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On this Day in History ... 04 May

1312 Gaveston's Escape from Newcastle

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury

1483 Death of George Neville

1517 Evil May Day Riots

1536 Mayday Jousting

1605 Christening of Princess Mary Stuart

1643 Destruction of Cheapside Cross

1762 Creation of New Peers

On 04 May 1008 Henry I King France 1008-1060 was born to Robert "Pious" II King France 972-1031 (36) and Constance Arles Queen Consort France 986-1034 (22) at Reims.

Gaveston's Escape from Newcastle

On 04 May 1312 King Edward II of England (28) and Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (28) were at Newcastle on Tyne Castle, Newcastle on Tyne where they barely escaped a force led by Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (34), Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy 1273-1314 (39) and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (38). Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (28) escaped to Scarborough, North Yorkshire, King Edward II of England (28) to York.

On 04 May 1315 John Segrave 4th Baron Segrave 1315-1353 was born to Stephen Segrave 3rd Baron Segrave 1285-1325 (30) at Repton.

On 04 May 1396 William Zouche 3rd Baron Zouche Harringworth 1351-1396 (44) died. His son William Zouche 4th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1373-1415 (23) succeeded 4th Baron Zouche Harringworth.

On 04 May 1435 Joan Valois Duchess Bourbon 1435-1482 was born to Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (32) and Marie Valois-Anjou Queen Consort France 1404-1463 (30).

On 04 May 1436 John Grailly I Count Foix 1382-1436 (54) died. His son Gaston Grailly IV Count Foix 1422-1472 (13) succeeded IV Count Foix.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 04 May 1461. Westminster. Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman George (29), bishop of Exeter, from Easter last of the custody of the king's manor manor or lordship of Chiltern Langley, with mills, rents, vert and other profits, excepting 250 rabbits yearly for the king's hosehold, at a yearly rent of 50 marks 20d as formerly and 6s 8d besides; with acquittance of repairs and alloanc for any annuity granted out of the manor. By K (19).

Battle of Tewkesbury

On 04 May 1471 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury. His brother Richard (18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 (36), John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (46), George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (31), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), John Savage 1444-1492, Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) fought. William Brandon 1425-1491 (46), George Browne 1440-1483 (31), Ralph Hastings -1495, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 (38), James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40) commanded.
Margaret of Anjou (41) was captured. Her son Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 (17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (11) whose line continues to the present.
John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (36), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471, Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471 and John Beaufort 1441-1471 were killed.
Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471 and Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471 were captured.
William Vaux of Harrowden 1436-1471 (35) was killed.

After 04 May 1471 Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey. Brass floor marker of the grave of Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471.

On 04 May 1482 Joan Valois Duchess Bourbon 1435-1482 (47) died.

Death of George Neville

On 04 May 1483 George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (22) died. He being the son of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, the nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker who should, perhaps, have inherited the Earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury from his mother that had been appropriated by George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (22) and Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). The timing somewhat suspicious. The future Richard III would now enjoy the whole of the Warwick inheritance. .

On 04 May 1486 Giles Strangeways 1486-1546 was born to Henry Strangeways 1465-1504 (21) and Dorothy Arundell at Melbury, Sampford.

On 04 May 1513 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (40) was appointed Lord High Admiral.

Evil May Day Riots

On 04 May 1517 thirteen of the rioters were executed.

1536 Mayday Jousting

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. This yeare, on Maye daie, 1536, beinge Moundaie, was a great justing at Greenewych, where was chalengers my Lorde of Rochforde (33) and others, and defenders Mr. Noris and others. See 1536 Mayday Jousting.

On 04 May 1546 Elizabeth Sutherland 10th Countess Sutherland -1546 died. Her grandson John Gordon 11th Earl Sutherland 1525-1567 (21) succeeded 11th Earl Sutherland. Elizabeth Campbell Countess Moray, Countess Sutherland -1547 by marriage Countess Sutherland.

On 04 May 1549 Alice Spencer Countess Derby 1549-1637 was born to John Spencer 1524-1586 (25) and Katherine Kitson 1524-1586 (25) at Althorp House, Daventry.

On 04 May 1572 Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex 1541-1576 (30) was created 1st Earl Essex (8C 1572). Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634 (28) by marriage Countess Essex (8C 1572).

Christening of Princess Mary Stuart

On 04 May 1605 Thomas Arundell 1st Baron Arundel Wardour 1560-1639 (45) was created 1st Baron Arundel Wardour in Wiltshire. Mary Wriothesley Baroness Arundel Wardour by marriage Baroness Arundel Wardour in Wiltshire.

