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1425-1449 Loire Campaign, Joan of Arc and the end of the Hundred Years War

1425 Purge of the Albany Stewarts

On 18 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany 1362-1425 (63), his two sons Walter Stewart 1394-1425 and Alexander Stewart -1425, and Duncan Lennox 8th Earl Lennox 1345-1425 were tried at Stirling Castle in the presence of James I King Scotland 1394-1437 (30).
An assize of seven earls and fourteen lesser nobles heard the evidence that linked the prisoners to the rebellion in the Lennox—in a trial lasting just one day the four men were found guilty of treason.
The jury which condemned them was composed of 21 knights and Peers, including Albany's half uncle Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 1360-1437 (65), first cousin Alexander Stewart 1st Earl Mar 1375-1435 (50), first cousins once-removed Archibald Douglas 2nd Duke Touraine 1390-1439 (35), and Alexander, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles. .

On 24 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany 1362-1425 (63),Walter Stewart 1394-1425,Alexander Stewart -1425 and Duncan Lennox 8th Earl Lennox 1345-1425 were beheaded at Heading Hill, Stirling Castle.

1426 Henry VI Knighting ceremony

On 19 May 1426, Whitsunday, Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (4) was knighted by his uncles John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (36) and Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (35) at Leicester. Henry then went on to knight Ralph Longford 1400-1432 (25), Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (12) and Robert Wingfield 1403-1454 (23).

Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying

In 1428 Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying without the consent of the King. The Bill appears to be in response to rumours that Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 (26) and Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (22) were having an affair, and were planning to marry.

Siege of Orleans

On 12 Oct 1428 the Siege of Orleans commenced at Orleans. During the course of the siege Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche, 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (40) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (38) were wounded. William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (31) commanded the English forces during some of the siege.

On 03 Nov 1428 Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche, 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (40) died from wounds received at the Siege of Orleans. His daughter Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 (21) succeeded 5th Earl Salisbury (2C 1337), 7th Baron Montagu, 6th Baron Monthermer. On 03 Nov 1428 Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (28) by marriage 7th Baron Montagu.

1429 Battle of the Herrings

On 12 Feb 1429 John Fastolf 1380-1459 (49) was at Rouvray leading a supply train of some 300 carts of crossbows, cannons, etc and also barrels of herrings to Orleans. A force of 400 strong Scottish cavalry led by Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 1401-1456 (28) and John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux 1380-1429 (49) attacked the supply train and were destroyed by English archers protected by supply wagons. John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux 1380-1429 (49) was killed.

1429 Joan of Arc meet Charles VII at Chinon

On 08 Mar 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) met with Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (26) at Chinon Castle, Chinon.

1429 Relief of Orleans

On 08 May 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) relieved the Siege of Orleans.

Joan of Arc meet Charles VII at Loches

On 11 May 1429 following her success at Orleans Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) met Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (26) at the Royal Lodge, Loches where she persuaded him to be crowned at Reims Cathedral; a somewhat perilous journey.

Battle of Jargeau

On 11 Jun 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (39) fought at Jargeau, Loiret during the Battle of Jargeau. Alexander Pole -1429 was killed. William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (32) surrendered.

Battle of Meung-sur-Loire

On 15 Jun 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (39) fought at Meung-sur-Loire, Loiret during the Battle of Meung-sur-Loire capturing the bridge over the Loire.

Battle of Beaugency

On 17 Jun 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (39) fought at Loiret, Loiret during the Battle of Beaugency.

Battle of Patay

In 1429 Bernard Armagnac -1462 fought at Battle of Patay.

On 18 Jun 1429 the Battle of Patay was the final engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years War. The French forces commanded by Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17), Étienne Vignolles -1443 and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (39) defeated an English force of 5000. The English lost around 2000 men with Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales 1397-1460 (32), Thomas Rempston 1389-1458 (40), and John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury, 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (46) being captured. John Fastolf 1380-1459 (49) fought.

Coronation of Charles VII of France

On 17 Jul 1429 Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (26) was crowned at Reims Cathedral, Reims with Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) present.
Guy 14th de Laval Count 1406-1486 (23), who was present, was created Count Laval.

English Coronation of Henry VI

On 06 Nov 1429 Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (7) was crowned VI King England: Plantagenet Lancaster by Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (54) at Westminster Abbey. Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (4) carried the child King. John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (14) attended. John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (20) was knighted.

Capture of Joan of Arc at the Siege of Compiègne

On 23 May 1430 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (18) was captured during the Siege of Compiègne. John Luxemburg II Count Ligny 1392-1441 (38) commanded the rear-guard. Philip "Good" Valois-Burgundy III Duke Burgundy 1396-1467 (33) fought.

Birth of Edmund Tudor

On 11 Jun 1430 Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 was born to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (30) and Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 (28) at Much Hadham Palace, Much Hadham (which belonged to the Bishops of London). There is speculation that the biological father was Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (24) with whom Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 (28) was rumoured to have had an affair. Interesting, perhaps, that he was named Edmund rather than Owen. Interesting that he took the Royal Arms of England differenced. Also interesting that his younger brother was named Jasper; a Persian name meaning 'Keeper of the Treasure'.

