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1469 1479 Second War of the Wars of the Roses Warwick Rebels

Execution of Warwick's Supporters

On 17 Jan 1469  Warwick's supporters were executed in Salisbury Marketplace in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26):.
Thomas Hungerford -1469 was beheaded.
Henry Courtenay -1469 was beheaded.

Amnesty

On 11 Jun 1469 an Amnesty was declared excepting Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (30).

Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

On 11 Jul 1469 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (19) and Isabel Neville 1451-1476 (17) were married (he was her first cousin once removed) by George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (37) at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais in Calais witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41). Isabel Neville 1451-1476 (17) by marriage 1st Duke Clarence 3C 1461. .

Battle of Edgecote Moor

After 24 Jul 1469. St Mary's Church Kington. Thomas Vaughan killed 24 Jul 1469 at the Battle of Edgecote Moor and wife Elena "Terrible" Gethen so called because she murdered her cousin who had murdered her brother. Alabaster. Early Plate Bascinet Period. Tassets. Believed to have been moved from the Chancel since it is decorated on all sides. Possible Harpur and Moorecock of Burton on Trent - see the folds at the base of her dress and the possible little dog between them.

On 26 Jul 1469 the Yorkist army suffered a defeat against a Lancastrian army led by Robin of Redesdale at the Battle of Edgecote Moor. The Yorkist army was commanded by John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (34) and William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469 (46).
Thomas Vaughan 1400-1469 (69), John Wogan -1469, Henry Neville 1437-1469, John Conyers 1433-1469 and Oliver Dudley 1437-1469 were killed. Humphrey Stafford 1st Earl Devon 1439-1469 (30), John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (58) and William Parr KG 1434-1483 (35) fought. Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (64) and John Woodville 1445-1469 (24) were captured.
Richard Herbert 1423-1469 (46) was beheaded.

On 27 Jul 1469 William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469 (46) was executed. His son William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1451-1491 (18) succeeded 2nd Earl Pembroke 8C 1468, 2nd Baron Herbert Raglan, 2nd Baron Herbert Powis. Mary Woodville Countess Pembroke by marriage Countess Pembroke 8C 1468.

Capture of Edward IV

After 26 Jul 1469 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was captured by his brother George at Olney after the Battle of Edgecote Moor. .

Execution of the Woodvilles

On 12 Aug 1469 Woodvilles father and son were beheaded at Kenilworth Castle by supporters of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) ...
Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (64) was beheaded. His son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (29) succeeded 2nd Earl Rivers 1C 1466.
John Woodville 1445-1469 (24) was beheaded.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville fued that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.

Welles' Rebellion & Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

In Feb 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 attacked Gainsborough Old Hall home of Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (39), a senior Yorkist, Edward IV's (27) Master of the Horse. It isn't known whether this attack was a consequence of local or national issues. Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) summoned Robert's father Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (42) and uncle-in-law Thomas Dymoke 1428-1470 (married to Margaret Welles sister of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470) to London. Both initially went into Sanctuary Westminster Abbey but were pardoned on 03 Mar 1470.

After 03 Mar 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 continued to resist Edward IV King England 1442-1483 by raising forces in Lincolnshire. Edward IV King England 1442-1483 travelled north and threatened Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 with the execution of his father and Thomas Dymoke 1428-1470 if Robert persisted in rebellion.

On 12 Mar 1470 Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (42) and Thomas Dymoke 1428-1470 were beheaded at Queen's Cross Stamford. Note. Some sources say on battlefield immediately prior to the battle.
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On 12 Mar 1470 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) commanded at the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). The battle apparently didn't take place since the army of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 fled in the face of the Royal army. The name 'Losecoat' not contemporary; Battle of Empingham may be. Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was captured with documents describing the fomenting of rebellion by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (42) and George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (20).

On 19 Mar 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was beheaded at Doncaster. He was buried at Whitefriars Doncaster. His sister Joan Welles 9th Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1475 succeeded 9th Baron Willoughby Eresby. Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 (37) by marriage Baron Willoughby Eresby. He, Hastings, a favourite of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27), younger brother of Edward's (27) great friend William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (39).

