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Biography of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Legitimation of the Beauforts

1327 Abdication of Edward II

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1361 Death of Henry of Grosmont

1361 Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

1362 Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

1367 Battle of Nájera

1376 Death of the Black Prince

1377 Death of Edward III

1382 Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia

1392 Death of Isabella of Castile

1396 Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

1396 Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

1397 John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

1397 Murder of Thomas os Woodstock

1397 Richard II Rewards his Supporters

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1415 Southampton Plot

1485 Birth of Catherine of Aragon


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Legitimation of the Beauforts

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 28. Be it remembered that on Tuesday, the fifteenth day of the parliament [4 February 1397], the chancellor, by order of the king, declared that our holy father the pope, in reverence of the most excellent person of the king and his honourable uncle the duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster, and of his blood, has enabled and legitimized my lord John Beaufort, his brothers [Note. [his illegitimate son] Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 and [his illegitimate son] Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426], and his sister. And therefore our lord the king, as sole ruler of his kingdom of England, for the honour of his blood, willed and enabled of his abundant royal power, and legitimized, of his own authority, the said John, his said brothers, and sister. And he also pronounced and published the ability and legitimation, according to the form of the charter of the king made thereon.
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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 29. Which charter was read in full parliament, and delivered to the said duke, father of the said John, and his said brothers and sister; the tenor of which charter follows:.
Richard, by the grace of God, king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to our most beloved kinsmen the noble John, knight, Henry, cleric, Thomas, donzel, and our beloved noblewoman Joan Beaufort, lady-in-waiting, our most beloved cousins born of our uncle that noble man John duke of Lancaster, our lieges, greeting and the goodwill of our royal majesty. While inwardly considering how endlessly and with how many honours of parental and sincere affection of our aforementioned uncle and of his mature counsel we are on all sides blessed, we have judged it appropriate and worthy that in consideration of his merits, and in contemplation of the grace of persons, we should endow you, who are resplendent with probity and virtuous life and conduct, and are born of royal stock and divinely marked with many virtues and gifts, with the protection of grace and favour by special prerogative. Thus it is that, yielding to the prayers of our said uncle, your father, we grant to you who, so it is claimed, have suffered such defect of birth, that, notwithstanding this defect, which, together with its various consequences, we wish to be fully included in these presents, you may nevertheless receive all honours, dignities, preferments, estates, degrees, and public and private offices, both perpetual and temporal, and feudal and noble rights, by whatsoever name they are called, such as duchies, lordships, earldoms, baronies, or whatsoever other fiefs they be, whether they be dependent upon or held of us mediately or intermediately, which may be preferred, promoted, elected, taken up and allowed, and received, retained, performed and exercised prudently, freely and lawfully, as if you were born in wedlock, notwithstanding any statutes or customs of our kingdom of England decreed or observed to the contrary; and we dispense you [from this defect] by the tenor of these presents, by the plenitude of our royal power and with the assent of our parliament; and we restore you and each of you to legitimacy.
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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Protestation of the Commons. 7. Also, the following Tuesday [23 January 1397], the commons presented Sir John Bushy as their common speaker, with whom the king was well pleased. And then the said Sir John prayed of the king that he might make a protestation that if he should say anything through ignorance or otherwise which had not been agreed by his companions, etc., that he might be corrected by his said companions; to which the king agreed, as he should by right and reason. And on the same day the duke of Lancaster asked the king to do justice to Sir Thomas Talbot, etc.. And then the chancellor explained to the commons that although he had explained in general the reason for summoning the parliament, on the morrow following, at eight o'clock [24 January 1397], the officers would explain it more particularly, that the commons might be better informed; and they were ordered to make haste in the business of parliament. And later the chancellor, at the king's command, charged all the lords spiritual and temporal to be at parliament each day at nine o'clock at the latest, and that no lord should absent himself in any way without the special permission of the king himself.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: By the king in parliament.   33. Also, on the same Saturday [10 February 1397], a charter of the king made to the earl marshal touching his office of marshal of England, and the gold staff adorned with the emblem of the king's arms which he will carry in his office, was read and delivered to the said earl. The tenor of which charter follows:.
The king to the same, greeting. Know that whereas recently by our letters patent of our special grace we granted to our beloved kinsman Thomas, earl of Nottingham, the office of marshal of England, together with the name and honour of earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, with all the fees, profits, and appurtenances whatsoever pertaining in any way to the said office, in perpetuity; as is fully contained in the same letters. We, mindful of the gracious and laudable services often performed by the aforementioned earl, on either side of the sea, for the benefit and honour of us and our kingdom, at no small effort, cost, and charge to him; and wishing therefore to provide for the estate and honour of that earl, of our special grace have granted in our present parliament for us and our heirs to the same earl the said office, and the name, title, and honour of earl marshal of England, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, together with all offices, commodities, profits and other appurtenances whatsoever, both in our courts and elsewhere, relating or pertaining in any way to the same office, in the same manner and as fully, freely, wholly, and peacefully as Thomas Brotherton, lately earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, father of our beloved kinswoman Margaret countess of Norfolk, [widow] of the aforesaid late earl, or Roger Bigod sometime earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, or any other after the death of the same former earl, or the same present earl, had or held the said office of marshal of England in their time.
Willing further and granting for us and our heirs, that the office of marshal of our Bench before us, which John Wicks holds for the term of his life by our grant, and the office of marshal in our treasury which Richard Gascoigne holds for his life by grant of our beloved brother Thomas earl of Kent, lately marshal of England, by our confirmation; and also the office of herald of the marshal before the steward and marshal of our household, which Guy Allesley holds for his life by grant of the lord Edward [III], late king of England, our grandfather, and by our confirmation; which offices after the death of the aforesaid John, Richard and Guy should revert to us and our heirs, after the death of the same John, Richard, and Guy shall remain to the aforementioned earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs in perpetuity. And that the same offices, and all other offices in any of our courts and elsewhere, which pertained, and used to pertain to the said office of marshal of England in times past, shall be fully restored, annexed, and reunited to the said office of marshal of England in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his male heirs may give, grant, or confer those offices on any suitable persons freely and without hindrance as soon as they shall have fallen vacant by death, demise, resignation, surrender, or in any other way, notwithstanding any of our letters patent made to the contrary.
Considering also the vigour and nobility of that earl, and that he may in future the more fittingly and honourably perform and exercise the aforesaid office, we have granted for us and our heirs to the same present earl that he and his said male heirs, marshals of England, by virtue of their aforesaid office should have, carry, and bear, as well in the presence as in the absence of us and our heirs, a certain gold staff, with both ends enamelled in black, and with the emblem of our arms decorating the top of the said staff, and with the emblem of the arms of that earl decorating the bottom of the said staff; notwithstanding that the same present earl in his time, or the aforementioned former earls, or any other who had the said office of marshal of England before this time, used to carry or bear a wooden staff. Witnessed by these, the venerable fathers Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert of London, William of Winchester, John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor, bishops; John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, Edmund of York, dukes, our beloved uncles; Henry of Derby, Edward of Rutland, Henry of Northumberland, earls; Reginald Grey of Ruthin, Ralph Neville, John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden, dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy, steward of our household, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February 1397.

