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England Indexes

Royalty of England Great Britain and the United Kingdom

Kings Queens Queen Consorts and Princes of England Great Britain and United Kingdom

Nobility

Dollar Princess

Duke

The title Duke comes from the Latin "Dux" meaning leader. The first Dukedom in England "Duke of Cornwall" was created by Edward III for his eldest son.

Duke Albany to Buckingham

Duke Cambridge to Dudley

Duke Exeter to Leeds

Duke Manchester to Ormonde

Duke Portland to Warwick

Marquess

The word Marquess comes from the Latin "marginem" meaning margin, edge, boundary, border. Marquesses protected the borders for the King and were given the autonomy to do so. In England there were several Marches: The Northern March comprising Western March: Cumberland and Westmoreland (now Cumbria), and the Eastern March: Northumbria, the Welsh March: Cheshire (subsequently a Palatinate), Herefordshire, Shropshire (originally Shrewsburyshire), Gloucestershire, and the Southern March: Somersetshire and Devonshire. Over time the Marches became less dangerous and Marquessates became fewer.

Marquess Abergavenny to Dorset

Marquess Exeter to Northampton

Marquess Pembroke to Zetland

Earl

The word Earl is of Viking or Anglo-Saxon origin peculiar to England as a consequence of its pre-Norman history. In Europe the equivlent title is Count. Earls originally had control of a shire: Warwickshire, Bedfordshire, abbreviated as Earl of Warwick, Earl of Bedford. Shires became known as Counties.

Earl Abergavenny to Aylesford

Earl Baldwin to Burlington

Earl Cadogan to Cumberland

Earl Danby to Durham

Earl Effingham to Exeter

Earl Falmouth to Fortescue

Earl Gainsborough to Guildford

Earl Halifax to Huntingdon

Earl Ilchester to Kingston upon Hull

Earl Lancaster to Lytton

Earl Macclesfield to Mulgrave

Earl Nelson to Nottingham

Earl Ogle to Powis

Earl Radnor to Rutland

Earl Salisbury to Sydney

Earl Talbot to Verulam

Earl Waldegrave to Zetland

Lord

Seigneur

Lords Spritual England

Cardinal

Dean

Archdeacon

Prebendary

Canon

Precentor

Deacon

Abbot

Abbess

Prior

Priest

Rector

Vicar

Chivalric Orders

Order of the Garter

When kynge Henry was returned into England, he first of all thinges elected into the societe of saynct George, vulgarely called the Order of the Garter, Alphose duke of Calabres sonne, accordyng to his deire whiche Alphonse was sonne and heyre to Ferdinand kyng of Naples,& after kyng of the same realme, til he was ouercome by kyng Charles. And after, the kyng sent Christopher Vrsewike, Ambassadour with y gartier, coller, mantell, and other habiliamentes apperteyninge to the companyons of the sayde noble ordre. Which Ambassadoure arryuing at Napels, deliuered to the duke the whole habile, with all the ceremonies and devre circumstaunces therunto belonging. Whiche duke very reuerently receaued it, and with more reuerence reuested him selfe w thesame in a solempne presence, thinkyng .that by this apparell and inuestittire, he was made a freride and compaygnion in ordre with j king of England, whose frendship obteyned, he feared nothing the assautes or inuasions of hys enemies. And this was the cause that he desyred so muche to be compaygnion of that noble order, fermely beleuyng that y kyng of England souereygne of that ordre, should be aider and mainteyner of hym agaynst the Frenche kyng, whome he knew woulde passe the moutaynes and make warre on hym. But this custome of assistece in ordres was, eyther neuer begonne, or before clerely abholished: For in our tyme there haue bene many noble men of Italy, compaignios as well of the golden Flese in Burgoyne, as of the ordre of sainct Mighel in Fraunce, that haue bene banyshed and profligate from their naturall countrey, and yet haue not bene aided by the souereigne nor copanyons of thesame order. For surely the statutes and ordinaunces of all thesayde orders dothe not oblige and bynde them to that case, but in certayne poyntes. After this the duke dimissed the Ambassadour, rewardyng hym moost pryncely.

Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 April. 22 Apr 1667. Saw the sumptuous supper in the banqueting-house at Whitehall, on the eve of St. George's day, where were all the companions of the Order of the Garter.

