Twenty Trees

History of Southwark

1424 Marriage of James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort

1541 Catherine Howard Trial

1640 Attack on Lambeth Palace

1666 Great Fire of London

Southwark is in Westminster.

On 14 May 1471 Thomas "Bastard of Fauconberg" Neville 1429-1471 (42) reached Southwark with his army. The City of London refused him entry so Thomas "Bastard of Fauconberg" Neville 1429-1471 (42) burned Southwark.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 1 1509-1514. Apr 1509. Will of Henry VII (52):
At his manor of Richmond March 24 Hen. VII., the King (52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.
Desires to be buried at Westminster, where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame Katharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, 5,000l., by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.
His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all 250l, and shall distribute 2,000l. in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,250l. with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.
His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (59), Richard bp of Winchester (61), the bps of London and Rochester (39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thos. Lovell (30), Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson, Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.
His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.
Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.
For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.
Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,000l. upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark, and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.
To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the Prince (17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Hen. VII. for the fulfilment of his will.
Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.
Bequest of a dote of 50,000l. for the marriage of Lady Mary (13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Hen. VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the Prince (17), his Council and our said executors.".

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge, St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576 (60). Equestrian Portrait of Charles Habsburg-Spain V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (47).

1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541 (32). Portrait of Charles Habsburg-Spain V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (18).

On 01 Mar 1534 Henry Brandon 1523-1534 (11) died at Southwark.

Attack on Lambeth Palace

John Evelyn's Diary 1640. 10th June 1640. I repaired with my brother (17) to the term, to go into our new lodgings (that were formerly in Essex-court), being a very handsome apartment just over against the Hall-court, but four pair of stairs high, which gave us the advantage of the fairer prospect; but did not much contribute to the love of that impolished study, to which (I suppose) my father (53) had designed me, when he paid £145 to purchase our present lives, and assignments afterward.
London, and especially the Court, were at this period in frequent disorders, and great insolences were committed by the abused and too happy City: in particular, the Bishop of Canterbury's (66) Palace at Lambeth was assaulted by a rude rabble from Southwark, my Lord Chamberlain (55) imprisoned and many scandalous libels and invectives scattered about the streets, to the reproach of Government, and the fermentation of our since distractions: so that, upon the 25th of June, I was sent for to Wotton, and the 27th after, my father's (53) indisposition augmenting, by advice of the physicians he repaired to the Bath.

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 September. 13th September 1660. I saw in Southwark, at St. Margaret's fair, monkeys and apes dance, and do other feats of activity on the high rope; they were gallantly clad á la monde, went upright, saluted the company, bowing and pulling off their hats; they saluted one another with as good a grace as if instructed by a dancing master; they turned heels over head with a basket having eggs in it, without breaking any; also, with lighted candles in their hands, and on their heads, without extinguishing them, and with vessels of water without spilling a drop. I also saw an Italian wench dance, and perform all the tricks on the high rope to admiration; all the Court went to see her. Likewise, here was a man who took up a piece of iron cannon of about 400lb. weight with the hair of his head only.

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 September. 21 Sep 1689. I went to visit the Archbishop of Canterbury (72) since his suspension, and was received with great kindness. A dreadful fire happened in Southwark.

John Evelyn's Diary 1692 September. 15 Sep 1692. There happened an earthquake, which, though not so great as to do any harm in England, was universal in all these parts of Europe. It shook the house at Wotton, but was not perceived by any save a servant or two, who were making my bed, and another in a garret. I and the rest being at dinner below in the parlor, were not sensible of it. The dreadful one in Jamaica this summer was profanely and ludicrously represented in a puppet play, or some such lewd pastime, in the fair of Southwark, which caused the Queen (30) to put down that idle and vicious mock show.

On 01 Jul 1718 Thomas Tipping 1st Baronet Tipping 1653-1718 (65) died in debt in prison in Southwark.