Before 23 Jan 1475 Joan Welles 9th Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1475 died. Edward IV King England 1442-1483 had father and son Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 and Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 posthumously attainted some five years after the Welle's Rebellion to ensure Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 would continue to enjoy the benefit of the Welle's estates; he was given a life interest in the estates on 23 Jan 1475. Another example of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 being somewaht disingenuous with the legal system to his own advantage. He, Edward was, in effect, disinheriting Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1453-1499 who should have inherited Baron Willoughby Eresby and John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 who should have inherited Baron Welles following Joan's death. Her first cousin Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1453-1499 de jure 10th Baron Willoughby Eresby. Margaret Jenney Baroness Willoughby Eresby by marriage Baroness Willoughby Eresby.

Around 1485 John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 (35) succeeded 10th Baron Welles when the attainders on Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 and Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 were reversed.

Battle of Nibley Green

On 20 Mar 1470 the army of William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (44) including Maurice Berkeley 3rd Baron Berkeley 1435-1506 (35) defeated the army of Thomas Talbot 2nd Viscount Lisle 1449-1470 (21) at Nibley Green Berkeley.
Thomas Talbot 2nd Viscount Lisle 1449-1470 (21) was killed. His sister Elizabeth Talbot Viscountess Lisle -1487 succeeded 3rd Baron Lisle 4C 1444.

Earldom of Northumberland returned to the Percy Family

On 27 Mar 1470 George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (9) was created 1st Duke Bedford 3C 1470 in preparation for his marriage to Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (4) which didn't, in the end, take place. He, George, was nephew to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (42) possibly as a consequence of the Kingmaker's defection.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

On 27 Mar 1470 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 revoked the Earl of Northumberland 3C 1464 so that the Earldom could be given to Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (21) of the Percy family who were traditional holders of the Earldom. A deeply unpopular move with the Neville family who had been longstanding enemies of the Percies in the North. He was created 1st Marquess Montagu instead. Possibly a consequence of the defection of Warwick the Kingmaker (42) to the Lancastrian cause as evidenced by the Welles Rebellion earlier in the year.

Angers Agreement

On 22 Jul 1470 Warwick the Kingmaker (42), Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (48) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (40) signed the Angers Agreement at Angers Cathedral. The agreement had been brokered by King Louis XI of France (47). Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 (16) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were betrothed as part of the Agreement.

Edward IV escapes to Flanders

In Sep 1470 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (28) fled from King's Lynn to the court of Charles the Bold (36) who was married to his sister Margaret (24) two years earlier.

Re adeption of Henry VI

On 03 Oct 1470 Henry VI (48) was re adepted VI King England. Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 was released. .

Execution of John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester

On 18 Oct 1470 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (43) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. On 14 Apr 1471 His son Edward Tiptoft 2nd Earl Worcester 1470-1485 succeeded 2nd Earl Worcester 4C 1449, 3rd Baron Tiptoft.

Edward V born in Sanctuary

On 02 Nov 1470 the future Edward V was born to Edward IV (28) and Elizabeth Woodville (33) in Sanctuary Westminster Abbey. His father was abroad in Flanders. His Godparents included the Abbot and Prior of Westminster, and Elizabeth St John Baroness Scrope Bolton Baroness Zouche Harringworth -1494. .

Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

On 13 Dec 1470 Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 (17) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were married (he was her half third cousin) at Angers Cathedral, Angers. Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) was appointed Princess Wales. .

Edward IV lands at Ravenspur

On 14 Mar 1471 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (28) landed at Ravenspur East Riding with William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40). .

