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1660 1684 Restoration

Charles X King Sweden Dies Charles XI Succeeds

On 13 Feb 1660 Charles Gustav X King Sweden 1622-1660 (37) died. His son Charles XI King Sweden 1655-1697 (4) succeeded XI King Sweden.

Charles II Proclaimed in London

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 May. 08 May 1660. This day was his Majesty (29) proclaimed in London, etc..

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Charles II Proclaimed enters London

On 29 May 1660 John Evelyn 1st Baronet of Godstone 1633-1671 (27) was created 1st Baronet Evelyn of Godstone.

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 May. 29 May 1660. This day, his Majesty (30), Charles II. came to London, after a sad and long exile and calamitous suffering both of the King (30) and Church, being seventeen years. This was also his birthday, and with a triumph of above 20,000 horse and foot, brandishing their swords, and shouting with inexpressible joy; the ways strewn with flowers, the bells ringing, the streets hung with tapestry, fountains running with wine; the Mayor, Aldermen, and all the companies, in their liveries, chains of gold, and banners; Lords and Nobles, clad in cloth of silver, gold, and velvet; the windows and balconies, all set with ladies; trumpets, music, and myriads of people flocking, even so far as from Rochester, so as they were seven hours in passing the city, even from two in the afternoon till nine at night.
I stood in the Strand and beheld it, and blessed God. And all this was done without one drop of blood shed, and by that very army which rebelled against him: but it was the Lord's doing, for such a restoration was never mentioned in any history, ancient or modern, since the return of the Jews from their Babylonish captivity; nor so joyful a day and so bright ever seen in this nation, this happening when to expect or effect it was past all human policy..

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 29 May 1660, his thirtieth birthday, Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was restored II King England Scotland and Ireland.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

1620 Knighting by Charles II

On 06 Jun 1660 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) created new knights at Whitehall Palace including William Wray 1st Baronet Ashby 1625-1669 (35) and John Talbot 1630-1714 (29).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Trial and Execution of the Regicides

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 October. 11 Oct 1660. The regicides who sat on the life of our late King, were brought to trial in the Old Bailey, before a commission of oyer and terminer..

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 October. 14 Oct 1660. Axtall (38), Carew (38), Clement (66), Hacker, Hewson [Note. Evelyn possibly wrong here since John Hewson Regicide -1662 died in 1662], and Peters (62), were executed..

On 15 Oct 1660 John Carew Regicide 1622-1660 (38) was hanged drawn and quartered at Charing Cross..

On 16 Oct 1660 Hugh Peter Regicide 1598-1660 (62) and Hugh Cook Regicide 1608-1660 were hanged drawn and quartered at Charing Cross..

On 17 Oct 1660 Gregory Clement Regicide 1594-1660 (66), Adrian Scrope Regicide 1601-1660, John Jones Regicide 1597-1660 and Thomas Scot Regicide -1660 were hanged drawn and quartered at Charing Cross..

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 October. 17 Oct 1660. Scot, Scroop, Cook, and Jones, suffered for reward of their iniquities at Charing Cross, in sight of the place where they put to death their natural prince, and in the presence of the King (30) his son, whom they also sought to kill. I saw not their execution, but met their quarters, mangled, and cut, and reeking, as they were brought from the gallows in baskets on the hurdle. Oh, the miraculous providence of God!.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn ...
Daniel Axtell Regicide 1622-1660 (38) was hanged drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall.
Francis Hacker Regicide -1660 was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

Convention Parliament 1C2

In 1660 Thomas Thynne 1610-1669 (50) was elected MP Hindon during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In 1660 Robert Pye 1620-1701 (40) was elected MP Berkshire during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In 1660 Robert Robartes 1634-1682 (25) was elected MP Cornwall during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In 1660 John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692 (24) was elected MP Cornwall during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692.

In 1660 Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697 (36) was elected MP Brackley during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In 1660 Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (27) was elected MP Chippenham during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In 1660 Robert Pierrepoint 1638-1681 (22) was elected MP Nottingham after the selected candidate John Hutchinson was evicted as a regicide. .

In 1660 William Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby Parham 1616-1673 (44) was elected MP Midhurst during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In 1660 James Herbert 1623-1667 (37) was elected MP Queenborough in the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In 1660 William Wyndham 1st Baronet Wyndham 1632-1683 (28) was elected MP Taunton during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In 1660 Hender Robartes 1635-1688 (24) was elected MP Bodmin during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In Mar 1660 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (26) was elected MP Windsor during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In Apr 1660 Robert Brooke 1637-1669 (23) was elected MP Aldeburgh during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In Apr 1660 Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699 (31) was elected MP Droitwich during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In Apr 1660 Wentworth Fitzgerald 17th Earl Kildare 1634-1664 (26) was elected MP East Retford during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In Apr 1660 Francis Bacon 1600-1663 (59) was elected MP Ipswich in the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In Apr 1660 Thomas Archer 1619-1685 (41) was elected MP Warwickshire during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In Apr 1660 Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1630-1691 (29) was elected MP Derbyshire during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

In Apr 1660 William Wray 1st Baronet Ashby 1625-1669 (35) was elected MP Grimsby during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

On 25 Apr 1660 Richard Jennings 1619-1668 (41) was elected MP St Albans during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

On 25 Apr 1660 William Glynne 1st Baronet Bicester aka Bisseter 1638-1690 (22) was elected MP Caernarfon during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

On 25 Apr 1660 Henry Carey 4th Viscount Falkland 1634-1663 (26) was elected MP Oxfordshire during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

On 25 Apr 1660 John Glynne Judge 1602-1666 (58) was elected MP Caernarfonshire during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

On 25 Apr 1660 Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (54) was elected MP Heytesbury during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

Before 31 Aug 1660 John Drake Baronet Ashe Devon 1625-1669 was elected MP Bridport during the Convention Parliament 1C2.

Declaration of Breda

The Declaration of Breda, written on 04 Apr 1660, was a part of the process of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) being restored to the English throne written in response to a message sent by George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 (51). Initially secret the Declaration was made public on 01 May 1660. The Declaration promised a general pardon, retention of property religious toleration, payment of arrears to the army and continued army service.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Indemnity and Oblivion Act

John Evelyn's Diary 1652 April. 05 Apr 1652. My brother George (34) brought to Sayes Court Cromwell's (52) Act of Oblivion to all that would submit to the Government.

On 29 Aug 1660  the Indemnity and Oblivion Act became law. The act was a general pardon for everyone who had committed crimes during the Civil War and Interregnum with the exception of certain crimes such as murder (without a licence granted by King or Parliament), piracy, buggery, rape and witchcraft, and people named in the act such as those involved in the regicide of Charles I.
Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (67) was excepted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 December. 05 Dec 1683. I was this day invited to a wedding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, and it was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant-colonel of the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom-man, by his wife, who sold kitchen stuff in Kent Street, whom God so blessed that the father became a very rich, and was a very honest man; he was Sheriff of Surrey, where I have sat on the bench with him. Another of his daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen and persons of quality; above all, Sir George Jeffreys (38), newly made Lord Chief Justice of England, with Mr. Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were exceedingly merry. These great men spent the rest of the afternoon, till eleven at night, in drinking healths, taking tobacco, and talking much beneath the gravity of judges, who had but a day or two before condemned Mr. Algernon Sidney (60), who was executed the 7th on Tower Hill, on the single witness of that monster of a man, Lord Howard of Escrick, and some sheets of paper taken in Mr. Sidney's (60) study, pretended to be written by him, but not fully proved, nor the time when, but appearing to have been written before his Majesty's (53) Restoration, and then pardoned by the Act of Oblivion; so that though Mr. Sidney was known to be a person obstinately averse to government by a monarch (the subject of the paper was in answer to one by Sir E. Filmer), yet it was thought he had very hard measure. There is this yet observable, that he had been an inveterate enemy to the last king, and in actual rebellion against him; a man of great courage, great sense, great parts, which he showed both at his trial and death; for, when he came on the scaffold, instead of a speech, he told them only that he had made his peace with God, that he came not thither to talk, but to die; put a paper into the sheriff's hand, and another into a friend's; said one prayer as short as a grace, laid down his neck, and bid the executioner do his office.
The Duke of Monmouth (34), now having his pardon, refuses to acknowledge there was any treasonable plot; for which he is banished Whitehall. This is a great disappointment to some who had prosecuted Trenchard, Hampden, etc., that for want of a second witness were come out of the Tower upon their habeas corpus.
The King had now augmented his guards with a new sort of dragoons, who carried also grenades, and were habited after the Polish manner, with long peaked caps, very fierce and fantastical.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691 (24). Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (20).

Cavalier Parliament 2C2

In 1661 John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44) was elected MP Wallingford during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 James Thynne 1605-1670 (56) was elected MP Wiltshire during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Adam Browne 2nd Baronet Browne 1626-1690 (35) was elected MP Surrey during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1630-1691 (30) was elected MP Northumberland during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 William Compton Master of the Ordnance 1625-1663 (36) was elected MP Cambridge during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699 (32) was elected MP Camelford during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (61) was elected MP Bath and Heytesbury during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) was elected MP Chippenham during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Robert Pierrepoint 1638-1681 (23) was elected MP Nottingham during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (75) was elected MP Weymouth during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (45) was elected MP Dorset during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 John Strangeways 1636-1676 (24) was elected MP Bridport during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 William Wyndham 1st Baronet Wyndham 1632-1683 (29) was elected MP Taunton during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 James Herbert 1623-1667 (38) was elected MP Queenborough in the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 William Alington 3rd Baron Alington 1640-1685 (20) was elected MP Cambridge during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 William Bowes 1657-1707 (3) was elected MP Durham during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Robert Brooke 1637-1669 (24) was elected MP Aldeburgh during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699 (29) was elected MP Dartmouth during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet Clifton 1587-1666 (73) was elected MP Nottinghamshire during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697 (37) was elected MP Brackley during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Richard Jennings 1619-1668 (42) was elected MP St Albans during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Robert Kemp 2nd Baronet Kemp 1628-1710 (32) was elected MP Norfolk during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Edward Phelips 1613-1680 (48) was elected MP Somerset during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

Before 06 Aug 1658 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Edward Phelips 1613-1680.