On 04 May 1611 Alexander Livingston 2nd Earl Linlithgow -1648 and Elizabeth Gordon 1596-1616 (15) were married (he was her half third-cousin once-removed).

On 04 May 1622 James Hamilton 1st Viscount Clandeboye 1560-1644 (62) was created 1st Viscount Clandeboye.

On 04 May 1626 Arthur Lake Bishop of Bath and Wells 1569-1626 (56) died. He was buried at Wells Cathedral.

On 04 May 1631 William Brereton 3rd Baron Brereton 1631-1680 was born to William Brereton 2nd Baron Brereton 1611-1664 (20) and Elizabeth Goring -1687.

Destruction of Cheapside Cross

On 04 May 1643 the Cheapside Cross was destroyed by order of the Committee for the Demolition of Monuments of Superstition and Idolatry.

John Evelyn's Diary 1643 May. 04 May 1643. On the 4th I returned, with no little regret, for the confusion that threatened us. Resolving to possess myself in some quiet, if it might be, in a time of so great jealousy, I built by my brother's permission, a study, made a fish-pond, an island, and some other solitudes and retirements at Wotton; which gave the first occasion of improving them to those waterworks and gardens which afterward succeeded them, and became at that time the most famous of England.

John Evelyn's Diary 1645 May. 4th May 1645. Having seen the entry of the ambassador of Lucca, I went to the Vatican, where, by favor of our Cardinal Protector, Fran. Barberini, I was admitted into the Consistory, heard the ambassador make his oration in Latin to the Pope, sitting on an elevated state, or throne, and changing two pontifical mitres; after which, I was presented to kiss his toe, that is, his embroidered slipper, two Cardinals holding up his vest and surplice; and then, being sufficiently blessed with his thumb and two fingers for that day I returned home to dinner.
We went again to see the medals of Signor Gotefredi, which are absolutely the best collection in Rome.
Passing the Ludovisia Villa, where the petrified human figure lies, found on the snowy Alps; I measured the hydra, and found it not a foot long; the three necks and fifteen heads seem to be but patched up with several pieces of serpents' skins.

John Evelyn's Diary 1648 May. 4th May 1648. Came up the Essex petitioners for an agreement between his Majesty and the rebels. The 16th, the Surrey men addressed the Parliament for the same; of which some of them were slain and murdered by Oliver Cromwell's (49) guards, in the new palace yard. I now sold the impropriation of South Malling, near Lewes, in Sussex, to Messrs. Kemp and Alcock, for £3,000.

On 04 May 1654 Richard Assheton 1654-1705 was born to Ralph Assheton 1st Baronet Assheton -1665.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Tuesday 04 May 1669. Up, and to the office, and then my wife (28) being gone to see her mother at Deptford, I before the office sat went to the Excise Office, and thence being alone stepped into Duck Lane, and thence tried to have sent a porter to Deb.’s (18), but durst not trust him, and therefore having bought a book to satisfy the bookseller for my stay there, a 12d. book, Andronicus of Tom Fuller, I took coach, and at the end of Jewen Street next Red Cross Street I sent the coachman to her lodging, and understand she is gone for Greenwich to one Marys’s, a tanner’s, at which I, was glad, hoping to have opportunity to find her out; and so, in great fear of being seen, I to the office, and there all the morning, dined at home, and presently after dinner comes home my wife (28), who I believe is jealous of my spending the day, and I had very good fortune in being at home, for if Deb. (18) had been to have been found it is forty to one but I had been abroad, God forgive me. So the afternoon at the office, and at night walked with my wife (28) in the garden, and my Lord Brouncker (49) with us, who is newly come to W. Pen’s (48) lodgings; and by and by comes Mr. Hooke (33); and my Lord (43), and he, and I into my Lord’s lodgings, and there discoursed of many fine things in philosophy, to my great content, and so home to supper and to bed.

On 04 May 1675 Thomas Pierce Dean 1622-1691 (53) was appointed Dean Salisbury.

On 04 May 1675 Robert Fitzgerald 19th Earl Kildare 1675-1743 was born to Robert Fitzgerald 1638- and Mary Clotworthy.

On 04 May 1675 Henry Bertie 1675-1735 was born to James Bertie 1st Earl Abingdon 1653-1699 (21).

On 04 May 1685 Charlotte Wilhelmine Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1685-1767 was born to John Ernest Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld IV Duke Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1658-1729 (26) and Sophie Hedwig Saxe-Merseburg Duchess Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld at Saalfield.

On 04 May 1688 Isabella Bentinck 1688-1728 was born to William Bentinck 1st Earl of Portland 1649-1709 (38) and Anne Villiers Countess Portland 1651-1688.