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV (28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers George (21) and Richard (18), John Babington 1423-1485 (48), Wiliam Hastings (40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings -1495, William Norreys 1441-1507 (30), William Parr KG 1434-1483 (37), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) and Thomas Strickland -1494.
The Yorkists William Blount -1471, Humphrey Bourchier 1431-1471, Humphrey Bourchier 1435-1471 and Thomas Parr -1471 were killed. Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) was killed making his wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (27) a widow for the second time.
The Lancastrians Warwick the Kingmaker (43), John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 and William Tyrrell -1471 were killed.
William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 (43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele 1446-1476 (25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.
Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) and John Paston 1444-1504 (27) were wounded, John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (28) commanded, and John Paston 1442-1479 (29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (33) fought. .
Robert Harleston 1435-1471 (36) was killed.
Thomas Hen Salusbury 1409-1471 (62) was killed.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

Margaret Anjou lands at Weymouth

On 14 Apr 1471 Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (41) lands at Weymouth with John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471. .

Battle of Tewkesbury

On 04 May 1471 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury. His brother Richard (18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 (36), John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (46), George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (31), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), John Savage 1444-1492, Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) fought. William Brandon 1425-1491 (46), George Browne 1440-1483 (31), Ralph Hastings -1495, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 (38), James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40) commanded.
Margaret of Anjou (41) was captured. Her son Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 (17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (11) whose line continues to the present.
John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (36), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471, Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471 and John Beaufort 1441-1471 were killed.
Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471 and Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471 were captured.
William Vaux of Harrowden 1436-1471 (35) was killed.

On 05 May 1471 those captured at the Battle of Tewkesbury were tried in the Market Square Tewkesbury by John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (46) and the Duke of Gloucester (18): Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471, Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471, Gervase Clifton 1405-1471, Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 and Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471.

On 06 May 1471 those captured at the Battle of Tewkesbury: Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471, Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471, Gervase Clifton 1405-1471, Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 and Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471 were executed.

Battle of Tewkesbury Trial of the Captured

On 05 May 1471 those captured at the Battle of Tewkesbury were tried in the Market Square Tewkesbury by John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (46) and the Duke of Gloucester (18): Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471, Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471, Gervase Clifton 1405-1471, Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 and Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471.

Battle of Tewkesbury Executions

On 06 May 1471 those captured at the Battle of Tewkesbury: Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471, Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471, Gervase Clifton 1405-1471, Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 and Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471 were executed.

Death of Henry VI

On 21 May 1471 Henry VI (49) died (possibly murdered) in the Wakefield Tower in the Tower of London.

Edward V created Prince of Wales

On 26 Jun 1471 Edward, the future Edward V was appointed Prince Wales. Thomas Vaughan Master 1410-1483 was knighted.

Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (19) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (16) were married (he was her first cousin once removed) at St Stephen's Chapel. Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (16) by marriage Duchess Gloucester 3C 1461.

Death of Jacquetta of Luxenbourg

On 30 May 1472 Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (57) died. Not known where she was buried.

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (31) two younger brothers George (24) and the Richard (21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (47) daughters, Isabel (22) and Anne (17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.
Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (31) and before Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer Snape 1468-1530 (6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (56).

Parliament Rolls.Edward IV Oct 1472.Second Roll. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster. Exemplification at the request of Richard Duke of Gloucester (21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster, 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that George Duke Clarence (24), and Isabel (22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and Anne (17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle, late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to Anne Beauchamp (47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (24) and Isabel (22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said Richard (21) and Anne (17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield and Scarvesdale sometime of Ales, late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.

Death of King Henry IV of Castile

On 11 Dec 1474 Henry IV King Castile 1425-1474 (49) died. His sister Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (23) succeeded King Castile.

Around 1490. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519 (30). Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (38).

Around 1502. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519 (42). Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (50).

Treaty of Picquigny

On 29 Aug 1475 Edward IV (33) signed the Treaty of Picquigny; in effect a non-aggression pact or, possibly, a protection racket. France would pay Edward a pension of 50,000 crowns per year as long as he didn't invade France. Cardinal Bourchier (57) arbitrated on behalf of Edward. William Hastings (44) received a pension of 2000 crowns per year, John Howard and Thomas Montgomery 1200 each, Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York (52) 1000, Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (55) 600.
Edward's youngest brother Richard (22) opposed the Treaty considering it dishonourable. Roger Cheney 1442-1499 (33) was present at the signing, and remained as a hostage until Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (33) returned to England.