Matthew Redman 1328-1389 served in France and Spain under John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: On behalf of the archbishop prior and chapter of Canterbury. 27. Be it remembered that the venerable father Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, earnestly prayed to the lord king in the present parliament that whereas his church of Canterbury, by the gift and grant of his noble and holy progenitors, which the same king graciously confirmed, had such prerogative over the other churches of England that whatsoever archbishop of Canterbury for the time being had custody of all lordships, manors, tenements, and rents with appurtenances which were held of the same church in chief during the minority of the heirs of their tenants, even though the same tenants elsewhere held in chief of the lord king; and now concerning the castle and manor of Tonbridge, which by virtue of this prerogative were in the custody of William de Courtenay, late archbishop of Canterbury now deceased, predecessor of the present archbishop, on the day on which he died, by reason of the minority of the heir of the earl of Stafford deceased, who held the aforesaid castle and manor from the aforesaid former archbishop in chief, dispute and controversy between the present archbishop and the executors of the will of the aforesaid late archbishop are pending at present. And whereas a certain composition was drawn up a short while ago between the archbishop of Canterbury and the prior and chapter of the church of Canterbury on the matter, it pleased the lord king, having inspected and examined that composition, to order a view and settlement of the matter for the peace and right of his said church of Canterbury, as should seem best to his royal majesty, to whose ordinance and decree on the foregoing the same archbishop proclaimed himself to be firmly obedient in all things, whereupon the same lord king immediately appointed the venerable fathers Robert archbishop of York, Robert bishop of London and John bishop of Ely, and John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and John earl of Huntingdon, and Thomas the earl marshal, to inspect and examine that composition, and further to discuss and settle the matter at their discretion, and fully to inform the lord king of what their deed and action should be. And later on Monday, the last day of the aforesaid parliament [10 February 1397], the archbishop of York, and the bishops, and the aforesaid duke and earls thus appointed by order of the lord king in the same parliament returned their decree and ordinance on the aforesaid matter by Walter Clopton, the lord king's justice, in this form - namely, that the third part of all manors, lands, and tenements of the inheritance of the aforesaid heir, and the issues, profits, and revenues of the same from the time of the death of the aforesaid late archbishop, should, according to the form of the aforesaid composition, remain and be in the hands of the aforesaid prior and chapter, to be used for their own purposes; and that two parts of the aforesaid lands and tenements, with the issues, profits, and revenues of the same two parts, should remain likewise in the hands of that prior and chapter, safely and securely to keep until the lord king shall have ordained to whom those said two parts of the issues, profits, and revenues shall be delivered and has declared his will thereon. And the castle of Tonbridge will be delivered to the aforesaid present archbishop of Canterbury without delay, to remain in his hands and keeping until the the coming of age of the aforesaid heir. The which ordinance and decree thus rendered by the archbishop of York, bishops, duke and earls, the aforesaid lord king, approving thereof, ordered to be placed on record on the roll of parliament at the request of the aforesaid present archbishop of Canterbury.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The king's will thereon announced to the lords. 15. Also, as to the fourth article, touching the expenses of the king's household and the presence of bishops and ladies in his company, the king took great offence and affront in that the commons who were his lieges should wrongly take upon themselves or presume any ordinance or governance of the kingking's person, or his household, or other persons of standing whom it should please him to have in his company. And it seemed to the king that the commons committed a great offence therein against his regality and his royal majesty, and the liberty of himself and his honourable progenitors, which he was bound and willed to maintain and sustain by the aid of God. Wherefor the king ordered the said lords spiritual and temporal that on the following Saturday morning [3 February 1397] they should explain and declare in full to the said commons the king's will in the matter. And further, the king understanding that the said commons had been influenced and informed by a bill delivered to them to present and explain the said last article, so he ordered the duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster to charge Sir John Bushy, speaker for the commons, on his allegiance to recount and tell him the name of whomsoever submitted the said bill to the said commons.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The reason for the said promise expounded by the king himself. 11. And further, on the other hand, the king, recalling that on the second day of parliament [23 January 1397], his uncle of Lancaster made him a request regarding certain grievances inflicted on him by Sir Thomas Talbot, whereof it was his wish that justice be done as an example to such lawlessness, and saying that had he been greater or lesser, of whatever condition he had been within his realm, who committed wrong, excess, or oppression against any of his lieges contrary to the law, of which he had knowledge of the truth, that he would deliver full justice and punishment thereon according to the law, whether he be of his blood of otherwise, showing no favour to anyone.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Opening of Parliament. 5. The following are assigned to be triers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales, and Scotland:.
The archbishop of Canterbury.
The duke of Guyenne and duke of Lancaster.
The duke of Gloucester.
The bishop of London.
The bishop of Winchester.
The abbot of Westminster.
The earl of Derby.
The earl of Arundel.
The earl of Warwick.
Lord Neville.
Sir Richard le Scrope.
Sir Philip Spenser.
Sir Walter Clopton.
William Thirning.
William Rickhill.
John Wadham.
- to act all together, or at least six of the aforesaid prelates and lords; consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward, and chamberlain, and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the chamberlain's room near the Painted Chamber.

