1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide

Short Parliament

In 1640 Thomas Lyttelton 1st Baronet 1593-1650 (47) was elected MP Worcestershire in the Short Parliament.

In 1640 Edward Phelips 1613-1680 (27) was elected MP Ilchester during the Short Parliament.

Before 06 Aug 1658 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Edward Phelips 1613-1680.

In 1640 Thomas Salusbury 2nd Baronet Salusbury Lleweni 1612-1643 (27) was elected MP Denbighshire during the Short Parliament.

In 1640 Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (40) was elected MP Bath during the Short Parliament.

On Feb 1640 Francis Newport 1st Earl Bradford 1620-1708 (19) was elected MP Shrewsbury during the Short Parliament.

On 20 Feb 1640 John Glanville 1586-1661 (54) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons during the Short Parliament.

On 20 Feb 1640 Henry Berkeley of Bruton 1579-1667 (61) was elected MP Ilchester during the Short Parliament.

On Mar 1640 Sidney Godolphin 1610-1643 (30) was elected MP Helston during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 William Pierrepoint 1608-1678 (32) was elected MP Shropshire during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 Francis Pierrepoint -1659 was elected MP East Retford during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 Edward Rodney 1590-1657 (49) was elected MP Wells during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Dudley North 4th Baron North 1602-1677 (38) was elected MP Cambridgeshire in the Short Parliament.

Around 1628. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Dudley North 4th Baron North 1602-1677 (26).

On Apr 1640 Anthony Hungerford 1608-1657 (32) was elected MP Malmesbury during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (54) was elected MP Dorset during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 James Fiennes 2nd Viscount Saye and Sele 1602-1674 (38) was elected MP Oxfordshire in the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 John Wray 2nd Baronet Glentworth 1586-1655 (53) was elected MP Lincolnshire during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 Christopher Wray 1601-1646 (39) was elected MP Grimsby during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 Charles Cecil 1619-1660 (21) was elected MP Hertford during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 Simon Archer 1581-1662 (58) was elected MP Tamworth during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 William Fitzwilliam 2nd Baron Fitzwilliam 1609-1658 (31) was elected MP Peterborough during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 Philip Sidney 3rd Earl of Leicester 1619-1698 (21) was elected MP Yarmouth Isle of Wight during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (47) was elected MP Maldon during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 John Glynne Judge 1602-1666 (38) was elected MP Westminster during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Edmund Waller Poet 1606-1687 (34) was elected MP Amersham in the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 William Waller 1597-1668 (43) was elected MP Andover during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Robert Crane 1st Baronet Crane 1586-1643 (54) was elected MP Sudbury in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 William Jephson MP 1609-1658 (32) was elected MP Stockbridge in the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 Henry Poole 1592-1652 (48) was elected MP Chichester during the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (24) was elected MP Weymouth and Melcombe Regis during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet Musgrave of Eden Hall 1607-1678 (32) was elected MP Westmoreland in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Samuel Sandys 1615-1685 (24) was elected MP Droitwich.
Thomas Jermyn 1573-1645 (67) was elected MP Cambridge University.
Thomas Jermyn 1617-1659 (23) was elected MP Corfe Castle.
Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans 1605-1684 (35) was elected MP Corfe Castle.
John Jennings -1642 was elected MP St Albans.
Ambrose Browne 1st Baronet Browne -1661 was elected MP Surrey.
John Curzon 1st Baronet Curzon 1598-1686 (41) was elected MP Derbyshire.
George Fane of Burston 1581-1640 (59) was elected MP Maidstone.

On Apr 1640 William Heveningham 1604-1678 (36) was elected MP Stockbridge during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Thomas Littleton 2nd Baronet 1621-1681 (19) was elected MP Much Wenlock in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Framlingham Gawdy of West Harling 1589-1654 (50) was elected MP Thetford in the Short Parliament.

On Apr 1640 William Glynne -1648 was elected MP Caernarfonshire during the Short Parliament.

John Evelyn's Diary 1640. 11th April 1640. I went to London to see the solemnity of his Majesty's (39) riding through the city in state to the Short Parliament, which began the 13th following,—a very glorious and magnificent sight, the King (39) circled with his royal diadem and the affections of his people: but the day after I returned to Wotton again, where I stayed, my father's (53) indisposition suffering great intervals, till April 27th, when I was sent to London to be first resident at the Middle Temple: so as my being at the University, in regard of these avocations, was of very small benefit to me. Upon May the 5th following, was the Parliament unhappily dissolved; and, on the 20th I returned with my brother George to Wotton, who, on the 28th of the same month, was married at Albury to Mrs. Caldwell (an heiress of an ancient Leicestershire family, where part of the nuptials were celebrated).

On 05 May 1640 Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) dissolved the Short Parliament.

Attack on Lambeth Palace

On 11 May 1640 apprentices attacked Lambeth Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 1640. 10th June 1640. I repaired with my brother (17) to the term, to go into our new lodgings (that were formerly in Essex-court), being a very handsome apartment just over against the Hall-court, but four pair of stairs high, which gave us the advantage of the fairer prospect; but did not much contribute to the love of that impolished study, to which (I suppose) my father (53) had designed me, when he paid £145 to purchase our present lives, and assignments afterward.
London, and especially the Court, were at this period in frequent disorders, and great insolences were committed by the abused and too happy City: in particular, the Bishop of Canterbury's (66) Palace at Lambeth was assaulted by a rude rabble from Southwark, my Lord Chamberlain (55) imprisoned and many scandalous libels and invectives scattered about the streets, to the reproach of Government, and the fermentation of our since distractions: so that, upon the 25th of June, I was sent for to Wotton, and the 27th after, my father's (53) indisposition augmenting, by advice of the physicians he repaired to the Bath.