Death of the Duke of Norfolk

On 14 Jan 1476 John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (31) died at Framlingham Castle. Suspicious since he was only 32. His daughter Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (3) succeeded 8th Earl Norfolk 3C 1312, 11th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 12th Baron Segrave 2C 1295. His only child Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (3) who inherited the vast Mowbray estates was subsequently married to Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- two years later.

Battle of Morat

On 22 Jun 1476 John Luxemburg Count Soissons -1476 was killed at the Battle of Morat. His brother Peter Luxemburg II Count Saint Pol and Soissons 1440-1482 (36) succeeded Count Soissons 1367.

Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, his father Richard of York and and his younger brother Edmund were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay in a ceremony attended by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (34), George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (36).

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 22 Dec 1476 Isabel Neville 1451-1476 (25) died in childbirth. She was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey. George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (27) believed she had been murdered by Ankarette Twynyho -1477. Her son Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (1) succeeded 17th Earl Warwick 1C 1088. See Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho.

On 12 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was arrested at Keyford and taken to Bath.

On 13 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 taken to Cirencester.

On 15 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 and John Thursby -1477 were hanged at Myton Gallows Warwick.

In 1478 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was pardoned by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (35).

Battle of Nancy

On 05 Jan 1477 Charles "Bold" Valois Burgundy Duke Burgundy 1433-1477 (43) was killed at the Battle of Nancy. His daughter Mary Valois Burgundy Duchess Burgundy 1457-1482 (19) succeeded Duke Burgundy.

Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

On 15 Jan 1478 Edward IV's youngest son Richard of Shrewsbury and Anne Mowbray (5) were married (he was her second cousin once removed) at St Stephen's Chapel in Westminster. She had recently inherited the vast Mowbray inheritance when her father John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 died in 1476. The ceremony was attended by Edward's daughters Elizabeth (11), Mary (10) and Cecily (8). The day before Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (35) was knighted. In 1483 Parliament changed the succession so Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- would continue to enjoy her inheritance (she died in 1481) effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (52) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (53) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death).

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

The History of King Richard the Third. George, Duke of Clarence, was a goodly noble prince, and at all points fortunate, if either his own ambition had not set him against his brother, or the envy of his enemies had not set his brother against him. For were it by the Queen and the lords of her blood, who highly maligned the King’s kindred (as women commonly, not of malice but of nature, hate them whom their husbands love), or were it a proud appetite of the Duke himself intending to be king, in any case, heinous treason was there laid to his charge, and, finally, were he faulty or were he faultless, attainted was he by Parliament and judged to the death, and thereupon hastily drowned in a butt of malmesey, whose death, King Edward (although he commanded it), when he knew it was done, piteously bewailed and sorrowfully repented. See Execution of George Duke of Clarence.

On 18 Feb 1478 Edward's brother George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was drowned in a butt of wine; Malmsey wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London This story may be an invention. William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason. The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

1480 Apr 1483 Edward IV's Last Years

Capture of Berwick

On 30 Mar 1296 Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (21) captured Berwick on Tweed from William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (56). Richard Cornwall 1252-1296 (44) was killed during the course of the siege.'When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred. So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.' - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon. .

On 24 Aug 1482 Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (20) was knighted by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (29) at Berwick on Tweed during the Capture of Berwick.

Mowbray Succession Changed

In Jan 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (40) had Parliament re-enact earlier legislation regarding the Mowbray succession so that his son, Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-, who had married Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (who had died in 1481), would continue to benefit from them effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death.

Death of Edward IV

The History of King Richard the Third. As soon as the King was departed, that noble Prince his son drew toward London, who at the time of his father’s death kept household at Ludlow in Wales. Such country, being far off from the law and recourse to justice, was begun to be far out of good will and had grown up wild with robbers and thieves walking at liberty uncorrected. And for this reason the Prince was, in the life of his father, sent thither, to the end that the authority of his presence should restrain evilly disposed persons from the boldness of their former outrages. To the governance and ordering of this young Prince, at his sending thither, was there appointed Sir Anthony Woodville, Lord Rivers and brother unto the Queen, a right honorable man, as valiant of hand as politic in counsel. Adjoined were there unto him others of the same party, and, in effect, every one as he was nearest of kin unto the Queen was so planted next about the Prince.

