (19) and Isabel Neville 1451-1476 (17) were married (he was her first-cousin once-removed) by George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (37) at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais in Calais witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41). Isabel Neville 1451-1476 (17) by marriage 1st Duke Clarence (3C 1461). .

Angers Agreement

On 22 Jul 1470 Warwick the Kingmaker (42), Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (48) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (40) signed the Angers Agreement at Angers Cathedral. The agreement had been brokered by King Louis XI of France (47). Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 (16) and [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were betrothed as part of the Agreement.

Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

On 13 Dec 1470 Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 (17) and [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were married (he was her half third-cousin) at Angers Cathedral, Angers. Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) was appointed Princess Wales. .

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 [his brother] Edward IV (28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers [his brother] George (21) and Richard (18), John Babington 1423-1485 (48), Wiliam Hastings (40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings -1495, William Norreys 1441-1507 (30), William Parr KG 1434-1483 (37), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) and Thomas Strickland -1494.
The Yorkists William Blount -1471, Humphrey Bourchier 1431-1471, Humphrey Bourchier 1435-1471 and Thomas Parr -1471 were killed. Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) was killed making his wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (27) a widow for the second time.
The Lancastrians Warwick the Kingmaker (43), John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 and William Tyrrell -1471 were killed.
William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 (43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele 1446-1476 (25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.
Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) and John Paston 1444-1504 (27) were wounded, John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (28) commanded, and John Paston 1442-1479 (29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (33) fought. .
Robert Harleston 1435-1471 (36) was killed.
Thomas Hen Salusbury 1409-1471 (62) was killed.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge, St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

Battle of Tewkesbury

On 04 May 1471 [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury.
His brother Richard (18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 (36), John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (46), George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (31), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), John Savage 1444-1492, Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) fought. William Brandon 1425-1491 (46), George Browne 1440-1483 (31), Ralph Hastings -1495, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 (38), James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40) commanded.
Margaret of Anjou (41) was captured. Her son Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 (17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (11) whose line continues to the present.
John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (36), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471, Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471 and John Beaufort 1441-1471 were killed.
Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471 and Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471 were captured.
William Vaux of Harrowden 1436-1471 (35) was killed.

Before 1472 [his illegitimate son] John York 1471-1499 was born illegitimately to Richard III King England 1452-1485.

Before 1472 [his illegitimate daughter] Katherine York Countess Pembroke 1471-1487 was born illegitimately to Richard III King England 1452-1485.

In 1472 [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (22) was created 1st Earl Salisbury (3C 1472).

Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (19) and [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (16) were married (he was her first-cousin once-removed) at St Stephen's Chapel. Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (16) by marriage Duchess Gloucester (3C 1461).

On Dec 1473 [his son] Edward York Prince Wales 1473-1484 was born to Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) and [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (17) at Middleham Castle, Middleham.

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that [his brother] Edward IV's (31) two younger brothers [his brother] George (24) and the Richard (21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (47) daughters, Isabel (22) and [his wife] Anne (17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.
Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (31) and before Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer Snape 1468-1530 (6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (56).

In 1474 Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (34) and [his sister] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (34) were married.

Parliament Rolls.Edward IV Oct 1472.Second Roll. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster. Exemplification at the request of Richard Duke of Gloucester (21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster, 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that [his brother] George Duke Clarence (24), and Isabel (22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and [his wife] Anne (17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle, late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to Anne Beauchamp (47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (24) and Isabel (22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said Richard (21) and Anne (17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield and Scarvesdale sometime of Ales, late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act..

Treaty of Picquigny

On 29 Aug 1475 [his brother] Edward IV (33) signed the Treaty of Picquigny; in effect a non-aggression pact or, possiblY, a protection racket. France would pay Edward a pension of 50,000 crowns per year as long as he didn't invade France. Cardinal Bourchier (57) arbitrated on behalf of Edward. William Hastings (44) received a pension of 2000 crowns per year, John Howard and Thomas Montgomery 1200 each, Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York (52) 1000, Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (55) 600.
Edward's youngest brother Richard (22) opposed the Treaty considering it dishonourable. Roger Cheney 1442-1499 (33) was present at the signing, and remained as a hostage until Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (33) returned to England.

On 14 Jan 1476 Anne St Leger Baroness Ros Helmsley 1476-1526 was born to Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (36) and [his sister] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (36). Her mother (36) died in childbirth. She (36) was buried at St Leger Chantry, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

On 15 Feb 1478 [his son] Edward York Prince Wales 1473-1484 (4) was created 1st Earl Salisbury (4C 1478).

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

On 18 Feb 1478 Edward's brother [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was drowned in a butt of wine; Malmsey wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London This story may be an invention. William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason. The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

Capture of Berwick

On 24 Aug 1482 Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (20) was knighted by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (29) at Berwick on Tweed during the Capture of Berwick.

In 1483 Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48) was appointed 224th Knight of the Garter by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30).

In 1483 Richard Ratclyffe 1430-1485 was appointed 223rd Knight of the Garter by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30)..

In 1483 Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (52) was appointed 225th Knight of the Garter by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30)..

In 1483 Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (40) was appointed 222nd Knight of the Garter by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30).

Around 1483 John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (72) was appointed Knight of the Body to Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30).

Death of Edward IV

On 09 Apr 1483 [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (40) died at Westminster. His son [his nephew] Edward V King England 1470- (12) succeeded V King England: Plantagenet York. Those present included Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28).

Richard III's Dinner with the Woodvilles

On 30 Apr 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) met Richard Grey 1457-1483 (26) and Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (43) at Stony Stratford who were accompanying [his nephew] Edward V King England 1470- (12) to from Ludlow to London. All three had dinner together. .

Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

On 01 May 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arrested Richard Grey 1457-1483 (26), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (43) and Thomas Vaughan Master 1410-1483 at Stony Stratford. [his nephew] Edward V King England 1470- (12) was taken under his uncle Richard's Protection to London. .

The History of King Richard the Third. 01 May 1483. And as soon as they came in his presence, they alighted down with all their company about them. To whom the Duke of Buckingham (28) said, "Go before, gentlemen and yeomen, keep your rooms." And thus in a goodly array, they came to the [his nephew] King (12) and, on their knees in very humble fashion, assuaged his Grace, who received them in very joyous and amiable manner, nothing earthly knowing nor mistrusting as yet. But even by and by, in his presence, they picked a quarrel with the Lord Richard Grey (26), the King’s other brother by his mother, saying that he, with the Lord Marquis (28) his brother and the Lord Rivers (43) his uncle, had planned to rule the King and the realm, and to set variance among the lords, and to subdue and destroy the noble blood of the realm. Toward the accomplishing whereof, they said that the Lord Marquis (28) had entered into the Tower of London, and thence taken out the King’s treasure, and sent men to the sea. All of which things, these dukes knew well, were done for good purposes and necessary ones by the whole council at London, except that they must say something.
Unto which words, the King (12) answered, "What my brother marquis (28) has done I cannot say. But in good faith I dare well answer for mine uncle Rivers (43) and my brother (26) here, that they be innocent of any such matters."
"Yea, my Liege," said the Duke of Buckingham (28), "they have kept their dealing in these matters far from the knowledge of your good Grace."
And forthwith they arrested the Lord Richard (26) and Sir Thomas Vaughan, knight, in the King’s (12) presence, and brought the King (12) and all back unto Northampton, where they took again further counsel. And there they sent away from the King (12) whomever it pleased them, and set new servants about him, such as liked them better than him. At which dealing he wept and was nothing content, but it remedied not. And at dinner the Duke of Gloucester (30) sent a dish from his own table to the Lord Rivers (43), praying him to be of good cheer, all should be well enough. And he thanked the Duke (30), and prayed the messenger to bear it to his nephew, the Lord Richard (26), with the same message for his comfort, who he thought had more need of comfort, as one to whom such adversity was foreign. But for himself, he had been all his days used to a life therewith, and therefore could bear it the better. But for all this comfortable courtesy of the Duke of Gloucester (30), he sent the Lord Rivers (43) and the Lord Richard (26) with Sir Thomas Vaughan into the north country to different places to prison and, afterwards, all to Pomfrait, where they were, in conclusion, beheaded..

The History of King Richard the Third. Around 03 May 1483. In this way the Duke of Gloucester (30) took upon himself the order and governance of the young king, whom, with much honor and humble reverence, he conveyed upward toward the city.

Death of George Neville

On 04 May 1483 George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (22) died. He being the son of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, the nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker who should, perhaps, have inherited the Earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury from his mother that had been appropriated by George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (22) and Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). The timing somewhat suspicious. The future Richard III would now enjoy the whole of the Warwick inheritance. .

Richard III appointed Lord Protector

Before 08 May 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 was appointed Lord Protector.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 16 May 1483. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster. Grant for life to the king's servant Henry Duke of Buckingham (28), of the offices of chief justice and chamberlain in South and North Wales, constable of the castles and counties of Kermerdyn and Cardigan, the castles of Abrustwith, co Cardigan, and Denevour in South Wales, the castle and town of Tonebigh , co. Pembroke, the castle and lordship of Kylgarvan in South Wales, the castle and town of Llan Stepham in South Wales, the lordship of Wallewynscastell in South Wales, the lordship of Westhaverford in South Wales , constable, steward, and receiver of the castle, lordshiop and manor of Uske , the castle and lordship of Carlion , the castle, lordship and manor of Dynas, the castle and a moiety of the lordship of Ewyas Lacy, the castles, lordships and manors of Belth,Clifford, Radnore, Melenyth, Montgomery, Dynbigh, Elvell and Narberth, the castle, lordship and manors of Wygmore and Holt in the marches of Wales, and the lordship and manor of Bromfield in the same marches, steward and receiver of the lordships and manors of Norton, Knyghton, Raydor, Guerthrenyon, Comotoyder, Glasbury, Weryfreton, Cherbury, Terthic, Halcetur, Kadewyn, Newton, Kyry in the marches.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 20 May 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster. Grant to the king's kinsman Henry Duke of Buckingham (28), of the supervision and power of array of the king's subjects in the counties of Salop, Hereford, Somerset, Dorset and Wilts. By p.s.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 20 May 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster. Grant for life to the king's servant William Hastings (52), knight, of the office of master and worker of the king's moneys and keeper of the exchange within the Tower of London, the realm of England and the town of Calais according to the form of certain indentures, receiving the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Execution of Hastings

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle next to [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483. His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings (2C 1430). Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings, 4th Baroness Hungerford 1466-1553 (17) by marriage Baroness Hastings (2C 1430).
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

Richard III elected King by the Three Estates

On 26 Jun 1483 Richard III (30) accepted the invitation of the citizens of London to become King. .

On 26 Jun 1483 [his son] Edward York Prince Wales 1473-1484 (9) was created as Duke Cornwall.

Richard III Rewards his Supporters

On 28 Jun 1483 John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) was created 1st Duke Norfolk (3C 1483) by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) was created 1st Earl Nottingham (4C 1483). Significant insofar as both men were heirs to the vast Mowbray estates that had been inherited by Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 who had then been married to Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-. Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- 's father [his brother] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 had attempted by very flawed legal process to legislate so that even in the event of Anne's death his son Richard would continue to benefit from the inheritance. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) was restoring John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) to their rightful inheritance. .

