History of York

1060 Ealdred Appointed Archbishop of York

1066 Battle of Fulford

1069 Sveyn II's Raid on England

1072 Accord of Winchester

1190 Massacre of the Jews at York

1298 Edward I 43rd Parliament

1312 Gaveston's Escape from Newcastle

1322 Despencer War Executions

1328 Death of Edward II

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1405 Northern Rising

1453 Battle of Heworth Moor

1461 Battle of Towton

1465 George Neville's Enthronement as Archbishop of York

1469 Execution of the Neville Brothers

1483 Edward of Middleham created Prince of Wales

1489 Yorkshire Rebellion

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1654 Battle of Marston Moor

1688 Glorious Revolution

Sveyn II's Raid on England

Flower of History by Matthew of Westminster Chapter 1 1066-1087 Two sons of Sweyn came into England to subdue it. 1069. Between the time of the two festivals of the blessed Virgin Mary, in the autumn, the two sons of Sweyn came with three hundred ships from Denmark into England, in order to subdue it in a hostile manner, and to take king William prisoner (41), or else expel him from England. But when their arrival was noised abroad, the counts, and barons, and nobles of the land went forth to meet them, being oppressed by the intolerable arrogance of the Normans ; and they made a treaty with them, and so joined the army of the Danes, in order to overthrow king William (41). But William (41), that most prudent king, when he saw the danger that threatened him, humbled himself to them, and checked the insolence of the Normans ; and having in this way recalled many of the English nobles to their allegiance, and having sagaciously made a treaty with them all, he took the city of York by storm, which was a great rendezvous of the Danes, and made himself master of every thing in it, and slew many thousand men there.

In 1069 Sweyn II King Denmark 1019-1076 (50) sent an army to England to attack William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (41) in support of Edgar "Aetheling" II King England 1051-1126 (18). Sveyn's (50) army captured York and were then bought off.

Massacre of the Jews at York

On 17 Mar 1190 at York the Jewish population sought protection from violence in Clifford's Tower, York Castle, York. The tower was besieged by the mob of crusaders preparing to leave on the Third Crusade. The Jewish men killed their wives and children, after which they set fire to the wooden keep. Those who did escape were murdered.

On 22 Apr 1279 Walter Giffard Archbishop of York 1225-1279 (54) died at York. He was buried at York Minster.

Around 1290 Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1290-1339 was born to William Dacre 1266-1318 (23) and Joan Gernet 1270-1324 (20) at York.

Edward I 43rd Parliament

In 1298 Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu 1250-1316 (48) attended Edward I 43rd Parliament at York.

Gaveston's Escape from Newcastle

On 04 May 1312 King Edward II of England (28) and Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (28) were at Newcastle on Tyne Castle, Newcastle on Tyne where they barely escaped a force led by Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (34), Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy 1273-1314 (39) and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (38). Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (28) escaped to Scarborough, North Yorkshire, King Edward II of England (28) to York.

On Mar 1322 Alice Lacy Countess Leicester, Countess Lancaster, 5th Countess Salisbury, 4th Countess Lincoln 1281-1348 (40) was imprisoned at York.

Despencer War Executions

On 23 Mar 1322 at York ...
Roger Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford 1300-1322 (22) was hanged. His brother Robert Clifford 3rd Baron Clifford 1305-1344 (16) succeeded 3rd Baron Clifford.
John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray 1286-1322 (35) was hanged. His son John Mowbray 3rd Baron Mowbray 1310-1361 (11) succeeded 3rd Baron Mowbray (1C 1283).

The Chronicles of Froissart Chapter XV - How that king Robert de Bruce of Scotland defied king Edward. AFTER that sir John of Hainault (39) was departed from king Edward (14), he and the queen (32) his mother governed the realm by the counsel of the earl of Kent (25), uncle to the king, and by the counsel of sir Roger Mortimer (39), who had great lands in England to the sum of seven hundred pounds of rent yearly. And they both were banished and chased out of England with the queen (32), as ye have heard before. Also they used much after the counsel of sir Thomas Wake (30), and by the advice of other who were reputed for the most sagest of the realm. Howbeit there were some had envy thereat, the which never died in England, and also it reigneth and will reign in divers other countries. Thus passed forth the winter and the Lent season till Easter, and then the king (14) and the queen (32) and all the realm was in good peace all this season. Then so it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (52), who had been right hardy and had suffered much travail against Englishmen, and oftentimes he had been chased and discomfited in the time of king Edward the first, grandfather to this young king Edward the third (14), he was as then become very old and ancient, and sick (as it was said) of the great evil and malady. When he knew the adventures that was fallen in England, how that the old king Edward the second (42) was taken and deposed down from his regaly and his crown, and certain of his counsellors beheaded and put to destruction, as ye have heard herebefore, then he bethought him that he would defy the young king Edward the third (14), because he was young and that the barons of the realm were not all of one accord, as it was said : therefore he [thought] the better to speed in his purpose to conquer part of England. And so about Easter in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. he sent his defiance to the young king Edward the third and to all the realm, sending them word how that he would enter into the realm of England and bren before him as he had done beforetime at such season as the discomfiture was at the castle of Stirling, whereas the Englishmen received great damage. When the king of England (14) and his council perceived that they were defied, they caused it to be known over all the realm, and commanded that all the nobles and all other should be ready apparelled every man after his estate, and that they should be by Ascension-day next after at the town of York, standing northward. The king sent much people before to keep the frontiers against Scotland, and sent a great ambassade to sir John of Hainault (39), praying him right affectuously that he would help to succour and to keep company with him in his voyage against the Scots, and that he world be with him at the Ascensionday next after at York, with such company as he might get of men of war in those parts. When sir John of Hainault lord of Beaumont (39) heard the king's (14) desire, he sent straight his letters and his messengers in every place whereas he thought to recover or attain to have any company of men of war, in Flanders, in Hainault, in Brabant, and in other places, desiring them that in their best apparel for the war they would meet him at Wissant, for to go over the sea with him into England. And all such as he sent unto came to him with a glad cheer, and divers other that heard thereof, in trust to attain to as much honour as they had that were with him in England before at the other voyage. So that by that time the said lord Beaumont (39) was come to Wissant, there was ready ships for him and his company, brought out of England. And so they took shipping and passed over the sea and arrived at Dover, and so then ceased not to ride till: they came within three days of Pentecost to the town of York, whereas the king (14) and the queen (32) his mother and all his lords were with great host tarrying the coming of sir John of Hainault (39), and had sent many before of their men of arms, archers and common people of the good towns and villages ; and as people resorted, they were caused to be lodged two or three leagues off, all about in the country. And on a day thither came sir John of Hainault (39) and his company, who were right welcome and well received both of the king (14), of the queen his mother, and of all other barons, and to them was delivered the suburbs of the city to lodge in. And to sir John of Hainault was delivered an abbey of white monks for him and his household. There came with him out of Hainault the lord of Enghien, who was called sir Gaultier, and sir Henry lord d'Antoing, and the lord of Fagnolle, and sir Fastres du Roeulx, sir Robert de Bailleul, and sir Guilliam de Bailleul his brother, and the lord of Havreth, chatelain of Mons, sir Allard de Briffeuil, sir Michael de Ligne, sir John de Montigny the younger and his brother, sir Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval de Semeries, the lord of Beaurieu and the lord of Floyon. Also of the country of Flanders there was sir Hector of Vilain, sir John de Rhodes, sir Wu there was sir John le Belt and sir Henry his brother, sir Godfrey de la Chapelle, sir Hugh d'Ohey, sir John de Libyne, sir Lambert d'Oupey, and sir Gilbert de Herck: and out of Cambresis and Artois there were come certain knights of their own good wills to advance their bodies: so that sir John of Hainault had well in his company five hundred men of arms, well apparelled and richly mounted. And after the feast of Pentecost came thither sir Guilliam de Juliers (28), who was after duke of Juliers after the decease of his father, and sir Thierry of Heinsberg, who was after earl of Loos, and with them a right fair rout, and all to keep company with the gentle knight sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont.

In 1391 John Dunbar 4th Earl Moray -1391 was killed in a tournament at York from wounds received from Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk, 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 (5). His son Thomas Dunbar 5th Earl Moray 1371-1422 (20) succeeded 5th Earl Moray (2C 1372).

On 31 Jul 1392 Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham 1312-1392 (79) died at York. His son Stephen Scrope 2nd Baron Scrope Masham 1345-1406 (47) succeeded 2nd Baron Scrope Masham.

Northern Rising

On 03 Jun 1405 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (28) arrived at York. The King denied the accused trial by their peers. Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey, 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (23) and Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (28) sat in judgement of Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (55) and Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk, 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 (19). William Gascoigne Chief Justice 1350-1419 (55) refused to pronounce sentence on Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (55) and Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk, 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 (19) asserting their right to be tried by their peers.

On 08 Jun 1405 before a great crowd at York ...
Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (55) was beheaded. Possibly the only execution of an Archbishop that occurred in England.
Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk, 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 (19) was beheaded. His brother John Mowbray 2nd Duke Norfolk 1392-1432 (13) succeeded 5th Earl Norfolk (3C 1312), 3rd Earl Nottingham (2C 1383), 8th Baron Mowbray (1C 1283), 9th Baron Segrave (2C 1295).

On 27 Apr 1458 John Darcy 1404-1458 (54) died at York.

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.
The Yorkist army was commanded by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471.
The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy 1426-1461 (35), Ralph Bigod 1410-1461, John Bigod -1461, Robert Cromwell 1390-1461, Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1412-1461, Ralph Eure 1412-1461, John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, John Beaumont 1428-1461, Thomas Dethick 1400-1461, Everard Simon Digby -1461, William Plumpton -1461 and William Welles 1410-1461 who were killed.
Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39) was killed. His son Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland (1C 1377). Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland 1458-1485 (3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland (1C 1377).
Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (55) was killed. His son Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.
Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (60), William Norreys 1441-1507 (20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (30), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33), Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471. Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (41) were captured.
On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon 1432-1461 (29) was beheaded at York. His brother John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (26) succeeded 15th Earl Devon (2C Courtenay). Laura Bourchier Countess Devon 1440- by marriage Countess Devon (2C Courtenay).
Robert Dethick 1375-1461 (86) was killed.
John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland 1416-1461 (45) was killed.
Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43) was executed.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 08 May 1461. York. Grant for life to William Herbert (38), knight, of the offices of office of chief justice and chamberlain of South Wales, steward of the commontes in the counties of Caermarthen and Cardigan, and chief forester in those counties (Carmarthenshire,Cardiganshire).