Second Bishop's War

Between Jun 1640 and Oct 1640 the Second Bishop's War was an attack by the Scottish Covenanters into England against Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39). The Scots crossed into Northumberland reaching Newcastle on Tyne. In Oct 1640 Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) sued for peace.

Battle of Newburn

On 28 Aug 1640 the Battle of Newburn was fought at the Newburn ford over the River Tyne between the Scottish army of 20,000 men commanded by Alexander Leslie 1st Earl Leven 1580-1661 (60) and the English army of 5000 commanded by Edward Conway 2nd Viscount Conway 1594-1655 (46). The Scottish army was successful.

Treaty of Ripon

On 26 Oct 1640 the Treaty of Ripon was a peace treaty signed by Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) to cease the war with Scotland in the North. Charles agreed the Scots could retain large parts of northern England, and to pay them £850 per day until the Aug 1641 1641 Treaty of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1640. 30th December, 1640. I saw his Majesty (40) (coming from his Northern Expedition) ride in pomp and a kind of ovation, with all the marks of a happy peace, restored to the affections of his people, being conducted through London with a most splendid cavalcade; and on the 3d of November following (a day never to be mentioned without a curse), to that long ungrateful, foolish, and fatal Parliament, the beginning of all our sorrows for twenty years after, and the period of the most happy monarch in the world: Quis talia fando!
But my father being by this time entered into a dropsy, an indisposition the most unsuspected, being a person so exemplarily temperate, and of admirable regimen, hastened me back to Wotton, December the 12th; where, the 24th following, between twelve and one o'clock at noon, departed this life that excellent man and indulgent parent, retaining his senses and piety to the last, which he most tenderly expressed in blessing us, whom he now left to the world and the worst of times, while he was taken from the evil to come.

Long Parliament

In 1640 Edward Phelips 1613-1680 (27) was elected MP Ilchester during the Long Parliament.

Before 06 Aug 1658 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Edward Phelips 1613-1680.

In 1640 Hugh Pollard 2nd Baronet 1603-1666 (37) was elected MP Bere Alston in the Long Parliament.

In 1640 Simonds Ewes 1602-1650 (37) was elected MP Sudbury during the Long Parliament.

In 1640 John Poulett 2nd Baron Poulett 1615-1665 (25) was elected MP Somerset during the Long Parliament.

On Oct 1640 Sidney Godolphin 1610-1643 (30) was elected MP Helston during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (34) was elected MP Hereford during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 James Fiennes 2nd Viscount Saye and Sele 1602-1674 (38) was elected MP Oxfordshire in the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Anthony Hungerford 1608-1657 (32) was elected MP Malmesbury during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Francis Newport 1st Earl Bradford 1620-1708 (20) was elected MP Shrewsbury during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Dudley North 4th Baron North 1602-1677 (38) was elected MP Cambridgeshire in the Long Parliament.

Around 1628. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Dudley North 4th Baron North 1602-1677 (26).

On Nov 1640 John Curzon 1st Baronet Curzon 1598-1686 (41) was elected MP Derbyshire during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 William Pierrepoint 1608-1678 (32) was elected MP Great Wenlock during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Framlingham Gawdy of West Harling 1589-1654 (51) was elected MP Thetford in the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 John Craven 1st Baron Craven 1610-1648 (30) was elected MP Tewkesbury during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Thomas Littleton 2nd Baronet 1621-1681 (19) was elected MP Much Wenlock in the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Philip Sidney 3rd Earl of Leicester 1619-1698 (21) was elected MP Yarmouth Isle of Wight during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (55) was elected MP Dorset during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (25) was elected MP Bridport during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Humfrey Tufton 1st Baronet Tufton 1584-1659 (56) was elected MP Maidstone during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 John Wray 2nd Baronet Glentworth 1586-1655 (53) was elected MP Lincolnshire during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Christopher Wray 1601-1646 (39) was elected MP Grimsby during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Charles Cecil 1619-1660 (21) was elected MP Hertford during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Ambrose Browne 1st Baronet Browne -1661 was elected MP Surrey during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645 (67) was accused of treason during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (31) was elected MP Cornwall during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet Clifton 1587-1666 (52) was elected MP East Retford during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Edward Rodney 1590-1657 (50) was elected MP Wells during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 William Fitzwilliam 2nd Baron Fitzwilliam 1609-1658 (31) was elected MP Peterborough during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (47) was elected MP Maldon during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet Musgrave of Eden Hall 1607-1678 (33) was elected MP Westmoreland in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Humphrey Coningsbury 1623- was elected MP Herefordshire in the Long Parliament.
William Heveningham 1604-1678 (36) was elected MP Stockbridge during the Long Parliament.
Robert Crane 1st Baronet Crane 1586-1643 (54) was elected MP Sudbury in the Long Parliament holding the seat until his death in 1643.
John Jennings -1642 was elected MP St Albans during the Long Parliament.
John Glynne Judge 1602-1666 (38) was elected MP Westminster during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Thomas Jermyn 1617-1659 (23) was elected MP Bury St Edmunds during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Edmund Waller Poet 1606-1687 (34) was elected MP Ives in the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1640 Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans 1605-1684 (35) was elected MP Bury St Edmunds during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 William Jephson MP 1609-1658 (32) was elected MP Stockbridge in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Samuel Sandys 1615-1685 (25) was elected MP Droitwich in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 John Coke 1607-1650 (33) was elected MP Derbyshire in the Long Parliament which seat he held until his death in 1650.