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 30 Jun 1483 William Catesby 1450-1485 was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Grant for life to William Catesby, esquire, of the office of Baron of the Exchequer, receiving the accustomed fees at the Exchequer or the receipt of the Exchequer, with all rights, profits and commodities. By p.s.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 30 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster. Commission to the king's kinsman John duke of Norfolk (58), to execute the office of steward of England at the king's coronation. By K.

Coronation of Richard III

On 06 Jul 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) was crowned III King England: Plantagenet York by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65) at Westminster Abbey. [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (27) by marriage Queen Consort England. See Coronation of Richard III.
John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) was appointed Lord High Steward. William Brandon 1425-1491 (58), Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel 1450-1524 (33), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (43), Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 (50), Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), [his sister] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (39), Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (32) and Humphrey Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1424-1485 (59) attended.
Robert Dymoke 1461-1544 (22) attended as the Kings' Champion.
Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (66) carried The Pointed Sword of Justice. Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (40) carried the Crown. Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (27) carried the Third Sword of State. John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (40) carried the Sceptre. John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21) carried the Cross and Ball. Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28) carried the king's train. Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire 1470-1499 (13) bore the Queen's Crown.
Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48) carried the Lord High Constable's Mace. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (40) held Queen Anne's train. Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (5) carried The Blunt Sword of Mercy. Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1453-1499 (30) was appointed Knight of the Bath.
[his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (68) refused to attend the Coronation of Richard III. History doesn't record her reason.

After 06 Jul 1483 Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 was appointed 221st Knight of the Garter by Richard III King England 1452-1485..

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 15 Jul 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28) was appointed Constable England. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Henry, Duke of Buckingham (28), of divers specified offices and powers in North and South Wales and the marches.
The like to the same of the office of constable of England, with the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 25 Jul 1483. John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) was appointed Lord Admiral of all England Ireland and Aquitaine. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Henry (58), duke of Norfolk, of the office of admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine, with certain specified powers and the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

Around Aug 1483 [his nephew] Edward V King England 1470- (12) and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- disappeared, presumably killed, from the Tower of London. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (5) reports, sometime after the event, that Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) requested Robert Brackenbury -1485 undertake the murder of the children. Upon Brackenbury's refusal Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) instructed Robert Brackenbury -1485 give the keys to the Tower to James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (28) who would then undertake the task. .

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 14 Aug 1483 Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (27) was appointed Chief Butler of England. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Francis Lovell (27), knight, viscount Lovel, the king's chamberlain, of the office of Chief Butler of England, void by the death of Anthony, late earl Rivers, receiving fees of 100l yearly from the customs and prises of wines and other issues of his office, with all other profits. By p.s.

Before Sep 1483 Marmaduke Constable 1457-1518 was appointed Knight of the Body to Richard III King England 1452-1485.

Edward of Middleham created Prince of Wales

On 08 Sep 1483 [his son] Edward York Prince Wales 1473-1484 (9) was created Prince Wales, Earl Chester (6C 1483) at York Minster. His parents Richard III (30) and [his wife] Anne Neville (27) attended as did Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire 1470-1499 (13). Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (8) and [his illegitimate son] John York 1471-1499 (11) were knighted.

Buckingham's Rebellion

In Oct 1483 Buckingham's Rebellion was an attempt to replace Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) with Henry Tudor (26). Richard Haute -1487 took part. He escaped execution, and was subsequently pardoned.
Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30) was attainted.
On 02 Nov 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (29) was beheaded in Salisbury Marketplace for his part in the rebellion. His son Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (5) succeeded 8th Earl Stafford (1C 1351), 9th Baron Stafford (1C 1299).
On 08 Nov 1483 Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (43) was executed at Exeter Castle, Exeter.
Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28) and Eleanor Bohun Countess Ormonde 1304-1363 escaped to Henry VII in Brittany. Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (18), Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (32) and Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon -1509 took part.!The rebellion was suppressed by Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (33) and Robert Willoughby 1st Baron Willoughby Broke 1452-1502 (31).
On 04 Dec 1483 George Browne 1440-1483 (43) was beheaded at Tower Hill.
On 23 Jan 1484 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (40) was subject to an attainder in the first Parliament of Richard III for her involvement. Whilst the Act was described as an Attainder Richard in effect transferred all of Margaret's property to her husband Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48) as follows:
An act for the attainder of Margaret, countess of Richmond (40):
Because Margaret, countess of Richmond, mother of the king's great rebel and traitor, Henry, earl of Richmond, has lately conspired, leagued and committed high treason against our sovereign lord King Richard III in various ways, and in particular by sending messages, writings and tokens to the said Henry, urging, instigating and stirring him by them to come into this realm to make war upon our said sovereign lord; to which urging, instigation and stirring the said Henry applied himself, as experience has recently shown. Also, the said countess supplied great sums of money within the city of London as well as elsewhere in this realm to be employed in the execution of the said treason and malicious purpose; and the said countess also conspired, leagued and plotted the destruction of our said sovereign lord, and knew of and assented to, and assisted in the treason planned and committed by Henry, late Duke of Buckingham, and his supporters, for which he and some of his supporters have been attainted by an act in this present parliament. Nevertheless, our said sovereign lord, of his special grace, mindful of the good and faithful service which Thomas, Lord Stanley, has given and intends to give our said sovereign lord, and for the sincere love and trust which the king has in him, and for his sake, remits and will forbear the great punishment of attainting the said countess, which she or anyone else doing the same has deserved; and in consideration of the foregoing, our said sovereign lord wills that it be enacted, ordained and decreed, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons assembled in this present parliament, and by authority of the same, that the said countess henceforth shall be legally unable to have, inherit or enjoy any manors, lands or tenements, or other hereditaments or possessions whatsoever, and also henceforth shall be unable to bear or have any name of estate or dignity; and that the said countess shall forfeit to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs all the castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments and possessions, whatsoever they may be, of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised or possessed of estate of fee-simple, fee-tail, term of life, in dower or otherwise. And be it ordained by the said authority that all the said castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments with the appurtenances of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised of estate of fee-simple or fee-tail, shall remain to the said Thomas for term of his life, and after his death to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs. And moreover, all the lordships, manors, lands, tenements, rents, services and reversions of which the said countess, or any other person to her use, is now seised of estate, term of her life or in dower, shall remain to the said Thomas during her life. And if the said Thomas dies during the lifetime of the said countess, they shall remain to the king; saving to every person and persons, except the said countess and her heirs, their right, title and interest in the said lands and tenements.