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 08 May 1461. York. Commission to John Haryngton (47), esquire, John Kyrton, Thomas Banke and William Boleyn to arrest Thomas CLaymond, esquire, Robert Heryng, 'sowter' and John Hedale, carpenter, and bring them before the king (19) in Chancery.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville fued that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.

Yorkshire Rebellion

On 28 Apr 1489 Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (40) was hanged at York by the rebels when attempting to collect the tax. On 28 Apr 1489 His son Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (11) succeeded 5th Earl of Northumberland (1C 1377).
The King then sent an army of 8000 north led by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (46). The rebels dispersed; their leader John à Chambre was hanged for treason. The rebels then chose John Percy 1459- as their leader. His leadership proved less than reliable; he eventually fled to the court of Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 (42) (sister of Edward IV and Richard III) who remained sympathetic to the Yorkist cause.

After 27 Jun 1503 Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 stayed at York.

Around 1525 Unknown Artist. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (35).

In 1528 John Constable 1528-1584 was born to John Constable 1510-1550 (18) at York.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 12 Jul 1537 Robert Aske 1500-1537 (37) was hanged at York. William Lumley -1537 and Nicholas Tempest 1480-1537 were hanged at Tyburn.

In 1546 John Constable 1546-1592 was born to John Constable 1528-1584 (18) at York.

In 1568 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (31) attended to hear evidence against Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (25) at York.

Around 1576 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (33).

In 1584 John Constable 1528-1584 (56) died at York.

On 14 Dec 1595 Henry Hastings 3rd Earl Huntingdon 1535-1595 (60) died at York. On 26 Apr 1596 Henry Hastings 3rd Earl Huntingdon 1535-1595 (61) was buried at Hasting's Chapel, St Helen's Church, Ashby de la Zouche. His brother George Hastings 4th Earl Huntingdon 1540-1604 (55) succeeded 4th Earl Huntingdon (7C 1529), 6th Baron Hastings (2C 1430). Dorothy Port Countess Huntingdon -1607 by marriages Earl Huntingdon (7C 1529).

In Jun 1642 William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire 1617-1684 (24) was with King Charles I (41) at York.

Around 1647. Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (28). Portrait of William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire 1617-1684 (29) although the painting says somewhat curiously 2nd Earl Devonshire.

Battle of Marston Moor

John Evelyn's Diary 1654 August. 17 Aug 1654. Passed through Pontefract; therichard castle famous for many sieges both of late and ancient times, and the death of that unhappy King murdered in it, was now demolishing by the Rebels; it stands on a mount, and makes a goodly show at a distance. The Queen (44) has a house here, and there are many fair seats near it, especially Mr. Pierrepont's (48), built at the foot of a hill out of the castle ruins. We all alighted in the highway to drink at a crystal spring, which they call Robin Hood's Well; near it, is a stone chair, and an iron ladle to drink out of, chained to the seat. We rode to Tadcaster, at the side of which we have prospect of the Archbishop's Palace (which is a noble seat), and in sight of divers other gentlemen's fair houses. This tract is a goodly, fertile, well-watered, and wooded country, abounding with pasture and plenty of provisions.
To York, the second city of England, fairly walled, of a circular form, watered by the brave River Ouse, bearing vessels of considerable burden on it; over it is a stone bridge emulating that of London, and built on; the middle arch is larger than any I have seen in England, with a wharf of hewn stone, which makes the river appear very neat. But most remarkable and worth seeing is St. Peter's Cathedral, which of all the great churches in England had been best preserved from the fury of the sacrilegious, by composition with the Rebels when they took the city, during the many incursions of Scotch and others. It is a most entire magnificent piece of Gothic architecture. The screen before the choir is of stone carved with flowers, running work and statues of the old kings. Many of the. Monuments are very ancient. Here, as a great rarity in these days and at this time, they showed me a Bible and Common Prayer Book covered with crimson velvet, and richly embossed with silver gilt; also a service for the altar of gilt wrought plate, flagons, basin, ewer, plates, chalices, patins, etc., with a gorgeous covering for the altar and pulpit, carefully preserved in the vestry, in the hollow wall whereof rises a plentiful spring of excellent water. I got up to the tower, whence we had a prospect toward Durham, and could see Ripon, part of Lancashire, the famous and fatal Marston Moor, the Spas of Knaresborough, and all the environs of that admirable country. Sir —— Ingoldsby has here a large house, gardens, and tennis court; also the King (24)'s house and church near the castle, which was modernly fortified with a palisade and bastions. The streets are narrow and ill-paved, the shops like London.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 December. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (55) and Earl of Nottingham (41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth declared for the Prince (38). Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (38) coming to Oxford. The Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover (52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution..

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

In 1694 William Howard 3rd Baron Howard Escrick -1694 died at York. In 1694 His son Charles Howard 4th Baron Howard succeeded 4th Baron Howard of Escrick.

In 1710 Richard Terrick Bishop 1710-1777 was born in York.

On 19 Dec 1726 Henry Willoughby 5th Baron Middleton 1726-1800 was born to Thomas Willoughby 1694-1742 (32) and Elizabeth Southby at York.

In 1742 George Fox-Lane 1st Baron Bingley 1697-1763 (45) was elected MP York.

On 06 Jul 1755 John Flaxman Sculptor 1755-1826 was born in York.

In 1761 Robert Fox-Lane 1732-1768 (28) was elected MP York during the General Election.

In 1787 William Mordaunt Milner 3rd Baronet Milner 1754-1811 (32) was appointed Lord Mayor of York.

After 1798 John Hoppner Painter 1758-1810. Portrait of William Mordaunt Milner 3rd Baronet Milner 1754-1811.

On 05 Dec 1820 Jane Lawley 1820-1900 was born to Paul Thompson 1st Baron Wenlock 1784-1852 (36) and Caroline Griffin Baroness Wenlock -1868 in York.

1845 Francis Grant 1803-1878 (41). Portrait of Jane Lawley 1820-1900 (24).

On 05 Apr 1824 Julia Louisa Bosville Baroness Middleton 1824-1901 was born at York.

The River Ouse joins the Humber near Goole where the land is wide and flat and the course probably much changed over time. From there it meanders inland, being joined by the River Aire past Howden Minster, Howden then Cawood where the River Wharfe joins, to York.
Through York the canalised river, wide and deep and formidable. After York the River Nidd joins. Between York and Boroughbridge, before the River Swale joins, the River Ouse changes name for some unknown reason becoming the River Ure.
After Boroughbridge the River Ure passes Ripon then West Tanfield then Middleham.
Now in upland country the River Ure reaches the spectacular Aysgarth Falls then Hawes where numerous becks join at its source.

The River Swale joins the River Ouse between York and Boroughbridge following a meandering course through lower Swaledale before reaching Richmond, North Yorkshire where the castle is perched high above.

Bishopthorpe, York

On 10 Dec 1776 Robert Hay-Drummond Archbishop of York 1711-1776 (65) died at Bishopthorpe, York.

On 25 Nov 1891 Harvey Goodwin Bishop Carlisle 1818-1891 (73) died in Bishopthorpe, York whilst on a visit to William Maclagan, Archbishop of York. Monument in Carlisle Cathedral sculpted by Hamo Thornycroft Sculptor 1850-1925 (41).

Church of the Black Friars, York

On 22 Mar 1426 Richard Redman Master of the Horse 1350-1426 (76) died at Harewood Castle, Harewood, West Yorkshire. He was buried at Church of the Black Friars, York. Monument to Richard Redman Master of the Horse 1350-1426 (76) and Elizabeth Aldeburgh 1362-1417. Early Plate Bascinet and Gorget Period. Lancastrian Esses and Inter-twined Knots Collar. Horses Head Crest. Elaborate Crespine Headress.

Heworth Moor, York

Battle of Heworth Moor

On 24 May 1453 Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (22) and Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell, Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 were married. Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell, Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 was the niece and heiress of Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell 1403-1456 (50) meaning traditional Percy lands would become Neville lands. The Percy's, being the older family, especially Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (30), took umbrage.
John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 was ambushed at Heworth Moor, York by Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (30) leading a force of 700 or more men when returning with his brother's wedding party from Tattershall Castle, Tattershall to Sheriff of Hutton. .

Fulford, York

Battle of Fulford

On 20 Sep 1066 Harald III King Norway 1015-1066 (51), with Tostig Godwinson Earl Northumbria 1026-1066, defeated the brothers Eadwine Mercia -1071 and Morcar Mercia -1087 at the Battle of Fulford at Fulford, York.

St Deny's Church, York

After 29 Mar 1461 Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 was buried at St Deny's Church, York.

Stonegate, York

On 13 Apr 1570 Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 was born in Stonegate, York.

The Pavement, York

On 22 Aug 1572 Thomas Percy 7th Earl of Northumberland 1528-1572 (44) was beheaded at The Pavement in York. His brother Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585 (40) succeeded 8th Earl of Northumberland (1C 1377).

York Castle, York

On Feb 1294 Simon Constable 1243-1294 (51) died at York Castle, York.

Around 1387 Richard Hastings 1387-1436 was born to Ralph Hastings 1340-1398 (47) and Maud Sutton 1356-1400 (31) at York Castle, York.

In 1398 Ralph Hastings 1340-1398 (58) died at York Castle, York. He was buried at Sulby.

In 1433 Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 was born to Leonard Hastings 1396-1455 (37) and Alice Camoys at York Castle, York.

On 10 Sep 1436 Richard Hastings 1387-1436 (49) died at York Castle, York.

After 17 Feb 1461 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 was imprisoned at York Castle, York.

Around 1466 Anne Hastings 1466- was born to Ralph Hastings -1495 and Anne Tattershall 1439-1499 (27) at York Castle, York.

Around 1470 Katherine Hastings 1470- was born to Ralph Hastings -1495 and Anne Tattershall 1439-1499 (31) at York Castle, York.

Around 1478 Isabel Hastings 1478- was born to Ralph Hastings -1495 and Anne Tattershall 1439-1499 (39) at York Castle, York.

Around 1480 Elizabeth Hastings 1480- was born to Ralph Hastings -1495 and Anne Tattershall 1439-1499 (41) at York Castle, York.

Around 1486 Emma Hastings 1486- was born to Ralph Hastings -1495 and Anne Tattershall 1439-1499 (47) at York Castle, York.

Around 1488 Cecilia Hastings 1488- was born to Ralph Hastings -1495 and Anne Tattershall 1439-1499 (49) at York Castle, York.

On 09 Jan 1499 Anne Tattershall 1439-1499 (60) died at York Castle, York.