In Nov 1640 Thomas Fanshawe of Jenkins 1607-1651 (33) was elected MP Lancaster in the Long Parliament.

On Dec 1640 Robert Pye 1620-1701 (20) was elected MP Woodstock during the Long Parliament.

John Evelyn's Diary 1640. 30th December, 1640. I saw his Majesty (40) (coming from his Northern Expedition) ride in pomp and a kind of ovation, with all the marks of a happy peace, restored to the affections of his people, being conducted through London with a most splendid cavalcade; and on the 3d of November following (a day never to be mentioned without a curse), to that long ungrateful, foolish, and fatal Parliament, the beginning of all our sorrows for twenty years after, and the period of the most happy monarch in the world: Quis talia fando!
But my father being by this time entered into a dropsy, an indisposition the most unsuspected, being a person so exemplarily temperate, and of admirable regimen, hastened me back to Wotton, December the 12th; where, the 24th following, between twelve and one o'clock at noon, departed this life that excellent man and indulgent parent, retaining his senses and piety to the last, which he most tenderly expressed in blessing us, whom he now left to the world and the worst of times, while he was taken from the evil to come.

In 1641 Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (21) was elected MP Tavistock in the Long Parliament.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

On 03 May 1642 William Waller 1597-1668 (45) was elected MP Andover during the Long Parliament.

On Nov 1642 Roger Palmer 1577-1657 (65) was elected MP Newton during the Long Parliament.

In 1645 Francis Pierrepoint -1659 was elected MP Nottingtham during the Long Parliament.

In 1645 John Spelman MP 1606-1663 (38) was elected MP Castle Rising in the Long Parliament.

In 1645 Francis Bacon 1600-1663 (44) was elected MP Ipswich in the Long Parliament.

In May 1646 James Herbert 1623-1667 (23) was elected MP Wiltshire in the Long Parliament.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 January. 25th January 1679. The Long Parliament, which had sat ever since the Restoration, was dissolved by persuasion of the Lord Treasurer (46), though divers of them were believed to be his pensioner. At this, all the politicians were at a stand, they being very eager in pursuit of the late plot of the Papists.

Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

On 13 Apr 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48) was attainted by 204 votes to 59 ostensibly for his authoritarian rule as Lord Deputy of Ireland. Despite his promise not to Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40) signed the death warrant on the 10 May 1641 in the light of increasing pressure from Parliament and the commons.

John Evelyn's Diary 1641 April. On the 15 Apr 1641 I repaired to London to hear and see the famous trial of the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Deputy of Ireland (48), who, on the 22nd of March, had been summoned before both Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in Westminster Hall, which was prepared with scaffolds for the Lords and Commons, who, together with the King (40), Queen (31), Prince (10), and flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of the greatest malice and the greatest innocency that ever met before so illustrious an assembly. It was Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey (55), Earl Marshal of England, who was made High Steward upon this occasion; and the sequel is too well known to need any notice of the event.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

John Evelyn's Diary 1641 May. On the 12th of May, I beheld on Tower-hill the fatal stroke which severed the wisest head in England from the shoulders of the Earl of Strafford (48), whose crime coming under the cognizance of no human law, or statute, a new one was made, not to be a precedent, but his destruction. With what reluctancy the King (40) signed the execution, he has sufficiently expressed; to which he imputes his own unjust suffering — to such exorbitancy were things arrived.

On 12 May 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48) was beheaded at Tower Hill. His execution was attended by an enormous crowd.

1641 Treaty of London

On 26 Oct 1640 the Treaty of Ripon was a peace treaty signed by Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (39) to cease the war with Scotland in the North. Charles agreed the Scots could retain large parts of northern England, and to pay them £850 per day until the Aug 1641 1641 Treaty of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1641 November. 23d November, 1641. I returned to London; and, on the 25th, saw his Majesty (41) ride through the City after his coming out of Scotland, and a Peace proclaimed, with great acclamations and joy of the giddy people.

1641 Irish Rebellion

On 23 Oct 1641 the 1641 Irish Rebellion was an attempt by Catholic gentry to seize Dublin Castle. The Rebellion was foiled when details of its plot were revealed to Owen O'Connolly who informed the Irish Justices. The leaders were arrested.

In 1645 Connor Maguire 2nd Baron of Enniskillen 1616-1645 (29) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn.

King Charles I Attacks Parliament

On 04 Jan 1642 Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41) sent soldiers into Parliament to arrest a number of MPs.

Battle of Liscarroll

In Jul 1642 David Barry 1st Earl Barrymore 1604-1642 (37) led a regiment at the Battle of Liscarroll.

Battle of Powick Bridge

On 23 Sep 1642 Maurice Palatinate-Simmern 1621-1652 was wounded at during the Battle of Powick Bridge.
Lawrence Carey -1642 was killed.
Charles Lucas 1613-1648 was wounded.

Siege of Portsmouth

Between 10 Aug 1642 and 07 Sep 1642 Portsmouth was besieged by Parliamentary forces.

In Sep 1642 William Waller 1597-1668 (45) concluded the Siege of Portsmouth.

John Evelyn's Diary 1642 October. 3d October, 1642. To Chichester, and hence the next day to see the Siege of Portsmouth; for now was that bloody difference between the King and Parliament broken out, which ended in the fatal tragedy so many years after. It was on the day of its being rendered to Sir William Waller (45); which gave me an opportunity of taking my leave of Colonel Goring (34), the governor, now embarking for France. This day was fought that signal battle at Edgehill. Thence I went to Southampton and Winchester, where I visited the castle, school, church, and King Arthur's Round Table; but especially the church, and its Saxon kings' monuments, which I esteemed a worthy antiquity.

