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Biography of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628

Family Trees

Royal Ancestry

Royal Descendants

Ancestry

Survey London Volume 4 Chelsea Part II. The Site of Beaufort House.
In the whole history of Chelsea, a history which is indeed famous, so many notable men and women has this little village known—the chief interest has centred about Beaufort House. From those early days in the 16th century, when it was the well-loved home of Sir Thomas More, until the 18th, when it was the seat of the Duke of Beaufort, it yielded to no other house in importance, not to King Henry VIII's manor house in Cheyne Walk, nor to the Earl of Shrewsbury's mansion, nor to the old manor house with which it shared the dignity of a proprietary chapel in the old Church. It did not carry with it the lordship of the manor, but its property was extensive, including practically the frontage of the River_ Thames{Thames} between Milman Street and Church Street, and its gardens stretched northwards as far as the King's Road.
The house stood across the line of the present Beaufort Street and rather nearer King's Road than the river. Between it and the way along the waterside were two large courtyards, and opposite was a quay. The remainder of the estate, south of the present King's Road, was laid out in gardens and orchards, with the exception of the stable buildings, where now is the Moravian Burial Ground, and the farmhouse and barns on the site of Lindsey House. The situation, attractive as it is now, was far lovelier then, when across the Surrey bank was a view of undisturbed wood and pasture.
Sir Thomas More lived here for some fourteen years until his attainder in 1535. He loved to escape from London and from the Court, and to give himself up to his family and his own literary pursuits in his Chelsea home, and here he entertained many friends, among whom were Erasmus and Holbein. The latter may well have designed the beautiful capitals in the More chapel, in the old church (dated 1528), which show his hand as plainly as the ceiling of the Chapel Royal of St. James's Palace, which was executed in 1540.
More's estate was granted to Sir William Paulet [See Patent Roll, I Edward VI., pt. 3.] (first Marquess of Winchester): it was inherited by his son the second Marquess, and in 1575 passed to Gregory Fiennes, Lord Dacre of the South, and his wife Anne — the foundress of those charming almshouses, Emmanuel Hospital, Westminster, now destroyed — who was a daughter of the Marchioness of Winchester by her former husband, Sir Robert Sackville. Baroness Dacre, who died in 1595, left the house to Lord Burleigh, who is said to have lived here, and he was followed by his youngest son, Sir Robert Cecil, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, who took possession in 1597. It is to Cecil's passion for building, which was not exhausted until he had parted with his fortune in completing Hatfield, that we owe the earliest representations on paper of the house at Chelsea. In his Chelsea Old Church Mr. Randall Davies published a reproduction of a beautiful plan of the Chelsea Estate, preserved among the Hatfield papers, and the present writer in some further research among Lord Salisbury's MSS. found five plans to a larger scale, all of which have reference to Cecil's schemes for rebuilding Sir Thomas More's house. For a detailed examination of these plans, the reader is referred to the Architectural Review of March and May, 1911, but by the courtesy of the proprietors of the Review, the reproductions are included here.
Cecil does not seem to have carried out his larger schemes and he sold the house to Henry Clinton, second Earl of Lincoln, in 1599.
Lincoln settled the estate on Sir Arthur Gorges, who had married his daughter. He lived in the house just mentioned, adjoining the great house, built for him by his father-in-law, and some four years after the latter's death in 1615, he sold Sir Thomas More's house to Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex. [See Close Roll, 18 Jas. I., pt. 18.] The new owner purchased several additions to the property, including "Brick Barn Close" and "The Sandhills," both north of the King's Road. These he converted into the Park, which is shown in Kip's view and was not built upon until after 1717. Cranfield fell under the displeasure of the King, and in consequence forfeited his property, which Charles I. granted in 1627 to George Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham. After the Duke's assassination, the family continued to reside here until the outbreak of the Civil War, when the house was seized by the Parliament, and Mr. Randall Davies has referred to the record in the Perfect Occurrences of the petition in 1646 of the Duchess of Lennox, Buckingham's daughter, for leave to come to London, or to her house in Chelsea, to be under Dr. Mayerne's hands for her health. The great physician was then living at Lindsey House, the old farmhouse belonging to the estate.
In the account in the Architectural Review (May, 1911) I have summarised the later history of the house as follows:—"After the great house had been occupied during the Commonwealth by the Parliamentary Commissioners, Sir Bulstrode Whitlocke and John Lisle, the second Duke of Buckingham regained possession. Lost to him, through his debts, the house ultimately passed (1674) into the hands of the trustees for George Digby, Earl of Bristol, and his Countess sold it in 1682 to Henry, Marquess of Worcester, afterwards Duke of Beaufort, the house remaining in his family until 1720. It was during this period, about the year 1699, that Kip's beautiful view of the mansion - now called Beaufort House — was published, a priceless record of the property, so ruthlessly defaced and destroyed by Hans_Sloane{Sir Hans Sloane} after he purchased it in 1737. Mr. Randall Davies, whom I have followed in the account of the occupants of the house, has printed the interesting conveyance of the property to Sloane, and if its description is carefully collated with the information in Kip's view, one is struck by the wonderful accuracy of the latter. Here is the great house as shown by Thorpe, its lodges and its forecourts, the wharf, with its brick towers east and west, the orchard and 'one garden environed with brick walls … and a terrace on the north end, with a banqueting house on the east end of the terrace,' as well as 'one great garden … extending from the terrace and banqueting house into the highway on the north.' This banqueting house is alike in detail to the sketch of 'a summer house, Chelsea,' in the Smithson collection of seventeenth-century drawings, now in the possession of Colonel Coke. But valuable as is the representation of the great house, the print has much more information to give us. The great park is there shown in all its original beauty; the Duke of Beaufort's stables and yard, since converted into the historic chapel and burying ground of the Moravians is to the west; and nearer the river the beautiful Jacobean house of Sir Arthur Gorges (our sole evidence of its character and design) and the house and gardens of the Earls of Lindsey. And to the east, below the wide area of Dovecote Close, laid out as a huge kitchen garden, are the fine pleasure grounds of Danvers House, which had been destroyed but three years before the drawing was published.".

Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 wearing his Garter Collar and Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

In 1559 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574 (39). Portrait of Mary Neville Baroness Dacre Gilsland 1524-1576 (35) and her son Gregory Fiennes 10th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1539-1594 (19).

Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (44). His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

After 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His left-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

In 1634. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (28).

In 1650. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (44).

George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592 1628.George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. Top Row: 1  differenced with a martlet 2  3  4 Unknown 5 Unknown 6  7  8  9  10 Unknown 11  12  differenced with a martlet. Source.

Before 1587 [his father] George Villiers of Brokesby 1544-1606 and Audrey Saunders 1551-1588 were married.

After 1590 [his father] George Villiers of Brokesby 1544-1606 and [his mother] Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham 1570-1632 were married. Some sources describe their relationship as being half-first cousin? His mother Collette Clarke 1491-1539 was first married to her uncle Richard Beaumont 1491-1537 so there is no relationship between [his father] George Villiers of Brokesby 1544-1606 and [his mother] Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham 1570-1632.

On 28 Aug 1592 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 was born to [his father] George Villiers of Brokesby 1544-1606 (48) and [his mother] Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham 1570-1632 (22) at Brooksby.

In 1606 William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643 (19) and [his sister] Susan Villiers Countess Denbigh 1583-1652 (23) were married.

After 1606 Thomas Compton and [his mother] Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham 1570-1632 were married.

On 04 Jan 1606 [his father] George Villiers of Brokesby 1544-1606 (62) died.

In Aug 1614 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (21) caught the eye of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (48) at hunt at Apethorpe. Opponents of the king's favourite Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset (27), saw an opportunity to displace Somerset and began promoting Villiers. Money was raised to purchase Villiers a new wardrobe.

Around 1628 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (38) (copy from original). Portrait of Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 (41).

After Aug 1614 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 was appointed Cupbearer to James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

In 1615 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (22) was appointed Master of the Horse.

In 1616 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619 (34). Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (23) wearing his Garter Robes and Leg Garter.

In 1616 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (23) was appointed 413th Knight of the Garter by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (49).. Aged twenty-four. He had become the King's favourite.

On 05 Jan 1617 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (24) was created 1st Earl Buckingham 5C 1617 by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (50); his favourite.

In 1618 [his mother] Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham 1570-1632 (48) was created 1st Earl Buckingham 4C 1618.

In 1619 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661 (25). Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (26).

Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648 (30). Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (27).

On 16 May 1620 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (27) and [his wife] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (18) were married. [his wife] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (18) by marriage Countess Buckingham 5C 1617.

In 1622 [his daughter] Mary Villiers Duchess Lennox Duchess Richmond 1622-1685 was born to George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (29) and [his wife] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (19).

In Mar 1622 Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 (47) was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland through the favour of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (29).

Around 1600. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 (25).

On 16 Jun 1622 James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton 1606-1649 and [his niece] Mary Feilding Duchess Hamilton 1613-1638 (9) were married.

Charles I's Trip to Spain

On 07 Mar 1623 Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (22), accompanied by George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (30) and Endymion Porter 1587-1649 (36), arrived in Madrid, incognito, in an attempt to bring to a conclusion his betrothal to Infanta Maria Anna Habsburg Spain Holy Roman Empress 1606-1646 (16), must to the surprise of her brother Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665 (17) and the English ambassador John Digby 1st Earl Bristol 1580-1653 (43). The negotiations ultimately failed.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (36).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of Endymion Porter 1587-1649 (55).

Around 1627 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648 (37). Portrait of Endymion Porter 1587-1649 (40).

Before 18 Apr 1623 [his brother] Christopher Villiers 1st Earl Anglesey 1593-1630 and Elizabeth Sheldon Baroness Ufford Daventry -1662 were married.