Around 1520 Unknown Artist. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 23 Oct 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31). Leicester. Precept to the Sheriff of Devon to issue a proclamation (English) denouncing Thomas Dorset, late Marquess of Dorset (28), who holds unshameful and mischievous woman called Shore's wife in adultery, Sir William Noreys (42), Sir William Knevet (43), Sir Thomas Bourghchier of Barnes, Sir George Broun, knights, John Cheyne, John Noreis, Walter Hungerford, John Russh and John Harecourt of Staunton, who have assembled the Person by the comfort of the great rebel the late duke of Bukyngham (29) and bishops of Ely and Salisbury, and offering rewards for their capture and pardon for all who withdraw from them. By K.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. On 28 Oct 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31). Leicester. General commission of array to the king's kinsman Francis Lovell, viscount Lovel his chamberlain, for the resistance of the rebel Henry, duke of Buskingham. Mutilated. By K. by word of mouth.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. On 05 Nov 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31). Bridport. Commission of array in Wales to the king's kinsman William, earl of Huntingdon, and James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (28), knight, for the resistance of the rebels. By K. by word of mouth.
The like to James Tyrell, knight.

Titulus Regius

In 1484 Titulus Regius was the Act of Parliament that justified Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31)'s succession.

In 1484 William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1451-1491 (32) and [his illegitimate daughter] Katherine York Countess Pembroke 1471-1487 (12) were married. Katherine York Countess Pembroke 1471-1487 (12) by marriage Countess Pembroke (8C 1468).

Around 1484 Richard Tunstall 1427-1492 (57) was appointed 226th Knight of the Garter by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31).

Around 1484 John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (73) was appointed 227th Knight of the Garter by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31)..

1484 Opening Parliament

Richard III Parliament Rolls 1484 The Opening of Parliament. Be it remembered that on Friday, 23 January in the first year of the reign of King Richard the third (31) since the conquest , that is, on the first day of parliament, with the lord king sitting on the royal throne in the Painted Chamber within his palace of Westminster, then being present many lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons of the realm of England, assembled at the aforesaid parliament at the king's command, the venerable father John, bishop of Lincoln, chancellor of England memorably declared and announced the reasons for summoning the aforesaid parliament, taking as his theme: 'In the body there are many limbs, but not all have the same function'. In which words he gravely and very astutely explained the fealty which subjects of the king (31) and the functions individual members owe to the principal member, asserting that there are three kinds of body, namely the natural, the aggregate and the politic, and going on to suggest that one coin, the tenth, had been lost from the most precious fabric of the body politic of England and that to hunt for it and find it would require the king and all the lords spiritual and temporal to be very assiduous and diligent during this parliament; concluding that after the finding of the tenth coin, which signifies perfection, our body politic of England would endure gloriously and for a long time, healthy, safe and free from all damage or injury; the king (31), the great men of the realm and the commons eternally cherishing peace outward and inward and the author of that peace. At the end of which declaration and announcement, the aforesaid chancellor in the king's (31) name firmly ordered the commons to assemble on the following day in their common house as usual and elect one of their number as their speaker, and to present the man thus elected to the same lord king. The same chancellor announced moreover that the said lord king, wishing justice to be done more swiftly both to denizens and aliens wishing to complain in the said parliament, had appointed and assigned certain receivers of the petitions to be presented in the same parliament in the following form ...
.

Richard III Secures Elizabeth Woodville's Daughters

In Mar 1484 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31) attempted to persuade Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (47) to leave Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey by promising to secure suitable marriages for her daughters.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. On 09 Mar 1484 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31). Westminster. Grant for life to the king's servant Robert Brackenbury -1485 of the office of Constable of the Tower of London and 100l. yearly for his wages from the issues of the manors or lordships of Wrottell, Haveryng, Boyton, Hadlegh, Raylegh and Rocheford, co Essex, and Tunbrich, Penshurste, Middleton and Merdon and the hundred of Middleton, co Kent, with arrears from 17 July last, in lieu of a grant to him by letters patent of that date surrendered. By p.s.

Death of King Richard III's Heir

On 09 Apr 1484 [his son] Edward York Prince Wales 1473-1484 (10) died at Middleham Castle, Middleham leaving his father Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31) without an heir.

In Jul 1484 William Collingbourne, a Tudor agent, tacked up a lampooning poem to Old St Paul's Cathedral, which mentions Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (28), whose family's heraldic symbol was a silver wolf, among the three aides to King Richard III (31), whose emblem was a white boar:
The Catte, the Ratte and Lovell our dogge
Rulyth all Englande under a hogge.

