Executions

beheaded

Revolt of the Earls

On 31 May 1076 Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton, 1st Earl Huntingdon -1076 was beheaded at St Gile's Hill, Winchester. His daughter Maud Northumbria 3rd Countess Huntingdon and Northampton Queen Consort Scotland 1074-1131 (2) succeeded 3rd Earl Huntingdon (1C 1065).

On 18 Jan 1256 Maria Reginar Duchess Bavaria 1226-1256 (30) was beheaded having been accused of adultery by her husband Louis "Strict" Wittelsbach II Duke Upper Bavaria 1229-1294 (26) although there was no proof.

On 12 Aug 1270 Alan Zouche 1203-1270 (67) was beheaded at Winchester.

In 1276 Teobaldo Visconti 1230–1276 (46) was beheaded.

Execution of Piers Gaveston

On 19 Jun 1312 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (28) was taken to Blacklow Hill, Leek Wooton where he was beheaded. Blacklow Hill, Leek Wooton being outside of the Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315 (40) 's lands. Gaveston's body was left where it lay eventually being recovered by Dominican friars who took it to Oxford.

Despencer War Executions

On 22 Mar 1322 Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (44) was beheaded at Pontefract Castle.

Trial and Execution of Lord Badlesmere

On 14 Apr 1322 Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46) was tried by Henry Cobham 1st Baron Cobham 1260-1339 (62) at Canterbury.
Sentenced to death Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46) was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, Canterbury, where he held property, where he was beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate, Canterbury at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean, Canterbury. He was buried at Whitefriars, Canterbury. His son Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere 1314-1338 (7) succeeded 2nd Baron Badlesmere. Elizabeth Montagu Baroness Badlesmere, Baroness Despencer 1324-1359 by marriage Baroness Badlesmere.

On 17 Nov 1326 Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel 1285-1326 (41) was beheaded with a blunt sword requiring twenty-two strokes at Hereford. His son Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel, 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376 (20) succeeded 10th Earl Arundel (Sussex).

Execution of Edmund of Woodstock

On 19 Mar 1330 the King's uncle Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent 1301-1330 (28) was beheaded at Winchester Castle. His son Edmund Plantagenet 2nd Earl Kent 1326-1331 (4) succeeded 2nd Earl Kent (5C 1321). The executioner was a convicted latrine cleaner who was also facing the death penalty; no-one else would undertake the task. Edmund had been convicted of plotting against the court believing his brother Edward II was still alive. It later emerged the plot had been created by Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (42) to entrap Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent 1301-1330 (28). King Edward III England (17) was unable to show leniency risking complicity in the plot.

Peasant's Revolt

On 14 Jun 1381 the rebels gained access to the Tower Hill capturing Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (52), the future Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (14), Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1484 (1) and Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (65).
Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (65) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Canterbury Cathedral.

On 15 Jun 1381 John Cavendish 1346-1381 (35) was captured at Church of St Mary, Cavendish during the Peasant's Revolt. He (35) was beheaded in the Market Place in Bury St Edmunds.

On 17 Aug 1390 Robert Hales 1325-1390 (65) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel

On 21 Sep 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) was tried at Westminster.
He (51) was beheaded at Tower Hill immediately thereafter. His son Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey, 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (15) succeeded 10th Earl Surrey (1C 1088), 12th Earl Arundel (Sussex).

On 25 Mar 1399 Nicholas Brembre -1399 was beheaded. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars.

Execution of Richard II's Favourites

On 29 Jul 1399 William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (49), Henry Green 1347-1399 and John Bussy Speaker of the House of Commons -1399 were beheaded at Bristol Castle, Bristol.

Epiphany Rising

On 07 Jan 1400 at Cirencester Ralph Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1360-1400 (40) was beheaded by the townspeople following an unsuccessful attempt to seize the town.
Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (26) was beheaded. His brother Edmund Holland 4th Earl Kent 1384-1408 (16) succeeded 4th Earl Kent (6C 1360), 5th Baron Holland.
John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 (50) was captured, tried and beheaded.
Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was captured.

On 13 Jan 1400 Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester 1373-1400 (26) was beheaded at Bristol.

On 05 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was beheaded at Tyburn.