On 24 Oct 1745 Thomas Herring Archbishop of Canterbury 1693-1757 (52) in a speech at York Castle, York during the Jacobite Rebellion said:
"these Commotions in the North are but Part of a Great Plan concerted for our Ruin—They have begun under the Countenance, and will be supported by the Forces of France and Spain, our old and inveterate, (and late Experience calls upon me to add, our savage and blood-thirsty) Enemies—A Circumstance that should fire the Indignation of every honest Englishman. If these Designs should succeed, and Popery and Arbitrary Power come in upon us, under the Influence and Direction of these two Tyrannical and Corrupted Courts, I leave you to reflect, what would become of every Thing that is valuable to us! We are now bless'd with the mild Administration of a Just and Protestant King, who is of so strict an Adherence to the Laws of our Country, that not an Instance can be pointed out, during his whole reign, wherein he made the least Attempt upon the Liberty, or Property, or Religion, of a single Person. But if the Ambition and Pride of France and Spain, is to dictate to us, we must submit to a Man to govern us under their hated and accursed Influence, who brings his Religion from Rome, and Rules and Maxims of his Government from Paris and Madrid."
Horace Walpole 4th Earl Orford 1717-1797 (28) said this speech "had as much true spirit, honesty and bravery in it as ever was penned by an historian for an ancient hero".

Clifford's Tower, York Castle, York

Massacre of the Jews at York

On 17 Mar 1190 at York the Jewish population sought protection from violence in Clifford's Tower, York Castle, York. The tower was besieged by the mob of crusaders preparing to leave on the Third Crusade. The Jewish men killed their wives and children, after which they set fire to the wooden keep. Those who did escape were murdered.

York Minster

In 678 Bosa of York Bishop -705 was appointed Bishop of York.

On 01 Jul 692 Berhtwald Archbishop -731 was elected Archbishop of York.

On 31 Aug 693 Berhtwald Archbishop -731 was enthroned Archbishop of York.

In 705 John of Beverley Bishop -721 was consecrated Archbishop of York.

Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England Book 5 Chapter 6 How, both by his prayers and blessing, he recalled from death one of his clerks, who had bruised himself by a fall..
In the third year of the reign of Aldfrid, Caedwalla, king of the West Saxons, having most vigorously governed his nation for two years, quitted his crown for the sake of the Lord and an everlasting kingdom, and went to Rome, being desirous to obtain the peculiar honour of being cleansed in the baptismal font at the threshold of the blessed Apostles, for he had learned that in Baptism alone the entrance into the heavenly life is opened to mankind; and he hoped at the same time, that being made clean by Baptism, he should soon be freed from the bonds of the flesh and pass to the eternal joys of Heaven; both which things, by the help of the Lord, came to pass according as he had conceived in his mind. For coming to Rome, at the time that Sergius was pope, he was baptized on the Holy Saturday before Easter Day, in the year of our Lord 689, and being still in his white garments, he fell sick, and was set free from the bonds of the flesh on the 20th of April, and obtained an entrance into the kingdom of the blessed in Heaven. At his baptism, the aforesaid pope had given him the name of Peter, to the end, that he might be also united in name to the most blessed chief of the Apostles, to whose most holy body his pious love had led him from the utmost bounds of the earth. He was likewise buried in his church, and by the pope's command an epitaph was written on his tomb, wherein the memory of his devotion might be preserved for ever, and the readers or hearers thereof might be stirred up to give themselves to religion by the example of what he had done.
The epitaph was this:
"High estate, wealth, offspring, a mighty kingdom, triumphs, spoils, chieftains, strongholds, the camp, a home; whatsoever the valour of his sires, whatsoever himself had won, Caedwal, mighty in war, left for the love of God, that, a pilgrim king, he might behold Peter and Peter's seat, receive at his font pure waters of life, and in bright draughts drink of the shining radiance whence a quickening glory streams through all the world. And even as he gained with eager soul the prize of the new life, he laid aside barbaric rage, and, changed in heart, he changed his name with joy. Sergius the Pope bade him be called Peter, himself his father, when he rose born anew from the font, and the grace of Christ, cleansing him, bore him forthwith clothed in white raiment to the heights of Heaven. O wondrous faith of the king, but greatest of all the mercy of Christ, into whose counsels none may enter! For he came in safety from the ends of the earth, even from Britain, through many a nation, over many a sea, by many a path, and saw the city of Romulus and looked upon Peter's sanctuary revered, bearing mystic gifts. He shall walk in white among the sheep of Christ in fellowship with them; for his body is in the tomb, but his soul on high. Thou mightest deem he did but change an earthly for a heavenly sceptre, whom thou seest attain to the kingdom of Christ."
"Here was buried Caedwalla, called also Peter, king of the Saxons, on the twentieth day of April, in the second indiction, aged about thirty years, in the reign of our most pious lord, the Emperor Justinian, in the fourth year of his consulship, in the second year of the pontificate of our Apostolic lord, Pope Sergius."
When Caedwalla went to Rome, Ini (51) succeeded to the kingdom, being of the blood royal; and having reigned thirty-seven years over that nation, he in like manner left his kingdom and committed it to younger men, and went away to the threshold of the blessed Apostles, at the time when Gregory was pope, being desirous to spend some part of his pilgrimage upon earth in the neighbourhood of the holy places, that he might obtain to be more readily received into the fellowship of the saints in heaven. This same thing, about that time, was wont to be done most zealously by many of the English nation, nobles and commons, laity and clergy, men and women.
The year after that in which Caedwalla died at Rome, that is, 690 after the Incarnation of our Lord, Archbishop Theodore, of blessed memory, departed this life, being old and full of days, for he was eighty-eight years of age; which number of years he had been wont long before to foretell to his friends that he should live, the same having been revealed to him in a dream. He held the bishopric twenty-two years, and was buried in St. Peter's church, where all the bodies of the bishops of Canterbury are buried. Of whom, as well as of his fellows of the same degree, it may rightly and truly be said, that their bodies are buried in peace, and their names shall live to all generations. For to say all in few words, the English Churches gained more spiritual increase while he was archbishop, than ever before. His character, life, age, and death, are plainly and manifestly described to all that resort thither, by the epitaph on his tomb, in thirty-four heroic verses. The first whereof are these:
"Here in the tomb rests the body of the holy prelate, called now in the Greek tongue Theodore. Chief pontiff, blest high priest, pure doctrine he set forth to his disciples."
The last are as follow:
"For September had reached its nineteenth day, when his spirit went forth from the prison-bars of the flesh. Mounting in bliss to the gracious fellowship of the new life, he was united to the angelic citizens in the heights of Heaven."
Bertwald succeeded Theodore in the archbishopric, being abbot of the monastery called Racuulfe, which stands at the northern mouth of the river Genlade. He was a man learned in the Scriptures, and perfectly instructed in ecclesiastical and monastic teaching, yet in no wise to be compared to his predecessor. He was chosen bishop in the year of our Lord 692, on the first day of July, when Wictred (23) and Suaebhard were kings in Kent; but he was ordained the next year, on Sunday the 29th of June, by Godwin, metropolitan bishop of Gaul, and was enthroned on Sunday the 31st of August. Among the many bishops whom he ordained was Tobias, a man instructed in the Latin, Greek, and Saxon tongues, and otherwise of manifold learning, whom he consecrated in the stead of Gedmund, bishop of the Church of Rochester, who had died.
688. At that time the venerable servant of Christ, and priest, Egbert, who is to be named with all honour, and who, as was said before, lived as a stranger and pilgrim in Ireland to obtain hereafter a country in heaven, purposed in his mind to profit many, taking upon him the work of an apostle, and, by preaching the Gospel, to bring the Word of God to some of those nations that had not yet heard it; many of which tribes he knew to be in Germany, from whom the Angles or Saxons, who now inhabit Britain, are known to have derived their race and origin; for which reason they are still corruptly called "Garmans" by the neighbouring nation of the Britons. Such are the Frisians, the Rugini, the Danes, the Huns, the Old Saxons, and the Boructuari. There are also in the same parts many other peoples still enslaved to pagan rites, to whom the aforesaid soldier of Christ detErmined to go, sailing round Britain, if haply he could deliver any of them from Satan, and bring them to Christ; or if this might not be, he was minded to go to Rome, to see and adore the thresholds of the holy Apostles and martyrs of Christ.
But a revelation from Heaven and the working of God prevented him from achieving either of these enterprises; for when he had made choice of most courageous companions, fit to preach the Word, inasmuch as they were renowned for their good deeds and their learning, and when all things necessary were provided for the voyage, there came to him on a certain day early in the morning one of the brethren, who had been a disciple of the priest, Boisil, beloved of God, and had ministered to him in Britain, when the said Boisil was provost of the monastery of Mailros, under the Abbot Eata, as has been said above. This brother told him a vision which he had seen that night. "When after matins," said he, "I had laid me down in my bed, and was fallen into a light slumber, Boisil, that was sometime my master and brought me up in all love, appeared to me, and asked, whether I knew him? I said, ‘Yes, you are Boisil.’ He answered, ‘I am come to bring Egbert a message from our Lord and Saviour, which must nevertheless be delivered to him by you. Tell him, therefore, that he cannot perform the journey he has undertaken; for it is the will of God that he should rather go to teach the monasteries of Columba.’ "Now Columba was the first teacher of the Christian faith to the Picts beyond the mountains northward, and the first founder of the monastery in the island of Hii, which was for a long time much honoured by many tribes of the Scots and Picts. The said Columba is now by some called Columcille, the name being compounded from "Columba" and "Cella." Egbert, having heard the words of the vision, charged the brother that had told it him, not to tell it to any other, lest haply it should be a lying vision. But when he considered the matter secretly with himself, he apprehended that it was true, yet would not desist from preparing for his voyage which he purposed to make to teach those nations.
A few days after the aforesaid brother came again to him, saying that Boisil had that night again appeared to him in a vision after matins, and said, "Why did you tell Egbert so negligently and after so lukewarm a manner that which I enjoined upon you to say? Yet, go now and tell him, that whether he will or no, he must go to Columba's monasteries, because their ploughs are not driven straight; and he must bring them back into the right way." Hearing this, Egbert again charged the brother not to reveal the same to any man. Though now assured of the vision, he nevertheless attempted to set forth upon his intended voyage with the brethren. When they had put aboard all that was requisite for so long a voyage, and had waited some days for fair winds, there arose one night so violent a storm, that part of what was on board was lost, and the ship itself was left lying on its side in the sea. Nevertheless, all that belonged to Egbert and his companions was saved. Then he, saying, in the words of the prophet, "For my sake this great tempest is upon you," withdrew himself from that undertaking and was content to remain at home.
But one of his companions, called Wictbert, notable for his contempt of the world and for his learning and knowledge, for he had lived many years as a stranger and pilgrim in Ireland, leading a hermit's life in great perfection, took ship, and arriving in Frisland, preached the Word of salvation for the space of two whole years to that nation and to its king, Rathbed; but reaped no fruit of all his great labour among his barbarous hearers. Returning then to the chosen place of his pilgrimage, he gave himself up to the Lord in his wonted life of silence, and since he could not be profitable to strangers by teaching them the faith, he took care to be the more profitable to his own people by the example of his virtue.
690. When the man of God, Egbert, perceived that neither he himself was permitted to go and preach to the nations, being withheld for the sake of some other advantage to the holy Church, whereof he had been forewarned by a revelation; nor that Wictbert, when he went into those parts, had availed to do anything; he nevertheless still attempted to send holy and industrious men to the work of the Word, among whom the most notable was Wilbrord (63), a man eminent for his merit and rank as priest. They arrived there, twelve in number, and turning aside to Pippin, duke of the Franks, were gladly received by him; and as he had lately subdued the nearer part of Frisland, and expelled King Rathbed, he sent them thither to preach, supporting them at the same time with his sovereign authority, that none might molest them in their preaching, and bestowing many favours on those who consented to receive the faith. Thus it came to pass, that with the help of the Divine grace, in a short time they converted many from idolatry to the faith of Christ.
Following their example, two other priests of the English nation, who had long lived as strangers in Ireland, for the sake of the eternal country, went into the province of the Old Saxons, if haply they could there win any to Christ by their preaching. They were alike in name as in devotion, Hewald being the name of both, with this distinction, that, on account of the different colour of their hair, the one was called Black Hewald and the other White Hewald. They were both full of religious piety, but Black Hewald was the more learned of the two in Scripture. When they came into the province, these men took up their lodging in the guesthouse of a certain township-reeve, and asked of him that he would conduct them to the ealdorman who was over him, for that they had a message concerning matters of importance to communicate to him. For those Old Saxons have no king, but many ealdormen set over their nation; and when any war is on the point of breaking out, they cast lots indifferently, and on whomsoever the lot falls, him they all follow and obey during the time of war; but as soon as the war is ended, all those ealdormen are again equal in power. So the reeve received and entertained them in his house some days, promising to send them to the ealdorman who was over him, as they desired.
But when the barbarians perceived that they were of another religion,—for they continually gave themselves to singing of psalms and prayer, and daily offered up to God the Sacrifice of the saving Victim, having with them sacred vessels and a consecrated table for an altar,—they began to grow suspicious of them, lest if they should come into the presence of their ealdorman, and converse with him, they should turn his heart from their gods, and convert him to the new religion of the Christian faith; and thus by degrees all their province should be forced to change its old worship for a new. Wherefore on a sudden they laid hold of them and put them to death; and White Hewald they slew outright with the sword; but they put Black Hewald to lingering torture and tore him limb from limb in horrible fashion, and they threw their bodies into the Rhine. The ealdorman, whom they had desired to see, hearing of it, was very angry that strangers who desired to come to him had not been suffered to come; and therefore he sent and put to death all those villagers and burned their village. The aforesaid priests and servants of Christ suffered on the 3rd of October.
Miracles from Heaven were not lacking at their martyrdom. For their dead bodies, having been cast into the river by the pagans, as has been said, were carried against the stream for the space of almost forty miles, to the place where their companions were. Moreover, a long ray of light, reaching up to heaven, shone every night above them wheresoever they chanced to be, and that too in the sight of the very pagans that had slain them. Moreover, one of them appeared in a vision by night to one of his companions, whose name was Tilmon, a man of renown and of noble birth in this world, who having been a thegn had become a monk, telling him that he might find their bodies in that place, where he should see rays of light reaching from heaven to the earth. And so it befell; and their bodies being found, were buried with the honour due to martyrs; and the day of their passion or of the finding of their bodies, is celebrated in those parts with fitting veneration. Finally, Pippin, the most glorious duke of the Franks, learning these things, caused the bodies to be brought to him, and buried them with much honour in the church of the city of Cologne, on the Rhine. And it is said that a spring burst forth in the place where they were killed, which to this day affords a plentiful stream in that same place.
692. At their first coming into Frisland, as soon as Wilbrord (63) found that he had leave given him by the prince to preach there, he made haste to go to Rome, where Pope Sergius then presided over the Apostolic see, that he might undertake the desired work of preaching the Gospel to the nations, with his licence and blessing; and hoping to receive of him some relics of the blessed Apostles and martyrs of Christ; to the end, that when he destroyed the idols, and erected churches in the nation to which he preached, he might have the relics of saints at hand to put into them, and having deposited them there, might accordingly dedicate each of those places to the honour of the saint whose relics they were. He desired also there to learn or to receive many other things needful for so great a work. Having obtained his desire in all these matters, he returned to preach.
At which time, the brothers who were in Frisland, attending on the ministry of the Word, chose out of their own number a man of sober life, and meek of heart, called Suidbert, to be ordained bishop for them. He, being sent into Britain, was consecrated, at their request, by the most reverend Bishop Wilfrid, who, having been driven out of his country, chanced then to be living in banishment among the Mercians; for Kent had no bishop at that time, Theodore being dead, and Bertwald, his successor, who had gone beyond the sea to be ordained, having not yet returned to his episcopal see.
The said Suidbert, being made bishop, returned from Britain, and not long after departed to the Boructuari; and by his preaching brought many of them into the way of truth; but the Boructuari being not long after subdued by the Old Saxons, those who had received the Word were dispersed abroad; and the bishop himself with certain others went to Pippin, who, at the request of his wife, Blithryda, gave him a place of abode in a certain island on the Rhine, called in their tongue, Inlitore; there he built a monastery, which his successors still possess, and for a time dwelt in it, leading a most continent life, and there ended his days.
When they who had gone thither had spent some years teaching in Frisland, Pippin, with the consent of them all, sent the venerable Wilbrord (63) to Rome, where Sergius was still pope, desiring that he (63) might be consecrated archbishop over the nation of the Frisians; which was accordingly done, as he had made request, in the year of our Lord 696. He (63) was consecrated in the church of the Holy Martyr Cecilia, on her festival; and the said pope gave him the name of Clement, and forthwith sent him back to his bishopric, to wit, fourteen days after his arrival in the city.
Pippin gave him a place for his episcopal see, in his famous fort, which in the ancient language of those people is called Wiltaburg, that is, the town of the Wilts; but, in the Gallic tongue, Trajectum. The most reverend prelate having built a church there, and preaching the Word of faith far and near, drew many from their errors, and built many churches and not a few monasteries. For not long after he himself constituted other bishops in those parts from the number of the brethren that either came with him or after him to preach there; of whom some are now fallen asleep in the Lord; but Wilbrord (63) himself, surnamed Clement, is still living, venerable for his great age, having been thirty-six years a bishop, and now, after manifold conflicts of the heavenly warfare, he longs with all his heart for the recompense of the reward in Heaven.
696. At this time a memorable miracle, and like to those of former days, was wrought in Britain; for, to the end that the living might be roused from the death of the soul, a certain man, who had been some time dead, rose again to the life of the body, and related many memorable things that he had seen; some of which I have thought fit here briefly to describe. There was a certain householder in that district of the Northumbrians which is called Incuneningum, who led a godly life, with all his house. This man fell sick, and his sickness daily increasing, he was brought to extremity, and died in the beginning of the night; but at dawn he came to life again, and suddenly sat up, whereat all those that sat about the body weeping fled away in great terror, only his wife, who loved him better, though trembling and greatly afraid, remained with him. And he comforting her, said, "Fear not, for I am now in very deed risen from death whereof I was holden, and permitted again to live among men; nevertheless, hereafter I must not live as I was wont, but after a very different manner." Then rising immediately, he went to the oratory of the little town, and continuing in prayer till day, forthwith divided all his substance into three parts; one whereof he gave to his wife, another to his children, and the third, which he kept himself, he straightway distributed among the poor. Not long after, being set free from the cares of this world, he came to the monastery of Mailros, which is almost enclosed by the winding of the river Tweed, and having received the tonsure, went apart into a place of abode which the abbot had provided, and there he continued till the day of his death, in so great contrition of mind and mortifying of the body, that even if his tongue had been silent, his life would have declared that he had seen many things either to be dreaded or coveted, which were hidden from other men.
Thus he related what he had seen. He that led me had a countenance full of light, and shining raiment, and we went in silence, as it seemed to me, towards the rising of the summer sun. And as we walked we came to a broad and deep valley of infinite length; it lay on our left, and one side of it was exceeding terrible with raging flames, the other no less intolerable for violent hail and cold snows drifting and sweeping through all the place. Both sides were full of the souls of men which seemed to be tossed from one side to the other as it were by a violent storm; for when they could no longer endure the fervent heat, the hapless souls leaped into the midst of the deadly cold; and finding no rest there, they leaped back again to be burnt in the midst of the unquenchable flames. Now whereas an innumerable multitude of misshapen spirits were thus tormented far and near with this interchange of misery, as far as I could see, without any interval of rest, I began to think that peradventure this might be Hell, of whose intolerable torments I had often heard men talk. My guide, who went before me, answered to my thought, saying, ‘Think not so, for this is not the Hell you believe it to be.’
When he had led me farther by degrees, sore dismayed by that dread sight, on a sudden I saw the place before us begin to grow dark and filled with shadows. When we entered into them, the shadows by degrees grew so thick, that I could see nothing else, save only the darkness and the shape and garment of him that led me. As we went on ‘through the shades in the lone night,’ lo! on a sudden there appeared before us masses of foul flame constantly rising as it were out of a great pit, and falling back again into the same. When I had been led thither, my guide suddenly vanished, and left me alone in the midst of darkness and these fearful sights. As those same masses of fire, without intermission, at one time flew up and at another fell back into the bottom of the abyss, I perceived that the summits of all the flames, as they ascended were full of the spirits of men, which, like sparks flying upwards with the smoke, were sometimes thrown on high, and again, when the vapours of the fire fell, dropped down into the depths below. Moreover, a stench, foul beyond compare, burst forth with the vapours, and filled all those dark places.
