Twenty Trees

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1270 1299 Welsh and Scottish Wars

Death of Henry III

On 16 Nov 1272 Henry III King England 1207-1272 (65) died at Westminster. His son Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (33) succeeded I King England. Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 (31) by marriage Queen Consort England.

Second Council of Lyons

In 1272 Thomas Cantilupe Bishop of Hereford 1218-1282 (54) attended the Second Council of Lyons.

Coronation Edward I

On 19 Aug 1274 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (35) was crowned I King England at Westminster Abbey. Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 (33) was crowned Queen Consort England. .

Welsh Wars

Night of St Gertrude

On 16 Mar 1278 William Jülich IV Count Jülich 1210-1278 (68) and his son William Jülich 1240-1278 were killed. He and his two sons William and Roland (his natural son), had entered the town of Aachen to collect taxes for King Rudolph I of Germany (59). There was a riot and William and his sons were killed. The city of Aachen was later ordered to pay a high compensation to William's widow Richardis (63) as compensation for his murder.

Marriage of King John of Scotland and Isabella Warenne

On 09 Feb 1281 John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland 1249-1314 (32) and Isabella Warenne were married (he was her fourth cousin).

Battle of Llandeilo Fawr

On 17 Jun 1282 the army of Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford 1243-1295 (38) were ambushed by the Welsh at Llandeilo Carmarthenshire South West Wales.
William "The Younger" Valence -1282 was killed.
Much of Gilbert Clare's (38) army of 1600 men was destroyed.

Battle of Moel y don

On 12 Nov 1282 the English forces attempted to cross the Menai Straits to invade Gwynedd without waiting for the arrival of Edward's larger force. The battle was a rout. Roger Clifford 1243-1282 (39) drowned. The brothers William Burnell -1282 and Philip Burnell -1282 were killed. .

Battle of Orewin Bridge

On 11 Dec 1282 an English force including John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield 1232-1299 (50), Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn Mathrafal Prince Powys Wenwynwyn 1211-1286 (71) and Owen de la Pole Mathrafal 1st Lord Powis 1257-1293 (25) defeated a Welsh force at Builth Wells Radnorshire Welsh March during the Battle of Orewin Bridge. The Welsh leader Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw 1233-1282 (49) was killed effectively bringing to an end the independence of Wales.

Treaty of Rheinfelden

On 01 Jun 1283 the Treaty of Rheinfelden was the first treaty to determine the Habsburg order of succession.

On 01 May 1308 Albert Habsburg I Duke Austria 1255-1308 (52) was murdered by his nephew John "Parricide" Habsburg 1290-1313 (18) who he had deprived of his inheritance when Albert Habsburg I Duke Austria 1255-1308 (52) forced John's (18) eleven year old father Rudolf Habsburg II Duke Austria 1270-1290 to waive his rights to the Habsburg duchies of Austria and Styria as part of the Treaty of Rheinfelden.

Antony Bek Enthroned as Bishop of Durham

On 25 Dec 1285 Antony Bek Bishop of Durham 1245-1311 (40) was enthroned at Durham Cathedral.

Charles "Bad" II King Navarre succeeded by Charles III King Navarre

On 01 Jan 1387 Charles "Bad" II King Navarre 1332-1387 (54) died. His son Charles III King Navarre 1361-1425 (26) succeeded III King Navarre. Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort Navarre 1363-1425 (24) by marriage Queen Consort Navarre.

Battle of the Counts

On 23 Apr 1287 Guy Montfort Count Nola 1244-1288 (43) was captured during the Battle of the Counts.

1287 Great Storm

On 14 Dec 1287 a great storm caused a significant number of deaths on both sides of the English Channel. In the Low Countries around 50,000 people are believed to have died. In England hundreds were killed. The port of New Romney was so changed as to be replaced by Rye through which the course of the River Rother now ran. The port of Dunwich never recovered from the storm and thereafter declined.

Death of Eleanor of Castile

On 28 Nov 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 (49) died at Harby. Her viscera were buried at Lincoln Cathedral.

Eleanor Crosses

After 28 Nov 1290 Eleanor of Castile's body was taken from Harby to Westminster Abbey. At each of the locations at which her body rested overnight Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 commissioned the building of an Eleanor Cross. Three remain. The best example being at Geddington.

On 03 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Grantham.

On 04 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Queen's Cross Stamford.

On 05 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Geddington.

On 06 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Hardingstone.

On 07 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Stony Stratford.

On 08 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Woburn.

On 09 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Dunstable Priory Dunstable.

On 10 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at St Albans.

On 11 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Waltham Cross.

On 12 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Cheapside; Cheapside Cross.

On 13 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 body rested at Charing Cross.

On 17 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 was buried at Chapel of St Edward the Confessor Chapels Westminster Abbey.

Coronation of John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland

On 30 Nov 1292 John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland 1249-1314 (43) was crowned I King Scotland: Balliol.

Siege of Conwy Castle

In Dec 1294 Madog ap Llywelyn besieged King England in Conwy Castle for three months.

Battle of Maes Moydog

On 05 Mar 1295 William Beauchamp 9th Earl Warwick 1237-1298 (58) defeated the army of Madog ap Llywelyn during the Battle of Maes Moydog at Llanfair Caereinion Radnorshire Welsh March. English losses were around 100 dead, Welsh around 700.