Battle of Shrewsbury

On 21 Jul 1403 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36), with his son the future Henry V King England 1386-1422 (16), defeated the rebel army of Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39) at the Battle of Shrewsbury at the site now known as Battlefield, Shrewsbury. Henry V King England 1386-1422 (16) took an arrow to the side of his face leaving him severely scarred. John Stanley 1350-1414 (53) was wounded in the throat. Thomas Strickland 1367-1455 (36) fought and was awarded £38 and two of the rebel Henry's horses. Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (21) fought for the King. Walter Blount 1348-1403 (55), the King's Standard Bearer, was killed by Archibald Douglas 1st Duke Touraine 1372-1424.
Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (59) and Edmund Cockayne 1356-1403 were killed.
Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (25) was killed. His son Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 succeeded 6th Earl Stafford (1C 1351), 7th Baron Stafford (1C 1299). Anne Neville Duchess Buckingham by marriage Baroness Stafford (1C 1299).
Hugh Shirley 1351-1403 (52) was killed; he was one of four knights dressed as Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).
Of the rebels, Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39), Madog Kynaston 1360-1403 and John Clifton -1403 were killed. Thomas Percy 1st Earl Worcester 1343-1403 (60) was beheaded after the battle. Richard Vernon 1355-1403 (48) was hanged.

Northern Rising

On 08 Jun 1405 before a great crowd at York ...
Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (55) was beheaded. Possibly the only execution of an Archbishop that occurred in England.
Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk, 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 (19) was beheaded. His brother John Mowbray 2nd Duke Norfolk 1392-1432 (13) succeeded 5th Earl Norfolk (3C 1312), 3rd Earl Nottingham (2C 1383), 8th Baron Mowbray (1C 1283), 9th Baron Segrave (2C 1295).

On 20 Jul 1405 John Fauconberg -1405 was beheaded in Durham.

Southampton Plot

On 02 Aug 1415 Thomas Grey 1384-1415 (30) was beheaded at North Gate, Southampton for his role in the Southampton Plot.

On 05 Aug 1415 Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham 1373-1415 (42) and Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 were beheaded at the North Gate aka Bargate for their roles in the Southampton Plot.
Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (3) succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge (3C 1414).
John Scrope 4th Baron Scrope Masham 1388-1455 (27) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope Masham.

Purge of the Albany Stewarts

On 24 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany 1362-1425 (63),Walter Stewart 1394-1425,Alexander Stewart -1425 and Duncan Lennox 8th Earl Lennox 1345-1425 were beheaded at Heading Hill, Stirling Castle.

In 1437 Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 1360-1437 (77) was beheaded at Edinburgh Castle.

Douglas Black Dinner

On 24 Nov 1440 William Crichton -1454 arranged a dinner of reconciliation at the Great Hall, Edinburgh Castle. During the course of the dinner the young brothers William Douglas 3rd Duke Touraine 1424-1440 (16) and David Douglas 1430-1440 was beheaded in front of the young James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (10).

In 1447 Gruffudd Vychan 1395-1447 (52) was beheaded at Powis Castle, Radnorshire, Welsh March.

Murder of William de la Pole

On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower. On 01 May 1450 His son John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (7) succeeded 2nd Marquess Suffolk (1C), 5th Earl Suffolk (3C 1385). Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (6) by marriage Marchioness Suffolk (1C).

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge, St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

On 29 Jul 1460 Thomas Browne Lord Treasurer Lord Chancellor 1402-1460 (58) was beheaded at Tyburn.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33) and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was killed. His son Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) succeeded 4th Duke York (1C 1385), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge (3C 1414).
Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (29), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed. Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed. Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Wigmore the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471, John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (35), John Savage 1444-1492 and Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51). In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) (captured by Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51) ) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40). Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth 1393-1461 (68) was killed.
Following the battle Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) was beheaded in the Market Place, Hereford. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church, Hereford in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen 1459-1535 (2).

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33). Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 were knighted.
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (33), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (42) and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 were killed.
John Grey 1432-1461 (29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) subsequently married Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18).
During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.
William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 succeeded 7th Baron Harington, 2nd Baron Bonville
Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was beheaded.