Queen Consort Anne Neville Dies

On 16 Mar 1485 [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (28) died at Westminster Palace. Probably of tuberculosis. The day she died there was an Eclipse of the Sun; a bad omen to some. There were rumours of foul play.

Richard III publicly denies that he intended to marry his niece Elizabeth

On 30 Mar 1485 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (32) publicly rebutted rumours in front of the Mayor and citizens of London that he intended to marry his niece [his niece] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (19).

Around 1675 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His second-cousin once-removed Henry Tudor (28) succeeded VII King England and Ireland: Tudor.
Those supporting Henry Tudor included:
John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy 1450-1485 (35)
John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (43)
Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (35)
Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (20)
Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50)
John Wingfield -1509
Edward Woodville Lord Scales -1488
Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon -1509
Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1449-1525 (36)
Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53)
William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (47)
Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (34)
William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (50)
Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (52)
Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (38)
William Brandon 1456-1485 (29) was killed
James Harrington 1430-1485 (55) was killed
John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (60) was killed. His son Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) succeeded 13th Baron Mowbray (1C 1283), 14th Baron Segrave (2C 1295). Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (40) by marriage Baroness Mowbray (1C 1283), Baron Segrave (2C 1295).
John Sacheverell 1400-1485 (85) was killed
Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486,
William Norreys 1441-1507 (44), Gilbert Talbot 1452-1517 (33), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (42) and John Savage 1444-1492 commanded,
Robert Poyntz 1450-1520 (35) was knighted.
Those who fought for Richard III included:
John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers Groby 1438-1495 (47)
John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (74)
Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (17)
William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59)
Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh 1457-1487 (28)
John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (48)
Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham 1459-1493 (26)
Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (50)
Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (68)
Ralph Neville 3rd Earl Westmoreland 1456-1499 (29)
John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23)
Humphrey Stafford 1426-1486 (59)
George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury, 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (17)
Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) was wounded.
Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (29) fought and escaped.
John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1459-1526 (26) was captured.
John Babington 1423-1485 (62), William Alington 1420-1485, Robert Mortimer 1442-1485, Robert Brackenbury -1485, Richard Ratclyffe 1430-1485 and Richard Bagot 1412-1485 were killed.

After 22 Aug 1485 Richard III King England 1452-1485 was buried at Greyfriars Church, Leicester.

John Evelyn's Diary 1654 August. 09 Aug 1654. To the old and ragged city of Leicester, large and pleasantly seated, but despicably built, the chimney flues like so many smiths' forges; however, famous for the tomb of the tyrant, Richard III, which is now converted to a cistern, at which (I think) cattle drink. Also, here in one of the churches lies buried the magnificent Cardinal Wolsey. John of Gaunt has here also built a large but poor hospital, near which a wretch has made him a house out of the ruins of a stately church. Saw the ruins of an old Roman Temple, thought to be of Janus. Entertained at a very fine collection of fruits, such as I did not expect to meet with so far North, especially very good melons. We returned to my uncle's.

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Artist. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530.

On 26 Mar 2015 Richard III King England 1452-1485 was reburied at Leicester Cathedral, Leicester.

The History of King Richard the Third. So died (as I have said) this noble [his brother] king in that time during which his life was most desired. The love of his people and their entire affection toward him would have been to his noble children a marvelous fortress and sure armor (having in themselves also as many gifts of nature, as many princely virtues, as much goodly ability as their age could receive), if division and dissention of their friends had not unarmed them and left them destitute, and the execrable desire of sovereignty provoked their uncle to their destruction, who, if either kind or kindness had held place, must needs have been their chief defense. For Richard, the Duke of Gloucester, by nature their uncle, by office their protector, to their father beholden, to themselves by oath and allegiance bound, all the bands broken that bind man and man together, without any respect of God or the world, unnaturally contrived to bereave them, not only their dignity, but also their lives. But because this Duke’s demeanor ministers in effect all the whole matter whereof this book shall treat, it is therefore appropriate to show you somewhat, before we further go, what manner of man this was who could find in his heart so much mischief to conceive.

The History of King Richard the Third. [his father] Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, Putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that King Henry (although he had a goodly prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry’s life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons — [his brother] Edward, [his brother] George, and Richard.
All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. Edward, revenging his father’s death, deprived King Henry and attained the crown.

The History of King Richard the Third. Richard, the third son, of whom we now treat, was in wit and courage equal with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both: little of stature, ill featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favored in appearance, and such as is in the case of lords called warlike, in other men called otherwise. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from before his birth, ever perverse. It is for truth reported that the [his mother] Duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail to birth him that she could not be delivered of him uncut, and he came into the world with the feet forward, as men be borne outward, and (as the story runs) also not untoothed. Either men of hatred reported the above for truth or else nature changed her course in his beginning—in the course of whose life many things were unnaturally committed. No unskilled captain was he in war, for which his disposition was more suited than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never by fault of his own person, either of hardiness or political order. Free was he called when dispensing gifts, and somewhat above his power liberal; with large gifts he got for himself unsteadfast friendship, for which he was glad to pillage and spoil in other places, and get for himself steadfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissembler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly friendly where he inwardly hated, not omitting to kiss whom he thought to kill; pitiless and cruel, not for evil will always, but for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much the same; where his advantage grew, he spared no man death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower, as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the [his brother] King, who would, undoubtedly, if he had intended such a thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