In 1661 Robert Robartes 1634-1682 (26) was elected MP Bossiney during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Hender Robartes 1635-1688 (25) was elected MP Bodmin during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 Clement Fisher 2nd Baronet 1613-1683 (48) was elected MP Coventry in the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 William Portman 6th Baronet 1643-1690 (17) was elected MP Taunton in the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1661 John Robinson Lord Mayor of London 1st Baronet 1615-1680 (45) was elected MP Rye in the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1665 Joseph Maynard 1639-1689 (25) was elected MP Bere Alston during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

In 1673 Francis Robartes 1650-1718 (22) was elected MP Bossiney during the Cavalier Parliament 2C2.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1661 January. 30 Jan 1661..Fast day1. The first time that this day hath been yet observed: and Mr. Mills made a most excellent sermon, upon "Lord forgive us our former iniquities;" speaking excellently of the justice of God in punishing men for the sins of their ancestors.
Home, and John Goods comes, and after dinner I did pay him 30l. for my Lady, and after that Sir W. Pen (39) and I into Moorfields and had a brave talk, it being a most pleasant day, and besides much discourse did please ourselves to see young Davis and Whitton, two of our clerks, going by us in the field, who we observe to take much pleasure together, and I did most often see them at play together.
Back to the Old James in Bishopsgate Street, where Sir W. Batten and Sir Wm. Rider met him about business of the Trinity House. So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John, a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion.
Then to my Lady Batten’s; where wife (20) and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn. Then I home.
Note 1. 30 Jan the anniversary of the execution of Charles I and was regarded as a Fast Day.

Around 1650. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658 (51). Portrait of Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (39).

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 January. 30th January 1661. Was the first solemn fast and day of humiliation to deplore the sins which had so long provoked God against this afflicted church and people, ordered by Parliament to be annually celebrated to expiate the guilt of the execrable murder of the late King.
This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Cromwell, Bradshawe (the judge who condemned his Majesty (30)), and Ireton (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster among the King (30)s, to Tyburn, and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious. Monument in a deep pit; thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being spectators. Look back at John Evelyn's Diary 1668 Oct, and be astonished! and fear God and honor the King (30); but meddle not with them who are given to change!.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1650. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658 (51). Portrait of Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (39).

On 30 Jan 1661 the remains of Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658, Henry Ireton 1611-1651 and John Bradshaw were exhumed from and mutilated in a posthumous execution.

Around 1650. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658 (51). Portrait of Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (39).

Coronation of Charles II

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 April. 19 Apr 1661. To London, and saw the bathing and rest of the ceremonies of the Knights of the Bath, preparatory to the coronation; it was in the Painted Chamber, Westminster. I might have received this honor; but declined it. The rest of the ceremony was in the chapel at Whitehall, when their swords being laid on the altar, the Bishop delivered them.

On 20 Apr 1661 Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674 (52) was created 1st Earl Clarendon 1C 1661 at Westminster Abbey on the occasion of the Coronation Charles II. Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon 1617-1667 (43) by marriage Countess Clarendon 1C 1661.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 April. 22 Apr 1661. Was the splendid cavalcade of his Majesty (30) from the Tower of London to Whitehall, when I saw him in the Banqueting House create six Earls, and as many Barons, viz:.
Edward Lord Hyde, Lord Chancellor (52), Earl of Clarendon; supported by the Earls of Northumberland (58) and Sussex (14); the Earl of Bedford (44) carried the cap and coronet, the Earl of Warwick (46), the sword, the Earl of Newport (64), the mantle.
Next, was Capel, created Earl of Essex.
Brudenell, Cardigan;.
Valentia, Anglesea;.
Greenvill, Bath;.
Howard, Earl of Carlisle.
The Barons were: Denzille Holles; Cornwallis; Booth; Townsend; Cooper; Crew; who were led up by several Peers, with Garter and officers of arms before them; when, after obedience on their several approaches to the throne, their patents were presented by Garter King-at-Arms, which being received by the Lord Chamberlain (59), and delivered to his Majesty (30), and by him to the Secretary of State, were read, and then again delivered to his Majesty (30), and by him to the several Lords created; they were then robed, their coronets and collars put on by his Majesty (30), and they were placed in rank on both sides of the state and throne; but the Barons put off their caps and circles, and held them in their hands, the Earls keeping on their coronets, as cousins to the King (30).
I spent the rest of the evening in seeing the several archtriumphals built in the streets at several eminent places through which his Majesty (30) was next day to pass, some of which, though temporary, and to stand but one year, were of good invention and architecture, with inscriptions.
.
Notes:.
Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex 1632-1683 (29) was created 1st Earl Essex 9C 1641. Elizabeth Percy Countess Essex 1636-1718 (25) by marriage Countess Essex 9C 1641.
Thomas Brudenell 1st Earl Cardigan 1583-1663 (78) was created 1st Earl Cardigan. Mary Tresham Countess Cardigan -1664 by marriage Countess Cardigan.
Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Anglesey 1614-1686 (46) was created 1st Earl Anglesey 2C 1661, 1st Baron Annesley Newport Pagnell Buckinghamshire. Elizabeth Altham Countess Anglesey 1620-1698 (41) by marriage Countess Anglesey 2C 1661.
John Granville 1st Earl Bath 1628-1701 (32) was created 1st Earl Bath 3C 1661.
Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle 1629-1685 (32) was created 1st Earl Carlisle 3C 1661.
Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles 1599-1680 (61) was created 1st Baron Holles. Jane Shirley Baroness Holles -1666 by marriage Baroness Holles.
Frederick Cornwallis 1st Baron Cornwallis 1611-1662 (50) was created 1st Baron Cornwallis.
George Booth 1st Baron Delamer 1622-1684 (38) was created 1st Baron Delamer 1C 1661. Elizabeth Grey Baroness Delamer 1622- by marriage Baroness Delamer 1C 1661.
Horatio Townshend 1st Viscount Townsend 1630-1687 (30) was created 1st Baron Townshend of Lynn Regis in Norfolk.
Anthony Ashley Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683 (39) was created 1st Baron Ashley of Wimborne St Giles.
 1661 John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (63) was created 1st Baron Crew. Jemima Waldegrave Baroness Crew by marriage Baroness Crew.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

In 1620 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661 (26). Portrait of Jemima Waldegrave Baroness Crew.

On 22 Apr 1661 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) rode from the Tower of London to Whitehall Palace. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".
Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.
At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.
The procession included the Duke of York (27), the Lord High Constable (58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (53).
The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 April. 23 Apr 1661. Was the coronation of his Majesty (30) Charles II in the Abbey-Church of Westminster; at all which ceremony I was present. the King (30) and his Nobility went to the Tower, I accompanying my Lord Viscount Mordaunt (34) part of the way; this was on Sunday, the 22d; but indeed his Majesty (30) went not till early this morning, and proceeded from thence to Westminster in this order:.
First went the Duke of York's Horse Guards. Messengers of the Chamber. 136 Esquires to the Knights of the Bath, each of whom had two, most richly habited. The Knight Harbinger. Sergeant Porter. Sewers of the Chamber. Quarter Waiters. Six Clerks of Chancery. Clerk of the Signet. Clerk of the Privy Seal. Clerks of the Council, of the Parliament, and of the Crown. Chaplains in ordinary having dignities, 10. King's Advocates and Remembrancer. Council at Law. Masters of the Chancery. Puisne Sergeants. King's Attorney and Solicitor. King's eldest Sergeant. Secretaries of the French and Latin tongue. Gentlemen Ushers. Daily Waiters, Sewers, Carvers, and Cupbearers in ordinary. Esquires of the body, 4. Masters of standing offices, being no Counsellors, viz, of the Tents, Revels, Ceremonies, Armory, Wardrobe, Ordnance, Requests. Chamberlain of the Exchequer. Barons of the Exchequer. Judges. Lord Chief-Baron. Lord Chief-Justice of the Common Pleas. Master of the Rolls. Lord Chief-Justice of England. Trumpets. Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. Knights of the Bath, 68, in crimson robes, exceeding rich, and the noblest show of the whole cavalcade, his Majesty (30) excepted. Knight Marshal. Treasurer of the Chamber. Master of the Jewels. Lords of the Privy Council. Comptroller of the Household. Treasurer of the Household. Trumpets. Sergeant Trumpet. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Barons. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Viscounts. Two Heralds. Earls. Lord Chamberlain of the Household (59). Two Heralds. Marquises. Dukes. Heralds Clarencieux and Norroy. Lord Chancellor (52). Lord High Steward of England. Two persons representing the Dukes of Normandy and Acquitaine, viz, Sir Richard Fanshawe and Sir Herbert Price, in fantastic habits of the time. Gentlemen Ushers. Garter. Lord Mayor of London. The Duke of York alone (the rest by twos). Lord High Constable of England. Lord Great Chamberlain of England. The sword borne by the Earl Marshal of England. the King (30), in royal robes and equipage. Afterward, followed equerries, footmen, gentlemen pensioners. Master of the Horse, leading a horse richly caparisoned. Vice-Chamberlain. Captain of the Pensioners. Captain of the Guard. The Guard. The Horse Guard. The troop of Volunteers, with many other officers and gentlemen.
This magnificent train on horseback, as rich as embroidery, velvet, cloth of gold and silver, and jewels, could make them and their prancing horses, proceeded through the streets strewed with flowers, houses hung with rich tapestry, windows and balconies full of ladies; the London militia lining the ways, and the several companies, with their banners and loud music, ranked in their orders; the fountains running wine, bells ringing, with speeches made at the several triumphal arches; at that of the Temple Bar (near which I stood) the Lord Mayor was received by the Bailiff of Westminster, who, in a scarlet robe, made a speech. Thence, with joyful acclamations, his Majesty (30) passed to Whitehall. Bonfires at night.
The next day, being St. George's, he went by water to Westminster Abbey. When his Majesty (30) was entered, the Dean and Prebendaries brought all the regalia, and delivered them to several noblemen to bear before the King (30), who met them at the west door of the church, singing an anthem, to the choir. Then, came the Peers, in their robes, and coronets in their hands, till his Majesty (30) was placed on a throne elevated before the altar. Afterward, the Bishop of London (the Archbishop of Canterbury (79) being sick) went to every side of the throne to present the King (30) to the people, asking if they would have him for their King, and do him homage; at this, they shouted four times "God save King Charles II!" Then, an anthem was sung. His Majesty (30), attended by three Bishops, went up to the altar, and he offered a pall and a pound of gold. Afterward, he sat down in another chair during the sermon, which was preached by Dr. Morley (63), Bishop of Worcester.
After sermon, the King (30) took his oath before the altar to maintain the religion, Magna Charta, and laws of the land. The hymn Véni S. Sp. followed, and then the Litany by two Bishops. Then the Archbishop of Canterbury (79), present, but much indisposed and weak, said "Lift up your hearts"; at which, the King (30) rose up, and put off his robes and upper garments, and was in a waistcoat so opened in divers places, that the Archbishop (79) might commodiously anoint him, first in the palms of his hands, when an anthem was sung, and a prayer read; then, his breast and between the shoulders, bending of both arms; and, lastly, on the crown of the head, with apposite hymns and prayers at each anointing; this done, the Dean closed and buttoned up the waistcoat. After which, was a coif put on, and the cobbium, sindon or dalmatic, and over this a super-tunic of cloth of gold, with buskins and sandals of the same, spurs, and the sword; a prayer being first said over it by the Archbishop (79) on the altar, before it was girt on by the Lord Chamberlain (59). Then, the armill, mantle, etc. Then, the Archbishop placed the crown imperial on the altar, prayed over it, and set it on his Majesty's (30) head, at which all the Peers put on their coronets. Anthems, and rare music, with lutes, viols, trumpets, organs, and voices, were then heard, and the Archbishop put a ring on his Majesty's (30) finger. the King (30) next offered his sword on the altar, which being redeemed, was drawn, and borne before him. Then, the Archbishop delivered him the sceptre, with the dove in one hand, and, in the other, the sceptre with the globe. the King (30) kneeling, the Archbishop (79) pronounced the blessing. His Majesty (30) then ascending again his royal throne, while Te Deum was singing, all the Peers did their homage, by every one touching his crown. The Archbishop (79), and the rest of the Bishops, first kissing the King (30); who received the Holy Sacrament, and so disrobed, yet with the crown imperial on his head, and accompanied with all the nobility in the former order, he went on foot upon blue cloth, which was spread and reached from the west door of the Abbey to Westminster stairs, when he took water in a triumphal barge to Whitehall where was extraordinary feasting.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 23 Apr 1661 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey.
John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44),Francis Fane -1691 and Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) were appointed Knight of the Bath.
Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (55) was knighted.
Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland 1644-1670 (16) attended.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 December. 01 Dec 1661. I took leave of my Lord Peterborough (40), going now to Tangier, which was to be delivered to the English on the match with Portugal.