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.
The Yorkist army was commanded by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471.
The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy 1426-1461 (35), Ralph Bigod 1410-1461, John Bigod -1461, Robert Cromwell 1390-1461, Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1412-1461, Ralph Eure 1412-1461, John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, John Beaumont 1428-1461, Thomas Dethick 1400-1461, Everard Simon Digby -1461, William Plumpton -1461 and William Welles 1410-1461 who were killed.
Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39) was killed. His son Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland (1C 1377). Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland 1458-1485 (3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland (1C 1377).
Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (55) was killed. His son Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.
Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (60), William Norreys 1441-1507 (20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (30), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33), Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471. Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (41) were captured.
On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon 1432-1461 (29) was beheaded at York. His brother John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (26) succeeded 15th Earl Devon (2C Courtenay). Laura Bourchier Countess Devon 1440- by marriage Countess Devon (2C Courtenay).
Robert Dethick 1375-1461 (86) was killed.
John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland 1416-1461 (45) was killed.
Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43) was executed.

On 01 May 1461 James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40) was beheaded at Newcastle on Tyne having been captured at, or after, the Battle of Towton. His brother John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39) succeeded 6th Earl Ormonde (1C 1328).

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

On 23 Feb 1462 William Tyrrell 1408-1462 (54), John Montgomery -1462 and Thomas Tuddenham 1401-1462 were beheaded at Tower Hill.

In 1463 John Douglas 1433-1463 (30) was beheaded.

Battle of Hexham

On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hexham during the Battle of Hexham.
Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (36), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (36).
Of the Lancastrian army William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (49) fought. Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (33) and Philip Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer 1424-1464 (40) were both captured.
Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) was beheaded following the battle. His brother Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471 succeeded 4th Duke Somerset (2C 1448).
On 18 May 1464 Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (33) was executed at Newcastle on Tyne.
Philip Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer 1424-1464 (40) was executed at Middleham. His son Henry Wentworth 5th Baron Despencer 1448-1501 (16) succeeded 5th Baron Despencer (5C 1387).

On 26 May 1464 William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (49) was beheaded at Sandhills, Newcastle on Tyne. He was buried at Greyfriar's Church, Newcastle on Tyne. Robert Tailboys 8th Baron Kyme 1450-1495 (14) de jure 8th Baron Kyme. Elizabeth Heron Baroness Kyme 1453-1495 (11) by marriage Baroness Kyme.

On 15 Jul 1464 Ralph Grey 1432-1464 (32) was beheaded at Doncaster.

Execution of Warwick's Supporters

On 17 Jan 1469 Warwick's supporters were executed in Salisbury Marketplace in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26):
Thomas Hungerford -1469 was beheaded. His daughter Mary Hungerford 4th Baroness Hungerford 1468-1533 (1) succeeded 4th Baron Hungerford.
Henry Courtenay -1469 was beheaded.

Battle of Edgecote Moor

On 26 Jul 1469 the Yorkist army suffered a defeat against a Lancastrian army led by Robin of Redesdale at the Battle of Edgecote Moor. The Yorkist army was commanded by John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (34) and William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469 (46).
Thomas Vaughan 1400-1469 (69), John Wogan -1469, Henry Neville 1437-1469, John Conyers 1433-1469 and Oliver Dudley 1437-1469 were killed. Humphrey Stafford 1st Earl Devon 1439-1469 (30), John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (58) and William Parr KG 1434-1483 (35) fought. Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (64) and John Woodville 1445-1469 (24) were captured.
Richard Herbert 1423-1469 (46) was beheaded.

Execution of the Woodvilles

On 12 Aug 1469 Woodvilles father and son were beheaded at Kenilworth Castle by supporters of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) ...
Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (64) was beheaded. His son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (29) succeeded 2nd Earl Rivers (1C 1466).
John Woodville 1445-1469 (24) was beheaded.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville fued that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.

Welles' Rebellion & Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

On 12 Mar 1470 Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (42) and Thomas Dymoke 1428-1470 were beheaded at Queen's Cross, Stamford. Note. Some sources say on battlefield immediately prior to the battle.

On 12 Mar 1470 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) commanded at the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). The battle apparently didn't take place since the army of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 fled in the face of the Royal army. The name 'Losecoat' not contemporary; Battle of Empingham may be. Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was captured with documents describing the fomenting of rebellion by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (42) and George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (20).