The History of King Richard the Third. Some wise men also think that his plan—covertly conveyed—lacked not in helping his brother [his brother] Clarence to his death, which he resisted openly, although somewhat (as men judged) more faintly than one who was heartily concerned for his welfare. And they who thus judged, they think he for a long time during King Edward’s life forethought to be king in case the King his brother (whose life he looked to, so that evil diet should shorten it) should happen to die (as indeed he did) while his children were young. And they judged that for this reason: he was glad of his brother’s death, that Duke of Clarence, whose life must needs have hindered his plans, whether the same Duke of Clarence had kept himself true to his nephew the young King, or enterprised to be king himself. But of all this point, is there no certainty, and whosoever divines upon conjectures may as well shoot too far as too short. However, this have I by credible information learned, that the same night in which King Edward died, one Mistlebrook, long before morning, came in great haste to the house of one Potter, dwelling in Redcross Street without Cripplegate, and when he was with hasty rapping quickly let in, he revealed unto Potter that [his brother] King Edward was departed. "By my truth man," said Potter, "then will my master the Duke of Gloucester be king." What cause he had so to think it is hard to say: whether he, being well disposed toward him, knew anything about such a thing the Duke had purposed, or otherwise he had any inkling thereof, for he was not ever likely to speak of it.

The History of King Richard the Third. But now to return to the course of this history, were it that the Duke of Gloucester had of old planned this conclusion, or was now at first thereunto moved and put in hope by the occasion of the tender age of the young princes his nephews (as opportunity and likelihood of success put a man in courage of what he never intended), certain is it that he contrived their destruction with the usurpation of the regal dignity upon himself. And forasmuch as he well knew and helped to maintain a long continued grudge and heart hating between the Queen’s kindred and the [his brother] King’s blood, each party envying the other’s authority, he now thought that their division should be (as it was indeed) a favorable beginning to the pursuit of his intent and a sure ground for the foundation of all his building, if he might first, under the pretext of revenging old displeasure, abuse the anger and ignorance of the one party to the destruction of the other, and then win to his purpose as many as he could, and those that could not be won, might be lost before they looked therefore. For of one thing was he certain, that if his intent were perceived, he should soon have made peace between both parties—with his own blood.

The History of King Richard the Third. This plan that the Queen not unwisely devised whereby her blood might from the beginning be rooted in the [his nephew] Prince’s favor, the Duke of Gloucester turned unto their destruction, and upon that ground set the foundation of all his unhappy building. For whomsoever he perceived either at variance with them or bearing favor to himself, he revealed to them, some by mouth, some by writing and secret messengers, that it was neither reasonable nor in any way to be suffered that the young King, their master and kinsman, should be in the hands and custody of his mother’s kindred, sequestered from their company and attendance, because everyone owed the Prince service as faithful as they, and because many of them were of a far more honorable part of kin than his mother’s side. "Their blood," said he, "saving the King’s pleasure, was fully unsuitable to be matched with his own, which was now to be removed from the King—and therefore the less noble men to be left about him—is," said he, "neither honorable to his Majesty nor to us, and also to his Grace no surety to have the mightiest of his friends away from him, and unto us no little jeopardy to suffer our well-proved evil willers to grow overgreat in authority with the youthful Prince, who is light of belief and easily persuaded."
"You remember, I trust, [his brother] King Edward himself, although he was a man of age and of discretion, yet was he in many things ruled by the Queen’s faction more than stood either with his honor or our profit, or to the advantage of any man else, except only the immoderate advancement of the Queen’s family, which group either sorer thirsted after their own well being, or our woe, it were hard I suppose to guess. And if some folks’ friendship had not held better place with the King than any respect of kindred, they might, by chance, easily have trapped and brought to confusion some of us before now. Why, have not they done as easily to some others already, as near to his royal blood as we? But our Lord has wrought His will, and thanks be to His grace that peril is past. However, a great peril is growing if we suffer this young King to remain in our enemies’ hand, who, without the King’s awareness, might abuse the name of his commandment to any of our undoing, which thing God and good provision forbid—and of such good provision, none of us has anything the less need because of the late made atonement in which the King’s pleasure had more place than the parties’ wills. Nor none of us, I believe, is so unwise to trust too soon a new friend made of an old foe, or to think that a slight kindness, suddenly contracted in one hour, continued yet scant a fortnight, should be deeper settled in their stomachs than a long accustomed malice many years rooted.".

The History of King Richard the Third. With these words and writings and such others, the Duke of Gloucester soon set afire them that were of themselves easy to kindle, and especially two, Edward Duke of Buckingham [Note. Mistake for Humphrey] and Richard Lord Hastings [Note. Mistake for William] (the chamberlain), both men of honor and of great power: the one by long succession from his ancestry, the other by his office and the King’s favor. These two, not bearing each to the other so much love as hatred both unto the Queen’s part, on this point accorded together with the Duke of Gloucester: that they would utterly remove from the King’s company all his mother’s friends, under the name of their enemies. With this concluded, the Duke of Gloucester, understanding that the lords who were about the [his nephew] King intended to bring him up to his coronation, accompanied with such power of their friends that it should be hard for him to bring his purpose to pass without the gathering and great assembling of people and in manner of open war, the end of which he knew to be dubious, and with the King being on their side, his part should have the face and name of a rebellion, he secretly, therefore, by diverse means caused the Queen to be persuaded and brought to believe that it neither were needed and also should be jeopardizing for the King to come up strong. For whereas now every lord loved each other and none other thing studied upon but about the coronation and honor of the King, if the lords of her kindred should assemble in the King’s name many people, they should give the very same lords, between whom and them had been sometime debate, fear and suspicion, lest they should gather this people, not for the King’s safeguard, whom no man impugned, but for their destruction, having more regard to their old variance than their new atonement. For which cause, they should assemble on the other party many people again for their defense, whose power she knew well far stretched. And thus should all the realm fall into a roar. And of all the hurt that thereof should ensue, which was likely not to be little, and the most harm there like to fall where she least it would, all the world would put her and her kindred in the blame and say that they had unwisely and untruly also, broken the amity and peace that the [his brother] King her husband so prudently made between his kin and hers on his death bed and which the other party faithfully observed.