The History of King Richard the Third. This noble prince died at his palace of Westminster and, with great funeral honor and heaviness of his people from thence conveyed, was interred at Windsor. He was a king of such governance and behavior in time of peace (for in war each part must needs be another’s enemy) that there was never any prince of this land attaining the crown by battle so heartily beloved by the substance of the people, nor he himself so specially in any part of his life as at the time of his death.

On 25 Mar 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (40) returned to Westminster from Windsor. A few days later he became sufficiently unwell to add codicils to his will, and to have urged reconciliation between William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28); it isn't clear what the cause of the friction between the two men was although it appears well known that Hastings resented the Woodville family.

On 09 Apr 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (40) died at Westminster. His son Edward V King England 1470- (12) succeeded V King England. Those present included Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28).

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. And the same day, in the after-noone, at a solemne court kept at Lambeth by the Lord Archbishoppe of Canterburie (46) and the doctors of the lawe, the King was divorced from his wife Queene Anne (35), and there at the same cowrte was a privie contract approved that she had made to the Earle of Northumberlande (34) afore the Kings tyme; and so she was discharged, and was never lawfull Queene of England, and there it was approved the same.
Dès l'heure que le roy Edouard fut mort, le Roy nostre maistre en fut adverty, et n'en feit nulle joye quant il le sceut:
From the hour that King Edward IV died, the King our master was made aware, and took no joy in it [Note. Not clear what il le sceut means!]

et peu de jours après receut lettres du duc de Clocestre, qui s'estoit faict roy d'Angleterre1, et se signoit Richard, lequel avoit faict mourir les deux filz du roy Edouard son frère.
And few days after he received letters from the Duke of Gloucester, who had become the King of England, and signed Richard, who had caused the death of the two sons [Note. The Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-] of King Edward his brother.

Lequel roy Richard requeroit l'amytié du Roy, et croy qu'il eust bien voulu ravoir reste pension;
King Richard wanted the friendship of the King, and belived he would continue to receive the pension;

mais le Roy ne voulut respondre à ses lettres, ne ouyr le messagier, et l'estima très cruel et mauvais:
but the King didn't want to respond to the letters, nor hear the messanger, and considered him very cruel and bad:

car, après le trespas dudict roy Edouard, ledict duc de Clocestre avoit faict hommaige à son nepveu, comme à son roy et souverain seigneur, et incontinent après commit ce cas.
since, after the [Note. didict? Possibly dudit ie said] crime against King Edward, the Duke of Gloucester gave homage to his nephew, as his King and sovereign lord, and [Note. incontinent?] after commited this case.

Et, en plain parlement d'Angleterre, feit desgrader deux filles dudict roy Edouard et desclarer bastardes, soubz couleur3 qu'il prouva par ung evesque de Bas4 en Angleterre
And, in the parliament of England, had degraded the two daughters of the said King of England and declared them bastards, on the pretext of the evidence of a Bishop of Bath in England

(qui aultresfois avoit eu grant credit avec ledict roy Edouard, et puis le desappoincta, et le tint en prison, et puis le ranconna d'une somme d'argent):
(who formerley had great credit with the King Edward then disappointed him, and held him in prison, and then ransomed himself with a sum of money)

lequel evesque disoit que ledict roy Edouard avoit promis foy de mariaige à une dame d'Angleterre (qu'il nommoit)5 pour ce qu'il en estoit amoureux, pour en avoir son plaisir;
which Bishop said that King Edward had promised [Note. foy? ] marriage to an English lady [who he named] who he was in love with, to have his pleasure; [See Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly].

et en avoit faict la promesse en la main dudict evesque, et, sur ceste promesse, coucha avec elle: et ne le faisoit que pour la tromper.
and had made this promise in the presence of the Bishop, and, on this promise, slept with her: and did this to deceive her. See The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate.