On 24 Nov 1740 John Bacon Sculptor 1740-1799 was born in Southwark.

On 07 Aug 1799 John Bacon Sculptor 1740-1799 (58) died in Southwark.


Great Fire of London

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 03 Sep 1666. I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing, after dinner, I took coach with my wife (31) and son, and went to the Bankside in Southwark, where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole city in dreadful flames near the waterside; all the houses from the Bridge, all Thames street, and upward toward Cheapside, down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed; and so returned, exceedingly astonished what would become of the rest.
The fire having continued all this night (if I may call that night which was light as day for ten miles round about, after a dreadful manner), when conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very dry season, I went on foot to the same place; and saw the whole south part of the city burning from Cheapside to the Thames, and all along Cornhill (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as well as forward), Tower street, Fenchurch Street, Gracious street, and so along to Baynard's Castle, and was now taking hold of St. Paul's church, to which the scaffolds contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so universal, and the people so astonished, that, from the beginning, I know not by what despondency, or fate, they hardly stirred to quench it; so that there was nothing heard, or seen, but crying out and lamentation, running about like distracted creatures, without at all attempting to save even their goods; such a strange consternation there was upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the churches, public halls, Exchange, hospitals,. Monuments, and ornaments; leaping after a prodigious manner, from house to house, and street to street, at great distances one from the other. For the heat, with a long set of fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an incredible manner, houses, furniture, and every thing. Here, we saw the Thames covered with goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what some had time and courage to save, as, on the other side, the carts, etc., carrying out to the fields, which for many miles were strewn with movables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous spectacle! such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation of it, nor can be outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the light seen above forty miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, who now saw above 10,000 houses all in one flame! The noise and cracking and thunder of the impetuous flames, the shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, the fall of towers, houses, and churches, was like a hideous storm; and the air all about so hot and inflamed, that at the last one was not able to approach it, so that they were forced to stand still, and let the flames burn on, which they did, for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds also of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon computation, near fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It forcibly called to my mind that passage—"non enim hic habemus stabilem civitatem"; the ruins resembling the picture of Troy. London was, but is no more! Thus, I returned.

Bear Garden

John Evelyn's Diary 1670 June. 16 Jun 1670. I went with some friends to the Bear Garden, where was cock-fighting, dog-fighting, bear and bull-baiting, it being a famous day for all these butcherly sports, or rather barbarous cruelties. The bulls did exceedingly well, but the Irish wolf dog exceeded, which was a tall greyhound, a stately creature indeed, who beat a cruel mastiff. One of the bulls tossed a dog full into a lady's lap as she sat in one of the boxes at a considerable height from the arena. Two poor dogs were killed, and so all ended with the ape on horseback, and I most heartily weary of the rude and dirty pastime, which I had not seen, I think, in twenty years before.


On 28 Feb 1155 Henry the Young King 1155-1183 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (33) at Bermondsey.

On 08 Jun 1492 Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (55) died at Bermondsey. She was buried at the Altar, St George's Chapel.

Bermondsey Abbey

Before 1483 John Marlow Abbot Bermondsey was appointed Abbot Bermondsey.

In May 1513 Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey -1513 died in Bermondsey Abbey.


St Luke's Church, Charlton

On 28 Jul 1726 John Blackwood 1696-1777 (29) and Anne Shovell were married at St Luke's Church, Charlton.


John Evelyn's Diary 1677 August. 05 Aug 1677. I went to visit my Lord Brounker (57), now taking the waters at Dulwich.

Dulwich College

In 1619 Edward Alleyn Comedian 1566-1626 (52) founded the College of God's Gift now known as Dulwich College.

John Evelyn's Diary 1675 September. 02 Sep 1675. I went to see Dulwich College, being the pious foundation of one Alleyn, a famous comedian, in King James's time. The chapel is pretty, the rest of the hospital very ill contrived; it yet maintains divers poor of both sexes. It is in a melancholy part of Camberwell parish. I came back by certain medicinal Spa waters, at a place called Sydenham Wells, in Lewisham parish, much frequented in summer.