The History of King Richard the Third. The Queen, being in this way persuaded, such word sent unto her [his nephew] son and unto her brother, being about the King; and besides that, the Duke of Gloucester himself and other chief lords of his company wrote unto the King so reverently and to the Queen’s friends there so lovingly that they, nothing earthly mistrusting, brought the King up in great haste, not in good speed, with a sober company.

The History of King Richard the Third. Now when the [his nephew] King on his way to London had gone from Northampton, then these Dukes of Gloucester and Buckingham came thither. But the Lord Rivers, the King’s uncle, remained behind, intending on the morrow to follow the King, and be with him at Stony Stratford, eleven miles thence, early before he departed. So was there made that night much friendly cheer between these dukes and the Lord Rivers a great while. But immediately after that, they openly and with great courtesy departed; and while the Lord Rivers lodged, the dukes secretly, with a few of their most private friends, set themselves down in council, wherein they spent a great part of the night. And at their rising in the dawning of the day, they sent about secretly to their servants, who were in their inns and lodgings about, giving the commandment to make themselves shortly ready, for their lords were ready to ride. Upon which messages, many of their folk were attendant when many of the Lord Rivers’ servants were unready. Now had these dukes taken also into their custody the keys of the inn so that none should pass forth without their approval. And besides this, on the highway toward Stony Stratford, where the King lay, they had ordered certain of their folk that they should send back again and compel to return any man who were gotten out of Northampton toward Stony Stratford, till they should give permission, because the dukes themselves intended, for the show of their diligence, to be the first that should that day attend upon the King’s Highness out of that town; thus did they deceive the folk at hand.
But when the Lord Rivers understood the gates closed and the ways on every side beset, neither his servants nor himself allowed to go out, perceiving well so great a thing without his knowledge was not begun for nothing, comparing this manner present with this last night’s cheer, in so few hours so great a change he marvelously disliked. However, since he could not get away—and keep himself close, he would not do so lest he should seem to hide himself for some secret fear of his own fault, whereof he saw no such fault in himself—he determined, upon the surety of his own conscience, to go boldly to them and inquire what this matter might mean. Whom, as soon as they saw, they began to quarrel with him and say that he intended to set distance between the King and them and to bring them to confusion, but this plan would not lie in his power. And when he began (as he was a very well-spoken man) in goodly manner to excuse himself, they tarried not the end of his answer, but shortly took him and put him under guard, and that done, forthwith went to horseback and took the way to Stony Stratford, where they found the King with his company ready to leap on horseback and depart forward, to leave that lodging for them because it was too small for both companies.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491 - Jul 1492. By reason whereof, the nobilite of Flaunders were to hym diligent, & with dewereuerence dyd him all the pleasure that laye in their powre or officies. And to be shorte, the more that, thys poeticall and feyned inuencion was shadowed with the pretence of sincere veritie, the more faythe and vndubitate credence was adhibited to it. In so muche that many one thought hym to be preserued, onely by the will and mightie powre of almightie God, and to to be conueyghed at the f'yrste daungier by some faythfull frende of [his brother] kyng Edward his father into some straiige country, and so escaped the violet tyranny of his vncle kyng Rychard, whiche vndubitately, hereafter should recouer his fathers possessions & kingdome. The fame & bruyte of thys iuggled myracle was almoost in one momet blowe ouer all the coutrey of Flanders, & the territories therabouts. But in England it was biased in euery place soner then a man could thiivke or deuise it: In which coutrey more than in other places it was receaued for an infallible veritie & moost sure truthe, and that not onely of the comon people, but also of diuerse noble & worshipfull men of no small estimacio, w hichesw are affirmed it to be true, and no conaent or fable phantastically ymagened. After this deuulgacio y Rychard sonne to kyng Edward was yet liuyng, had in great honour emongest the Fleminges, there began sedicion to springe on euery syde, none otherwise tiien in y pleasant time of vere, trees are wote to budde or blossome. For not onely they y were in sanctuaryes, for great & hey nous offences by them committed, but also many other that were falle in debte, and doubtyng 10 be brought to captiuitie & bondage, assembled together in a copany, and were passed ouer the sea into Flaunders, to their coutrefeate Richard sonne to kynge Edwarde, otherwise named Perkyn Warbeke. After this many of the noble me conspired together some through rashnes & temerite induced therunto, some beyng so earnestly perswaded in their awn coceipt, as though they knew perfightly that this Perkyn was f vndubitate sonne of king Edward the. iiij. solicited, slurred & allured to their opinion all such as were fredes & fautoures of the house of Yorke. Other through indignacio, enuye & auarice, euer grudginge & thinkynge they were not condignly rewarded for their paynes and partes taken in the kyngc-s behalfe and quarell. Other whorne it greued and vexed to see the worlde stande still in one staye, and all men to lyue in peace and tranquilitie, desyrous of some chaunge, ranne hedlinge into that fury, madnes and sedicious coiuracion.