Toutesfois telz jeux sont bien dangereux, tesmoing ces enseignes. J'ay veu beaucoup de gens de court qui, une bonne adventure qui leur eust pleu en tel cas, ilz ne l'eussent point perdue par faulte de promettre.
Nevertheless such games are very dangerous, [Note. tesmoing?] these signs. I saw alot of courtiers who, having the opportunity of such an adventure, would not have lost it for the sake of a promise.


Et ce mauvais evesque garda ceste vengeance en son cueur, par adventure vingt ans; mais il luy en meschut:
And this bad Bishop guarded revenge in his heart, for twenty years; but he is in [Note. meshut?]:

car il avoit ung filz, qu'il aymoit fort, à qui ledict roy Richard vouloit faire de grans biens et luy faire espouser l'une de ces deux filles, desgradees de leur dignité, laquelle de présent est royne d'Angleterre et a deux beaux enfans.
because he had a son, who he loved very much, whom King Richard wished to do great things and to marry one of the two daughters, beneath their dignity, one of whom is now the present Queen of England and has two beautiful children [Note. Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502 and Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (46)].

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502 (13).

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (35).

Funeral of Edward IV

On 10 Apr 1483, in the morning, the coffin of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was moved to St Stephen's Chapel. Edward Story Bishop of Chichester -1503 sang the masses. Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68), Chamberlain to Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), offered on the Queen's behalf.

On 17 Apr 1483 the coffin of Edward IV was carried to Westminster Abbey by Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (21), John Savage 1444-1492, Thomas Wortley 1433-1514 (50), Thomas Molyneux 1445-1483 (38), probably John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 (33) who had married Edward's daughter Cecily), John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (41), Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (18), Guy Wolston 1433-1490 (50), John Sapcote 1448-1501 (35), Thomas Tyrrell 1453-1512 (30), John Risley, Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (15), John Norreys, Louis de Bretelles and John Comyn 4th Lord Baddenoch 1294-1314.
Those in the procession included:.
Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (43), widow of Edward's sister Anne.
William Parr KG 1434-1483.
John Astley 1373-1488.
William Stonor 1450-1494 (33).
Henry Ferrers 1443-1500 (40).
James Radclyffe 1440-1484 (43).
George Browne 1440-1483 (43).
Gilbert Debenham.
John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) walked in front of the coffin with Edward's personal arms.
John Marlow Abbot Bermondsey followed by:.
Thomas Kempe Bishop of London 1390-1489 (93).
John Hales Bishop Coventry and Lichfield 1400- (83) (Bishop of Chester?).
Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63).
Edward Story Bishop of Chichester -1503.
Richard Bell Bishop Carlisle -1496.
James Goldwell Bishop of Norwich -1499.
William Dudley Bishop of Durham 1425-1483 (58).
John Russell Bishop of Rochester Bishop of Lincoln -1494.
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) (as Bishop of Ely).
Edmund Tuchet Bishop of Rochester Bishop of Hereford Bishop of Salisbury 1443-1524 (40) (as Bishop of Rochester).
Peter Courtenay Bishop of Exeter Bishop of Winchester -1492, and.
Lionel Woodville Bishop of Salisbury 1447-1484 (36).
Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) brought up the rear.
Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65), then Archbishop of Canterbury, took no part due to infirmity.
John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21) ; the King's nephew,.
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52).
Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28).
William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1451-1491 (32) (some sources say Earl of Huntingindon?).
William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57).
Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48).
Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68).
John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (82).
George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (43).
John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (57).
Walter Devereux 7th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1432-1485.
Edward Grey 1st Viscount Lisle 1432-1492 (51).
Henry Lovell 9th Baron Marshal 8th Baron Morley 1476-1489 (7).
Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30).
John Brooke 7th Baron Cobham 1447-1512 (35).
Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 (50).
John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers Groby 1438-1495 (45).
Thomas Bourchier -1492.
Thomas Bourchier -1533.

On 20 Apr 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was buried at Altar St George's Chapel Windsor Castle. Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) celebrated the mass. John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) attended. John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21) was chief mourner. John Savage 1444-1492 and Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (21) were pall-bearers. .