Abdication of Edward II

On 25 Jan 1327 King Edward II of England (42) abdicated II King England. His son [his father] King Edward III England (14) succeeded III King England.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

On 24 Jan 1328 [his father] King Edward III England (15) and Philippa of Hainault (13) were married (he was her second cousin) at York Minster. She (13) by marriage Queen Consort England.

On 06 Mar 1340 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 was born to [his father] King Edward III England (27) and [his mother] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (25) at Ghent.

In 1342 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (1) was created 1st Earl Richmond 5C 1342. It isn't clear whether his older brothers [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince Wales 1330-1376 (11) and [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (3) had been created Earls before this time.

On 12 May 1343 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince Wales 1330-1376 (12) was created Prince Wales.

In 1352 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) and Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (19) were married (he was her half second cousin once removed). [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) by marriage 4th Earl Ulster. She was the sole heir of her father and brought the de Burgh inheritance of the lands of Ulster to the marriage. As a consequence of their earlier betrothal he had been called Earl Ulster since 1347.

Double Royal Wedding

In May 1359 [his father] King Edward III England (46) and his son [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince Wales 1330-1376 (28) took part in a tournament in London. For the amusement of the citizens both Edwards and their friends dressed as the mayor and aldermen of London. The tournament possibly in celebration of the two Royal marriages of his children John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and [his sister] Margaret Plantagenet Countess Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) that had taken place on 19 May 1359.

On 19 May 1359 John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) and [his sister] Margaret Plantagenet Countess Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) were married (he was her half fourth cousin). [his sister] Margaret Plantagenet Countess Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) by marriage Countess Pembroke 4C 1339. At the time of his marriage John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) was a ward of [his father] King Edward III England (55) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age on 12 Sep 1368.

On 19 May 1359 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (14) were married (he was her half second cousin once removed) at Reading Abbey. [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (14) by marriage Countess Richmond 5C 1342. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) by marriage Earl Lancaster, Earl Derby 2C 1337.

On 31 Mar 1360 [his daughter] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (20) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (15) at Leicester Castle Leicester.

In 1361 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (20) was appointed 36th Knight of the Garter by [his father] King Edward III England (48)..

Death of Henry of Grosmont

On 23 Mar 1361 Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster 1310-1361 (51) died at Leicester Castle Leicester. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newarke Leicester. His daughter [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (15) succeeded 5th Earl Lancaster. His daughter Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (21) succeeded 5th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

In Oct 1361 [his sister] Margaret Plantagenet Countess Pembroke 1346-1361 (15) died. She was buried at Abingdon Abbey Abingdon.

Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

On 10 Oct 1361 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince Wales 1330-1376 (31) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (33) were married (he was her half first cousin once removed) at Windsor Castle. Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (33) by marriage Prince Wales. His first wife, her second (or third depending on how you count them) husband. She had four children already. They had known each other since childhood. Thirty-one and thirty-three respectively. A curious choice for the heir to the throne; foreign princesses were usual. They were married nearly fifteen years and had two children.

In 1362 [his son] John Lancaster 1362-1365 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (21) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (16).