John Evelyn's Diary 1694 May. 04 May 1694. I went this day with my wife (59) and four servants from Sayes Court, removing much furniture of all sorts, books, pictures, hangings, bedding, etc., to furnish the apartment my brother (76) assigned me, and now, after more than forty years, to spend the rest of my days with him at Wotton, where I was born; leaving my house at Deptford full furnished, and three servants, to my son-in-law Draper, to pass the summer in, and such longer time as he should think fit to make use of it.

John Evelyn's Diary 1699. 04 May 1699. The Court party have little influence in this Session.

On 04 May 1706 Gabrièle Louise Lorraine 1706-1710 was born to Leopold Lorraine Duke Lorraine 1679-1729 (26) and Élisabeth Charlotte Bourbon Duchess Lorraine 1676-1744 (29).

Around 1700.Pierre Gobert Painter 1662-1744 (38). Portrait of Élisabeth Charlotte Bourbon Duchess Lorraine 1676-1744 (23).

On 04 May 1712 Peletiah Barnardiston 3rd Baronet Brightwell 1663-1712 (49) died.

On 04 May 1721 William Boothby 4th Baronet Boothby 1721-1787 was baptised at St Mary's Church, Nottingham.

On 04 May 1739 Henry Fane 1739-1802 was born to Thomas Fane 8th Earl Westmoreland 1701-1771 (38) and Elizabeth Swymmer Countess Westmoreland.

On 04 May 1741 William Fitzwilliam 3rd Earl Fitzwilliam 1720-1756 (21) was elected MP Peterborough.

1762 Creation of New Peers

On 04 May 1762 George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (23) created a number of new peerages ...
Edward Noel 1st Viscount Wentworth 1715-1774 (46) was created 1st Viscount Wentworth
William Courtenay 6th Earl Devon 1709-1762 (53) was created 1st Viscount Courtenay. Frances Finch Viscountess Courtenay -1761 by marriage Viscountess Courtenay.
Thomas Pelham-Holles 1st Duke Newcastle-under-Lyne 1693-1768 (68) was created 1st Baron Pelham of Stanmer in Sussex with default to Thomas Pelham (34).
Caroline Lennox 1st Lady Holland 1723-1774 (39) was created 1st Baron Holland in Lincolnshire.
John Perceval 2nd Earl Egmont 1711-1770 (51) was created 1st Baron Lovel and Holland of Enmore in Somerset.
John Montagu 1st Baron Montagu 1735-1770 (27) was created 1st Baron Montagu of Boughton in Northamptonshire (2C 1762).
Joseph Damer 1st Earl Dorchester 1718-1798 (44) was created 1st Baron Milton of Milton Abbey in Dorset.
Edward Hussey-Montagu 1st Earl Beaulieu 1721-1802 (41) was created 1st Baron Beaulieu of Beaulieu in Hampshire with a special remainder to his heirs male with his current wife Isabella Montagu Duchess Manchester -1786.
1762 George Venables-Vernon 1st Baron Vernon of Kinderton in Cheshire 1709-1780 (52) was created 1st Baron Vernon of Kinderton in Cheshire. Martha Harcourt Baroness Vernon Kinderton Chester 1715-1794 (46) by marriage, Baron Vernon of Kinderton in Cheshire.
George Fox-Lane 1st Baron Bingley 1697-1763 (65) was created 1st Baron Bingley (2C 1763). Harriet Benson Baroness Bingley 1705-1771 (57) by marriage Baroness Bingley (2C 1763).

In 1754 Jean-Etienne Liotard 1702-1789 (51). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (15).

In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788 (54). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (43).

In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788 (53). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (42).

In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788 (53). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (42).

In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788 (54). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (43).

Around 1768. Nathaniel Dance-Holland Painter 1735-1811 (32). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (29).

In 1804. Samuel Woodford Painter 1763-1817 (40). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (65).

Around 1800. William Beechey Painter 1753-1839 (46). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (61).

On 04 May 1763 Aubrey Beauclerk 5th Duke St Albans 1740-1802 (22) and Catherine Ponsonby Duchess St Albans 1742-1789 (20) were married.

On 04 May 1764 Rebecca Alleyne Countess Radnor 1725-1764 (38) died.

On 04 May 1771 Norbonne Berkeley Henry Somerset 1771-1838 was born to Henry Somerset 5th Duke Beaufort 1744-1803 (26) and Elizabeth Boscawen 5th Duchess Beaufort 1747-1828 (23).