First War of Scottish Independence

1296 Capture of Berwick

On 30 Mar 1296 Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (21) captured Berwick on Tweed from William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (56). Richard Cornwall 1252-1296 (44) was killed during the course of the siege.'When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred. So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.' - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon. .

Battle of Dunbar

On 27 Apr 1296 Battle of Dunbar was fought between John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304 (65) and John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland 1249-1314 (47), his son in law. John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl 1266-1306 (30) and John Comyn 3rd Earl Buchan -1308 were captured. The English routed the disorganised Scots in a single charge. Few died; many were captured. .

Marriage of Princess Elizabeth and John of Holland

On 08 Jan 1297 John Gerulfing I Count Holland 1284-1299 (13) and Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Plantagenet Countess Essex Hereford and Holland 1282-1316 (14) were married at Ipswich. Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Plantagenet Countess Essex Hereford and Holland 1282-1316 (14) by marriage Countess Holland. The wedding was attended by her sister Margaret Plantagenet Duchess Brabant 1275-1333 (21), her father King Edward I (57), her brother Edward (12) and her future second husband Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex 1276-1322 (21).

Battle of Furnes

On 20 Aug 1297 Philip Artois 1268-1298 (29) was wounded during the Battle of Furnes France.

Battle of Stirling Bridge

On 11 Sep 1297 the combined forces of Andrew Moray and William Wallace -1305 defeated the forces of John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304 (66) near Stirling Bridge, Stirling during the Battle of Stirling Bridge. After around half the English had crossed the narrow bridge the Scots attacked subjecting the English to a significant defeat.

Edward I 43rd Parliament

In 1298 Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu 1250-1316 (48) attended Edward I 43rd Parliament at York.

Battle of Falkirk

On 22 Jul 1298 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (59) defeated the Scottish army led by William Wallace -1305 during the Battle of Falkirk at Falkirk using archers to firstly attack the Scottish shiltrons with the heavy cavalry with infantry completing the defeat. The English were described in the Falkirk Roll that lists 111 men with their armorials including:.
Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315 (26).
Walter Beauchamp 1243-1303 (55).
Roger Bigod 5th Earl Norfolk 1245-1306 (53).
Humphrey Bohun 3rd Earl Hereford 2nd Earl Essex 1249-1298 (49).
Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (24).
Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester 1261-1326 (37).
William Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers Groby 1272-1325 (26).
Thomas Berkeley 6th Baron Berkeley 1245-1321 (52).
Maurice Berkeley 7th Baron Berkeley 1271-1326 (27).
Henry Grey 1st Baron Grey Codnor 1255-1308 (43).
Reginald Grey 1st Baron Grey Wilton 1240-1308 (58).
John Grey 2nd Baron Grey Wilton 1268-1323 (30).
John Mohun 1st Baron Mohun Dunster 1269-1330 (29).
Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu 1250-1316 (48).
Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (11).
William Ros 1st Baron Ros Helmsley 1255-1316 (43).
John Segrave 2nd Baron Segrave 1256-1325 (42).
Nicholas Segrave 1256-1321 (42).
Robert Vere 6th Earl Oxford 1257-1331 (41).
Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby 1267-1314 (30).
Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (20).
Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 (17).
John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304 (67).
Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy 1273-1314 (25).
Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon 1276-1340 (21).
Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl Arundel 1267-1302 (31).
Henry Beaumont 4th Earl Buchan 1279-1340 (18).
John Capet II Duke Brittany 1239-1305 (59).
Philip Darcy 1258-1333 (39).
Robert Fitzroger.
Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter 1247-1326 (51), or possiby a Roger Fitzwalter?.
Simon Fraser -1306.
Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 (23).
John Wake 1st Baron Wake Liddell 1268-1300 (30), and.
Henry Lacy 3rd Earl Lincoln 4th Earl Salisbury 1251-1311 (47).
William Scrope 1245-1312 (53) was knighted.
John Stewart -1298 was killed.
John Moels 1st Baron Moels 1269-1310 (29) fought.
John Lovell 1st Baron Lovel 1254-1311 (44) fought.

Edward I Creates New Barons

On 06 Feb 1299 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (59) created a number of new Barons by writ of summons to Edward's 44th Parliament ...
John Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers Chartley 1271-1312 (27) was created 1st Baron Ferrers Chartley.
John Lovell 1st Baron Lovel 1254-1311 (45) was created 1st Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh.
William Ros 1st Baron Ros Helmsley 1255-1316 (44) was created 1st Baron Ros Helmsley.
William Devereux 1st Baron Devereux Lyonshall 1244-1314 (55) was created 1st Baron Devereux Lyonshall. Lucy Burnell Baroness Devereux Lyonshall by marriage Baroness Devereux Lyonshall.
Adam Welles 1st Baron Welles 1249-1311 (50) was created 1st Baron Welles.
Robert Clinton 1st Baron Clinton 1258-1310 (41) was created 1st Baron Clinton.
John Moels 1st Baron Moels 1269-1310 (30) was created 1st Baron Moels.
NOTE. Possibly created as a consequence of the Battle of Falkirk although of the seven new creations in total only two appear to have fought at the battle.