In 1362 [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 (20) was created 1st Earl Cambridge 2C 1362.

On 10 Apr 1362 Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (23) died. Her sister [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (17) succeeded 6th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (22) by marriage 6th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265 adding a fourth Earldom to Earl Richmond 5C 1342, Earl Lancaster and Earl Derby 2C 1337.

Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

On 13 Nov 1362, the day after his fiftieth birthday, [his father] King Edward III England (50) created two sons as Dukes ...
[his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (23) was created 1st Duke Clarence 1C 1362. Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (30) by marriage Duchess Clarence 1C 1362.
John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (22) was created 1st Duke Lancaster 2C 1362. [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (17) by marriage Duchess Lancaster 2C 1362.

Before 21 Feb 1363 [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 at Burford.

In 1365 [his son] Edward Lancaster 1365-1365 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (24) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (19). In 1365 [his son] Edward Lancaster 1365-1365 died. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newarke Leicester.

In 1366 [his son] John Lancaster 1366-1367 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (25) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (20). In 1367 John Lancaster 1366-1367 (1) died. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newarke Leicester.

Battle of Nájera

On 03 Apr 1367 the forces of Peter "Cruel" I King Castile 1334-1369 (32) commanded by [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince Wales 1330-1376 (36) defeated the army of Henry "Fratricide" II King Castile 1334-1379 (33) at the Battle of Nájera at Nájera. The English forces included John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (27), William Scrope 1325-1367, Peter Courtenay 1346-1405 (21), John Devereux 1st Baron Devereux 1337-1393 (30) and Thomas Banastre 1334-1379 (33). The forces of Henry "Fratricide" II King Castile 1334-1379 (33) included Bertrand Geusclin 1320-1380 (47). The battle achieved little since Bertrand Geusclin 1320-1380 (47) escaped.
John Ferrers 4th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1331-1367 (36) was killed. His son Robert Ferrers 5th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1358-1413 (9) succeeded 5th Baron Ferrers Chartley. Margaret Despencer Baroness Ferrers Chartley -1415 by marriage Baroness Ferrers Chartley.

On 15 Apr 1367 [his son] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (27) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (22) at Bolingbroke Castle Lindsey.

In 1368 [his daughter] Isabel Lancaster 1368-1368 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (27) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (22).

In Jun 1368 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) and Violante Visconti 1354-1386 (14) were married in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore Milan. The wedding festivities were lavish and ostentatious. The banquet, held outside, included 30 courses of meat and fish presented fully gilded. Between the courses the guests were given gifts such as suits of armor, bolts of cloth, war horses, arms, and hunting dogs. Among the guests were Geoffrey Chaucer 1343-1400 (25), Petrarch, Jean Froissart and John Hawkwood.

On 12 Sep 1368 [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (23) died at Tutbury Castle. Her last words were said to be "Souveyne vous de moi" ("Don't forget me") the 'S' of which was subsequently represented on the Lancastrian Esses Collar. She was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

On 07 Oct 1368 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) died from poisoning at Alba. There was strong speculation he had been poisoned by his wife's (14) father (48). He was buried at Clare Priory Clare. His daughter [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (13) succeeded 5th Earl Ulster.

On 15 Aug 1369 [his mother] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (55) died.

On 24 Aug 1369 Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 (17) and [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (14) were married (he was her fourth cousin) at Reading Abbey. [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (14) by marriage Countess March 1C 1328. Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 (17) by marriage 5th Earl Ulster.

In 1370  Sir Godfrey Foljambe (26) the younger (son of the eminent lawyer and retainer of John of Gaunt (29)) confirmed him in possession of part of the manors of Over Haddon, Great Rowsley, Wardlow, Monyash and Chelmorton in Derbyshire, which were to revert on his death to no less a person than Gaunt (29) himself.

On 21 Sep 1371 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (31) and [his future wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 (17) were married at Roquefort, Landes. [his future wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 (17) by marriage Duchess Lancaster 2C 1362. His younger brother [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 (30) married Constance's sister in July 1372.

After 21 Sep 1371 Isabella of Castile Duchess York 1355-1392 accompanied her sister [his future wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 to England after her marriage to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399.

On 09 Feb 1372 [his future wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 (18), the wife of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (31) made a ceremonial entry at City of London.

On 11 Jul 1372 [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 (31) and Isabella of Castile Duchess York 1355-1392 (17) were married at Wallingford. Isabella of Castile Duchess York 1355-1392 (17) by marriage Countess Cambridge 2C 1362. She being the younger sister of [his future wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 (18) who had married Edmund's older brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (32) a year before.

In 1373 [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (32) and [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (22).

On 31 Mar 1373 [his daughter] Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile 1373-1418 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (33) and [his future wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 (19) at Hertford Castle.

In 1374 [his son] John Lancaster 1374-1375 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (33) and [his future wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 (20).

In 1375 [his illegitimate son] Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (34) and [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (24) at Château de Beaufort.

Before 1376 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess Gloucester 1366-1399 were married (he was her second cousin once removed).

In 1376 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (20) was created 1st Earl Essex 4C 1376. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess Gloucester 1366-1399 (10) by marriage Countess Essex 4C 1376.