Having stood there a long time in much dread, not knowing what to do, which way to turn, or what end awaited me, on a sudden I heard behind me the sound of a mighty and miserable lamentation, and at the same time noisy laughter, as of a rude multitude insulting captured enemies. When that noise, growing plainer, came up to me, I beheld a crowd of evil spirits dragging five souls of men, wailing and shrieking, into the midst of the darkness, whilst they themselves exulted and laughed. Among those human souls, as I could discern, there was one shorn like a clerk, one a layman, and one a woman. The evil spirits that dragged them went down into the midst of the burning pit; and it came to pass that as they went down deeper, I could no longer distinguish between the lamentation of the men and the laughing of the devils, yet I still had a confused sound in my ears. In the meantime, some of the dark spirits ascended from that flaming abyss, and running forward, beset me on all sides, and with their flaming eyes and the noisome fire which they breathed forth from their mouths and nostrils, tried to choke me; and threatened to lay hold on me with fiery tongs, which they had in their hands, yet they durst in no wise touch me, though they assayed to terrify me. Being thus on all sides encompassed with enemies and shades of darkness, and casting my eyes hither and thither if haply anywhere help might be found whereby I might be saved, there appeared behind me, on the way by which I had come, as it were, the brightness of a star shining amidst the darkness; which waxing greater by degrees, came rapidly towards me: and when it drew near, all those evil spirits, that sought to carry me away with their tongs, dispersed and fled.
Now he, whose approach put them to flight, was the same that led me before; who, then turning towards the right, began to lead me, as it were, towards the rising of the winter sun, and having soon brought me out of the darkness, led me forth into an atmosphere of clear light. While he thus led me in open light, I saw a vast wall before us, the length on either side, and the height whereof, seemed to be altogether boundless. I began to wonder why we went up to the wall, seeing no door in it, nor window, nor any way of ascent. But when we came to the wall, we were presently, I know not by what means, on the top of it, and lo! there was a wide and pleasant plain full of such fragrance of blooming flowers that the marvellous sweetness of the scents immediately dispelled the foul stench of the dark furnace which had filled my nostrils. So great was the light shed over all this place that it seemed to exceed the brightness of the day, or the rays of the noontide sun. In this field were innumerable companies of men clothed in white, and many seats of rejoicing multitudes. As he led me through the midst of bands of happy inhabitants, I began to think that this perchance might be the kingdom of Heaven, of which I had often heard tell. He answered to my thought, saying, ‘Nay, this is not the kingdom of Heaven, as you think.’
When we had also passed those mansions of blessed spirits, and gone farther on, I saw before me a much more beautiful light than before, and therein heard sweet sounds of singing, and so wonderful a fragrance was shed abroad from the place, that the other which I had perceived before and thought so great, then seemed to me but a small thing; even as that wondrous brightness of the flowery field, compared with this which I now beheld, appeared mean and feeble. When I began to hope that we should enter that delightful place, my guide, on a sudden stood still; and straightway turning, led me back by the way we came.
"In our return, when we came to those joyous mansions of the white-robed spirits, he said to me, ‘Do you know what all these things are which you have seen?’ I answered, ‘No,’ and then he said, ‘That valley which you beheld terrible with flaming fire and freezing cold, is the place in which the souls of those are tried and punished, who, delaying to conFess and amend their crimes, at length have recourse to repentance at the point of death, and so go forth from the body; but nevertheless because they, even at their death, conFessed and repented, they shall all be received into the kingdom of Heaven at the day of judgement; but many are succoured before the day of judgement, by the prayers of the living and their alms and fasting, and more especially by the celebration of Masses. Moreover that foul flaming pit which you saw, is the mouth of Hell, into which whosoever falls shall never be delivered to all eternity. This flowery place, in which you see this fair and youthful company, all bright and joyous, is that into which the souls of those are received who, indeed, when they leave the body have done good works, but who are not so perfect as to deserve to be immediately admitted into the kingdom of Heaven; yet they shall all, at the day of judgement, behold Christ, and enter into the joys of His kingdom; for such as are perfect in every word and deed and thought, as soon as they quit the body, forthwith enter into the kingdom of Heaven; in the neighbourhood whereof that place is, where you heard the sound of sweet singing amidst the savour of a sweet fragrance and brightness of light. As for you, who must now return to the body, and again live among men, if you will seek diligently to examine your actions, and preserve your manner of living and your words in righteousness and simplicity, you shall, after death, have a place of abode among these joyful troops of blessed souls which you behold. For when I left you for awhile, it was for this purpose, that I might learn what should become of you.’ When he had said this to me, I much abhorred returning to the body, being delighted with the sweetness and beauty of the place which I beheld, and with the company of those I saw in it. Nevertheless, I durst not ask my guide anything; but thereupon, on a sudden, I found myself, I know not how, alive among men."
Now these and other things which this man of God had seen, he would not relate to slothful men, and such as lived negligently; but only to those who, being terrified with the dread of torments, or ravished with the hope of everlasting joys, would draw from his words the means to advance in piety. In the neighbourhood of his cell lived one Haemgils, a monk, and eminent in the priesthood, whose good works were worthy of his office: he is still living, and leading a solitary life in Ireland, supporting his declining age with coarse bread and cold water. He often went to that man, and by repeated questioning, heard of him what manner of things he had seen when out of the body; by whose account those few particulars which we have briefly set down came also to our knowledge. And he related his visions to King Aldfrid, a man most learned in all respects, and was by him so willingly and attentively heard, that at his request he was admitted into the monastery above-mentioned, and received the crown of the monastic tonsure; and the said king, whensoever he came into those parts, very often went to hear him. At that time the abbot and priest Ethelwald,846 a man of godly and sober life, presided over that monastery. He now occupies the episcopal see of the church of Lindisfarne, leading a life worthy of his degree.
He had a place of abode assigned him apart in that monastery, where he might give himself more freely to the service of his Creator in continual prayer. And inasmuch as that place was on the banks of the river, he was wont often to go into the same for the great desire he had to do penance in his body, and oftentimes to plunge in it, and to continue saying psalms or prayers in the same as long as he could endure it, standing still, while the waves flowed over him, sometimes up to the middle, and sometimes even to the neck in water; and when he went ashore, he never took off his cold, wet garments till they grew warm and dry on his body. And when in the winter the cracking pieces of ice were floating about him, which he had himself sometimes broken, to make room to stand or plunge in the river, and those who beheld it would say, "We marvel, brother Drythelm (for so he was called), that you are able to endure such severe cold;" he answered simply, for he was a simple and sober-spirited man, "I have seen greater cold." And when they said, "We marvel that you choose to observe so hard a rule of continence," he replied, "I have seen harder things." And so, until the day of his calling hence, in his unwearied desire of heavenly bliss, he subdued his aged body with daily fasting, and forwarded the salvation of many by his words and life.
704 to 709. But contrarywise there was a man in the province of the Mercians, whose visions and words, but not his manner of life, were of profit to others, though not to himself. In the reign of Coenred, who succeeded Ethelred, there was a layman who was a king's thegn, no less acceptable to the king for his outward industry, than displeasing to him for his neglect of his own soul. The king diligently admonished him to conFess and amend, and to forsake his evil ways, lest he should lose all time for repentance and amendment by a sudden death. But though frequently warned, he despised the words of salvation, and promised that he would do penance at some future time. In the meantime, falling sick he betook himself to his bed, and was tormented with grievous pains. The king coming to him (for he loved the man much) exhorted him, even then, before death, to repent of his offences. But he answered that he would not then conFess his sins, but would do it when he was recovered of his sickness, lest his companions should upbraid him with having done that for fear of death, which he had refused to do in health. He thought he spoke very bravely, but it afterwards appeared that he had been miserably deceived by the wiles of the Devil.
The disease increasing, when the king came again to visit and instruct him, he cried out straightway with a lamentable voice, "What will you now? What are you come for? for you can no longer do aught for my profit or salvation." The king answered, "Say not so; take heed and be of sound mind." "I am not mad," replied he, "but I now know the worst and have it for certain before my eyes." "What is that?" said the king. "Not long since," said he, "there came into this room two fair youths, and sat down by me, the one at my head, and the other at my feet. One of them drew forth a book most beautiful, but very small, and gave it me to read; looking into it, I there found all the good actions I had ever done in my life written down, and they were very few and inconsiderable. They took back the book and said nothing to me. Then, on a sudden, appeared an army of evil spirits of hideous countenance, and they beset this house without, and sitting down filled the greater part of it within. Then he, who by the blackness of his gloomy face, and his sitting above the rest, seemed to be the chief of them, taking out a book terrible to behold, of a monstrous size, and of almost insupportable weight, commanded one of his followers to bring it to me to read. Having read it, I found therein most plainly written in hideous characters, all the crimes I ever committed, not only in word and deed, but even in the least thought; and he said to those glorious men in white raiment who sat by me, ‘Why sit ye here, since ye know of a surety that this man is ours?’ They answered, ‘Ye speak truly; take him and lead him away to fill up the measure of your damnation.’ This said, they forthwith vanished, and two wicked spirits arose, having in their hands ploughshares, and one of them struck me on the head, and the other on the foot. And these ploughshares are now with great torment creeping into the inward parts of my body, and as soon as they meet I shall die, and the devils being ready to snatch me away, I shall be dragged into the dungeons of hell."
Thus spoke that wretch in his despair, and soon after died, and now in vain suffers in eternal torments that penance which he failed to suffer for a short time with the fruits of forgiveness. Of whom it is manifest, that (as the blessed Pope Gregory writes of certain persons) he did not see these things for his own sake, since they did not avail him, but for the sake of others, who, knowing of his end, should be afraid to put off the time of repentance, whilst they have leisure, lest, being prevented by sudden death, they should perish impenitent. And whereas he saw diverse books laid before him by the good and evil spirits, this was done by Divine dispensation, that we may keep in mind that our deeds and thoughts are not scattered to the winds, but are all kept to be examined by the Supreme Judge, and will in the end be shown us either by friendly angels or by the enemy. And whereas the angels first drew forth a white book, and then the devils a black one; the former a very small one, the latter one very great; it is to be observed, that in his first years he did some good actions, all which he nevertheless obscured by the evil actions of his youth. If, contrarywise, he had taken care in his youth to correct the errors of his boyhood, and by well-doing to put them away from the sight of God, he might have been admitted to the fellowship of those of whom the Psalm says, "Blessed are those whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered." This story, as I learned it of the venerable Bishop Pechthelm, I have thought good to set forth plainly, for the salvation of such as shall read or hear it.
704 to 709. I myself knew a brother, would to God I had not known him, whose name I could mention if it were of any avail, dwelling in a famous monastery, but himself living infamously. He was oftentimes rebuked by the brethren and elders of the place, and admonished to be converted to a more chastened life; and though he would not give ear to them, they bore with him long and patiently, on account of their need of his outward service, for he was a cunning artificer. But he was much given to drunkenness, and other pleasures of a careless life, and more used to stop in his workshop day and night, than to go to church to sing and pray and hear the Word of life with the brethren. For which reason it befell him according to the saying, that he who will not willingly humble himself and enter the gate of the church must needs be led against his will into the gate of Hell, being damned. For he falling sick, and being brought to extremity, called the brethren, and with much lamentation, like one damned, began to tell them, that he saw Hell opened, and Satan sunk in the depths thereof; and Caiaphas, with the others that slew our Lord, hard by him, delivered up to avenging flames. "In whose neighbourhood," said he, "I see a place of eternal perdition prepared for me, miserable wretch that I am." The brothers, hearing these words, began diligently to exhort him, that he should repent even then, whilst he was still in the flesh. He answered in despair, "There is no time for me now to change my course of life, when I have myself seen my judgement passed."
Whilst uttering these words, he died without having received the saving Viaticum, and his body was buried in the farthest parts of the monastery, nor did any one dare either to say Masses or sing psalms, or even to pray for him. Oh how far asunder hath God put light from darkness! The blessed Stephen, the first martyr, being about to suffer death for the truth, saw the heavens opened, and the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God; and where he was to be after death, there he fixed the eyes of his mind, that he might die the more joyfully. But this workman, of darkened mind and life, when death was at hand, saw Hell opened, and witnessed the damnation of the Devil and his followers; he saw also, unhappy wretch! his own prison among them, to the end that, despairing of salvation, he might himself die the more miserably, but might by his perdition afford cause of salvation to the living who should hear of it. This befell of late in the province of the Bernicians, and being noised abroad far and near, inclined many to do penance for their sins without delay. Would to God that this also might come to pass through the reading of our words!
703. At this time a great part of the Scots in Ireland, and some also of the Britons in Britain, by the grace of God, adopted the reasonable and ecclesiastical time of keeping Easter. For when Adamnan, priest and abbot of the monks that were in the island of Hii, was sent by his nation on a mission to Aldfrid, king of the English, he abode some time in that province, and saw the canonical rites of the Church. Moreover, he was earnestly admonished by many of the more learned sort, not to presume to live contrary to the universal custom of the Church, either in regard to the observance of Easter, or any other ordinances whatsoever, with those few followers of his dwelling in the farthest corner of the world. Wherefore he so changed his mind, that he readily preferred those things which he had seen and heard in the English churches, to the customs which he and his people had hitherto followed. For he was a good and wise man, and excellently instructed in knowledge of the Scriptures. Returning home, he endeavoured to bring his own people that were in Hii, or that were subject to that monastery, into the way of truth, which he had embraced with all his heart; but he could not prevail. He sailed over into Ireland, and preaching to those people, and with sober words of exhortation making known to them the lawful time of Easter, he brought back many of them, and almost all that were free from the dominion of those of Hii, from the error of their fathers to the Catholic unity, and taught them to keep the lawful time of Easter.
Returning to his island, after having celebrated the canonical Easter in Ireland, he was instant in preaching the Catholic observance of the season of Easter in his monastery, yet without being able to achieve his end; and it so happened that he departed this life before the next year came round, the Divine goodness so ordaining it, that as he was a great lover of peace and unity, he should be taken away to everlasting life before he should be obliged, on the return of the season of Easter, to be at greater variance with those that would not follow him into the truth.
This same man wrote a book concerning the holy places, of great profit to many readers; his authority was the teaching and dictation of Arculf, a bishop of Gaul, who had gone to Jerusalem for the sake of the holy places; and having wandered over all the Promised Land, travelled also to Damascus, Constantinople, Alexandria, and many islands in the sea, and returning home by ship, was cast upon the western coast of Britain by a great tempest. After many adventures he came to the aforesaid servant of Christ, Adamnan, and being found to be learned in the Scriptures, and acquainted with the holy places, was most gladly received by him and gladly heard, insomuch that whatsoever he said that he had seen worthy of remembrance in the holy places, Adamnan straightway set himself to commit to writing. Thus he composed a work, as I have said, profitable to many, and chiefly to those who, being far Removed from those places where the patriarchs and Apostles lived, know no more of them than what they have learnt by reading. Adamnan presented this book to King Aldfrid, and through his bounty it came to be read by lesser persons. The writer thereof was also rewarded by him with many gifts and sent back into his country. I believe it will be of advantage to our readers if we collect some passages from his writings, and insert them in this our History.
705. In the year of our Lord 705, Aldfrid, king of the Northumbrians, died before the end of the twentieth year of his reign. His son Osred, a boy about eight years of age, succeeding him in the throne, reigned eleven years. In the beginning of his reign, Haedde, bishop of the West Saxons, departed to the heavenly life; for he was a good man and a just, and his life and doctrine as a bishop were guided rather by his innate love of virtue, than by what he had gained from books. The most reverend bishop, Pechthelm, of whom we shall speak hereafter in the proper place, and who while still deacon or monk was for a long time with his successor Aldhelm, was wont to relate that many miracles of healing have been wrought in the place where he died, through the merit of his sanctity; and that the men of that province used to carry the dust thence for the sick, and put it into water, and the drinking thereof, or sprinkling with it, brought health to many sick men and beasts; so that the holy dust being frequently carried away, a great hole was made there.
Upon his death, the bishopric of that province was divided into two dioceses. One of them was given to Daniel, which he governs to this day; the other to Aldhelm, wherein he presided most vigorously four years; both of them were fully instructed, as well in matters touching the Church as in the knowledge of the Scriptures. Aldhelm, when he was as yet only a priest and abbot of the monastery which is called the city of Maildufus, by order of a synod of his own nation, wrote a notable book against the error of the Britons, in not celebrating Easter at the due time, and in doing divers other things contrary to the purity of doctrine and the peace of the church; and through the reading of this book many of the Britons, who were subject to the West Saxons, were led by him to adopt the Catholic celebration of our Lord's Paschal Feast. He likewise wrote a famous book on Virginity, which, after the example of Sedulius, he composed in twofold form, in hexameters and in prose. He wrote some other books, being a man most instructed in all respects, for he had a polished style, and was, as I have said, of marvellous learning both in liberal and ecclesiastical studies. On his death, Forthere was made bishop in his stead, and is living at this time, being likewise a man very learned in the Holy Scriptures.
Whilst they administered the bishopric, it was detErmined by a synodal decree, that the province of the South Saxons, which till that time belonged to the diocese of the city of Winchester, where Daniel then presided, should itself have an episcopal see, and a bishop of its own. Eadbert, at that time abbot of the monastery of Bishop Wilfrid, of blessed memory, called Selaeseu, was consecrated their first bishop. On his death, Eolla succeeded to the office of bishop. He also died some years ago, and the bishopric has been vacant to this day.

Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England Book 5 Chapter 3 The same bishop, John, by his prayers, healed a sick maiden.. The same Berthun told another miracle concerning the said bishop. When the most reverend Wilfrid, after a long banishment, was admitted to the bishopric of the church of Hagustald, and the aforesaid John, upon the death of Bosa, a man of great sanctity and humility, was, in his place, appointed bishop of York, he himself came, once upon a time, to the monastery of nuns, at the place called Wetadun, where the Abbess Heriburg then presided. "When we were come thither," said he, "and had been received with great and universal joy, the abbess told us, that one of the nuns, who was her own daughter after the flesh, laboured under a grievous sickness, for she had been lately let blood in the arm, and whilst she was under treatment, was seized with an attack of sudden pain, which speedily increased, while the wounded arm became worse, and so much swollen, that it could scarce be compassed with both hands; and she lay in bed like to die through excess of pain. Wherefore the abbess entreated the bishop that he would vouchsafe to go in and give her his blessing; for she believed that she would soon be better if he blessed her or laid his hands upon her. He asked when the maiden had been let blood, and being told that it was on the fourth day of the moon, said, ‘You did very indiscreetly and unskilfully to let blood on the fourth day of the moon; for I remember that Archbishop Theodore, of blessed memory, said, that blood-letting at that time was very dangerous, when the light of the moon is waxing and the tide of the ocean is rising. And what can I do for the maiden if she is like to die? "
But the abbess still earnestly entreated for her daughter, whom she dearly loved, and designed to make abbess in her stead, and at last prevailed with him to go in and visit the sick maiden. Wherefore he went in, taking me with him to the maid, who lay, as I said, in sore anguish, and her arm swelling so greatly that it could not be bent at all at the elbow; and he stood and said a prayer over her, and having given his blessing, went out. Afterwards, as we were sitting at table, at the usual hour, some one came in and called me out, saying, ‘Quoenburg’ (that was the maid's name) ‘desires that you should immediately go back to her.’ This I did, and entering the chamber, I found her of more cheerful countenance, and like one in good health. And while I was sitting beside her, she said, ‘Shall we call for something to drink?’—‘Yes,’ said I, ‘and right glad am I, if you can.’ When the cup was brought, and we had both drunk, she said, ‘As soon as the bishop had said the prayer for me and given me his blessing and had gone out, I immediately began to mend; and though I have not yet recovered my former strength, yet all the pain is quite gone both from my arm, where it was most burning, and from all my body, as if the bishop had carried it away with him; notwithstanding the swelling of the arm still seems to remain.’ But when we departed thence, the cure of the pain in her limbs was followed by the assuaging of the grievous swelling; and the maiden being thus delivered from pains and death, returned praise to our Lord and Saviour, in company with His other servants who were there.
The same abbot related another miracle, not unlike the former, of the aforesaid bishop. "Not very far from our monastery," he said, "to wit, about two miles off, was the township of one Puch, a thegn, whose wife had lain sick of a very grievous disease for nearly forty days, insomuch that for three weeks she could not be carried out of the chamber where she lay." It happened that the man of God was, at that time, called thither by the thegn to consecrate a church; and when that was done, the thegn desired him to come into his house and dine. The bishop declined, saying that he must return to the monastery, which was very near. The thegn, entreating him more earnestly, vowed he would also give alms to the poor, if so be that the bishop would vouchsafe to enter his house that day and break his fast. I joined my entreaties to his, promising in like manner to give alms for the relief of the poor, if he would but go and dine at the thegn's house, and give his blessing. Having at length, with much difficulty, prevailed, we went in to refresh ourselves. The bishop had sent to the woman that lay sick some of the holy water, which he had blessed for the consecration of the church, by one of the brothers who had come with me, ordering him to give her some to drink, and wash that part of her where he found that her pain was greatest, with some of the same water. This being done, the woman immediately got up whole and sound, and perceiving that she had not only been delivered from her long sickness, but at the same time had recovered the strength which she had lost for so great a time, she presented the cup to the bishop and to us, and continued serving us with meat and drink as she had begun, till dinner was over; following the example of the blessed Peter's wife's mother, who, having been sick of a fever, arose at the touch of our Lord's hand, and having forthwith received health and strength, ministered to them.
At another time also, being called to consecrate the church of a thegn named Addi, when he had performed the required duty, he was entreated by the thegn to go in to one of his servants, who lay dangerously ill, insomuch that having lost all use of his limbs, he seemed to be at the point of death; and moreover the coffin had been made ready wherein to bury him after his death. The thegn urged his entreaties with tears, earnestly beseeching him that he would go in and pray for the servant, because his life was of great moment to him; and he believed that if the bishop would lay his hand upon him and give him his blessing, he would soon mend. So the bishop went in, and saw him very near death, and by his side the coffin in which he was to be laid for his burial, whilst all mourned. He said a prayer and blessed him, and going out, spake the wonted words of comfort, "Good health be yours and that speedily." Afterwards, when they were sitting at table, the servant sent to his lord, desiring that he would let him have a cup of wine, because he was thirsty. The thegn, rejoicing greatly that he could drink, sent him a cup of wine, blessed by the bishop; and, as soon as he had drunk it, he immediately got up, and, shaking off the heaviness of his infirmity, dressed himself and went forth, and going in to the bishop, saluted him and the other guests, saying that he also would gladly eat and drink with them. They bade him sit down with them at table, greatly rejoicing at his recovery. He sat down, ate and drank and made merry, and behaved himself like the rest of the company; and living many years after, continued in the same health which he had gained. The aforesaid abbot says this miracle was not wrought in his presence, but that he had it from those who were present.
Nor do I think that this miracle, which Herebald Abbot, the servant of Christ, says was wrought upon himself by the bishop, is to be passed over in silence. He was then one of that bishop's clergy, but now presides as abbot in the monastery at the mouth of the River Tyne. "Living with him," said he, "and being very well acquainted with his course of life, I found it to be in all points worthy of a bishop, as far as it is lawful for men to judge; but I have known by the experience of others, and more particularly by my own, how great his merit was before Him Who seeth the heart; having been by his prayer and blessing recalled from the threshold of death and brought back to the way of life. For, when in the prime of my youth, I lived among his clergy, applying myself to reading and singing, but not having yet altogether withdrawn my heart from youthful pleasures, it happened one day that, as we were travelling with him, we came into a plain and open road, well fitted for galloping. The young men that were with him, and especially the laymen, began to entreat the bishop to give them leave to gallop, and make trial of their horses one with another. He at first refused, saying that it was an idle request; but at last, overcome by the unanimous desire of so many, ‘Do so,’ said he, ‘if you will, but let Herebald have no part in the trial.’ Then I earnestly prayed that I might have leave to compete with the rest, for I relied on an excellent horse, which he had himself given me, but I could in no wise obtain my request."
When they had several times galloped backwards and forwards, the bishop and I looking on, my wanton humour prevailed, and I could no longer refrain, but though he forbade me, I struck in among them at their sport, and began to ride with them at full speed; whereat I heard him call after me with a groan, ‘Alas! how much you grieve me by riding after that manner.’ Though I heard him, I went on against his command; but immediately the fiery horse taking a great leap over a hollow place in the way, I fell, and at once lost all sense and motion, like one dying; for there was in that place a stone, level with the ground, covered with only a thin coating of turf, and no other stone was to be found in all that expanse of plain; and it happened by chance, or rather by Divine Providence so ordering it, to punish my disobedience, that my head and my hand, which in falling I had put under my head, struck upon that stone, so that my thumb was broken and my skull fractured, and I became, as I said, like one dead.
And because I could not move, they stretched a tent there for me to lie in. It was about the seventh hour of the day, and having lain still and as it were dead from that time till the evening, I then revived a little, and was carried home by my companions, and lay speechless all the night, vomiting blood, because something was broken within me by the fall. The bishop was very much grieved at my fall and my misfortune, for he bore me extraordinary affection. Nor would he stay that night, as he was wont, among his clergy; but spent it alone in watching and prayer, imploring the Divine goodness, as I suppose, for my preservation. Coming to me early in the morning, and having said a prayer over me, he called me by my name, and when I awoke as it were out of a heavy sleep, he asked whether I knew who it was that spoke to me? I opened my eyes and said, ‘Yes; you are my beloved bishop.’—‘Can you live?’ said he. I answered, ‘I can, through your prayers, if the Lord will.’
He then laid his hand on my head, with the words of blessing, and returned to prayer; when he came again to see me, in a short time, he found me sitting and able to talk; and, being moved by Divine inspiration, as it soon appeared, began to ask me, whether I knew for certain that I had been baptized? I answered that I knew beyond all doubt that I had been washed in the font of salvation, for the remission of sins, and I named the priest by whom I knew that I had been baptized. He replied, ‘If you were baptized by that priest, your baptism is not perfect; for I know him, and that when he was ordained priest, he could in no wise, by reason of the dulness of his understanding, learn the ministry of catechizing and baptizing; for which reason I enjoined upon him altogether to desist from presuming to exercise that ministry, which he could not duly perform.’ This said, he set himself to catechize me that same hour; and it came to pass that when he breathed on my face,790 straightway I felt better. He called the surgeon and ordered him to set and bind up my skull where it was fractured; and presently having received his blessing, I was so much better that I mounted on horseback the next day, and travelled with him to another place; and being soon after perfectly recovered, I was washed in the water of life.
He continued in his bishopric thirty-three years, and then ascending to the heavenly kingdom, was buried in St. Peter's Chapel, in his own monastery, which is called, "In the wood of the Deiri," in the year of our Lord 721. For having, by his great age, become unable to govern his bishopric, he ordained Wilfrid, his priest, bishop of the church of York, and retired to the aforesaid monastery, and there ended his days in godly conversation.