John Evelyn's Diary 1670 August. 28 Aug 1670. One of the Canons preached; then followed the offering of the Knights of the Order, according to custom; first the poor Knights, in procession, then, the Canons in their formalities, the Dean and Chancellor, then his Majesty (40) (the Sovereign), the Duke of York (36), Prince Rupert (50); and, lastly, the Earl of Oxford (43), being all the Knights that were then at Court.
I dined with the Treasurer (40), and consulted with him what pieces I was to add; in the afternoon the King (40) took me aside into the balcony over the terrace, extremely pleased with what had been told him I had begun, in order to his commands, and enjoining me to proceed vigorously in it. He told me he had ordered the Secretaries of State to give me all necessary assistance of papers and particulars relating to it and enjoining me to make it a LITTLE KEEN, for that the Hollanders had very unhandsomely abused him in their pictures, books, and libels.
Windsor was now going to be repaired, being exceedingly ragged and ruinous. Prince Rupert (50), the Constable, had begun to trim up the keep or high round Tower, and handsomely adorned his hall with furniture of arms, which was very singular, by so disposing the pikes, muskets, pistols, bandoleers, holsters, drums, back, breast, and headpieces, as was very extraordinary. Thus, those huge steep stairs ascending to it had the walls invested with this martial furniture, all new and bright, so disposing the bandoleers, holsters, and drums, as to represent festoons, and that without any confusion, trophy-like. From the hall we went into his bedchamber, and ample rooms hung with tapestry, curious and effeminate pictures, so extremely different from the other, which presented nothing but war and horror.
The King (40) passed most of his time in hunting the stag, and walking in the park, which he was now planting with rows of trees.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

1833. Martin Archer Shee Painter 1769-1850 (63). Portrait of Charles Richard Sumner Bishop Winchester 1790-1874 in the Robes of the Order of the Garter. Bishop Charles Sumner was not a Garter Knight. He is wearing the Robes probably in his capacity as Chaplain, or Register, of the Order of the Garter.

1833. Martin Archer Shee Painter 1769-1850 (63). Portrait of Charles Richard Sumner Bishop Winchester 1790-1874 in the Robes of the Order of the Garter. Bishop Charles Sumner was not a Garter Knight. He is wearing the Robes probably in his capacity as Chaplain, or Register, of the Order of the Garter.

Knight of the Garter

Lady of the Garter

Chancellor of the Order of the Garter

Crown

High Sheriff

Sheriff

Justices of the Peace

Lieutenant

Constable

Lieutenant

Governors

Deputy Governors

Seneschal

East India Company

Bank of England

Trinity House

Knights of the Shire

Speaker of the House of Commons

Father of the House of Commons

Chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons

Royal Navy

In 1663 Admiral Arthur Herbert 1st Earl Torrington 1648-1716 (15) joined the Royal Navy.

On 15 Feb 1780 Admiral Joseph Sydney Yorke 1768-1831 (11) joined the Royal Navy becoming a midshipman aboard HMS Duke commanded by Sir Charles Douglas. He followed Douglas to his next command HMS Formidable under George Brydges Rodney 1st Baron Rodney 1718-1792 (62).

In Oct 1797 Admiral George Francis Seymour Conway 1787-1870 (10) joined the Royal Navy.

In 1893 Vice Admiral Charles Andrew Fountaine 1879-1946 (13) joined the Royal Navy.

Royal Navy Ships

Court Positions

Court Entertainment

Royal Household

Miscellaneous

Private Secretary

Clerk of the Signet

Clerk of the Green Cloth

Exchequer

King's Bench

Court of Chancery

Court of Wards

Court of Augmentations

Solicitor General

Common Pleas

Chief Justice of the Marches of Wales and Chester

Chief Justice of the Bench in Ireland

Chief Justice of South Wales

Keeper of the Great Park

Lord Keeper of the Great Seal

Commissioner of the Great Seal

Lord Mayor

Mayor

President of the Council

Council of the Marches

Royal Council

Council of Plantations

President of Magdalen College Oxford

Ecclesiastical Commission

Royal Society

Society of Antiquaries of London

Royal Horticultural Society

Worshipful Companies

Military

Navy

Army