Death of the Black Prince

On 08 Jun 1376 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince Wales 1330-1376 (45) died of dysentery at Westminster Palace. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. His son His son Richard (9) succeeded King England. His niece [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (20) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England.

In 1377 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (21) was created 1st Earl Buckingham 3C 1377. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess Gloucester 1366-1399 (11) by marriage Countess Buckingham 3C 1377.

Around Jan 1377 [his illegitimate son] Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (36) and [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (26).

Death of Edward III

On 21 Jun 1377 [his father] King Edward III England (64) died of a stroke at Sheen Palace. He was buried in the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor Chapels Westminster Abbey. His grandson [his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (10) succeeded II King England.

In 1379 [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (38) and [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (28) at Château de Beaufort.

Before 07 Nov 1379 Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester 1373-1400 and [his niece] Constance York Countess Gloucester 1374-1416 were married (he was her third cousin once removed). [his niece] Constance York Countess Gloucester 1374-1416 by marriage Countess Gloucester 4C 1397.

In 1380 Thomas Erpingham 1355-1428 (25) joined John of Gaunt's (39) service as an Esquire.

Around 1380 Thomas Erpingham 1355-1428 (25) was knighted by John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (39).

On 24 Jun 1380 John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke 1372-1389 (7) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (17) were married (he was her half third cousin) at Kenilworth Castle. [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (17) by marriage Countess Pembroke 4C 1339.

In 1381 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (8) and Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (8) were married (he was her third cousin once removed).

On 05 Feb 1381 [his son] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (13) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (13) were married (he was her second cousin) at Arundel Castle Arundel.

On 05 Jan 1382 [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (26) died at Cork. She was buried at Wigmore. Her son Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster 1374-1398 (7) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England, 6th Earl Ulster

Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia

On 20 Jan 1382 [his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (15) and Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (15) were married (he was her fourth cousin) at Westminster Abbey. Arranged by Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (52) the marriage not popular since it brought no dowry and little prospect of increased trade since Bohemia not a primary English trade partner.

In Dec 1384 Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (40) was retained for life by John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (44) in peace and war at an annual fee of 20 marks, charged upon the township of Bensall in Derbyshire. The benefits were certainly not all one-sided, for Wensley was expected to use his own influence as a member of the local bench and crown commissioner on the duke’s behalf when the occasion demanded.

In 1385 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (29) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1C 1385 and around the same time 1st Duke Gloucester 1C 1385. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess Gloucester 1366-1399 (19) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale 1C 1385 Duchess Gloucester 1C 1385.

On 06 Aug 1385 [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 (44) was created 1st Duke York 1C 1385. Isabella of Castile Duchess York 1355-1392 (30) by marriage Duchess York 1C 1385.

On 24 Jun 1386 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (34) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (23) were married (he was her half second cousin once removed) at Plymouth.

On 02 Feb 1387 John "Good Great" I King Portugal 1357-1433 (29) and [his daughter] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 (26) were married (he was her half fourth cousin). [his daughter] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 (26) by marriage Queen Consort Portugal.

In Feb 1388 Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (44) was commissioned to arrest persons charged with damaging John of Gaunt’s (47) property.

Before 17 Sep 1388 Henry III King Castile 1379-1406 and [his daughter] Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile 1373-1418 were married (he was her half second cousin) at Palencia Cathedral. [his daughter] Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile 1373-1418 by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

Around 1390 Thomas Stafford 3rd Earl Stafford 1368-1392 (22) and [his niece] Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Count Eu Countess Stafford 1383-1438 (7) were married (he was her third cousin once removed). [his niece] Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Count Eu Countess Stafford 1383-1438 (7) by marriage Countess Stafford 1C 1351.

On 25 Feb 1390 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (17) was created 1st Earl Rutland 1C 1390. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (17) by marriage Countess Rutland 1C 1390.

In 1391 Robert Ferrers 2nd Baron Ferrers Wem 1373-1393 (18) and [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (12) were married at Beaufort en Vallée. [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (12) by marriage Baroness Ferrers Wem.

Death of Isabella of Castile

On 23 Dec 1392 Isabella of Castile Duchess York 1355-1392 (37) died. She the wife of [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 (51). Isabella had travelled to England with her sister [his future wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 (38) who had married Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (52). Isabella and Edmund's marriage was not, apparently, a happy one. She is known to have had an affair with John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (40) who may have been the father of [his nephew] Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 progenitor of the House of York.

On 04 Nov 1393 [his brother] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 (52) and Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1484 (13) were married (he was her half second cousin once removed). Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1484 (13) by marriage Duchess York 1C 1385.

In 1394 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (21) was created 1st Earl Cork. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (21) by marriage Countess Cork.

On 24 Mar 1394 [his future wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 (40) died at Leicester Castle Leicester. She was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newarke Leicester.

Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

On 13 Jan 1396 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (55) and [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (45) were married at Lincoln Cathedral. [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (45) by marriage Duchess Lancaster 2C 1362.

Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

On 31 Oct 1396 [his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (29) and Isabella Valois Queen Consort England 1389-1409 (6) were married (he was her half third cousin). The marriage being one of the terms of a twenty-eight year peace treaty with France. He twenty-nine, she six. The marriage sowed the seeds subsequent rebellion since there was no prospect of an heir to secure the Crown.

Before 29 Nov 1396 Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 and [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 were married. [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 by marriage Baroness Neville Raby 1C 1295.

John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 30. Also, on the Saturday [10 February 1397], the chancellor (53) announced by the king's (30) command that reason willed that one should honour and enhance the estate of worthy and virtuous persons. Wherefore the king (30) - considering the nobility and virtue of his cousin Sir John Beaufort (24), son of his uncle of Guyenne and Lancaster (56), and the great honour he had done his person on various expeditions and labours in many kingdoms and lands overseas, to the great honour of the king and kingdom; and also to encourage him and others to do such honour; and also to strengthen the royal sceptre which could best be supported in honour by worthy and valiant persons - had, of his royal dignity and special grace, made and created the said John an earl, and given him the name and honour of the earl of Somerset, to have to him and his male heirs lawfully engendered of his body, with twenty pounds a year to be taken from the issues and profits of the county of Somerset for his title and the name of earl.
Note. On 10 Feb 1397 [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Earl Somerset 2C 1397.
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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Of the appointment of the earl of Somerset. 32. The king (30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman John Beaufort (24), knight, son of our beloved uncle John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and Edmund of York (55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (53), bishops; Henry of Derby (29), Edward of Rutland (24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (28), earls; Reginald Grey (35), Ralph Neville (33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].
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Murder of Thomas os Woodstock

Around 08 Sep 1397 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42) was murdered in Calais for his role as leader of the Lords Appellant. His son [his nephew] Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham 1381-1399 (16) succeeded 2nd Earl Buckingham 3C 1377. Walter Clopton Chief Justice -1400 was part of the inquiry into his death the outcome of which is not known. A John Hall was executed for the murder.

Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 King Richard II (30) awarded his older maternal half-brothers Dukedoms for their part in the arrest, trial and execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397.
John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (45) was created 1st Duke Exeter 1C 1397. [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (34) by marriage Duchess Exeter 1C 1397.
Thomas Holland (23) was created 1st Duke Surrey. .
Richard also rewarded his key supporters:.
Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 1C 1397 probably for arranging the murder of [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397. Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 1366-1425 (31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk 1C 1397.
[his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset 2C 1397, 1st Marquess Dorset 1C 1397. Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset 2C 1397.
[his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2C 1397. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale 2C 1397.
Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (33) was created 1st Earl Westmoreland 1C 1397. [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (18) by marriage Countess Westmoreland 1C 1397.

On 27 Nov 1397 [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) and Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) were married (he was her half third cousin). Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) by marriage Countess Somerset 2C 1397.

On 28 Jun 1398 Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (20) and [his niece] Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Count Eu Countess Stafford 1383-1438 (15) were married (he was her third cousin once removed). She (15) by marriage Countess Stafford 1C 1351.

Before 07 Oct 1398 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 and Philippa Mohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess York 1367-1431 were married.

Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) died at Leicester Castle Leicester. [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (48) was by his side. He was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.
He was buried in the Choir Old St Paul's Cathedral with his first wife [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368.
Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster 2C 1362, 7th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.
[his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (32) witheld the future Henry IV's (31) inheritance from him giving Henry (31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

Close Rolls Richard II 1396 1399 V6. 07 Jun 1399. Westminster Palace. To the keepers, occupiers, receivers or farmers of the lordship of Kyngeston in Dorsete for the time being. Order so long as the same shall remain in the king's hand to pay to John Swelle esquire 20 marks a year, which by a writing indented, confirmed by the king, John late duke of Lancastre granted him for life, to be taken of the issues of the said lordship.

On 10 May 1403 [his former wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (52) died. She was buried in Lincoln Cathedral.

Southampton Plot

On 31 Jul 1415, when Henry V King England 1386-1422 (28) was in Portchester Castle preparing to invade France, Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster 1391-1425 (23) revealed the Southampton Plot to him (28). Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham 1373-1415 (42), Thomas Grey 1384-1415 (30), and [his nephew] Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 were intending to replace Henry V King England 1386-1422 (28) with Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster 1391-1425 (23) as King of England based on Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster 1391-1425 (23) having a better claim to the throne being descended from Edward III's second son [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 whereas Henry V King England 1386-1422 (28) was descended from the third son John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399.
Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1385-1452 (30), Richard Vere 11th Earl Oxford 1385-1417 (29), Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (27) and Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys 1351-1421 (64) sat in judgement.