Ealdred Appointed Archbishop of York

On 25 Dec 1060 Ealdred Archbishop of York -1069 was appointed Archbishop of York.

Accord of Winchester

In 1072 the Accord of Winchester established the primacy of the Archbishop of Canterbury over the Archbishop of York. It was signed by ...
William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (44) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England 1031-1083 (41)
Stigand Archbishop of Canterbury -1072
Ealdred Archbishop of York -1069 who signed "I concede" whereas other signatories signed "I subscribe"
Wulfstan Bishop of Worcester 1008-1095 (64)
Herfast Bishop Chancellor -1084.

In 1191 Geoffrey Plantagenet Archbishop of York 1152-1212 (39) was appointed Archbishop of York.

On 10 Nov 1215 Walter Grey Archbishop of York 1216-1255 was elected Archbishop of York.

On 26 Dec 1251 Alexander III King Scotland 1241-1286 (10) and Margaret Plantagenet 1240-1275 (11) were married at York Minster.

On 15 Oct 1266 Walter Giffard Archbishop of York 1225-1279 (41) was appointed Archbishop of York.

On 01 Nov 1266 Walter Giffard Archbishop of York 1225-1279 (41) was enthroned as Archbishop of York.

On 22 Apr 1279 Walter Giffard Archbishop of York 1225-1279 (54) died at York. He was buried at York Minster.

On 09 Jan 1284 Antony Bek Bishop of Durham 1245-1311 (39) was consecrated Bishop of Durham at which time he also had the remains of Saint William of York moved to a new shrine in York Minster.

On 29 Oct 1285 John le Romeyn Archbishop of York 1230-1296 (55) was elected Archbishop of York.

On 10 Feb 1286 John le Romeyn Archbishop of York 1230-1296 (56) was consecrated Archbishop of York by Latino Malabranca Orsini Cardinal -1294 in Rome.

On 09 Jun 1286 Latino Malabranca Orsini Cardinal -1294 was enthroned Archbishop of York.

In Jan 1315 William Melton Archbishop of York 1275-1340 (40) was elected Archbishop of York.

In Sep 1317 William Melton Archbishop of York 1275-1340 (42) was consecrated Archbishop of York at Avignon.

Death of Edward II

The Chronicles of Froissart Chapter XIX - How king Edward was married to my lady Philippa of Hainault. Jun 1328. IT was not long after but that the king (15) and the queen (33) his mother, the earl of Kent (26) his uncle, the earl of Lancaster (47), sir Roger Mortimer (40) and all the barons of England, and by the advice of the king's council, they sent a bishop' and two knights bannerets, with two notable clerks, to sir John of Hainault (40), praying him to be a mean that their lord the young king of England might have in marriage one of the earl's (42) daughters of Hainault, his brother (42), named Philippa (13) ; for the king and all the nobles of the realm had rather have her than any other lady, for the love of him. Sir John of Hainault (40) lord Beaumont feasted and honoured greatly these ambassadors, and brought them to Valenciennes to the earl his brother, who honourably received them and made them such cheer, that it were over long here to rehearse. And when they had skewed the content of their message, the earl (42) said, 'Sirs, I thank greatly the king (15) your prince and the queen (33) his mother and all other lords of England, sith they have sent such sufficient personages as ye be to do me such honour as to treat for the marriage ; to the which request I am well agreed, if our holy father the pope will consent thereto'-. with the which answer these ambassadors were right well content. Then they sent two knights and two clerks incontinent to the pope, to Avignon, to purchase a dispensation for this marriage to be had ; for without the pope's licence they might not marry, for [by] the lineage of France they were so near of kin as at the third degree, for the two mothers [Note. Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (33) and Joan Valois Count Zeeland, Count Holland, Count Avesnes, Count Hainault 1294-1342 (34)] were cousin-germans issued of two brethren. And when these ambassadors were come to the pope, and their requests and considerations well heard, our holy father the pope with all the whole college consented to this marriage, and so feasted them. And then they departed and came again to Valenciennes with their bulls. Then this marriage was concluded and affirmed on both parties. Then was there devised and purveyed for their apparel and for all things honourable that belonged to such a lady, who should be queen of England: and there this princess was married by a sufficient procuration brought from the king of England ; and after all feasts and triumphs done, then this young queen entered into the sea at Wissant, and arrived with all her company at Dover. And sir John of Hainault (40) lord Beaumont, her uncle, did conduct her to the city of London, where there was made great feast, and many nobles of England, ... queen was crowned. And there was also great jousts, tourneys, dancing, carolling and great feasts every day, the which endured the, space of three weeks. The English chronicle saith this marriage and coronation of the queen was done at York with much honour, the Sunday in the even of the Conversion of Saint Paul, in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. In the which chronicle is shewed many other things of the ruling of the realm, and of the death of king Edward of Caernarvon, and divers other debates that were within the realm, as in the same chronicle more plainly it appeareth : the which the author of this book speaketh no word of, because peradventure he knew it not ; for it was hard for a stranger to know all things. But according to his writing this young queen Philippa (13) abode still in England with a small company of any persons of her own country, saving one who was named Watelet of Manny (18), who abode still with the queen and was, her carver, and after did so many great prowesses in divers places, that it were hard to make mention of them all.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

On 24 Jan 1328 King Edward III England (15) and Philippa of Hainault (13) were married (he was her second-cousin) at York Minster. She (13) by marriage Queen Consort England.