On 21 May 1662 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) were married at Portsmouth. Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) by marriage Queen Consort England.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

On 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" 1613-1662 (49) was beheaded at Tower Hill for treason against King Charles II (32). He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Conventicle Act

In 1664 the Conventicle Act forbade conventicles, defined as religious assemblies of more than five people other than an immediate family, outside the auspices of the Church of England as a means of discouaging non-conformism and to stregthen the position of the Church of England.

1664 Transit of Mercury

John Evelyn's Diary 1664 October. 24 Oct 1664. We dined at Sir Timothy Tyrill's (47) at Shotover. This gentleman married the daughter and heir (45) of Dr. James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, that learned prelate. There is here in the grove a fountain of the coldest water I ever felt, and very clear. His plantation of oaks and other timber is very commendable. We went in the evening to Oxford, lay at Dr. Hyde's (47), principal of Magdalen-Hall (related to the Lord Chancellor (55)), brother to the Lord Chief Justice (69) and that Sir Henry Hyde, who lost his head for his loyalty. We were handsomely entertained two days. The Vice-Chancellor, who with Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, the learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's, and several heads of houses, came to visit Lord Cornbury his father (55) being now Chancellor of the University), and next day invited us all to dinner. I went to visit Mr. Boyle (37) (now here), whom I found with Dr. Wallis and Dr. Christopher Wren, in the tower of the schools, with an inverted tube, or telescope, observing the discus of the sun for the passing of Mercury that day before it; but the latitude was so great that nothing appeared; so we went to see the rarities in the library, where the keepers showed me my name among the benefactors. They have a cabinet of some medals, and pictures of the muscular parts of man's body. Thence, to the new theater, now building at an exceeding and royal expense by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury [Sheldon (66)], to keep the Acts in for the future, till now being in St. Mary's Church. The foundation had been newly laid, and the whole designed by that incomparable genius my worthy friend, Dr. Christopher Wren, who showed me the model, not disdaining my advice in some particulars. Thence, to see the picture on the wall over the altar of All Souls, being the largest piece of fresco painting (or rather in imitation of it, for it is in oil of turpentine) in England, not ill designed by the hand of one Fuller; yet I fear it will not hold long. It seems too full of nakeds for a chapel.
Thence, to New College, and the painting of Magdalen chapel, which is on blue cloth in chiar oscuro, by one Greenborow, being a Cœna Domini, and a "Last Judgment" on the wall by Fuller, as in the other, but somewhat varied.
Next to Wadham, and the Physic Garden, where were two large locust trees, and as many platani (plane trees), and some rare plants under the culture of old Bobart.

1664 Comet

John Evelyn's Diary 1664 December. 22 Dec 1664. I went to the launching of a new ship of two bottoms, invented by Sir William Petty (41), on which were various opinions; his Majesty (34) being present, gave her the name of the "Experiment": so I returned home, where I found Sir Humphry Winch (42), who spent the day with me.
This year I planted the lower grove next the pond at Sayes Court. It was now exceedingly cold, and a hard, long, frosty season, and the comet was very visible.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Five Mile Act

In 1665  the Five Mile Act sought to place further constraints on non-conformists by forbidding clergymen to live within five miles of a parish from which they had been expelled unless they swore an oath never to resist the king, or attempt to alter the government of Church or State. The latter involved swearing to obey the 1662 prayer book. Thousands of ministers were deprived of a living under this act.

Loss of The London

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1665 March. 08 Mar 1665. … though a bitter cold day, yet I rose, and though my pain and tenderness in my testicle remains a little, yet I do verily think that my pain yesterday was nothing else, and therefore I hope my disease of the stone may not return to me, but void itself in pissing, which God grant, but I will consult my physitian.
This morning is brought me to the office the sad newes of "The London," in which Sir J. Lawson’s men were all bringing her from Chatham to The Hope, and thence he was to go to sea in her; but a little a’this side the buoy of the Nower, she suddenly blew up. About 24 [men] and a woman that were in the round-house and coach saved; the rest, being above 300, drowned: the ship breaking all in pieces, with 80 pieces of brass ordnance. She lies sunk, with her round-house above water. Sir J. Lawson hath a great loss in this of so many good chosen men, and many relations among them. I went to the ’Change, where the news taken very much to heart. So home to dinner, and Mr. Moore with me. Then I to Gresham College, and there saw several pretty experiments, and so home and to my office, and at night about 11 home to supper and to bed. See Loss of The London.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665 (50). One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 March. 09 Mar 1665. I went to receive the poor creatures that were saved out of the The_London_Frigate_1656{London} frigate, blown up by accident, with above 200 men. See Loss of The London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 May. 16 May 1665. To London, to consider of the poor orphans and widows made by this bloody beginning, and whose husbands and relations perished in London frigate, of which there were fifty widows, and forty-five of them with child. See Loss of The London.

Second Anglo Dutch War

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 April. 05 Apr 1665. Was a day of public humiliation and for success of this terrible war, begun doubtless at secret instigation of the French to weaken the States and Protestant interest. Prodigious preparations on both sides.

Battle of Lowestoft

The Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus and Zealand were captured at the Battle of Lowestoft.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court. Sir George Berkeley, afterwards Earl of Falmouth, was the confidant and favourite of the King: he commanded the Duke of York’s regiment of guards, and governed the Duke himself. He had nothing very remarkable either in his wit, or his person; but his sentiments were worthy of the fortune which awaited him, when, on the very point of his elevation, he was killed at sea. Never did disinterestedness so perfectly characterise the greatness of the soul: he had no views but what tended to the glory of his master: his credit was never employed but in advising him to reward services, or to confer favours on merit: so polished in conversation, that the greater his power, the greater was his humility; and so sincere in all his proceedings, that he would never have been taken for a courtier.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

In 1665 Henry Brouncker 3rd Viscount Brounckner 1627-1688 (38) was elected MP New Romney which seat he held until 21 Apr 1668 when he was expelled from the House of Commons when charges were brought against him, for allowing the Dutch fleet to escape during the Battle of Lowestoft, and for ordering the sails of the English fleet to be slackened in the name of the Duke of York (31). This was essentially an act of treason. Such a military decision, taken without the Duke's (31) authority, was an incident seemingly without parallel, especially as his apparent motive was simply that he was fatigued with the stress and noise of the battle.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

In 1665 Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665 (50) died in Scarborough North Yorkshire from wounds received at the Battle of Lowestoft.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665 (50). One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 08 Jun 1665. I went again to his Grace, thence to the Council, and moved for another privy seal for £20,000, and that I might have the disposal of the Savoy Hospital for the sick and wounded; all which was granted. Hence to the Royal Society, to refresh among the philosophers.
Came news of his highness's (35) victory, which indeed might have been a complete one, and at once ended the war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I got to Rochester this evening. Next day I lay at Deal, where I found all in readiness: but, the fleet being hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, and went to Dover, and returned to Deal; and on the 13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and lay at Chatham, and on the 14th, I got home. On the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of State to the French King, with much other company, to dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave his Majesty (35) an account of my journey to the coasts under my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness (31), now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See the whole history of this conflict in my "History of the Dutch War.".

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

On 13 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31), Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.
Richard Boyle -1665 was killed.
Charles Maccarthy 2nd Earl Clancarty -1665 was killed. His son Callaghan Maccarthy 3rd Earl Clancarty -1676 succeeded 3rd Earl Clancarty 1C 1658.
Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth 1630-1665 (35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the HMS Royal Charles. His father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (65) succeeded 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.
Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland 1639-1665 (26) was killed by a cannon shot. On 13 Jun 1665 His uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl of Portland 1609-1688 (55) succeeded 4th Earl of Portland 1C 1633.
Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685 (53) was present.
Admiral Jeremy Smith -1675 commanded the HMS Mary.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685 (53). One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 23 Jun 1665. I dined with Sir Robert Paston (34), since Earl of Yarmouth, and saw the Duke of Verneuille, base brother to the Queen-Mother (55), a handsome old man, a great hunter.
The Duke of York (31) told us that, when we were in fight, his dog sought out absolutely the very securest place in all the vessel. In the afternoon, I saw the pompous reception and audience of El Conde de Molino, the Spanish Ambassador, in the Banqueting-house, both their Majesties [Note. Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (35) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26)] sitting together under the canopy of state.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 30 Jun 1665. To Chatham; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord Sandwich (39), now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke (31), and Prince Rupert (45). Here I saw the King (35) knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty (35), who there held a General Council, which determined that his Royal Highness (35) should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's (35) yacht with my Lord Sandwich (39) and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham on Sunday morning.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Four Days' Battle

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 June. 01 Jun 1666. Being in my garden at 6 o'clock in the evening, and hearing the great guns go thick off, I took horse and rode that night to Rochester; thence next day toward the Downs and seacoast, but meeting the Lieutenant of the Hampshire frigate, who told me what passed, or rather what had not passed, I returned to London, there being no noise, or appearance at Deal, or on that coast of any engagement. Recounting this to his Majesty (36), whom I found at St. James's Park, impatiently expecting, and knowing that Prince Rupert (46) was loose about three at St. Helen's Point at N. of the Isle of Wight, it greatly rejoiced him; but he was astonished when I assured him they heard nothing of the guns in the Downs, nor did the Lieutenant who landed there by five that morning.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

From 01 Jun 1666 to 04 Jun 1666 the English and Dutch fleets engaged in battle. The English lost ten ships and 1000 men. The Dutch lost four ships and 1500 men.
On 01 Jun 1666 William Berkeley 1639-1666 (27) was killed.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 June. 03 Jun 1666. Whitsunday. After sermon came news that the Duke of Albemarle (57) was still in fight, and had been all Saturday, and that Captain Harman's (41) ship (the Henry) was like to be burnt. Then a letter from Mr. Bertie that Prince Rupert (46) was come up with his squadron (according to my former advice of his being loose and in the way), and put new courage into our fleet, now in a manner yielding ground; so that now we were chasing the chasers; that the Duke of Albemarle (57) was slightly wounded, and the rest still in great danger. So, having been much wearied with my journey, I slipped home, the guns still roaring very fiercely.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 June. 05 Jun 1666. I went this morning to London, where came several particulars of the fight.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 04 Jul 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an excellent discourse before the King (36) on the terrors of God's judgments. After sermon, I waited on my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (49) and Bishop of Winchester (47), where the Dean of Westminster (31) spoke to me about putting into my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable people of Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick and wounded seamen since the battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's (57) to joy him of his Royal Highness's (32) second son, now born at St. James's; and to desire the use of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, Painters' Hall, Queenhithe not being so convenient.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

St James' Day Battle

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 25 Jul 1666. The fleets engaged. I dined at Lord Berkeley's (38), at St. James's, where dined my Lady Harrietta Hyde (20), Lord Arlington (48), and Sir John Duncomb (44).