On 18 Apr 1623 [his brother] Christopher Villiers 1st Earl Anglesey 1593-1630 (30) was created 1st Earl Anglesey 1C 1623, 1st Baron Villiers Daventry. Elizabeth Sheldon Baroness Ufford Daventry -1662 by marriage Baroness Villiers Daventry.

On 18 May 1623 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (30) was created 1st Duke of Buckingham 2C 1623. [his wife] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (21) by marriage Duchess of Buckingham 2C 1623.

Around 1625 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640 (47). Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (32).

On 17 Nov 1625 [his son] Charles Villiers 1625-1627 was born to George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (33) and [his wife] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (23).

In 1626 William Armine 1st Baronet 1593-1651 (32) acted as assistant to the managers of the parliamentary impeachment of the George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (33).

Before 1628 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628.

On 30 Jan 1628 [his son] George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 was born to George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (35) and [his wife] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (25).

On 23 Aug 1628 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (35) was murdered at Greyhound Pub Portsmouth by a disgruntled soldier John Felton. He was buried at Westminster Abbey. His son George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham 2C 1623, 2nd Earl Buckingham 5C 1617, 19th Baron Ros Helmsley.

Before 21 Apr 1629 [his son] Francis Villiers 1629-1648 was born to George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 and [his former wife] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649.

In 1649 [his former wife] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (46) died.

John Evelyn's Diary 1655 November. 27 Nov 1655. To London about Sir Nicholas Crisp's (56) designs.
I went to see York House and gardens, belonging to the former great Buckingham, but now much ruined through neglect.
Thence, to visit honest and learned Mr. Hartlib (55), a public spirited and ingenious person, who had propagated many useful things and arts. He told me of the castles which they set for ornament on their stoves in Germany (he himself being a Lithuanian, as I remember), which are furnished with small ordnance of silver on the battlements, out of which they discharge excellent perfumes about the rooms, charging them with a little powder to set them on fire, and disperse the smoke: and in truth no more than need, for their stoves are sufficiently nasty. He told me of an ink that would give a dozen copies, moist sheets of paper being pressed on it; and remain perfect; and a receipt how to take off any print without the least injury to the original. This gentleman was master of innumerable curiosities, and very communicative. I returned home that evening by water; and was afflicted for it with a cold that had almost killed me.
This day, came forth the Protector's (56) Edict, or Proclamation, prohibiting all ministers of the Church of England from preaching or teaching any schools, in which he imitated the apostate, Julian; with the decimation of all the royal party's revenues throughout England.

John Evelyn's Diary 1656 July. 10 Jul 1656. I returned homeward, passing again through Colchester; and, by the way, near the ancient town of Chelmsford, saw New Hall, built in a park by Henry VII. and VIII., and given by Queen Elizabeth to the Earl of Sussex, who sold it to the late great Duke of Buckingham, and since seized on by Oliver Cromwell (57) (pretended Protector). It is a fair old house, built with brick, low, being only of two stories, as the manner then was; the gate-house better; the court, large and pretty; the staircase, of extraordinary wideness, with a piece representing Sir Francis Drake's action in the year 1580, an excellent sea-piece; the galleries are trifling; the hall is noble; the garden a fair plot, and the whole seat well accommodated with water; but, above all, I admired the fair avenue planted with stately lime trees, in four rows, for near a mile in length. It has three descents, which is the only fault, and may be reformed. There is another fair walk of the same at the mall and wilderness, with a tennis-court, and pleasant terrace toward the park, which was well stored with deer and ponds.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Villiers

Maternal Family Tree: Anne Armstrong 1544

Royal Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 22 Grand Son of Æthelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 14 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd 1100-1170

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 19 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth 880-950

Kings Powys: Great x 15 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132

Kings England: Great x 8 Grand Son of King Edward III England

Kings Scotland: Great x 14 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland 1143-1214

Kings Franks: Great x 13 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Great x 10 Grand Son of Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314

Ancestry

Father: George Villiers of Brokesby 1544-1606

GrandFather: William Villiers of Brooksby Leicestershire 1492-1558

Great GrandFather: John Villiers 1456-1506

Great x 2 GrandFather: John Villiers 1433-1481

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Villiers 1400-1442

GrandMother: Collette Clarke 1491-1539

Great GrandFather: Richard Clarke

Mother: Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham 1570-1632 7 x great granddaughter of King Edward III England

GrandFather: Anthony Beaumont 1522-1614 6 x great grandson of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: William Beaumont 1478-1529 5 x great grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: George Beaumont -1531 4 x great grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Beaumont 1428-1461 5 x great grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan Darcy 1430- 3 x great granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandMother: George Pauncefote

Great GrandMother: Mary Bassett 1470-1539 13 x great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 GrandFather: William Bassett 1436-1498 12 x great grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Bassett 1406-1472 11 x great grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

GrandMother: Anne Armstrong 1544-

Great GrandFather: Thomas Armstrong 1510-1587