Trial of Joan of Arc

On 09 Jan 1431 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (19) was tried at Rouen Castle, Rouen. John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (41) and Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (5) were present.

Execution of Joan of Arc

On 30 May 1431 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (19) was burned at the stake witnessed by Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (56) at Old Market Place, Rouen.

Siege of Louviers

On 03 Oct 1431 Thomas Beaufort Count Perche 1405-1431 (26) was killed at Louviers, Eure, Haute Normandie during the Siege of Louviers.

French Coronation of Henry VI

On 16 Dec 1431 Henry VI (10) was crowned II King France: Lancaster at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral by Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (56). A somewhat futile exercise; the last gasps of the Hundred Years War. The ceremony had been arranged by John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (42). His wife Anne Valois-Burgundy Duchess Bedford 1404-1432 (27) attended.
Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford 1378-1449 (53) was appointed Carver. Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, Hugh Courtenay 12th Earl Devon 1389-1422 and his son Thomas (17) attended.

John Duke of Bedford marries Jacquetta Luxemburg

On 22 Apr 1433 John Duke Bedford (43) and Jacquetta Luxemburg (18) were married at Thérouanne. Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (18) by marriage Duchess Bedford (2C 1433). The marriage caused a rift with Philip "Good" Duke Burgundy (36), John's late wife's brother, who regarded the marriage, some five months after his sister's death, as an insult to her memory. There was no issue from the marriage with John dying a year and a half later.

Battle of Gerberoy

On 09 May 1435 a French force commanded by Étienne Vignolles -1443 heavily defeated an English force commanded by John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel 1408-1435 (27) at the Battle of Gerberoy.
John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel 1408-1435 (27) was killed. His son Humphrey Fitzalan 15th Earl Arundel 1429-1438 (6) succeeded 15th Earl Arundel (Sussex), 5th Baron Maltravers (1C 1330), 5th Baron Arundel (1C 1377).
Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (30) fought.

Death of John of Bedford

On 14 Sep 1435 John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (46) died at Castle of Joyeux Repos, Rouen without legitimate issue. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (44) became heir to the throne.

Congress and Treaty of Arras

In Sep 1435 the Congress and Treaty of Arras was one of the last treaties of the Hundred Years War effectively bringing English rule in France to an end following the successful campaign of Joan of Arc five years earlier and the death of John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (46).

Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois

On 03 Jan 1437 Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 (35) died. She had been married aged eighteen to Henry V King England 1386-1422 for two years three months. Their son was Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (15).
After Henry V died she disappears somewhat from the records other than for Parliament to legislate against her marrying without permission, which she then duly did, to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (37), and had two sons, the elder of which was father to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Death of Sigismund King of Hungary, Germany, Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor

On 09 Dec 1437 Sigismund I King Hungary, I King Germany, I King Bohemia, Holy Roman Emperor Luxemburg 1368-1437 (69) died at Znojmo.

Douglas Black Dinner

On 24 Nov 1440 William Crichton -1454 arranged a dinner of reconciliation at the Great Hall, Edinburgh Castle. During the course of the dinner the young brothers William Douglas 3rd Duke Touraine 1424-1440 (16) and David Douglas 1430-1440 was beheaded in front of the young James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (10).

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

In 1441 Eleanor Cobham 1400-1452 (41), wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (50), brother of the deceased Henry V King England 1386-1422, uncle of Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke. All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessd to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" 1415-1441 (26). Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London.
Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" 1415-1441 (26) was burned at the stake.
Eleanor was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.

Treaty of Tours

On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (22) and Margaret of Anjou (14) in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk (47). The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (38) who was its Governor. He, Somerset (38), was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Somerset (38) and Richard Duke of York who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.

Battle of Arbroath

On 24 Jan 1445 the Battle of Arbroath was fought between Clan Lindsay and Clans Ogilvy, Gordon, Oliphant, Seton and Forbes. David Lindsay 3rd Earl Crawford 1405-1445 (40) was killed when attempting to prevent the battle by riding between the two armies in an attempt to call a truce. Unfortunately a member of the Clan Ogilvy, thinking the Earl was attacked threw his spear at the Earl, hitting him in the mouth, killing him instantly. Clan Lindsay victorious.

Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou

On 18 Mar 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (33) met Margaret of Anjou (14) at Pontoise on his mission to bring her back to Endland for her marriage to Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (23).

Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

On 23 Apr 1445 Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (23) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (15) were married (he was her third-cousin) at Titchfield Abbey, Fareham.

Richard of York returns to England

On 20 Oct 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (34) returned to England at the end of his five-year appointment in France.

Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (44), Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (41), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (47) and Ralph Boteler 6th Baron Sudeley 1389-1473 (58).
On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) died at Bury St Edmunds. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Albans Cathedral. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 six years later.

Richard York appointed Lieutenant of Ireland

On 30 Jul 1447 Richard Duke of York (35) was appointed Lieutenant Ireland. An attempt by the Council to isolate Richard.