On 25 Jul 1666 the English fleet inflicted a severe defeat on the Dutch. Dutch casualties amounted to 1200 men, English 300.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 29 Jul 1666. The pestilence now fresh increasing in our parish, I forbore going to church. In the afternoon came tidings of our victory over the Dutch, sinking some, and driving others aground, and into their ports.

Great Plague of London

In 1665 the last great bubonic plague occurred in England killing a quarter of London's population, between 60000 and 120000 people died, in around eighteen months.

In Jul 1665 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (35) travelled to Salisbury during the Great Plague of London.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 July. 16 Jul 1665. There died of the plague in London this week 1,100; and in the week following, above 2,000. Two houses were shut up in our parish.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 August. 08 Aug 1665. I waited on the Duke of Albemarle (56), who was resolved to stay at the Cock-pit, in St. James's Park. Died this week in London, 4,000. See Great Plague of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 August. 15 Aug 1665. There perished this week 5,000. See Great Plague of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 August. 28 Aug 1665. The contagion still increasing, and growing now all about us, I sent my wife (30) and whole family (two or three necessary servants excepted) to my brother's at Wotton, being resolved to stay at my house myself, and to look after my charge, trusting in the providence and goodness of God.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 September. 07 Sep 1665. Came home, there perishing near 10,000 poor creatures weekly; however, I went all along the city and suburbs from Kent Street to St James', a dismal passage, and dangerous to see so many coffins exposed in the streets, now thin of people; the shops shut up, and all in mournful silence, not knowing whose turn might be next. I went to the Duke of Albemarle (56) for a pest-ship, to wait on our infected men, who were not a few. See Great Plague of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 November. 23 Nov 1665. Went home, the contagion having now decreased considerably. See Great Plague of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 December. 31 Dec 1665. Now blessed be God for his extraordinary mercies and preservation of me this year, when thousands, and ten thousands, perished, and were swept away on each side of me, there dying in our parish this year 406 of the pestilence! See Great Plague of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 January. 03 Jan 1666. I supped in Nonesuch House, whither the office of the Exchequer was transferred during the plague, at my good friend.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 February. 06 Feb 1666. My wife (31) and family returned to me from the country, where they had been since August, by reason of the contagion, now almost universally ceasing. Blessed be God for his infinite mercy in preserving us! I, having gone through so much danger, and lost so many of my poor officers, escaping still myself that I might live to recount and magnify his goodness to me.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 April. 15 Apr 1666. Our parish was now more infected with the plague than ever, and so was all the country about, though almost quite ceased at London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 22 Jul 1666. Our parish still infected with the contagion.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 29 Jul 1666. The pestilence now fresh increasing in our parish, I forbore going to church. In the afternoon came tidings of our victory over the Dutch, sinking some, and driving others aground, and into their ports.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 August. 26 Aug 1666. The contagion still continuing, we had the Church service at home.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet Street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.
At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.
The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the King (36)s since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.
I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty (36) and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.
In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's (36) proclamation also invited them.
Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (33). Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (37). Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (36).

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 October. 28 Oct 1666. The pestilence, through God's mercy, began now to abate considerably in our town.

Great Fire of London

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 02 Sep 1666. This fatal night, about ten, began the deplorable fire, near Fish Street, in London.

From 02 Sep 1666  to 06 Sep 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed around 13000 properties in the medieval City of London as well as 87 parish churches and Old St Paul's Cathedral. The fire is estimated to have left 80% of the city's residents homeless.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 03 Sep 1666. I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing, after dinner, I took coach with my wife (31) and son, and went to the Bankside in Southwark, where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole city in dreadful flames near the waterside; all the houses from the Bridge, all Thames street, and upward toward Cheapside, down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed; and so returned, exceedingly astonished what would become of the rest.
The fire having continued all this night (if I may call that night which was light as day for ten miles round about, after a dreadful manner), when conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very dry season, I went on foot to the same place; and saw the whole south part of the city burning from Cheapside to the Thames, and all along Cornhill (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as well as forward), Tower street, Fenchurch Street, Gracious street, and so along to Baynard's Castle, and was now taking hold of St. Paul's church, to which the scaffolds contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so universal, and the people so astonished, that, from the beginning, I know not by what despondency, or fate, they hardly stirred to quench it; so that there was nothing heard, or seen, but crying out and lamentation, running about like distracted creatures, without at all attempting to save even their goods; such a strange consternation there was upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the churches, public halls, Exchange, hospitals,. Monuments, and ornaments; leaping after a prodigious manner, from house to house, and street to street, at great distances one from the other. For the heat, with a long set of fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an incredible manner, houses, furniture, and every thing. Here, we saw the Thames covered with goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what some had time and courage to save, as, on the other side, the carts, etc., carrying out to the fields, which for many miles were strewn with movables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous spectacle! such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation of it, nor can be outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the light seen above forty miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, who now saw above 10,000 houses all in one flame! The noise and cracking and thunder of the impetuous flames, the shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, the fall of towers, houses, and churches, was like a hideous storm; and the air all about so hot and inflamed, that at the last one was not able to approach it, so that they were forced to stand still, and let the flames burn on, which they did, for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds also of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon computation, near fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It forcibly called to my mind that passage—"non enim hic habemus stabilem civitatem"; the ruins resembling the picture of Troy. London was, but is no more! Thus, I returned.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 04 Sep 1666. The burning still rages, and it is now gotten as far as the Inner Temple. All Fleet Street, the Old Bailey, Ludgate hill, Warwick lane, Newgate, Paul's chain, Watling street, now flaming, and most of it reduced to ashes; the stones of Paul's flew like grenados, the melting lead running down the streets in a stream, and the very pavements glowing with fiery redness, so as no horse, nor man, was able to tread on them, and the demolition had stopped all the passages, so that no help could be applied. The eastern wind still more impetuously driving the flames forward. Nothing but the Almighty power of God was able to stop them; for vain was the help of man.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 05 Sep 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall; but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty (36) to command me, among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all despair. It also broke out again in the Temple; but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.
The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, etc., did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had dedicated to his Majesty (36) and published, giving warning what probably might be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the city was looked upon as a prophecy.
The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, were now reduced to extreme misery and poverty.
In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine, who, in the midst of all this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 October. 10 Oct 1666. This day was ordered a general Fast through the Nation, to humble us on the late dreadful conflagration, added to the plague and war, the most dismal judgments that could be inflicted; but which indeed we highly deserved for our prodigious ingratitude, burning lusts, dissolute court, profane and abominable lives, under such dispensations of God's continued favor in restoring Church, Prince, and People from our late intestine calamities, of which we were altogether unmindful, even to astonishment. This made me resolve to go to our parish assembly, where our Doctor preached on Luke xix. 41: piously applying it to the occasion. After which, was a collection for the distressed losers in the late fire.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 November. 28 Nov 1666. Went to see Clarendon House, now almost finished, a goodly pile to see, but had many defects as to the architecture, yet placed most gracefully. After this, I waited on the Lord Chancellor (57), who was now at Berkshire House, since the burning of London.

1667 Raid on the Medway

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 June. 08 Jun 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen on our fleet at Chatham, by a most audacious enterprise, entering the very river with part of their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but incredible mischief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at anchor and moored there, and all this through our unaccountable negligence in not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even to London (which they might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in the river, too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., from my house to another place. The alarm was so great that it put both country and city into fear, panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more; everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, there were land forces dispatched with the Duke of Albemarle (58), Lord Middleton (59), Prince Rupert (47), and the Duke (33), to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, fortifying Upnor Castle, and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute enemy broke through all, and set fire on our ships, and retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the rest of the fleet lying before the mouth of it.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 June. 14 Jun 1667. I went to see the work at Woolwich, a battery to prevent them coming up to London, which Prince Rupert (47) commanded, and sunk some ships in the river.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 June. 17 Jun 1667. This night, about two o'clock, some chips and combustible matter prepared for some fire-ships, taking flame in Deptford-yard, made such a blaze, and caused such an uproar in the Tower (it being given out that the Dutch fleet was come up, and had landed their men and fired the Tower), as had liked to have done more mischief before people would be persuaded to the contrary and believe the accident. Everybody went to their arms. These were sad and troublesome times.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 June. 24 Jun 1667. The Dutch fleet still continuing to stop up the river, so as nothing could stir out or come in, I was before the Council, and commanded by his Majesty (37) to go with some others and search about the environs of the city, now exceedingly distressed for want of fuel, whether there could be any peat, or turf, found fit for use. The next day, I went and discovered enough, and made my report that there might be found a great deal; but nothing further was done in it.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 July. 19 Jul 1667. I went to Gravesend; the Dutch fleet still at anchor before the river, where I saw five of his Majesty's (37) men-at-war encounter above twenty of the Dutch, in the bottom of the Hope, chasing them with many broadsides given and returned toward the Buoy of the Nore, where the body of their fleet lay, which lasted till about midnight. One of their ships was fired, supposed by themselves, she being run on ground. Having seen this bold action, and their braving us so far up the river, I went home the next day, not without indignation at our negligence, and the nation's reproach. It is well known who of the Commissioners of the Treasury gave advice that the charge of setting forth a fleet this year might be spared, Sir W. C. (William Coventry (39)) by name.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

1667 Treaty of Breda

On 31 Jul 1667 the 1667 Treaty of Breda was signed bringing to an end hostilties between England and its opponents in the Second Anglo-Dutch War: Dutch Republic, France and Denmark-Norway.