Battle of Bosworth

Walter Devereux 7th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1432-1485 was killed. His son John Devereux 8th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1464-1501 succeeded 8th Baron Ferrers Chartley
William Catesby 1450-1485 was executed at Leicester after the battle.
George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin, 5th Baron Mohun Dunster 1460-1504 held as a hostage by Richard III before the Battle of Bosworth.
Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 betrayed Richard III King England 1452-1485 by not committing his forces at the Battle of Bosworth.
John Iwardby 1449-1485 was killed.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward III England

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495

Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440

John Neville 3rd Baron Neville Raby 1337-1388

Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby

Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel, Countess Surrey 1318-1372

Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel, 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376

Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397

Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 17 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 10 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd 1100-1170

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth 880-950

Kings Powys: Great x 11 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132

Kings England: Great x 2 Grand Son of King Edward III England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093

Kings Franks: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Son of Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314

Ancestry

Father: Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 Great Grandson of King Edward III England

GrandFather: Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 Grandson of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 Son of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: King Edward III England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 3 GrandFather: King Edward II of England Son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Son of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314 3 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 1273-1305 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Hainault I Count Hainault, III Count Avesnes, III Count Holland, II Count Zeeland 1286-1337 4 x Great Grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Hainault II Count Hainault, II Count Holland 1247-1304 3 x Great Grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa Luxemburg Count Hainault, Count Holland 1252-1311 5 x Great Granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan Valois Count Zeeland, Count Holland, Count Avesnes, Count Hainault 1294-1342 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 1270-1325 3 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Capet Count Valois 1273-1299 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great GrandMother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York 1355-1392 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandFather: Peter "Cruel" I King Castile 1334-1369 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Alfonso "Avenger" XI King Castile 1311-1350 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Ferdinand IV King Castile, IV King Leon 1285-1312 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Constance Burgundy Queen Consort Castile, Queen Consort Leon 1290-1313 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Constanza Manuel Queen Consort Castile

Great x 2 GrandMother: Maria Padilla 1344-1361

Great x 3 GrandFather: Juan García Padilla 1st Lord Villagera -1350

Great x 4 GrandFather: Garcia Padilla

Great x 3 GrandMother: María González Henestrosa Lady Villagera -1356

Great x 4 GrandFather: Fernán González Henestrosa

GrandMother: Anne Mortimer Countess Cambridge 1390-1411 2 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March, 6th Earl Ulster 1374-1398 Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March, 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 6 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March 1328-1360 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Mortimer 1303-1331 4 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandMother: Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 1313-1356 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Philippa Montagu Countess March 1332-1381

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury 1301-1349

Great x 4 GrandMother: Catherine Grandison Countess Salisbury 1304-1349

Great x 2 GrandMother: Philippa Plantagenet Countess March, 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 Son of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: King Edward III England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 3 GrandMother: Elizabeth Burgh 4th Countess Ulster 1332-1363 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Donn Burgh 3rd Earl Ulster 1312-1333 Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandMother: Maud Plantagenet Countess Ulster 1310-1377 Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great GrandMother: Eleanor Holland Countess March, Countess Ulster 1370-1405 2 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 2 GrandFather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandFather: Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 1314-1360 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Robert Holland 1st Baron Holand 1283-1328

Great x 4 GrandMother: Maud Zouche Baroness Holand 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent 1301-1330 Son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Wake Countess Kent 1297-1349 3 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 2 GrandMother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 1350-1416 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandFather: Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel, 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376 5 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel 1285-1326 4 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandMother: Alice Warenne Countess Arundel

Great x 3 GrandMother: Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel, Countess Surrey 1318-1372 Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Maud Chaworth 1282-1322

Mother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great GrandFather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville Raby 1337-1388 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandFather: Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville Raby 1291-1367 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1262-1331

Great x 4 GrandFather: Robert Neville 1237-1271

Great x 3 GrandMother: Euphemia Clavering Baroness Neville Raby 1267-1329 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Robert Fitzroger 5th Baron Warkworth 1240-1310

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Zouche Baroness Warkworth 1251-1329 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandMother: Alice Audley Baroness Greystoke, Baroness Neville Raby 1304-1374 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Hugh Audley 1st Baron Audley Stratton Audley 1267-1347 2 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: James Audley 1225-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Ela Longespée 1224-1299 Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isolde le Rous 1269-1328

Great x 4 GrandFather: Roger le Rous 1237-1294

Great GrandMother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby 5 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry Percy 2nd Baron Percy 1299-1352 5 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 3 GrandFather: Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy 1273-1314

Great x 4 GrandFather: Henry Percy 7th Baron Percy Topcliffe -1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor Warenne Baroness Percy Topcliffe

Great x 3 GrandMother: Eleanor Fitzalan Baroness Percy 1284-1328 4 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandFather: Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl Arundel 1267-1302 3 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandMother: Alice Saluzzo Countess Arundel -1292 6 x Great Granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 2 GrandMother: Idonia Clifford Baroness Percy 1303-1365 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 6 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 GrandFather: Roger Clifford 1243-1282

Great x 4 GrandMother: Isabella Vipont 1254-1292 5 x Great Granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Maud Clare Baroness Clifford, Baroness Welles 1276-1327 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Thomas Clare 1245-1287 4 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Juliana Fitzgerald 1266-1300 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 Son of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: King Edward III England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 3 GrandFather: King Edward II of England Son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Son of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314 3 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 1273-1305 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Hainault I Count Hainault, III Count Avesnes, III Count Holland, II Count Zeeland 1286-1337 4 x Great Grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Hainault II Count Hainault, II Count Holland 1247-1304 3 x Great Grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa Luxemburg Count Hainault, Count Holland 1252-1311 5 x Great Granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan Valois Count Zeeland, Count Holland, Count Avesnes, Count Hainault 1294-1342 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 1270-1325 3 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Capet Count Valois 1273-1299 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great GrandMother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Great x 2 GrandFather: Giles "Payne" Roet 1310-1380