On 20 May 1475 Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71) died. She was buried at St Mary's Church Ewelme. Wrist Garter. The effigy was, apparently, viewed to determine how a lady should wear the garter at the re-commencement of Lady of the Garter appointments in 1901 after a gap of several hundred years. A particularly fine Cadaver Underneath the chest on which Alice's effigy lies. Full-length in a shroud.
Detail of the South Side of the Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71). From left to right ... .
1  impaled . Alice's paternal grandparents.
2  impaled . Her third husbands parents Michael Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk 1361-1415 and Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk 1376-1419.
3  impaled Francis? Possibly Alice's second husband's parents John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 and Maud Francis Countess Salisbury 1364-1424.
4  quartered .
5  impaled .
6 .
7 .
8  impaled  signifying Alice's son John's (32) marriage to Elizabeth of York (31) sister of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (33).
Detail of the North Side of the. Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71). Arms from left to right ...
1  quarterd  impaled Unknown.
2 . Her third husband William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450.
3  quarted . Alice's son John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (32) by her second husband William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450.
4 . Alice's father Thomas Chaucer 1367-1434.
5  quartering impaled Chaucer. Alice's second husband Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428.
6 . Alice's paternal grandmother Philippa Roet 1346-1387.
7  impaling  probably signifying John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 and [his former wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403, Katherine being the sister of Alice's paternal grandmother Philippa Roet 1346-1387 who married Geoffrey Chaucer 1343-1400.
8  impaling . Her paternal grandparents Geoffrey Chaucer 1343-1400 and Philippa Roet 1346-1387.

Birth of Catherine of Aragon

On 16 Dec 1485 Catherine of Aragon was born to Ferdinand II King Aragon 1452-1516 (33) and Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (34). She was possibly named after her Great Grandmother [his daughter] Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile 1373-1418 daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 and [his former wife] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394.

Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Aragon (11) or Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 1479-1555 (18).

Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England 1485-1536 (34).

Around 1490. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519 (30). Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (38).

Around 1502. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519 (42). Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (50).

John Evelyn's Diary 1641 October. 08 Oct 1641. Being the morning I came away, I went to see the Prince's Court, an ancient, confused building, not much unlike the Hofft, at the Hague: there is here likewise a very large Hall, where they vend all sorts of wares. Through this we passed by the chapel, which is indeed rarely arched, and in the middle of it was the hearse, or catafalco, of the late Archduchess, the wise and pious Clara Eugenia. Out of this we were conducted to the lodgings, tapestried with incomparable arras, and adorned with many excellent pieces of Rubens, old and young Breugel, Titian, and Stenwick, with stories of most of the late actions in the Netherlands.
By an accident, we could not see the library. There is a fair terrace which looks to the vineyard, in which, on Pedestals, are fixed the statues of all the Spanish kings of the house of Austria. The opposite walls are painted by Rubens, being an history of the late tumults in Belgia : in the last piece, the Archduchess shuts a great pair of gates upon Mars, who is coming out of hell, armed, and in a menacing posture; which, with that other of the Infanta taking leave of Don Philip the Fourth, is a most incomparable table.
From hence, we walked into the park, which for being entirely within the walls of the city is particularly remarkable; nor is it less pleasant than if in the most solitary Recesses; so naturally is it furnished with whatever may render it agreeable, melancholy, and country-like. Here is a stately heronry, divers springs of water, artificial cascades, rocks, grots, one whereof is composed of the extravagant roots of trees cunningly built and hung together with wires. In this park are both fallow and red deer.
From hence, we were led into the Menage, and out of that into a most sweet and dehcious garden, where was another grot of more neat and costly materials, full of noble statues, and entertaining us with artificial music; but the hedge of water, in form of lattice-work, which the fountaineer caused to ascend out of the earth by degrees, exceedingly pleased and surprised me; for thus with a pervious wall, or rather a palisade hedge of water, was the whole parterre environed.
There is likewise a fair aviary; and in the court next it are kept divers sorts of animals, rare and exotic fowl, as eagles, cranes, storks, bustards, pheasants of several kinds, and a duck having four wings. In another division of the same close are rabbits of an almost perfect yellow colour.
There was no Court now in the palace, the Infante Cardinal (32), who was the Governor of Flanders, being dead but newly, and every one in deep mourning.
At near eleven o'clock, I repaired to his Majesty's (40) agent. Sir Henry De Vic (42), who very courteously received me, and accommodated me with a coach and six horses, which carried me from Brussels to Ghent, where it was to meet my Lord of Arundel (56), Earl Marshal of England, who had requested me when I was at Antwerp to send it for him, if I went not thither myself.
Thus taking leave of Brussels and a sad Court, yet full of gallant persons, (for in this small city, the acquaintance being universal, ladies and gentlemen, I perceived, had great diversions and frequent meetings,) I hasted towards Ghent. On the way, 1 met with divers little waggons, prettily contrived and full of peddling merchandises, dravm by mastiff-dogs, harnessed completely like so many coachhorses; in some four, in others six, as in Brussels itself I had observed. In Antwerp I saw, as I remember, four dogs draw five lusty children in a chariot: the master commands them whither he pleases, crying his wares about the streets. After passing through Ouse, by six in the evening, I arrived at Ghent. This is a city of so great a circumference, that it is reported to be seven leagues round; but there is not half of it now built, much of it remaining in fields and desolate pastures even within the walls, which have strong gates towards the west, and two fair churches.
Here I beheld the Palace wherein John of Gaunt and Charles V were born; whose statue stands in the market-place, upon a high pillar, with his sword drawn, to which (as I was told) the magistrates and burghers were wont to repair upon a certain day every year with ropes about their necks, in token of submission and penance for an old rebellion of theirs; but now the hemp is changed into a blue ribbon. Here is planted the basilisco, or great gun, so much talked of. The Lys and the Scheldt meeting in this vast city, divide it into twenty-six islands, which are united by many bridges, somewhat resembling Venice. This night I supped with the Abbot of Andoyne, a pleasant and courteous priest.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (36).