Europeans Discover New Zealand

On 18 Sep 1642 Dutch Seafarer Abel Janszoon Tasman anchored his two ships near Wainui in Mohua (Golden Bay). He was the first European visitor to visit Aotearoa, New Zealand. Tasman is responsible for the name New Zealand ie Nieuw Zeeland. Tasman sent boats to gather water which were attacked by Māori; four of his men were killed.

Battle of Edge Hill

John Evelyn's Diary 1642 October. 3d October, 1642. To Chichester, and hence the next day to see the Siege of Portsmouth; for now was that bloody difference between the King and Parliament broken out, which ended in the fatal tragedy so many years after. It was on the day of its being rendered to Sir William Waller (45); which gave me an opportunity of taking my leave of Colonel Goring (34), the governor, now embarking for France. This day was fought that signal battle at Edgehill. Thence I went to Southampton and Winchester, where I visited the castle, school, church, and King Arthur's Round Table; but especially the church, and its Saxon kings' monuments, which I esteemed a worthy antiquity.

On 14 Oct 1642 Richard Newport 1st Baron Newport 1587-1651 (55) was created 1st Baron Newport of High Ercall in Shropshire; by Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41) in return for having provided £6000 for the purchase of artillery before the Battle of Edge Hill.

On 23 Oct 1642 the Battle of Edge Hill was fought at Edge Hill. The Royal army was commanded by Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41) (with his son Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (12) present), Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22) and Richard Spencer 1593-1661 (49) commanded the army that included Maurice Palatinate-Simmern 1621-1652, Richard Byron 2nd Baron Byron 1606-1679 (36), Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643 (32), Charles Cavendish 1620-1643 (22), Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton 1601-1643 (41), Thomas Salusbury 2nd Baronet Salusbury Lleweni 1612-1643 (30), John Byron 1st Baron Byron 1599-1652 (43) and William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643 (55).
George Stewart 9th Seigneur D'Aubigny 1618-1642 (24) was killed.
Of the Parliamentary army Basil Feilding 2nd Earl Denbigh 1608-1675 (34) and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (51). Oliver St John 5th Baron St John Bletso 1603-1642 (39) was wounded.
Samuel Sandys 1615-1685 (27) commanded a troop of horse at the Battle of Edgehill.
Richard Sandys 1616-1642 (26) was killed
Thomas Strickland 1621-1694 (20) was knighted on the field for his gallantry at the Battle of Edge Hill.
William Dugdale 1605-1686 (37) witnessed the battle and subsequently surveyed the battlefield.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

Battle of Brentford

John Evelyn's Diary 1642 November. 12 Nov 1640. The 12th of November was the Battle of Brentford, surprisingly fought; and to the great consternation of the City, had his Majesty (39) (as it was believed he would) pursued his advantage. I came in with my horse and arms just at the retreat; but was not permitted to stay longer than the 15th, by reason of the army marching to Gloucester; which would have left both me and my brothers exposed to ruin, without any advantage to his Majesty (39).

12 nov 1642. The Battle of Brentford was a small pitched battle which took place on 12 November 1642, between a detachment of the Royalist army (predominantly horse with one regiment of Welsh foot) under the command of Prince Rupert (22), and two infantry regiments of Parliamentarians with some horse in support. The result was a victory for the Royalists.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

Birth of Isaac Newton

On 25 Dec 1642 Isaac Newton Scientist 1642-1727 was born in Woolsthorpe, Colsterworth. His father had died before Isaac was born.

Battle of Hopton Heath

On 19 Mar 1643 William Compton Master of the Ordnance 1625-1663 (18) and James Compton 3rd Earl of Northampton 1622-1681 (20) fought for the Royalist army at Hopton Heath, Hopton.
Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton 1601-1643 (41) was killed. His son James Compton 3rd Earl of Northampton 1622-1681 (20) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northampton (5C 1618), 4th Baron Compton of Compton in Warwickshire.

Battle of Camp Hill

On 03 Apr 1643 a company of Parliamentarians from the Lichfield garrison with the support of some of the local townsmen, approximately 300 men, attempted to stop a detachment of 1,400 Royalists under the command of Prince Rupert (23) from passing through the unfortified parliamentary town of Birmingham.
William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643 (56) was wounded during the Battle of Camp Hill.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

Battle of Stratton

On 16 May 1643 Henry Grey 1st Earl Stamford 1599-1673 (44) fought for the Parliamentary army at Stratton. .

Battle of Gainsborough

After Mar 1643 the town of Gainsborough was placed under the command of the Royalist Robert Pierrepoint 1st Earl Kingston 1584-1643 from which they harassed Parliamentarians in Lincolnshire. Royalist attacks at Louth and Market Rasen, together with the capture of gunpowder intended for Rotherham, provoked Parliament into action.

On 16 Jul 1643 Francis Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby Parham -1666 launched a night attack on Gainsborough and captured it and Robert Pierrepoint 1st Earl Kingston 1584-1643 (58).
On 25 Jul 1643 Robert Pierrepoint 1st Earl Kingston 1584-1643 (58) was shot and killed accidentally while a prisoner on board a vessel bound for Hull. His son Henry Pierrepoint 1st Marquess Dorchester 1606-1680 (37) succeeded 2nd Earl Kingston upon Hull, 2nd Viscount Newark (1C 1627), 2nd Baron Pierrepoint Holme Pierrepoint. Catherine Stanley Marchioness Dorchester by marriage Countess Kingston upon Hull.