Warwick "Kingmaker" Succeeds

On 03 Jan 1448 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick 1443-1448 (4) died at Ewelme aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (44).
After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, and her full aunt, the courts decided her full aunt Anne Beauchamp (21) should succeed. Anne Beauchamp (21) succeeded 16th Countess Warwick. Her husband Richard Neville (20) by marriage 16th Earl Warwick (1C 1088); the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker.
The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (42) who was married to Anne's (21) half-sister Eleanor (39); he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.

Battle of Sark

On 23 Oct 1448 Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde -1455 commanded at during the Battle of Sark inflicting a heavy defeat on the English forces. Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (27) and Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 were captured. Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (55) escaped..

Battle of Formigny

On 15 Apr 1450 the Battle of Formigny was a descisive victory for the French that destroyed the England's last army in France bringing to end English control of Normandy.
Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 1401-1456 (49) and Arthur Montfort III Duke Brittany 1393-1458 (56) commanded the French. The English commander Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (54) was captured.
The battle is considered to be one of the first where cannon played a decisive role.

Murder of William de la Pole

Before 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 exiled for five years for having lost the English possessions in Northern France including Anjou and Maine which were part of Margaret of Anjou's wedding settlement.

On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower. On 01 May 1450 His son John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (7) succeeded 2nd Marquess Suffolk (1C), 5th Earl Suffolk (3C 1385). Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (6) by marriage Marchioness Suffolk (1C).

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge, St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

Jack Cade's Rebellion

James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele 1395-1450 was beheaded. His son William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 succeeded 2nd Baron Saye and Sele. His son in law William Cromer 1416-1450 was beheaded.

Humphrey Stafford 1400-1467 was killed at Sevenoaks. William Tresham -1450 was indicted for treason. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 joined the rebellion.

On 04 Jul 1450 the rebels were beheaded at the Standard, Cheapside.

Death of King James V of Scotland

On 14 Dec 1542 James V King Scotland 1512-1542 (30) died at Falkland Palace, Falkland, Fife. His daughter Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 succeeded I King Scotland: Stewart. She was six days old.

Battle of Brechin

On 18 May 1452 the Battle of Brechin was fought between supporters of James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (21) and his rellious nobility including the Black Douglases. Alexander Gordon 1st Earl Huntley -1470 defeated the rebels led by Tiger Earl 4th Earl Crawford 1423-1453 (29) on behalf on the King. John Lindsay 1423-1452 (29),and the brothers William Gordon -1452 and Henry Gordon -1452, were killed..

Warwick becomes Kingmaker

Before 09 Dec 1462 Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 died. Her son Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 succeeded 6th Earl Salisbury (2C 1337), 8th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer adding to the earldom of Warwick he had already acquired through his wife some fourteen years previously. The combined earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury made Warwick the second most powerful man in the Kingdom making him Kingmaker.

Knighting at Greenwich

On 05 Jan 1453 brothers John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (22), William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469 (30), brothers Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (22) and Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (21) and Roger Lewkenor were knighted by King Henry VI (31) at Greenwich.

Battle of Heworth Moor

On 24 May 1453 Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (22) and Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell, Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 were married. Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell, Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 was the niece and heiress of Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell 1403-1456 (50) meaning traditional Percy lands would become Neville lands. The Percy's, being the older family, especially Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (30), took umbrage.
John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 was ambushed at Heworth Moor, York by Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (30) leading a force of 700 or more men when returning with his brother's wedding party from Tattershall Castle, Tattershall to Sheriff of Hutton. .

Battle of Castillon

On 07 Jul 1453 the Battle of Castillon, the last battle of the Hundred Years War, was fought at Castillon.
John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury, 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (70) was killed. His grandson Thomas Talbot 2nd Viscount Lisle 1449-1470 (4) succeeded 2nd Viscount Lisle (1C 1451), 2nd Baron Lisle (4C 1444). Margaret Herbert Viscountess Lisle by marriage Viscountess Lisle (1C 1451). On His son John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury, 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (35) succeeded 2nd Earl Shrewsbury (2C 1442), 2nd Earl Waterford, 7th Baron Furnivall (1C 1295), 11th Baron Strange Blackmere (1C 1309), 8th Baron Talbot (1C 1331). Elizabeth Butler Countess Shrewsbury, Countess Waterford 1424-1473 (29) by marriage Countess Shrewsbury (2C 1442) Countess Waterford.
John Talbot 1st Viscount Lisle 1426-1453 (27) was killed. He the son of John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury, 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (70).
Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (22) and John Foix Earl Kendal 1410-1485 (43) were captured.

Henry VI's first Illness

In Aug 1453 Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (31) suffered his first bout of illness; a mental breakdown. He was unresponsive for a year. His paternal grand-father Charles VI of France suffered a similar illness; his sobriquet "Mad".

Birth of Edward of Westminster

On 13 Oct 1453 Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471 was born to Henry VI (31) and Margaret of Anjou (23) at Westminster Palace. When King Henry (31) recovered from his catatonic state in Jan 1455, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since King Henry (31) and Queen Margaret (23) had been married for eight years before the birth. Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) was suggested at the time.