On 04 May 1786 Charles Wentworth-Fitzwiliam 5th Earl Fitzwilliam 1786-1857 was born to William Fitzwilliam 4th Earl Fitzwilliam 1748-1833 (37) and Charlotte Ponsonby Countess Fitzwilliam -1822.

On 04 May 1797 Henry Frederick Thynne 3rd Marquess Bath 1797-1837 was born to Thomas Thynne 2nd Marquess Bath 1765-1837 (32) and Isabella Elizabeth Byng Marchioness Bath 1773-1830 (23).

On 04 May 1816 Augustus Frederick Keppel 5th Earl Albermarle 1794-1851 (21) and Frances Steer Countess Albermarle aka Aumale -1869 were married.

On 04 May 1822 Louisa Primrose 1822-1870 was born to Archibald Primrose 4th Earl Rosebery 1783-1868 (38) and Anna Margaret Anson Countess Camden 1796-1882 (25).

On 04 May 1834 George Augustus Henry Cavendish 1st Earl Burlington 1754-1834 (80) died.

On 04 May 1835 Alexander Hugh Baring 4th Baron Ashburton 1835-1889 was born to Francis Baring 3rd Baron Ashburton 1800-1868 (34) and Claire Hortense Maret Baroness Ashburton 1812-1882 (23).

On 04 May 1847 Henry Flower 4th Viscount Ashbrook 1776-1847 (70) died.

On 04 May 1848 Clementina Augusta Spencer-Churchill Countess Camden 1848-1886 was born to George Spencer-Churchill 6th Duke Marlborough 1793-1857 (54) and Charlotte Augusta Flower Duchess Marlborough 1818-1850 (30).

On 04 May 1854 Charles Harbord 5th Baron Suffield 1830-1914 (24) and Cecilia Annetta Baring Baroness Suffield were married. Cecilia Annetta Baring Baroness Suffield by marriage Baroness Suffield.

On 04 May 1857 Harriet Mary Montagu Baroness Ashburton 1805-1857 (51) died.

On 04 May 1859 Francis Godolphin Osborne 7th Duke Leeds 1798-1859 (60) died. He was buried at Osbourne Family Chapel, All Hallows' Church, Harthill. His first-cousin George Godolphin Osborne 8th Duke Leeds 1802-1872 (56) succeeded 8th Duke Leeds, 15th Baron Darcy Knayth, 12th Baron Conyers. Harriet Emma Leveson-Gower Duchess Leeds 1800-1852 by marriage Duchess Leeds. His nephew Sackville George Lane-Fox 15th Baron Darcy Knayth, 12th Baron Conyers 1827-1888 (31) succeeded 15th Baron Darcy Knayth, 12th Baron Conyers.

On 04 May 1872 John Charles Pratt 3rd Marquess Camden 1840-1872 (31) died at Eaton Square, Belgravia. His son John Pratt 4th Marquess Camden 1872-1943 succeeded 4th Marquess Camden.

On 04 May 1895 Roundell Palmer 1st Earl Selborne 1812-1895 (82) died. His son William Palmer 2nd Earl Selborne 1859-1942 (35) succeeded 2nd Earl Selborne. Beatrix Maud Gascoyne-Cecil Countess Selborne 1858-1950 (37) by marriage Countess Selborne.

On 04 May 1896 Oliver Stanley 1896-1950 was born to Edward George Villiers Stanley 17th Earl Derby 1865-1948 (31) and Alice Maude Olivia Montagu Countess Derby 1862-1957 (33).

On 04 May 1898 Henry Howard 3rd Earl Effingham 1837-1898 (61) died. His son Henry Alexander Gordon Howard 4th Earl Effingham 1866-1927 (31) succeeded 4th Earl Effingham (2C 1837).

On 04 May 1911 Eleanor Grosvenor Duchess Northumberland 1820-1911 (90) died.

On 04 May 1913 Katherine Glücksburg 1913-2007 was born to Constantine I King Greece 1868-1923 (44) and Sophia Hohenzollern Queen Consort Greece 1870-1932 (42).

On 04 May 1921 Suzanne Marie Fesq Duchess St Albans 1921-2010 was born.

On 04 May 1939 Mary Fitzgerald-De-Ros 24th Baroness Ros Helmsley 1854-1939 (84) died.

On 04 May 1969 Francis Osbert Sacheverell Sitwell 5th Baronet Sitwell 1892-1969 (76) died. His brother Sacheverell Reresby Sitwell 6th Baronet Sitwell 1897-1988 (71) succeeded 6th Baronet Sitwell of Renishaw Hall in Derbyshire.