On 28 Jul 1643 the Parliamentary arms commanded by Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (44) and the Royalist army commanded by Charles Cavendish 1620-1643 (23) fought at the Battle of Gainsborough at North Scarle.
Charles Cavendish 1620-1643 (23) was killed by James Berry -1691. He was buried at Newark on Trent.
On 04 Aug 1643 the Royalist Newdigate Poyntz 1608-1643 (34) died probably from wounds received at the battle.

On 31 Jul 1643 Francis Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby Parham -1666 surrendered Gainsborough to William Cavendish 1st Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1592-1676 (50) after a three day siege.

Destruction of Cheapside Cross

On 04 May 1643 the Cheapside Cross was destroyed by order of the Committee for the Demolition of Monuments of Superstition and Idolatry.

Battle of Lansdowne

On 05 Jul 1643 the Battle of Lansdowne was an inconclusive battle between a Royalist army commanded by Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton 1596-1652 (47) and a Parliamentary Army commanded by William Waller 1597-1668 (46) at Lansdown Hill, Bath. The two commanders being old friends.
Edward Leke -1643 was killed.
Bevil Granville 1595-1643 was killed at the at the head of the Cornish infantry as it reached the top of Lansdown Hill. He received a blow to the head with a pole-axe and was taken to the rectory at nearby Cold Ashton where he died.

Battle of Roundway Down

On 13 Jul 1643 a Royalist cavalry force under Lord Wilmot (30) won a crushing victory over the Parliamentarian Army of the West under Sir William Waller (46) at Roundway Down, Devizes
Maurice Palatinate-Simmern 1621-1652 fought.

Battle of Portlester

On 07 Aug 1643 Charles Moore 2nd Viscount Moore of Drogheda 1603-1643 (40) was killed at Ballivor, County Meath.

First Battle of Newbury

On 20 Sep 1643 the First Battle of Newbury was fought at Newbury with Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (42) commanding the Royalist army and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (52) commanding the victorious Parliamentary army. For Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (42) John Byron 1st Baron Byron 1599-1652 (44) fought with distinction. Henry Bertie -1643, Robert Dormer 1st Earl Carnarvon 1610-1643 was killed.
William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison 1614-1643 (29) was killed. His brother John Villiers 3rd Viscount Grandison -1661 succeeded 3rd Viscount Grandison (1C 1620).
Edward Villiers 1620-1689 (23) fought.
Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643 (33) was killed. His son Lucius Carey 3rd Viscount Falkland 1632-1649 (11) succeeded 3rd Viscount Falkland.
Richard Neville 1615-1676 (28) served under the Earl Carnarvon. Carnarvon was killed and Neville took up the command as a Colonel of Horse.
Charles Fleetwood 1618-1692 (25) was wounded.

Monument to Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643 who was killed at the First Battle of Newbury and who is buried in St Michael & All Angels Church, Great Tew.

Battle of Cheriton

On 29 Mar 1644 John Stewart 1621-1644 (22) was killed during the Battle of Cheriton fighting for the Royalists.

Battle of Oswestry

On 22 Jun 1644 Francis Newport 1st Earl Bradford 1620-1708 (24) was captured during the Battle of Oswestry fighting for the Royalists.

Battle of Cropredy Bridge

On 29 Jun 1644 the Battle of Cropredy Bridge was fought near Banbury.
Robert Howard Playwright Politician 1626-1698 (18) fought.

Battle of Marston Moor

On 02 Jul 1644 at the Battle of Marston Moor Alexander Montgomerie 6th Earl Eglinton 1588-1661 (56) fought at for the Royal army. Lionel Carey 1622-1644 (22) was killed. John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale 1625-1697 (18) fought for the Parliamentary army.
At the Battle of Marston Moor Lucas swept Fairfax's Yorkshire horse before him, but later in the day he was taken prisoner, in a battle won decisively by Parliament.
John Dolben (19) fought for the Royalists.
William Eure -1644 was killed.
Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet Musgrave of Eden Hall 1607-1678 (37) fought for the Royalists.

John Evelyn's Diary 1654 August. 17 Aug 1654. Passed through Pontefract; therichard castle famous for many sieges both of late and ancient times, and the death of that unhappy King murdered in it, was now demolishing by the Rebels; it stands on a mount, and makes a goodly show at a distance. The Queen (44) has a house here, and there are many fair seats near it, especially Mr. Pierrepont's (48), built at the foot of a hill out of the castle ruins. We all alighted in the highway to drink at a crystal spring, which they call Robin Hood's Well; near it, is a stone chair, and an iron ladle to drink out of, chained to the seat. We rode to Tadcaster, at the side of which we have prospect of the Archbishop's Palace (which is a noble seat), and in sight of divers other gentlemen's fair houses. This tract is a goodly, fertile, well-watered, and wooded country, abounding with pasture and plenty of provisions.
To York, the second city of England, fairly walled, of a circular form, watered by the brave River Ouse, bearing vessels of considerable burden on it; over it is a stone bridge emulating that of London, and built on; the middle arch is larger than any I have seen in England, with a wharf of hewn stone, which makes the river appear very neat. But most remarkable and worth seeing is St. Peter's Cathedral, which of all the great churches in England had been best preserved from the fury of the sacrilegious, by composition with the Rebels when they took the city, during the many incursions of Scotch and others. It is a most entire magnificent piece of Gothic architecture. The screen before the choir is of stone carved with flowers, running work and statues of the old kings. Many of the. Monuments are very ancient. Here, as a great rarity in these days and at this time, they showed me a Bible and Common Prayer Book covered with crimson velvet, and richly embossed with silver gilt; also a service for the altar of gilt wrought plate, flagons, basin, ewer, plates, chalices, patins, etc., with a gorgeous covering for the altar and pulpit, carefully preserved in the vestry, in the hollow wall whereof rises a plentiful spring of excellent water. I got up to the tower, whence we had a prospect toward Durham, and could see Ripon, part of Lancashire, the famous and fatal Marston Moor, the Spas of Knaresborough, and all the environs of that admirable country. Sir —— Ingoldsby has here a large house, gardens, and tennis court; also the King (24)'s house and church near the castle, which was modernly fortified with a palisade and bastions. The streets are narrow and ill-paved, the shops like London.