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 October continued. 27 Nov 1671. We ordered that a proclamation should be presented to his Majesty (41) to sign, against what Sir Charles Wheeler (51) had done in St. Christopher's since the war, on the articles of peace at Breda. He (51) was shortly afterward recalled.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1674 August. 19 Aug 1674. His Majesty (44) told me how exceedingly the Dutch were displeased at my treatise of the "History of Commerce;" that the Holland Ambassador had complained to him of what I had touched of the Flags and Fishery, etc., and desired the book might be called in; while on the other side, he assured me he was exceedingly pleased with what I had done, and gave me many thanks. However, it being just upon conclusion of the treaty of Breda (indeed it was designed to have been published some months before and when we were at defiance), his Majesty (44) told me he must recall it formally; but gave order that what copies should be publicly seized to pacify the Ambassador, should immediately be restored to the printer, and that neither he nor the vender should be molested. The truth is, that which touched the Hollander was much less than what the King (44) himself furnished me with, and obliged me to publish, having caused it to be read to him before it went to press; but the error was, it should have been published before the peace was proclaimed. The noise of this book's suppression made it presently to be bought up, and turned much to the stationer's advantage. It was no other than the preface prepared to be prefixed to my "History of the Whole War;" which I now pursued no further.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Frederick III King Denmark Dies Christian V King Denmark Succeeds

On 09 Feb 1670 Frederick III King Denmark 1609-1670 (60) died. His son Christian V King Denmark and Norway 1646-1699 (23) succeeded V King Denmark and Norway. Charlotte Amalie Hesse Kassel Queen Consort Denmark and Norway 1650-1714 (19) by marriage Queen Consort Denmark and Norway.

Lord Ross Divorce

The Lord Ross Divorce attracted considerable public attention since it highlighted the shortcomings of the divorce laws. Anne Pierrepoint 1631- had clearly committed adultery since she was in London at the time of the conception whilst her husband, known by the courtesy title Lord Ross was at Belvoir Castle. The child would be considered legitimate since the parents were married; the law made no provision for adultery or divorce. He was forced to seek legislation in Parliament that made the child illegitimate and, therefore, unable to inherit his title. He was further compelled to seek legislation so that he could marry again so that he could produce an heir.
Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 took a more than passing interest, it is believed, since divorce may have been an option since he and his wife Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 had not had any children in their eight years of marriage despite he having had eight illegitimate children.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

On 15 Jul 1658 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland 1638-1711 (20) and Anne Pierrepoint 1631- were married (he was her second cousin). See Lord Ross Divorce.

In 1663 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland 1638-1711 (24) and Anne Pierrepoint 1631- were separated. He obtained a "separation from bed and board" on the grounds of her adultery. See Lord Ross Divorce. Around this time it appears her father Henry Pierrepoint 1st Marquess Dorchester 1606-1680 (56) offered John Manners 1st Duke Rutland 1638-1711 (24) a duel which he declined. See Lord Ross Divorce.

In 1667 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland 1638-1711 (28) procured an Act of Parliament by which his issue since 1659 were legally illegitimate barring them from inheriting his title. See Lord Ross Divorce.

In 1670 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland 1638-1711 (31) procured permission from Parliament to re-marry so that his title would continue. See Lord Ross Divorce.

John Evelyn's Diary 1670 March. 22 Mar 1670. I went to Westminster, where in the House of Lords I saw his Majesty (39) sit on his throne, but without his robes, all the peers sitting with their hats on; the business of the day being the divorce of my Lord Ross. Such an occasion and sight had not been seen in England since the time of Henry VIII.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

The 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover was a pact between France and England for England to abandon its alliance with Sweden and the Duct Republic, allowing France to conquer the Dutch Republic after which France would England a number of stratgeic ports on Dutch Rivers.
King Charles II's sister Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670 was instrumental in arranging the Treaty - she was married to the French King's brother Philip Bourbon I Duke Orléans 1640-1701.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (43). Portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670. One of the Windsor Beauties.

John Evelyn's Diary 1670 May. 26 May 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard (41), Lord Almoner to the Queen, that Monsieur Evelin, first physician to Madame (who was now come to Dover to visit the King (39) her brother), was come to town, greatly desirous to see me; but his stay so short, that he could not come to me, I went with my brother (52) to meet him at the Tower, where he was seeing the magazines and other curiosities, having never before been in England: we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much regret on both sides that, he being to return toward Dover that evening, we could not enjoy one another any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted into our pedigree, see in the collection brought from Paris, 1650.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (43). Portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670. One of the Windsor Beauties.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

On 30 Jun 1670 Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670 (sister of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (40)) died at the Château de Saint Cloud. Her death came shortly after she had visited Dover. She had suffered pains in her side for a number of years. The evening before she consumed a glass of chicory water after which she immediately cried out that she had been posisoned.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (43). Portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670. One of the Windsor Beauties.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

1671 Raid on Panama

On 19 Jan 1671 Captain Henry Morgan Privateer 1635-1688 (35) routed a superior Spanish force and captured Old Panama City.

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 August. 19 Aug 1671. To Council. The letters of Sir Thomas Modiford (51) were read, giving relation of the exploit at Panama, which was very brave; they took, burned, and pillaged the town of vast treasures, but the best of the booty had been shipped off, and lay at anchor in the South Sea, so that, after our men had ranged the country sixty miles about, they went back to Nombre de Dios, and embarked for Jamaica. Such an action had not been done since the famous Drake.
I dined at the Hamburg Resident's, and, after dinner, went to the christening of Sir Samuel Tuke's (56) son, Charles, at Somerset House, by a Popish priest, and many odd ceremonies. The godfathers were the King (41), and Lord Arundel of Wardour (64), and godmother, the Countess of Huntingdon (58). [Note. This must refer to the Dowager Countess of Huntingdon wife of Ferdinando Hastings 6th Earl Huntingdon 1608-1656 since his successor Theophilus Hastings 7th Earl Huntingdon 1650-1701 (20) didn't marry until 1672.].

In 1581 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Francis Drake Privateer 1540-1596 (41).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Catherine Hastings Countess Chesterfield -1636 and Lucy Davis Countess Huntingdon 1613-1679 (25).

John Evelyn's Diary 1674 October. 20 Oct 1674. At Lord Berkeley's (46), I discoursed with Sir Thomas Modiford (54), late Governor of Jamaica, and with Colonel Morgan (39), who undertook that gallant exploit from Nombre de Dios to Panama, on the Continent of America; he told me 10,000 men would easily conquer all the Spanish Indies, they were so secure. They took great booty, and much greater had been taken, had they not been betrayed and so discovered before their approach, by which the Spaniards had time to carry their vast treasure on board ships that put off to sea in sight of our men, who had no boats to follow. They set fire to Panama, and ravaged the country sixty miles about. The Spaniards were so supine and unexercised, that they were afraid to fire a great gun.

1672 Declaration of Indulgence

On 15 Mar 1672. The Royal Declaration of Indulgence was Charles II's (41) attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics. It was highly controversial. Sir Orlando Bridgeman (66) resigned as Lord Keeper of the Great Seal because he refused to apply the Great Seal to it.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around Mar 1673 the Test Act was a law enacted by Parliament that required public servants to take an oath according to the rites of the English church and to deny the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. The Act undermined the 1672 Declaration of Indulgence.

Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

On 09 May 1671 Colonel Thomas Blood 1618-1680 (53) attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. He was captured whilst trying to escape the Tower of London with the Crown. Following his capture he (53) refused to to answer to anyone but the King (40). He was questioned by the King (40) and Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (51). For unknown reasons he (53) was pardoned by the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (40) and rewarded with land in Ireland worth £500 per year much to the irritation of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 (60), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whom Blood had attempted to kidnap twice before.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 May. 10 May 1671. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's (40), in company with Monsieur De Grammont (50) and several French noblemen, and one Blood (53), that impudent, bold fellow who had not long before attempted to steal the imperial crown itself out of the Tower of London, pretending only curiosity of seeing the regalia there, when, stabbing the keeper, though not mortally, he boldly went away with it through all the guards, taken only by the accident of his horse falling down. How he came to be pardoned, and even received into favor, not only after this, but several other exploits almost as daring both in Ireland and here, I could never come to understand. Some believed he became a spy of several parties, being well with the sectaries and enthusiasts, and did his Majesty (40) services that way, which none alive could do so well as he; but it was certainly the boldest attempt, so the only treason of this sort that was ever pardoned. This man had not only a daring but a villanous, unmerciful look, a false countenance, but very well-spoken and dangerously insinuating.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Woodcock and Flatfoot Race at Newmarket

09 Oct 1671. 09 Oct 1671 and 10 Oct 1671. I went, after evening service, to London, in order to a journey of refreshment with Mr. Treasurer (41), to Newmarket, where the King (41) then was, in his coach with six brave horses, which we changed thrice, first, at Bishop-Stortford, and last, at Chesterford; so, by night, we got to Newmarket, where Mr. Henry Jermain (35) (nephew to the Earl of St. Alban (66)) lodged me very civilly. We proceeded immediately to Court, the King (41) and all the English gallants being there at their autumnal sports. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's; and, the next day, after dinner, I was on the heath, where I saw the great match run between Woodcock and Flatfoot, belonging to the King (41), and to Mr. Eliot, of the bedchamber, many thousands being spectators; a more signal race had not been run for many years.
This over, I went that night with Mr. Treasurer (41) to Euston, a palace of Lord Arlington's (53), where we found Monsieur Colbert (46) (the French Ambassador), and the famous new French Maid of Honor, Mademoiselle Querouaille (22), now coming to be in great favor with the King (41). Here was also the Countess of Sunderland (25), and several lords and ladies, who lodged in the house.
During my stay here with Lord Arlington (53), near a fortnight, his Majesty (41) came almost every second day with the Duke (37), who commonly returned to Newmarket, but the King (41) often lay here, during which time I had twice the honor to sit at dinner with him (41), with all freedom. It was universally reported that the fair lady —— [Note. Probably Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (22)], was bedded one of these nights, and the stocking flung, after the manner of a married bride; I acknowledge she was for the most part in her undress all day, and that there was fondness and toying with that young wanton; nay, it was said, I was at the former ceremony; but it is utterly false; I neither saw nor heard of any such thing while I was there, though I had been in her chamber, and all over that apartment late enough, and was myself observing all passages with much curiosity. However, it was with confidence believed she was first made a Miss, as they called these unhappy creatures, with solemnity at this time.
On Sunday, a young Cambridge divine preached an excellent sermon in the chapel, the King (41) and the Duke of York (37) being present.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

In 1670 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (35). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (20).

In 1673 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (38). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (23).

