Royalty of England Great Britain and the United Kingdom
The title Duke comes from the Latin "Dux" meaning leader. The first Dukedom in England "Duke of Cornwall" was created by Edward III for his eldest son.
The word Marquess comes from the Latin "marginem" meaning margin, edge, boundary, border. Marquesses protected the borders for the King and were given the autonomy to do so. In England there were several Marches: The Northern March comprising Western March: Cumberland and Westmoreland (now Cumbria), and the Eastern March: Northumbria, the Welsh March: Cheshire (subsequently a Palatinate), Herefordshire, Shropshire (originally Shrewsburyshire), Gloucestershire, and the Southern March: Somersetshire and Devonshire. Over time the Marches became less dangerous and Marquessates became fewer.
The word Earl is of Viking or Anglo-Saxon origin peculiar to England as a consequence of its pre-Norman history. In Europe the equivlent title is Count. Earls originally had control of a shire: Warwickshire, Bedfordshire, abbreviated as Earl of Warwick, Earl of Bedford. Shires became known as Counties.
Lords Spritual England
Order of the Garter
When kynge Henry was returned into England, he first of all thinges elected into the societe of saynct George, vulgarely called the Order of the Garter, Alphose duke of Calabres sonne, accordyng to his deire whiche Alphonse was sonne and heyre to Ferdinand kyng of Naples,& after kyng of the same realme, til he was ouercome by kyng Charles. And after, the kyng sent Christopher Vrsewike, Ambassadour with y gartier, coller, mantell, and other habiliamentes apperteyninge to the companyons of the sayde noble ordre. Which Ambassadoure arryuing at Napels, deliuered to the duke the whole habile, with all the ceremonies and devre circumstaunces therunto belonging. Whiche duke very reuerently receaued it, and with more reuerence reuested him selfe w thesame in a solempne presence, thinkyng .that by this apparell and inuestittire, he was made a freride and compaygnion in ordre with j king of England, whose frendship obteyned, he feared nothing the assautes or inuasions of hys enemies. And this was the cause that he desyred so muche to be compaygnion of that noble order, fermely beleuyng that y kyng of England souereygne of that ordre, should be aider and mainteyner of hym agaynst the Frenche kyng, whome he knew woulde passe the moutaynes and make warre on hym. But this custome of assistece in ordres was, eyther neuer begonne, or before clerely abholished: For in our tyme there haue bene many noble men of Italy, compaignios as well of the golden Flese in Burgoyne, as of the ordre of sainct Mighel in Fraunce, that haue bene banyshed and profligate from their naturall countrey, and yet haue not bene aided by the souereigne nor copanyons of thesame order. For surely the statutes and ordinaunces of all thesayde orders dothe not oblige and bynde them to that case, but in certayne poyntes. After this the duke dimissed the Ambassadour, rewardyng hym moost pryncely.
John Evelyn's Diary 1670 August. 28 Aug 1670. One of the Canons preached; then followed the offering of the Knights of the Order, according to custom; first the poor Knights, in procession, then, the Canons in their formalities, the Dean and Chancellor, then his Majesty (40) (the Sovereign), the Duke of York (36), Prince Rupert (50); and, lastly, the Earl of Oxford (43), being all the Knights that were then at Court.
I dined with the Treasurer (40), and consulted with him what pieces I was to add; in the afternoon the King (40) took me aside into the balcony over the terrace, extremely pleased with what had been told him I had begun, in order to his commands, and enjoining me to proceed vigorously in it. He told me he had ordered the Secretaries of State to give me all necessary assistance of papers and particulars relating to it and enjoining me to make it a LITTLE KEEN, for that the Hollanders had very unhandsomely abused him in their pictures, books, and libels.
Windsor was now going to be repaired, being exceedingly ragged and ruinous. Prince Rupert (50), the Constable, had begun to trim up the keep or high round Tower, and handsomely adorned his hall with furniture of arms, which was very singular, by so disposing the pikes, muskets, pistols, bandoleers, holsters, drums, back, breast, and headpieces, as was very extraordinary. Thus, those huge steep stairs ascending to it had the walls invested with this martial furniture, all new and bright, so disposing the bandoleers, holsters, and drums, as to represent festoons, and that without any confusion, trophy-like. From the hall we went into his bedchamber, and ample rooms hung with tapestry, curious and effeminate pictures, so extremely different from the other, which presented nothing but war and horror.
The King (40) passed most of his time in hunting the stag, and walking in the park, which he was now planting with rows of trees.
1833. Martin Archer Shee Painter 1769-1850 (63). Portrait of Charles Richard Sumner Bishop Winchester 1790-1874 in the Robes of the Order of the Garter. Bishop Charles Sumner was not a Garter Knight. He is wearing the Robes probably in his capacity as Chaplain, or Register, of the Order of the Garter.
Offices of State
In 1400 Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford 1378-1449 (21) was appointed Member Parliament.