Baptism of Henrietta Maria

On 21 Jul 1644 Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670 was baptised at Exeter Cathedral. John Berkeley 1st Baron Berkeley 1602-1678 (42) attended. Elizabeth Villiers Countess Morton 1609-1654 (34) was her godmother in whose care she was left.

Second Battle of Newbury

On 27 Oct 1644 Mountjoy Blount 1st Earl Newport 1597-1666 (47) fought for the Royalist Army at the Second Battle of Newbury.

On 27 Oct 1644 Maurice Palatinate-Simmern 1621-1652 fought for the defeated Royalist army at the Second Battle of Newbury at Speen, Newbury. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (53) was captured. Edward St John 1617-1644 (27) was killed.

Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

On 23 Dec 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (35) was beheaded at Tower Hill. His son John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692 (9) succeeded 3rd Baronet Carew of Antony in Cornwall.

King Charles I Rewards his Supporters

On 03 Jan 1645 King Charles I (44) rewarded two of his key captains with Baronies ...
John Brooke 1st Baron Cobham 1575-1660 (69) was created 1st Baron Cobham. Frances Bampfield Baroness Cobham by marriage Baroness Cobham.
John Lucas 1st Baron Lucas Shenfield 1606-1671 (38) was created 1st Baron Lucas (1C 1645).

Parliament Executes the Hothams

In early Jan 1645 Parliament decided to execute the Hothams, father and son, their having been sentenced around Sep 1643.

On 02 Jan 1645 John Hotham 1610-1645 (35) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians at Tower Hill.

On 03 Jan 1645 John Hotham 1st Baronet Hotham 1589-1645 (55) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians; his son having been executed the previous day. His grandson John Hotham 2nd Baronet Hotham 1632-1689 (12) succeeded 2nd Baronet Hotham of Scorborough in Yorkshire.

Treaty of Uxbridge

In 1645 Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (39) was appointed Commissioner at Uxbridge during the Treaty of Uxbridge.

In 1634. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (28).

In 1650. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (44).

Siege of Scarborough Castle

In 1645 Michael Wharton 1593-1645 (51) was killed during the Siege of Scarborough Castle.

In 1645 Henry Constable 1st Viscount Dunbar 1588-1645 (56) was killed at the Siege of Scarborough Castle. His son John Constable 2nd Viscount Dunbar 1615-1688 (30) succeeded 2nd Viscount Dunbar. Mary Brudenell Viscountess Dunbar by marriage Viscountess Dunbar.

Battle of Naseby

On 14 Jun 1645 Maurice Palatinate-Simmern 1621-1652 fought at Naseby during the Battle of Naseby for the Royalist army.
John Lucas 1st Baron Lucas Shenfield 1606-1671 (38) fought for the King.
Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (25) was wounded.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Battle of Lanport

On 10 Jul 1645 the Battle of Lanport was fought at Langport, Yeovil.
Charles Goring 2nd Earl Norwich 1615-1671 (30) was Colonel of a Regiment of Horse.

Battle of Torrington

On 16 Feb 1646 the Royalist Army commanded by Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton 1596-1652 (49) was defeated at the Torrington, Great Torrington bringing to an end Royalist resistance in the West Counntry. The battle was brought to an end when eighty barrels of gunpowder stored in St Michael and All Angels Church exploded killing the prisoners held there and nearly killed Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax 1612-1671 (34).

Siege of Exeter

In Apr 1646 Exeter was besieged by Parliamentary forces. Elizabeth Villiers Countess Morton 1609-1654 (36) with the infant Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670 escaped incognito to France.

Charles I's Flight from Hampton Court Palace

On 10 Nov 1647 Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (46) escaped from Hampton Court Palace with John Berkeley 1st Baron Berkeley 1602-1678 (45). .

Plum Pudding Riots

The Dec 1647 Plum Pudding Riots was a response to Puritan attempts to cease the celebration of Holy Days. The attempt to cancel Christmas in particular, with its twelve days of festivities, caused riots to break out in Canterbury.

Second Civil War

1648 Kentish Rebellion

The May 1648 Kentish Rebellion was, in effect, the commencement of the Second Civil War of 1648. The rebels, commanded by George Goring 1st Earl Norwich 1585-1663, raised forces across Kent. Deal Castle, Walmer Castle and Sandown Castle surrendered. The rebels then besieged Dover Castle. Parliament dispatched troops commanded by Nathaniel Rich of Stondon -1701 to suppress the rebels.

Battle of Willoughby Field

On 05 Jul 1648 Michael Stanhope 1624-1648 (24) was killed at Willoughby on the Wolds during the Battle of Willoughby Field.

Battle of St Neots

On 07 Jul 1648 Kenelm Digby 1625-1648 and Francis Villiers 1629-1648 were killed. .

On 10 Jul 1648 Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649 fought for the Royalist army, and surrendered, by his account, on condition his life would be spared at St Neots during the Battle of St Neots.