Before 03 Mar 1337 William Plantagenet 1337-1337 died. He was buried at York Minster.

On 02 May 1340 William Zouche Archbishop of York -1352 was appointed Archbishop of York.

On 19 Jul 1352 William Zouche Archbishop of York -1352 died at Cawood, Selby, North Yorkshire. He was buried at York Minster.

In Nov 1373 Alexander Neville Archbishop of York 1341-1392 (32) was elected Archbishop of York.

On 14 Apr 1374 Alexander Neville Archbishop of York 1341-1392 (33) was appointed Archbishop of York.

On 18 Dec 1374 Alexander Neville Archbishop of York 1341-1392 (33) was consecrated as Archbishop of York at York Minster.

On 03 Apr 1388 Thomas Fitzalan Archbishop York and Canterbury 1353-1414 (35) was appointed Archbishop of York.

On 05 Oct 1396 Robert Waldby Archbishop York -1397 was appointed Archbishop of York.

Around May 1398 Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (48) was appointed Archbishop of York.

After 08 Jun 1405 Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 was buried at York Minster.

On 18 Sep 1452 John Scrope 1422-1452 (30) died. He was buried at York Minster.

In 1464 William Booth Archbishop of York 1388-1464 was appointed Archbishop of York.

On 15 Mar 1465 George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (33) was appointed Archbishop of York.

George Neville's Enthronement as Archbishop of York

On 06 Sep 1465 George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (33) was enthroned as Archbishop of York at Cawood Castle, Cawood, North Yorkshire. Isabel Neville 1451-1476 (14), Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (9) and Richard III King England 1452-1485 (12) were present. .

In 1480 Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (56) was appointed Archbishop of York.

Edward of Middleham created Prince of Wales

On 08 Sep 1483 Edward York Prince Wales 1473-1484 (9) was created Prince Wales, Earl Chester (6C 1483) at York Minster. His parents Richard III (30) and Anne Neville (27) attended as did Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire 1470-1499 (13). Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (8) and John York 1471-1499 (11) were knighted.

In 1488 Christopher Urswick 1448-1522 (40) was appointed Dean York.

On 18 Jan 1501 Thomas Savage Archbishop of York 1449-1507 (52) was appointed Archbishop of York.

In 1506 Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 was buried at York Minster.

In 1531 Edward Lee Archbishop of York 1482-1544 (49) was appointed Archbishop of York.

In 1555 Nicholas Heath Archbishop of York 1501-1578 (54) was appointed Archbishop of York.

On 27 Jan 1561 Thomas Young Archbishop of York 1507-1568 (54) was elected Archbishop of York.

After 26 Jun 1568 Thomas Young Archbishop of York 1507-1568 was buried in the Choir of York Minster.

In 1570 Edmund Grindal Archbishop of York 1519-1583 (51) was consecrated Archbishop of York.

In 1576 Edwin Sandys Archbishop of York 1519-1588 (57) was consecrated Archbishop of York.

In 1640 John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650 (57) was appointed Archbishop of York.

Battle of Marston Moor

John Evelyn's Diary 1654 August. 17 Aug 1654. Passed through Pontefract; therichard castle famous for many sieges both of late and ancient times, and the death of that unhappy King murdered in it, was now demolishing by the Rebels; it stands on a mount, and makes a goodly show at a distance. The Queen (44) has a house here, and there are many fair seats near it, especially Mr. Pierrepont's (48), built at the foot of a hill out of the castle ruins. We all alighted in the highway to drink at a crystal spring, which they call Robin Hood's Well; near it, is a stone chair, and an iron ladle to drink out of, chained to the seat. We rode to Tadcaster, at the side of which we have prospect of the Archbishop's Palace (which is a noble seat), and in sight of divers other gentlemen's fair houses. This tract is a goodly, fertile, well-watered, and wooded country, abounding with pasture and plenty of provisions.
To York, the second city of England, fairly walled, of a circular form, watered by the brave River Ouse, bearing vessels of considerable burden on it; over it is a stone bridge emulating that of London, and built on; the middle arch is larger than any I have seen in England, with a wharf of hewn stone, which makes the river appear very neat. But most remarkable and worth seeing is St. Peter's Cathedral, which of all the great churches in England had been best preserved from the fury of the sacrilegious, by composition with the Rebels when they took the city, during the many incursions of Scotch and others. It is a most entire magnificent piece of Gothic architecture. The screen before the choir is of stone carved with flowers, running work and statues of the old kings. Many of the. Monuments are very ancient. Here, as a great rarity in these days and at this time, they showed me a Bible and Common Prayer Book covered with crimson velvet, and richly embossed with silver gilt; also a service for the altar of gilt wrought plate, flagons, basin, ewer, plates, chalices, patins, etc., with a gorgeous covering for the altar and pulpit, carefully preserved in the vestry, in the hollow wall whereof rises a plentiful spring of excellent water. I got up to the tower, whence we had a prospect toward Durham, and could see Ripon, part of Lancashire, the famous and fatal Marston Moor, the Spas of Knaresborough, and all the environs of that admirable country. Sir —— Ingoldsby has here a large house, gardens, and tennis court; also the King (24)'s house and church near the castle, which was modernly fortified with a palisade and bastions. The streets are narrow and ill-paved, the shops like London.

On 28 Apr 1664 Richard Sterne Archbishop of York 1596-1683 (68) was elected Archbishop of York.

In 1683 John Dolben Archbishop 1625-1686 (58) was appointed Archbishop of York.

Around 1822. George Perfect Harding Painter 1781-1853 (41). Portrait of John Dolben Archbishop 1625-1686. Cleary not contemporary the source of the image unknown.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 August. 19 Aug 1683. I went to Bromley to visit our Bishop (58), and excellent neighbor, and to congratulate his now being made Archbishop of York. On the 28th, he came to take his leave of us, now preparing for his journey and residence in his province.

On 24 Feb 1685 Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle 1629-1685 (56) died. He was buried at York Minster. His son Edward Howard 2nd Earl Carlisle 1646-1692 (38) succeeded 2nd Earl Carlisle (3C 1661). Elizabeth Uvedale Countess Carlisle -1696 by marriage Countess Carlisle (3C 1661).

On 27 Dec 1685 Henriette Stanley Countess Strafford 1630-1685 (55) died. She was buried at York Minster.

In 1688 Thomas Lamplugh Archbishop 1615-1691 (73) was translated Archbishop of York.

In 1691 John Sharp Archbishop York 1645-1714 (45) was appointed Archbishop of York.

On 16 Oct 1695 William Wentworth 2nd Earl Strafford 1626-1695 (69) died. He was buried at York Minster.

In 1697 Thomas Gale Scholar 1635-1702 (62) was appointed Dean York.

On 06 Oct 1723 Thomas Watson 1665-1723 (58) died. He was buried in York Minster.

On 21 Apr 1743 Thomas Herring Archbishop of Canterbury 1693-1757 (50) was translated to Archbishop of York.

In 1757 George Gilbert Archbishop of York 1693-1761 (63) was appointed Archbishop of York.

On 03 Oct 1761 Robert Hay-Drummond Archbishop of York 1711-1776 (49) was elected at Archbishop of York.

In 1776 Richard Terrick Bishop 1710-1777 (66) refused the Archbishop of York on the grounds of ill health.

On 26 Nov 1807 Edward Venables-Vernon-Harcourt Archbishop of York 1757-1847 (50) was nominated Archbishop of York.

In 1858 Augustus Duncombe 1814-1880 (43) was appointed Dean York.

In 1860 Charles Longley Archbishop 1794-1868 (65) was appointed Archbishop of York.

In 1880 Arthur Purey-Cust Archdeacon Buckingham 1828-1916 (51) was appointed Dean York.

Times Newspaper Obituaries. 24 Dec 1959. From Our Correspondent STAMFORD BRIDGE, Dec. 23. The Earl of Halifax died to-night at his home at Garrowby, near York. He was 78 and had been suffering from a chest complaint. Lord (53) and Lady Feversham (49), Lord (47) and Lady Irwin (43), Lady Clarissa Duncombe, and Lady Bingley were at Garrowby when he died. Lady Feversham (49) said he had suffered from poor breathing for some time and that had been aggravated by a chest infection. Last July Lord Halifax broke his hip when walking in his garden and was flown to London for an operation at University College Hospital. He made a remarkable recovery from the accident. In September he and Lady Halifax celebrated their golden wedding anniversary. The funeral will be in private. A memorial service and requiem will be held in York Minster next Monday at 11 a.m. The date of a service in London is to be announced later. Obituary on page 8. MR. SELWYN LLOYD'S TRIBUTE Mr. Selwyn Lloyd, Foreign Secretary, in a tribute to Lord Halifax last night, said: "He held high office, as Viceroy of India, Foreign Secretary, and finally as Ambassador to Washington. He adorned each of these offices with his integrity, his idealism, and his ability. He was a great public servant. He will be deeply mourned." WASHINGTON, Dec. 23. Mr. Douglas Dillon, the acting Secretary of State, to-night issued this statement: "The many Americans who knew Lord Halifax deeply regret his passing. He was ever a staunch friend of this country and during his years of public life contributed greatly to the strengthening of Anglo-American relations. He is particularly remembered for his dedicated service to the cause of humanity during the crucial war years as British Ambassador in Washington." Reuter.

Amaury Montfort 1242-1300 was appointed Canon York.

In 691 Bosa of York Bishop -705 was appointed Bishop of York.

Chapter House, York Minster