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 March. 12 Mar 1672. Now was the first blow given by us to the Dutch convoy of the Smyrna fleet, by Sir Robert Holmes (32) and Lord Ossory (37), in which we received little save blows, and a worthy reproach for attacking our neighbors ere any war was proclaimed, and then pretending the occasion to be, that some time before, the Merlin yacht chancing to sail through the whole Dutch fleet, their Admiral did not strike to that trifling vessel. Surely, this was a quarrel slenderly grounded, and not becoming Christian neighbors. We are likely to thrive, accordingly. Lord Ossory (37) several times deplored to me his being engaged in it; he had more justice and honor than in the least to approve of it, though he had been over-persuaded to the expedition. There is no doubt but we should have surprised this exceeding rich fleet, had not the avarice and ambition of Holmes (32) and Spragge (52) separated themselves, and willfully divided our fleet, on presumption that either of them was strong enough to deal with the Dutch convoy without joining and mutual help; but they so warmly plied our divided fleets, that while in conflict the merchants sailed away, and got safe into Holland.
A few days before this, the Treasurer of the Household, Sir Thomas Clifford (41), hinted to me, as a confidant, that his Majesty (41) would SHUT UP THE EXCHEQUER (and, accordingly, his Majesty (41) made use of infinite treasure there, to prepare for an intended rupture); but, says he, it will soon be open again, and everybody satisfied; for this bold man, who had been the sole adviser of the King (41) to invade that sacred stock (though some pretend it was Lord Ashley's counsel, then Chancellor of the Exchequer), was so over-confident of the success of this unworthy design against the Smyrna merchants, as to put his Majesty (41) on an action which not only lost the hearts of his subjects, and ruined many widows and orphans, whose stocks were lent him, but the reputation of his Exchequer forever, it being before in such credit, that he might have commanded half the wealth of the nation.
The credit of this bank being thus broken, did exceedingly discontent the people, and never did his Majesty's (41) affairs prosper to any purpose after it, for as it did not supply the expense of the meditated war, so it melted away, I know not how.
To this succeeded the King's (41) declaration for an universal toleration; Papists and swarms of Sectaries, now boldly showing themselves in their public meetings. !This was imputed to the same council, Clifford (41) warping to Rome as was believed, nor was Lord Arlington (54) clear of suspicion, to gratify that party, but as since it has proved, and was then evidently foreseen, to the extreme weakening of the Church of England and its Episcopal Government, as it was projected. I speak not this as my own sense, but what was the discourse and thoughts of others, who were lookers-on; for I think there might be some relaxations without the least prejudice to the present establishment, discreetly limited, but to let go the reins in this manner, and then to imagine they could take them up again as easily, was a false policy, and greatly destructive. The truth is, our Bishops slipped the occasion; for, had they held a steady hand upon his Majesty's (41) restoration, as they might easily have done, the Church of England had emerged and flourished, without interruption; but they were then remiss, and covetous after advantages of another kind while his Majesty (41) suffered them to come into a harvest, with which, without any injustice he might have remunerated innumerable gallant gentlemen for their services who had ruined themselves in the late rebellion.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 12 Mar 1672 Admiral John Holmes 1640-1683 (32), commanding HMS Gloucester, and Thomas Butler 6th Earl Ossory 1634-1680 (37) attacked the Dutch Smyrna Fleet on its return from the Mediterranean beginning the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

Gazette 662. 21 Mar 1672. The Hague. 1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet. Most of our Smirna Fleet are arrived in Zealand and in the Maes, together with the Mep of war, under whose Convoy they were, though extremely torn and very much disabled 5 five of ©ur Merchant men were taken bythe English-two of which were the richest in the Fleet, laden with Silks and other rich Commodities, and were called the Landtman oi Amsterdam, and the Vrede of Rotterdam, besides one of our men of War, called the Little Holland, mounted with 44 Guns and 150 men J Captain de Hies Admiral of this Fleet was killed in this engagement, with many of our men, and many more wounded, who have been since brought a shore at Rotterdam and other places. The men of War which served for Convoys to the said Fleet were.
Ships, Captains, Guns, Men.
The Ulisstiing, Adrian de Haes, 50, 250.
The Dort, Thomas de Bois, 46, 170.
The Entrecht, Cornelius Everfon, 48, 220.
the Hollandia, Thomas Nes, 44, 150.
The Delf, Pourt, 38, 145.
The Lion, Lenny, 34, 140.
The Centaur, Thomas Anderson, 41, 120.
The Friezland, Jacon Anderson, 30, 110.
The Munnick, a considerable Merchant man mounted with 30 guns was so torn and disabled that with much difficulty they have brought her into port, Captain du Bois Vice-=Admiral of this Fleet hath lost his right arm, and many of his men.

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 March. 21 Mar 1672. I visited the coasts in my district of Kent, and divers wounded and languishing poor men, that had been in the Smyrna conflict. I went over to see the new-begun Fort of Tilbury; a royal work, indeed, and such as will one day bridle a great city to the purpose, before they are aware.

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 August. 18 Aug 1673. My Lord Clifford (43), being about this time returned from Tunbridge, and preparing for Devonshire, I went to take my leave of him at Wallingford House; he was packing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, etc. I found him in his study, and restored to him several papers of state, and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, on engaging me to write the "History of the Holland War," with other private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arlington (55), who from a private gentleman of a very noble family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners of sick and wounded, on which occasion we sat long together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of Lord Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by letters to Lord Arlington (55), which that Lord showed me, begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the very height of his ambition. These were written with such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of Southampton then dying, he was made one of the Commissioners of the Treasury. His Majesty (43) inclining to put it into one hand, my Lord Clifford (43), under pretense of making all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington (55), cut the grass under his feet, and procured it for himself, assuring the King (43) that Lord Arlington (55) did not desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington (55) protested to me that his confidence in Lord Clifford (43) made him so remiss and his affection to him was so particular, that he was absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord Clifford (43), all the world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet, now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. This was the great ingratitude Lord Clifford (43) showed, keeping my Lord Arlington (55) in ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which was the Duke's (39) into whose great favor Lord Clifford (43) was now gotten; but which certainly cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so irrevocably far in his interest.
For the rest, my Lord Clifford (43) was a valiant, incorrupt gentleman, ambitious, not covetous; generous, passionate, a most constant, sincere friend, to me in particular, so as when he laid down his office, I was at the end of all my hopes and endeavors. These were not for high matters, but to obtain what his Majesty (43) was really indebted to my father-in-law, which was the utmost of my ambition, and which I had undoubtedly obtained, if this friend had stood. Sir Thomas Osborn (41), who succeeded him, though much more obliged to my father-in-law and his family, and my long and old acquaintance, being of a more haughty and far less obliging nature, I could hope for little; a man of excellent natural parts; but nothing of generous or grateful.
Taking leave of my Lord Clifford (43), he wrung me by the hand, and, looking earnestly on me, bid me God-b'ye, adding, "Mr. Evelyn, I shall never see thee more." "No!" said I, "my Lord, what's the meaning of this? I hope I shall see you often, and as great a person again." "No, Mr. Evelyn, do not expect it, I will never see this place, this city, or Court again," or words of this sound. In this manner, not without almost mutual tears, I parted from him; nor was it long after, but the news was that he was dead, and I have heard from some who I believe knew, he made himself away, after an extraordinary melancholy. This is not confidently affirmed, but a servant who lived in the house, and afterward with Sir Robert Clayton (44), Lord Mayor, did, as well as others, report it, and when I hinted some such thing to Mr. Prideaux, one of his trustees, he was not willing to enter into that discourse.
It was reported with these particulars, that, causing his servant to leave him unusually one morning, locking himself in, he strangled himself with his cravat upon the bed-tester; his servant, not liking the manner of dismissing him, and looking through the keyhole (as I remember), and seeing his master hanging, broke in before he was quite dead, and taking him down, vomiting a great deal of blood, he was heard to utter these words: "Well; let men say what they will, there is a God, a just God above"; after which he spoke no more. This, if true, is dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of the Dutch war, and of all that blood which was lost at Bergen in attacking the Smyrna fleet, and that whole quarrel.
This leads me to call to mind what my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52) affirmed, not to me only, but to all my brethren the Council of Foreign Plantations, when not long after, this accident being mentioned as we were one day sitting in Council, his Lordship told us this remarkable passage: that, being one day discoursing with him when he was only Sir Thomas Clifford, speaking of men's advancement to great charges in the nation, "Well," says he, "my Lord, I shall be one of the greatest men in England. Don't impute what I say either to fancy, or vanity; I am certain that I shall be a mighty man; but it will not last long; I shall not hold it, but die a bloody death." "What," says my Lord, "your horoscope tells you so?" "No matter for that, it will be as I tell you." "Well," says my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52), "if I were of that opinion, I either would not be a great man, but decline preferment, or prevent my danger.".
This my Lord affirmed in my hearing before several gentlemen and noblemen sitting in council at Whitehall. And I the rather am confident of it, remembering what Sir Edward Walker (62) (Garter King at Arms) had likewise affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was first made a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord Clifford on his being created a peer, and, finding him busy, he bade him go into his study and divert himself there till he was at leisure to discourse with him about some things relating to his family; there lay, said Sir Edward, on his table, his horoscope and nativity calculated, with some writing under it, where he read that he should be advanced to the highest degree in the state that could be conferred upon him, but that he should not long enjoy it, but should die, or expressions to that sense; and I think, (but cannot confidently say) a bloody death. This Sir Edward affirmed both to me and Sir Richard Browne; nor could I forbear to note this extraordinary passage in these memoirs..

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

1672 Battle of Solebay

On 28 May 1672 Philip Carteret 1628-1672 (44) and Winston Churchill -1672 were killed at Solebay Southwold.
Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (46) was killed. His son Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688 (24) succeeded 2nd Earl Sandwich.
George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (25) fought.
Charles Harbord 1640-1672 (32) died. The inscription on his. Monument in Westminster Abbey reads ... Sr. Charles Harbord Knt. his Majesties Surveyor General, and First Lieutenant of the Royall James, under the most noble and illustrious captain Edward, Earle of Sandwich (46), Vice Admirall of England, which after a terrible fight maintained to admiration against a squadron of the Holland fleet for above six houres, neere the Suffolk coast, having put off two fireships, at last being utterly disSabled and few of her men remaining unhurt, was by a third unfortunately set on fire: but he (though he swam well) neglected to save himselfe as some did, and out of the perfect love to that worthy lord (whom for many yeares he had constantly accompanyed in all his honourable imployments, and in all the engagements of the former warr) dyed with him at the age of XXXIII, much bewailed of his father whom he never offended, and much beloved of all for his knowne piety, vertue, loyalty, fortitude and fidelity.
Captain John Cox -1672 was killed in action.
Admiral John Holmes 1640-1683 (32) fought as commander of HMS Rupert.