Siege of Colchester

John Evelyn's Diary 1648 May. 30th May 1648. There was a rising now in Kent, my Lord of Norwich (63) being at the head of them. Their first rendezvous was in Broome-field, next my house at Sayes Court, whence they went to Maidstone, and so to Colchester, where was that memorable siege.

On 28 Aug 1648 Colchester surrendered to Parliament forces after a three month siege.
Charles Lucas 1613-1648 and George Lisle surrendered, subjected to a trial and were shot and killed in Colchester Castle, Colchester.

John Evelyn's Diary 1656 July. 8th July 1656. To Colchester, a fair town, but now wretchedly demolished by the late siege, especially the suburbs, which were all burned, but were then repairing. The town is built on a rising ground, having fair meadows on one side, and a river with a strong ancient castle, said to have been built by King Coilus, father of Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, of whom I find no memory save at the pinnacle of one of their wool-staple houses, where is a statue of Coilus, in wood, wretchedly carved. The walls are exceedingly strong, deeply trenched, and filled with earth. It has six gates, and some watchtowers, and some handsome churches. But what was shown us as a kind of miracle, at the outside of the Castle, the wall where Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle, those valiant and noble persons who so bravely behaved themselves in the last siege, were barbarously shot, murdered by Ireton in cold blood, after surrendering on articles; having been disappointed of relief from the Scotch army, which had been defeated with the King at Worcester. The place was bare of grass for a large space, all the rest of it abounding with herbage. For the rest, this is a ragged and factious town, now swarming with sectaries. Their trading is in cloth with the Dutch, and baize and says with Spain; it is the only place in England where these stuffs are made unsophisticated. It is also famous for oysters and eringo root, growing hereabout, and candied for sale.
Went to Dedham, a pretty country town, having a very fair church, finely situated, the valley well watered. Here, I met with Dr. Stokes, a young gentleman, but an excellent mathematician. This is a clothing town, as most are in Essex, but lies in the unwholesome hundreds.
Hence to Ipswich, doubtless one of the sweetest, most pleasant, well-built towns in England. It has twelve fair churches, many noble houses, especially the Lord Devereux's; a brave quay, and commodious harbor, being about seven miles from the main; an ample market place. Here was born the great Cardinal Wolsey, who began a palace here, which was not finished.
I had the curiosity to visit some Quakers here in prison; a new fanatic sect, of dangerous principles, who show no respect to any man, magistrate, or other, and seem a melancholy, proud sort of people, and exceedingly ignorant. One of these was said to have fasted twenty days; but another, endeavoring to do the like, perished on the 10th, when he would have eaten, but could not.

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Artist. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530.

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 March. 24 Mar 1688. I went with Sir Charles Littleton (60) to Sheen, a house and estate given him by Lord Brounker; one who was ever noted for a hard, covetous, vicious man; but for his worldly craft and skill in gaming few exceeded him. Coming to die, he bequeathed all his land, house, furniture, etc., to Sir Charles (60), to whom he had no manner of relation, but an ancient friendship contracted at the famous siege of Colchester, forty years before. It is a pretty place, with fine gardens, and well planted, and given to one worthy of them, Sir Charles (60) being an honest gentleman and soldier. He is brother to Sir Henry Littleton (64) of Worcestershire, whose great estate he is likely to inherit, his brother being without children. They are descendants of the great lawyer of that name, and give the same arms and motto. He is married to one Mrs. Temple, formerly Maid of Honour to the late Queen (49), a beautiful lady, and he has many fine children, so that none envy his good fortune.
After dinner, we went to see Sir William Temple's near to it; the most remarkable things are his orangery and gardens, where the wall-fruit-trees are most exquisitely nailed and trained, far better than I ever noted.
There are many good pictures, especially of Vandyke's, in both these houses, and some few statues and small busts in the latter.
From thence to Kew, to visit Sir Henry Capel's (50), whose orangery and myrtetum are most beautiful and perfectly well kept. He was contriving very high palisadoes of reeds to shade his oranges during the summer, and painting those reeds in oil.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Treaty of Newport

Between 15 Sep 1648 and 27 Nov 1648 the Treaty of Newport attempted to reconcile Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (47) (who was imprisoned at nearby Carisbrooke Castle) with Parliament. Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles 1599-1680 (48) and Henry "Younger" Vane 1613-1662 (35) represented Parliament. James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 (37) represented King Charles. The Treaty eventually came to nothing.
Parliament was also represented by John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (50), John Glynne Judge 1602-1666 (46), Nathaniel Fiennes 1608-1669 (40), William Pierrepoint 1608-1678 (40), Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland 1602-1668 (45), William Fiennes 1st Viscount Saye and Sele 1582-1662 (66), Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke, 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (63), William Cecil 2nd Earl Salisbury 1591-1668 (57), James Cranfield 2nd Earl Middlesex 1621-1651 (27) and Thomas Wenman 2nd Viscount Wenman 1596-1665 (52).

John Evelyn's Diary 1648 December. 13th December, 1648. The Parliament now sat up the whole night, and endeavored to have concluded the Isle of Wight Treaty; but were surprised by the rebel army; the members dispersed, and great confusion every where in expectation of what would be next.