Globe Theatre

Great Unioin Street

On 21 Feb 1861 Major General Sir Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend 1861–1924 was born to Charles Thornton Townshend 1840–1889 (21) at Great Unioin Street.

King's Bench Prison

In Oct 1830 Captain Thomas Garth was committed for debt to the King's Bench Prison and Georgiana Carolina Dashwood Baroness Hastings 1796-1835 (34) lived with him there.

On 29 Mar 1834 John Mytton 1796-1834 (37) died in King's Bench Prison.

In 1835 Georgiana Carolina Dashwood Baroness Hastings 1796-1835 (39) died of scarlet fever at King's Bench Prison.

Queen's Bench Prison

Essex Rebellion

In Jul 1601 John Lyttelton 1561-1601 (40) died in the Queen's Bench Prison havign been tried for high treason for involvement in the Essex Rebellion.


On 06 Jan 1437 Edward Hastings 8th Baron Hastings 1382-1437 (54) died at Marshalsea. His son John Hastings 9th Baron Hastings 1412-1477 (25) succeeded 9th Baron Hastings (1C 1295). Anne Morley Baroness Hastings 1413-1471 (24) by marriage Baroness Hastings (1C 1295).

Marshalsea Prison

On Dec 1447 Robert Wingfield 1403-1454 (44) was imprisoned for rioting at Marshalsea Prison.

In 1448 William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (33) was imprisoned at Marshalsea Prison.

John Evelyn's Diary 1657 December. 25th December, 1657. I went to London with my wife (22), to celebrate Christmas-day, Mr. Gunning (43) preaching in Exeter chapel, on Micah vii. 2. Sermon ended, as he was giving us the Holy Sacrament, the chapel was surrounded with soldiers, and all the communicants and assembly surprised and kept prisoners by them, some in the house, others carried away. It fell to my share to be confined to a room in the house, where yet I was permitted to dine with the master of it, the Countess of Dorset (35), Baroness Hatton, and some others of quality who invited me. In the afternoon, came Colonel Whalley, Goffe, and others, from Whitehall, to examine us one by one; some they committed to the marshal, some to prison. When I came before them, they took my name and abode, examined me why, contrary to the ordinance made, that none should any longer observe the superstitious time of the nativity (so esteemed by them), I durst offend, and particularly be at common prayers, which they told me was but the mass in English, and particularly pray for Charles Stuart (27); for which we had no Scripture. I told them we did not pray for Charles Stuart (27), but for all Christian kings, princes, and governors. They replied, in so doing we prayed for the king of Spain, too, who was their enemy and a Papist, with other frivolous and ensnaring questions, and much threatening; and, finding no color to detain me, they dismissed me with much pity of my ignorance. These were men of high flight and above ordinances, and spoke spiteful things of our Lord's nativity. As we went up to receive the Sacrament, the miscreants held their muskets against us, as if they would have shot us at the altar; but yet suffering us to finish the office of Communion, as perhaps not having instructions what to do, in case they found us in that action. So I got home late the next day; blessed be God!.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 September. 29 Sep 1665. To Erith, to quicken the sale of the prizes lying there, with order to the commissioner who lay on board till they should be disposed of, £5,000 being proportioned for my quarter. Then I delivered the Dutch Vice-Admiral, who was my prisoner, to Mr. Lowman of the Marshalsea, he giving me bond in £500 to produce him at my call. I exceedingly pitied this brave unhappy person, who had lost with these prizes £40,000 after twenty years' negotiation [trading] in the East Indies. I dined in one of these vessels, of 1,200 tons, full of riches.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 July. 09 Jul 1685. Just as I was coming into the lodgings at Whitehall, a little before dinner, my Lord of Devonshire (45) standing very neere his Ma's (51) bed-chamber doore in the lobby, came Col. Culpeper (50), and in a rude manner looking my Lord in the face, asked whether this was a time and place for excluders to appeare; my Lord at first tooke little notice of what he said, knowing him to be a hot-headed fellow, but he reiterating it, my Lord ask'd Culpeper whether he meant him; he said, yes, he meant his Lordship. My Lord told him he was no excluder (as indeed he was not); the other affirming it againe, my Lord told him he lied, on which Culpeper struck him a box on the eare, which my Lord return'd and fell'd him. They were soone parted, Culpeper was seiz'd, and his Ma*, who was all the while in his bed-chamber, order'd him to be carried to the Green Cloth Officer, who sent him to the Marshalsea as he deserv'd. My Lord Devon had nothing said to him. I supp'd this night at Lambeth at my old friend's Mr. Elias Ashmole's (68), with my Lady Clarendon, ye Bishop of St. Asaph (57), and Dr. Tenison (48), when we were treated at a greate feast.