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 May. 31 May 1672. I received another command to repair to the seaside; so I went to Rochester, where I found many wounded, sick, and prisoners, newly put on shore after the engagement on the 28th, in which the Earl of Sandwich, that incomparable person and my particular friend, and divers more whom I loved, were lost. My Lord (who was Admiral of the Blue) was in the "Prince," which was burnt, one of the best men-of-war that ever spread canvas on the sea. There were lost with this brave man, a son of Sir Charles Cotterell (57) (Master of the Ceremonies), and a son of Sir Charles Harbord (his Majesty's (42) Surveyor-General), two valiant and most accomplished youths, full of virtue and courage, who might have saved themselves; but chose to perish with my Lord, whom they honored and loved above their own lives.
Here, I cannot but make some reflections on things past. It was not above a day or two that going to Whitehall to take leave of his Lordship, who had his lodgings in the Privy-Garden, shaking me by the hand he bid me good-by, and said he thought he would see me no more, and I saw, to my thinking, something boding in his countenance: "No," says he, "they will not have me live. Had I lost a fleet (meaning on his return from Bergen when he took the East India prize) I should have fared better; but, be as it pleases God—I must do something, I know not what, to save my reputation." Something to this effect, he had hinted to me; thus I took my leave. I well remember that the Duke of Albemarle, and my now Lord Clifford (41), had, I know not why, no great opinion of his courage, because, in former conflicts, being an able and experienced seaman (which neither of them were), he always brought off his Majesty's (42) ships without loss, though not without as many marks of true courage as the stoutest of them; and I am a witness that, in the late war, his own ship was pierced like a colander. But the business was, he was utterly against this war from the beginning, and abhorred the attacking of the Smyrna fleet; he did not favor the heady expedition of Clifford at Bergen, nor was he so furious and confident as was the Duke of Albemarle, who believed he could vanquish the Hollanders with one squadron. My Lord Sandwich was prudent as well as valiant, and always governed his affairs with success and little loss; he was for deliberation and reason, they for action and slaughter without either; and for this, whispered as if my Lord Sandwich was not so gallant, because he was not so rash, and knew how fatal it was to lose a fleet, such as was that under his conduct, and for which these very persons would have censured him on the other side. This it was, I am confident, grieved him, and made him enter like a lion, and fight like one too, in the midst of the hottest service, where the stoutest of the rest seeing him engaged, and so many ships upon him, dared not, or would not, come to his succor, as some of them, whom I know, might have done. Thus, this gallant person perished, to gratify the pride and envy of some I named.
Deplorable was the loss of one of the best accomplished persons, not only of this nation, but of any other. He was learned in sea affairs, in politics, in mathematics, and in music: he had been on divers embassies, was of a sweet and obliging temper, sober, chaste, very ingenious, a true nobleman, an ornament to the Court and his Prince; nor has he left any behind him who approach his many virtues.
He had, I confess, served the tyrant Cromwell, when a young man, but it was without malice, as a soldier of fortune; and he readily submitted, and that with joy, bringing an entire fleet with him from the Sound, at the first tidings of his Majesty's (42) restoration. I verily believe him as faithful a subject as any that were not his friends. I am yet heartily grieved at this mighty loss, nor do I call it to my thoughts without emotion.

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 June. 02 Jun 1672. Trinity Sunday, I passed at Rochester; and, on the 5th, there was buried in the Cathedral Monsieur Rabiniére, Rear Admiral of the French squadron, a gallant person, who died of the wounds he received in the fight. This ceremony lay on me, which I performed with all the decency I could, inviting the Mayor and Aldermen to come in their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins was there with his guards; and the Dean and Prebendaries: one of his countrymen pronouncing a funeral oration at the brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug in the choir. This is more at large described in the "Gazette" of that day; Colonel Reymes (58), my colleague in commission, assisting, who was so kind as to accompany me from London, though it was not his district; for indeed the stress of both these wars lay more on me by far than on any of my brethren, who had little to do in theirs. I went to see Upnor Castle, which I found pretty well defended, but of no great moment.
Next day I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy of the "Nore," where I met his Majesty (42), the Duke (38), Lord Arlington (54), and all the great men, in the "Charles," lying miserably shattered; but the miss of Lord Sandwich redoubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazarding so brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for no provocation but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all things but envy.
At Sheerness, I gave his Majesty (42) and his Royal Highness (38) an account of my charge, and returned to Queenborough; next day dined at Major Dorel's, Governor of Sheerness; thence, to Rochester; and the following day, home.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Treaty of Nimeguen

The Treaty of Nimeguen was a series of treaties that sought to bring peace between European nations. The ten Treaties were signed in 1678 and 1679.

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 April. 11 Apr 1673. I dined with the plenipotentiaries designed for the Treaty of Nimeguen.

John Evelyn's Diary 1675 October. 15 Oct 1675. I got an extreme cold, such as was afterward so epidemical, as not only to afflict us in this island, but was rife over all Europe, like a plague. It was after an exceedingly dry summer and autumn.
I settled affairs, my son (20) being to go into France with my Lord Berkeley (47), designed Ambassador-extraordinary for France and Plenipotentiary for the general treaty of peace at Nimeguen.

John Evelyn's Diary 1676 May. 07 May 1676. I spoke to the Duke of York (42) about my Lord Berkeley's (74) going to Nimeguen. Thence, to the Queen's Council at Somerset House, about Mrs. Godolphin's (23) lease of Spalding, in Lincolnshire.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

In 1673. Unknown Painter, possibly Matthew Dixon. Portrait of Margaret Blagge Maid of Honour 1652-1678 (20).

John Evelyn's Diary 1677 June. 12 Jun 1677. I went to London, to give the Lord Ambassador Berkeley (75) (now returned from the treaty at Nimeguen) an account of the great trust reposed in me during his absence, I having received and remitted to him no less than £20,000 to my no small trouble and loss of time, that during his absence, and when the Lord Treasurer (45) was no great friend [of his] I yet procured him great sums, very often soliciting his Majesty (47) in his behalf; looking after the rest of his estates and concerns entirely, without once accepting any kind of acknowledgment, purely upon the request of my dear friend, Mr. Godolphin (31). I returned with abundance of thanks and professions from my Lord Berkeley (49) and my Lady.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

1673 Test Act

Around Mar 1673 the Test Act was a law enacted by Parliament that required public servants to take an oath according to the rites of the English church and to deny the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. The Act undermined the 1672 Declaration of Indulgence.

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 April. 26 Apr 1673. Dr. Lamplugh (58) preached at St. Martin's the Holy Sacrament following, which I partook of, upon obligation of the late Act of Parliament, enjoining everybody in office, civil or military, under penalty of £500, to receive it within one month before two authentic witnesses; being engrossed on parchment, to be afterward produced in the Court of Chancery, or some other Court of Record; which I did at the Chancery bar, as being one of the Council of Plantations and Trade; taking then also the oath of allegiance and supremacy, signing the clause in the said Act against Transubstantiation.

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 June. 19 Jun 1673. Congratulated the new Lord Treasurer, Sir Thomas Osborne (41), a gentleman with whom I had been intimately acquainted at Paris, and who was every day at my father-in-law's (68) house and table there; on which account I was too confident of succeeding in his favor, as I had done in his predecessor's; but such a friend shall I never find, and I neglected my time, far from believing that my Lord Clifford (42) would have so rashly laid down his staff, as he did, to the amazement of all the world, when it came to the test of his receiving the Communion, which I am confident he forbore more from some promise he had entered into to gratify the Duke, than from any prejudice to the Protestant religion, though I found him wavering a pretty while.

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 July. 25 Jul 1673. I went to Tunbridge Wells, to visit my Lord Clifford (42), late Lord Treasurer, who was there to divert his mind more than his body; it was believed that he had so engaged himself to the Duke (39), that rather than take the Test, without which he was not capable of holding any office, he would resign that great and honorable station. This, I am confident, grieved him to the heart, and at last broke it; for, though he carried with him music, and people to divert him, and, when I came to see him, lodged me in his own apartment, and would not let me go from him, I found he was struggling in his mind; and being of a rough and ambitious nature, he could not long brook the necessity he had brought on himself, of submission to this conjuncture. Besides, he saw the Dutch war, which was made much by his advice, as well as the shutting up of the Exchequer, very unprosperous. These things his high spirit could not support. Having stayed here two or three days, I obtained leave of my Lord to return.
In my way, I saw my Lord of Dorset's (50) house at Knowle, near Sevenoaks, a great old-fashioned house.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

Suicide of Lord Clifford

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 August. 18 Aug 1673. My Lord Clifford (43), being about this time returned from Tunbridge, and preparing for Devonshire, I went to take my leave of him at Wallingford House; he was packing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, etc. I found him in his study, and restored to him several papers of state, and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, on engaging me to write the "History of the Holland War," with other private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arlington (55), who from a private gentleman of a very noble family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners of sick and wounded, on which occasion we sat long together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of Lord Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by letters to Lord Arlington (55), which that Lord showed me, begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the very height of his ambition. These were written with such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of Southampton then dying, he was made one of the Commissioners of the Treasury. His Majesty (43) inclining to put it into one hand, my Lord Clifford (43), under pretense of making all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington (55), cut the grass under his feet, and procured it for himself, assuring the King (43) that Lord Arlington (55) did not desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington (55) protested to me that his confidence in Lord Clifford (43) made him so remiss and his affection to him was so particular, that he was absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord Clifford (43), all the world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet, now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. This was the great ingratitude Lord Clifford (43) showed, keeping my Lord Arlington (55) in ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which was the Duke's (39) into whose great favor Lord Clifford (43) was now gotten; but which certainly cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so irrevocably far in his interest.
For the rest, my Lord Clifford (43) was a valiant, incorrupt gentleman, ambitious, not covetous; generous, passionate, a most constant, sincere friend, to me in particular, so as when he laid down his office, I was at the end of all my hopes and endeavors. These were not for high matters, but to obtain what his Majesty (43) was really indebted to my father-in-law, which was the utmost of my ambition, and which I had undoubtedly obtained, if this friend had stood. Sir Thomas Osborn (41), who succeeded him, though much more obliged to my father-in-law and his family, and my long and old acquaintance, being of a more haughty and far less obliging nature, I could hope for little; a man of excellent natural parts; but nothing of generous or grateful.
Taking leave of my Lord Clifford (43), he wrung me by the hand, and, looking earnestly on me, bid me God-b'ye, adding, "Mr. Evelyn, I shall never see thee more." "No!" said I, "my Lord, what's the meaning of this? I hope I shall see you often, and as great a person again." "No, Mr. Evelyn, do not expect it, I will never see this place, this city, or Court again," or words of this sound. In this manner, not without almost mutual tears, I parted from him; nor was it long after, but the news was that he was dead, and I have heard from some who I believe knew, he made himself away, after an extraordinary melancholy. This is not confidently affirmed, but a servant who lived in the house, and afterward with Sir Robert Clayton (44), Lord Mayor, did, as well as others, report it, and when I hinted some such thing to Mr. Prideaux, one of his trustees, he was not willing to enter into that discourse.
It was reported with these particulars, that, causing his servant to leave him unusually one morning, locking himself in, he strangled himself with his cravat upon the bed-tester; his servant, not liking the manner of dismissing him, and looking through the keyhole (as I remember), and seeing his master hanging, broke in before he was quite dead, and taking him down, vomiting a great deal of blood, he was heard to utter these words: "Well; let men say what they will, there is a God, a just God above"; after which he spoke no more. This, if true, is dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of the Dutch war, and of all that blood which was lost at Bergen in attacking the Smyrna fleet, and that whole quarrel.
This leads me to call to mind what my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52) affirmed, not to me only, but to all my brethren the Council of Foreign Plantations, when not long after, this accident being mentioned as we were one day sitting in Council, his Lordship told us this remarkable passage: that, being one day discoursing with him when he was only Sir Thomas Clifford, speaking of men's advancement to great charges in the nation, "Well," says he, "my Lord, I shall be one of the greatest men in England. Don't impute what I say either to fancy, or vanity; I am certain that I shall be a mighty man; but it will not last long; I shall not hold it, but die a bloody death." "What," says my Lord, "your horoscope tells you so?" "No matter for that, it will be as I tell you." "Well," says my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52), "if I were of that opinion, I either would not be a great man, but decline preferment, or prevent my danger.".
This my Lord affirmed in my hearing before several gentlemen and noblemen sitting in council at Whitehall. And I the rather am confident of it, remembering what Sir Edward Walker (62) (Garter King at Arms) had likewise affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was first made a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord Clifford on his being created a peer, and, finding him busy, he bade him go into his study and divert himself there till he was at leisure to discourse with him about some things relating to his family; there lay, said Sir Edward, on his table, his horoscope and nativity calculated, with some writing under it, where he read that he should be advanced to the highest degree in the state that could be conferred upon him, but that he should not long enjoy it, but should die, or expressions to that sense; and I think, (but cannot confidently say) a bloody death. This Sir Edward affirmed both to me and Sir Richard Browne; nor could I forbear to note this extraordinary passage in these memoirs..