Rump Parliament

On 04 Jan 1649 Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (48) was committed for trial by the Rump Parliament.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1660 January. 01 Jan 1660. Sunday. Blessed be God, at the end of the last year I was in very good health, without any sense of my old pain, but upon taking of cold.
I lived in Axe Yard having my wife (19), and servant Jane, and no more in family than us three.
My wife (19) … gave me hopes of her being with child, but on the last day of the year … [the hope was belied.] The condition of the State was thus; viz. the Rump, after being disturbed by my Lord Lambert (40), was lately returned to sit again. The officers of the Army all forced to yield. Lawson (45) lies still in the river, and Monk (51) is with his army in Scotland. Only my Lord Lambert (40) is not yet come into the Parliament, nor is it expected that he will without being forced to it.
The new Common Council of the City do speak very high; and had sent to Monk (51) their sword-bearer, to acquaint him with their desires for a free and full Parliament, which is at present the desires, and the hopes, and expectation of all. Twenty-two of the old secluded members having been at the House-door the last week to demand entrance, but it was denied them; and it is believed that they nor the people will be satisfied till the House be filled.
My own private condition very handsome, and esteemed rich, but indeed very poor; besides my goods of my house, and my office, which at present is somewhat uncertain. Mr. Downing (35) master of my office.
(Lord’s Day) This morning (we living lately in the garret) I rose, put on my suit with great skirts, having not lately worn any other, clothes but them.
Went to Mr. Gunning’s (46) chapel at Exeter House, where he made a very good sermon upon these words: — "That in the fulness of time God sent his Son, made of a woman," &c.; showing, that, by "made under the law," is meant his circumcision, which is solemnized this day.
Dined at home in the garret, where my wife (19) dressed the remains of a turkey, and in the doing of it she burned her hand.
I staid at home all the afternoon, looking over my accounts.
Then went with my wife (19) to my father’s (58), and in going observed the great posts which the City have set up at the Conduit in Fleet-street.
Supt at my, father’s (58), where in came Mrs. The. Turner (8) and Madam Morrice, and supt with us. After that my wife (19) and I went home with them, and so to our own home.

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 February. 11th February 1660. A signal day. Monk (51), perceiving how infamous and wretched a pack of knaves would have still usurped the supreme power, and having intelligence that they intended to take away his commission, repenting of what he had done to the city, and where he and his forces were quartered, marches to Whitehall, dissipates that nest of robbers, and convenes the old Parliament, the Rump Parliament (so called as retaining some few rotten members of the other) being dissolved; and for joy whereof were many thousands of rumps roasted publicly in the streets at the bonfires this night, with ringing of bells, and universal jubilee. This was the first good omen.

Trial of Charles I

In 1649 William Heveningham 1604-1678 (45) refused to sign the death warrant of Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (48). .

John Evelyn's Diary 1649 January. 22d January 1649. I went through a course of chemistry, at Sayes Court. Now was the Thames frozen over, and horrid tempests of wind.
The villany of the rebels proceeding now so far as to try, condemn, and murder our excellent King (48) on the 30th of this month, struck me with such horror, that I kept the day of his martyrdom a fast, and would not be present at that execrable wickedness; receiving the sad account of it from my brother George (31), and Mr. Owen, who came to visit me this afternoon, and recounted all the circumstances.

On 23 Jan 1649 Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (48) was tried at Westminster Hall by Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (56). The fifty-nine signatories were:
1 John Bradshaw Judge 1602-1659 (47)
2 Thomas Grey 1623-1657 (26)
3 Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (49)
7 John Danvers 1588-1655 (60)
9 Henry Ireton 1611-1651 (38)
11 Hardress Waller Regicide 1604-1666 (45)
27 Adrian Scrope Regicide 1601-1660
34 Richard Ingoldsby Judge Regicide 1617-1685 (31)
42 John Jones Regicide 1597-1660
54 Gregory Clement Regicide 1594-1660 (55)
57 Thomas Scot Regicide -1660
58 John Carew Regicide 1622-1660

The commissioners who sat at the trial but did not sign the Death Warrant included:
William Monson 1st Viscount Monson 1599-1672 (50)

The Captain of the Guard was Daniel Axtell (27). The guards were ...
Francis Hacker Regicide -1660.

Execution of Charles I

John Evelyn's Diary 1649 January. 22d January 1649. I went through a course of chemistry, at Sayes Court. Now was the Thames frozen over, and horrid tempests of wind.
The villany of the rebels proceeding now so far as to try, condemn, and murder our excellent King (48) on the 30th of this month, struck me with such horror, that I kept the day of his martyrdom a fast, and would not be present at that execrable wickedness; receiving the sad account of it from my brother George (31), and Mr. Owen, who came to visit me this afternoon, and recounted all the circumstances.

On 30 Jan 1649 Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

Execution of Three Lords

John Evelyn's Diary 1649 February. 1st February 1649. Now were Duke Hamilton, the Earl of Norwich (63), Lord Capell, etc., at their trial before the rebels' New Court of Injustice.

John Evelyn's Diary 1649 March. 5th March 1649. Now were the Lords murdered in the Palace Yard.

On 09 Mar 1649 at the Old Palace Yard ...
Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649 was executed.
Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649 was beheaded.
James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton 1606-1649 was beheaded for his support of the Royalist cause and his leading an army against Cromwell. His brother William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton 1616-1651 succeeded 2nd Duke Hamilton by special remainder.
John Owen 1600-1666 had been sentenced to death but was subsequently pardoned.

Siege of Drogheda

Between 03 Sep 1649 and 11 Sep 1649 Drogheda, under the command of the Royalist Arthur Aston Soldier 1590-1649 (59), was besieged by the Parliamentary army commanded by Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (50). When the Royalist forces surrendered they were killed once they had laid down their arms.
Arthur Aston Soldier 1590-1649 (59) was killed.

John Evelyn's Diary 1649 October. 15th October, 1649. Came news of Drogheda being taken by the rebels, and all put to the sword, which made us very sad, forerunning the loss of all Ireland.