After 09 Jul 1685 Thomas Culpepper 1637-1708 was imprisoned in Marshalsea Prison for having insulted his litagee by striking him within the precincts of the court at Whitehall Palace on 9 Jul 1685, and was sentenced to losing a hand; his wife's intervention saved him.


John Evelyn's Diary 1681 September. 23 Sep 1681. I went to see Sir Thomas Bond's (61) fine house and garden at Peckham.


John Evelyn's Diary 1699. 11 Jun 1699. After a long drought, we had a refreshing shower. The day before, there was a dreadful fire at Rotherhithe, near the Thames side, which burned divers ships, and consumed nearly three hundred houses. Now died the famous Duchess of Mazarin (53); she had been the richest lady in Europe. She was niece of Cardinal Mazarin, and was married to the richest subject in Europe (67), as is said. She was born at Rome, educated in France, and was an extraordinary beauty and wit but dissolute and impatient of matrimonial restraint, so as to be abandoned by her husband (67), and banished, when she came into England for shelter, lived on a pension given her here, and is reported to have hastened her death by intemperate drinking strong spirits. She has written her own story and adventures, and so has her other extravagant sister (59), wife to the noble family of Colonna.

Around 1671 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Hortense Mancini Duchess of Mazarin 1646-1699 (24).

In 1694 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Hortense Mancini Duchess of Mazarin 1646-1699 (47).

Southwark Cathedral

On 24 Jan 1406 Edmund Holland 4th Earl Kent 1384-1408 (22) and Lucia Visconti Countess Kent 1380-1424 (26) were married at Southwark Cathedral. Lucia Visconti Countess Kent 1380-1424 (26) by marriage Countess Kent (6C 1360).

Marriage of James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort

On 12 Feb 1424 James I King Scotland 1394-1437 (29) and Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland 1404-1445 (20) were married at Southwark Cathedral. Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland 1404-1445 (20) by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

St Georges Fields

Great Fire of London

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 05 September 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall; but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty (36) to command me, among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all despair. It also broke out again in the Temple; but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.
The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, etc., did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had dedicated to his Majesty (36) and published, giving warning what probably might be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the city was looked upon as a prophecy.
The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, were now reduced to extreme misery and poverty.
In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine, who, in the midst of all this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound.

St. Thomas's Hospital

John Evelyn's Diary 1664 December. 2d December, 1664. We delivered the Privy Council's letters to the Governors of St. Thomas's Hospital, in Southwark, that a moiety of the house should be reserved for such sick and wounded as should from time to time be sent from the fleet during the war. This being delivered at their Court, the President and several Aldermen, Governors of that Hospital, invited us to a great feast in Fishmongers' Hall.

Winchester Palace

Catherine Howard Trial

On 07 Nov 1541 Catherine Howard (18) was interrogated by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (52) and John Gresham Lord Mayor (46) at Winchester Palace in Southwark. .