1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576 (60). Equestrian Portrait of Charles Habsburg Spain V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (47).

1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541 (32). Portrait of Charles Habsburg Spain V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (18).

[his nephew] Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 and Maud Clifford Countess Cambridge 1389-1466 were married. Maud Clifford Countess Cambridge 1389-1466 by marriage Countess Cambridge 3C 1414.

[his illegitimate daughter] Blanche Beaufort was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 and Marie St Hilaire Hainault.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Elizabeth Cuman

Descendants Family Trees:

John "Lackland" I King England 1166 1216

Henry III King England 1207 1272

Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239 1307

King Edward III England

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340 1399

Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence 1198 1245

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314 1369

Royal Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 14 Grand Son of Æthelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings England: Son of King Edward III England

Kings Scotland: Great x 7 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093

Kings Franks: Great x 5 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Great Grand Son of Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314

Ancestry

Father: King Edward III England son of King Edward II of England

GrandFather: King Edward II of England son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great GrandFather: Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 son of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry III King England 1207-1272 son of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 3 GrandFather: John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabella Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246

Great x 2 GrandMother: Eleanor Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291

Great x 3 GrandFather: Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence 1198-1245

Great x 3 GrandMother: Beatrice Savoy Count Provence

Great GrandMother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 2 x great granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandFather: Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon 1199-1252 great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Alfonso IX King Leon 1171-1230

Great x 3 GrandMother: Berengaria Ivrea I Queen Castile 1179-1246 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandMother: Joan Dammartin Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon 1220-1279

Great x 3 GrandFather: Simon Dammartin 1180-1239

Great x 3 GrandMother: Marie Montgomery Count Ponthieu 1199-1250

GrandMother: Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 4 x great granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great GrandFather: Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314 3 x great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandFather: Philip "Bold" III King France 1245-1285 2 x great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Louis IX King France 1214-1270 great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Provence Queen Consort France 1221-1295

Great x 2 GrandMother: Isabella Barcelona Queen Consort France 1248-1271

Great x 3 GrandFather: James I King Aragon 1208-1276

Great x 3 GrandMother: Violant Árpád Queen Consort Aragon 1215-1251

Great GrandMother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 1273-1305 3 x great granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry I King Navarre 1244-1274 4 x great grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandFather: Theobald IV King Navarre 1201-1253 3 x great grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Bourbon Queen Consort Navarre

Great x 2 GrandMother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 1248-1302 2 x great granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Robert Capet 1216- great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Matilda Reginar Count Saint Pol 1224-1288 2 x great granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Mother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x great granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

GrandFather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 1286-1337 4 x great grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great GrandFather: John Hainault II Count Hainault II Count Holland 1247-1304 3 x great grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 2 GrandFather: John Hainault I Count Hainault 1218-1257 4 x great grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandFather: Bouchard Avesnes 1182-1244

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret II Countess Flanders 1202-1280 3 x great granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 2 GrandMother: Adelaide Gerulfing Count Hainault 1230-1284 2 x great granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 3 GrandFather: Floris Gerulfing IV Count Holland 1210-1234

Great x 3 GrandMother: Mathilde Reginar Count Holland Count Palatine 1200-1267 great granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great GrandMother: Philippa Luxemburg Count Hainault Count Holland 1252-1311 5 x great granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry "Great" Luxemburg V Count Luxemburg III Count Namur 1216-1281

Great x 3 GrandFather: Waleran Luxemburg III Duke Limburg 1165-1226

Great x 3 GrandMother: Erminsende Namur Count Bar 1186-1247

Great x 2 GrandMother: Margaret Bar Count Luxemburg Count Namur 1220-1275 4 x great granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandFather: Henry Bar II Count Bar -1239 3 x great grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandMother: Philippa Capet Count Bar 1192-1242

GrandMother: Joan Valois Count Zeeland Count Holland Count Avesnes Count Hainault 1294-1342 4 x great granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great GrandFather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 1270-1325 3 x great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandFather: Philip "Bold" III King France 1245-1285 2 x great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Louis IX King France 1214-1270 great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Provence Queen Consort France 1221-1295

Great x 2 GrandMother: Isabella Barcelona Queen Consort France 1248-1271

Great x 3 GrandFather: James I King Aragon 1208-1276

Great x 3 GrandMother: Violant Árpád Queen Consort Aragon 1215-1251

Great GrandMother: Margaret Capet Count Valois 1273-1299 3 x great granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandFather: Charles II King Naples 1254-1309 2 x great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Charles King Sicily 1227-1285 great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Beatrice Provence Queen Consort Sicily 1231-1267

Great x 2 GrandMother: Mary of Hungary Queen Consort Naples 1257-1323

Great x 3 GrandFather: Stephen V of Hungary 1239-1272

Great x 3 GrandMother: Elizabeth Cuman