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

On 17 Oct 1673 Thomas Clifford 1st Baron Clifford Chudleigh 1630-1673 (43) committed suicide. His son Hugh Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford Chudleigh 1663-1730 (10) succeeded 2nd Baron Clifford Chudleigh in Devon.

Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

On 04 Nov 1677 William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (27) and Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (15) were married (he was her first cousin). Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (15) by marriage Prince Orange.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

John Evelyn's Diary 1677 November. 15 Nov 1677. The Queen's (38) birthday, a great ball at Court, where the Prince of Orange (27) and his new Princess (15) danced..

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (57). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (13).

Around 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (30). Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (23).

Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2

In 1679 Walter Long 2nd Baronet Long 1627-1710 (52) was elected MP Bath during the Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2.

In Mar 1679 William Bowes 1657-1707 (22) was elected MP Durham during the Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2.

In Mar 1679 Robert Pierrepoint 1638-1681 (41) was elected MP Nottingham during the Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2.

Exclusion Bill Parliament 4C2

In Jul 1679 William Bowes 1657-1707 (22) was elected MP Durham during the Exclusion Bill Parliament 4C2.

In Jul 1679 Robert Pierrepoint 1638-1681 (41) was elected MP Nottingham during the Exclusion Bill Parliament 4C2.

Siege of Tangier

On 17 Oct 1680 Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth 1657-1680 (23) died of dysentery at Tangier during the Siege of Tangier.

Popish Plot

Between 1678 and 1681 the Popish Plot was a fictitious Catholic conspiracy to murder Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (47) invented by Titus Oates (28) that led to the execution of more than twenty-two men.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1678 November. 05 Nov 1678. Dr. Tillotson (48) preached before the Commons at St. Margaret's. He said the Papists were now arrived at that impudence, as to deny that there ever was any such as the gunpowder-conspiracy; but he affirmed that he himself had several letters written by Sir Everard Digby (one of the traitors), in which he gloried that he was to suffer for it; and that it was so contrived, that of the Papists not above two or three should have been blown up, and they, such as were not worth saving..

John Evelyn's Diary 1678 November. 15 Nov 1678. The Queen's (39) birthday. I never saw the Court more brave, nor the nation in more apprehension and consternation. Coleman (42) and one Staly had now been tried, condemned, and executed. On this, Oates grew so presumptuous as to accuse the Queen (39) of intending to poison the King (48); which certainly that pious and virtuous lady abhorred the thoughts of, and Oates's circumstances made it utterly unlikely in my opinion. He probably thought to gratify some who would have been glad his Majesty (48) should have married a fruitful lady; but the King (48) was too kind a husband to let any of these make impression on him. However, divers of the Popish peers were sent to the Tower of London, accused by Oates; and all the Roman Catholic lords were by a new Act forever excluded the Parliament; which was a mighty blow. the King's (48), Queen's, and Duke's servants, were banished, and a test to be taken by everybody who pretended to enjoy any office of public trust, and who would not be suspected of Popery. I went with Sir William Godolphin (38), a member of the Commons' House, to the Bishop of Ely (Dr. Peter Gunning (64)), to be resolved whether masses were idolatry, as the text expressed it, which was so worded, that several good Protestants scrupled, and Sir William, though a learned man and excellent divine himself, had some doubts about it. The Bishop's opinion was that he might take it, though he wished it had been otherwise worded in the text..

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 03 Dec 1678 Edward Colman Courtier 1636-1678 (42) was hanged drawn and quartered on a charge of treason having been implicated by Titus Oates 1649-1705 (29).

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 June. 04 Jun 1679. I dined with Mr. Pepys (46) in the Tower of London, he having been committed by the House of Commons for misdemeanors in the Admiralty when he was secretary; I believe he was unjustly charged. Here I saluted my Lords Stafford (64) and Petre (53), who were committed for the Popish plot.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 June. 22 Jun 1679. There were now divers Jesuits executed about the plot, and a rebellion in Scotland of the fanatics, so that there was a sad prospect of public affairs.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 July. 18 Jul 1679. I went early to the Old Bailey Sessions House, to the famous trial of Sir George Wakeman, one of the Queen's (40) physicians, and three Benedictine monks; the first (whom I was well acquainted with, and take to be a worthy gentleman abhorring such a fact), for intending to poison the King (49); the others as accomplices to carry on the plot, to subvert the government, and introduce Popery. The bench was crowded with the judges, Lord Mayor justices, and innumerable spectators. The chief accusers, Dr. Oates (29) (as he called himself), and one Bedlow, a man of inferior note. Their testimonies were not so pregnant, and I fear much of it from hearsay, but swearing positively to some particulars, which drew suspicion upon their truth; nor did circumstances so agree, as to give either the bench or jury so entire satisfaction as was expected. After, therefore, a long and tedious trial of nine hours, the jury brought them in not guilty, to the extraordinary triumph of the Papists, and without sufficient disadvantage and reflections on witnesses, especially Oates (29) and Bedlow.
This was a happy day for the lords in the Tower, who, expecting their trial, had this gone against the prisoners at the bar, would all have been in the utmost hazard. For my part, I look on Oates (29) as a vain, insolent man, puffed up with the favor of the Commons for having discovered something really true, more especially as detecting the dangerous intrigue of Coleman, proved out of his own letters, and of a general design which the Jesuited party of the Papists ever had and still have, to ruin the Church of England; but that he was trusted with those great secrets he pretended, or had any solid ground for what he accused divers noblemen of, I have many reasons to induce my contrary belief. That among so many commissions as he affirmed to have delivered to them from P. Oliva and the Pope,—he who made no scruple of opening all other papers, letters, and secrets, should not only not open any of those pretended commissions, but not so much as take any copy or witness of any one of them, is almost miraculous. But the Commons (some leading persons I mean of them) had so exalted him that they took all he said for Gospel, and without more ado ruined all whom he named to be conspirators; nor did he spare whoever came in his way. But, indeed, the murder of Sir Edmundbury Godfrey, suspected to have been compassed by the Jesuits' party for his intimacy with Coleman (a busy person whom I also knew), and the fear they had that he was able to have discovered things to their prejudice, did so exasperate not only the Commons, but all the nation, that much of these sharpnesses against the more honest Roman Catholics who lived peaceably, is to be imputed to that horrid fact.
The sessions ended, I dined or rather supped (so late it was) with the judges in the large room annexed to the place, and so returned home. Though it was not my custom or delight to be often present at any capital trials, we having them commonly so exactly published by those who take them in short-hand, yet I was inclined to be at this signal one, that by the ocular view of the carriages and other circumstances of the managers and parties concerned, I might inform myself, and regulate my opinion of a cause that had so alarmed the whole nation.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 June. 18 Jun 1683. I was present, and saw and heard the humble submission and petition of the Lord Mayor, sheriffs, and aldermen, on behalf of the city of London, on the quo warranto against their charter which they delivered to his Majesty (53) in the presence chamber. It was delivered kneeling, and then the King (53) and Council went into the council chamber, the mayor and his brethren attending still in the presence chamber. After a short space they were called in, and my Lord Keeper made a speech to them, exaggerating the disorderly and riotous behavior in the late election, and polling for Papillon and Du Bois after the Common hall had been formally dissolved: with other misdemeanors, libels on the government, etc., by which they had incurred his Majesty's (53) high displeasure: and that but for this submission, and under such articles as the King (53) should require their obedience to, he would certainly enter judgment against them, which hitherto he had suspended. The things required were as follows: that they should neither elect mayor, sheriffs, aldermen, recorder, common Serjeant town clerk, coroner, nor steward of Southwark, without his Majesty's (53) approbation; and that if they presented any his Majesty (53) did not like, they should proceed in wonted manner to a second choice; if that was disapproved, his Majesty (53) to nominate them; and if within five days they thought good to assent to this, all former miscarriages should be forgotten. And so they tamely parted with their so ancient privileges after they had dined and been treated by the King (53). This was a signal and most remarkable period. What the consequences will prove, time will show. Divers of the old and most learned lawyers and judges were of opinion that they could not forfeit their charter, but might be personally punished for their misdemeanors; but the plurality of the younger judges and rising men judged it otherwise.
The Popish Plot also, which had hitherto made such a noise, began now sensibly to dwindle, through the folly, knavery, impudence, and giddiness of Oates (33), so as the Papists began to hold up their heads higher than ever, and those who had fled, flocked to London from abroad. Such sudden changes and eager doings there had been without anything steady or prudent, for these last seven years.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 June. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the King (53) and the Duke (49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower, the Lord Russell (43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (60), son to the old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King (53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (60) and Russell (43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King (53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!.
Was born my granddaughter at Sayes Court, and christened by the name of Martha Maria, our Vicar officiating. I pray God bless her, and may she choose the better part!.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676 (21). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) in his Garter Robes.