On 19 Mar 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was beheaded at Doncaster. He was buried at Whitefriars, Doncaster. His sister Joan Welles 9th Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1475 succeeded 9th Baron Willoughby Eresby. Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 (37) by marriage Baron Willoughby Eresby. He, Hastings, a favourite of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27), younger brother of Edward's (27) great friend William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (39).

Execution of John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester

On 18 Oct 1470 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (43) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. On 14 Apr 1471 His son Edward Tiptoft 2nd Earl Worcester 1470-1485 succeeded 2nd Earl Worcester (4C 1449), 3rd Baron Tiptoft.

In 1471 Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (61) was beheaded at Chepstow aka Striguil, Monmouthshire, South-East Wales.

On 22 Sep 1471 Thomas "Bastard of Fauconberg" Neville 1429-1471 (42) was beheaded at Middleham Castle, Middleham. His head was displayed at London Bridge.

In 1475 Robert Radclyffe -1475 was beheaded.

On 19 Dec 1475 Louis Luxemburg I Count Saint-Pol 1418-1475 (57) was beheaded at Paris. His son Peter Luxemburg II Count Saint-Pol 1440-1492 (35) succeeded II Count Saint-Pol. Margaret Savoy Count Saint-Pol 1439-1495 (36) by marriage Countess Saint-Pol.

On 04 Aug 1477 Jacques Armagnac Duke Nemours 1433-1477 (44) was beheaded.

Execution of Hastings

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle next to Edward IV King England 1442-1483. His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings (2C 1430). Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings, 4th Baroness Hungerford 1466-1553 (17) by marriage Baroness Hastings (2C 1430).
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

Execution of the Woodvilles and their Affinity

On 25 Jun 1483 supporters of the Woodviles were executed at Pontefract Castle ...
Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (43) was beheaded. His brother Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30) succeeded 3rd Earl Rivers (1C 1466).
Richard Grey 1457-1483 (26) and Thomas Vaughan were beheaded.

Buckingham's Rebellion

In Oct 1483 Buckingham's Rebellion was an attempt to replace Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) with Henry Tudor (26). Richard Haute -1487 took part. He escaped execution, and was subsequently pardoned.
Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30) was attainted.
On 02 Nov 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (29) was beheaded in Salisbury Marketplace for his part in the rebellion. His son Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (5) succeeded 8th Earl Stafford (1C 1351), 9th Baron Stafford (1C 1299).
On 08 Nov 1483 Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (43) was executed at Exeter Castle, Exeter.
Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28) and Eleanor Bohun Countess Ormonde 1304-1363 escaped to Henry VII in Brittany. Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (18), Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (32) and Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon -1509 took part.!The rebellion was suppressed by Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (33) and Robert Willoughby 1st Baron Willoughby Broke 1452-1502 (31).
On 04 Dec 1483 George Browne 1440-1483 (43) was beheaded at Tower Hill.
On 23 Jan 1484 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (40) was subject to an attainder in the first Parliament of Richard III for her involvement. Whilst the Act was described as an Attainder Richard in effect transferred all of Margaret's property to her husband Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48) as follows:
An act for the attainder of Margaret, countess of Richmond (40):
Because Margaret, countess of Richmond, mother of the king's great rebel and traitor, Henry, earl of Richmond, has lately conspired, leagued and committed high treason against our sovereign lord King Richard III in various ways, and in particular by sending messages, writings and tokens to the said Henry, urging, instigating and stirring him by them to come into this realm to make war upon our said sovereign lord; to which urging, instigation and stirring the said Henry applied himself, as experience has recently shown. Also, the said countess supplied great sums of money within the city of London as well as elsewhere in this realm to be employed in the execution of the said treason and malicious purpose; and the said countess also conspired, leagued and plotted the destruction of our said sovereign lord, and knew of and assented to, and assisted in the treason planned and committed by Henry, late Duke of Buckingham, and his supporters, for which he and some of his supporters have been attainted by an act in this present parliament. Nevertheless, our said sovereign lord, of his special grace, mindful of the good and faithful service which Thomas, Lord Stanley, has given and intends to give our said sovereign lord, and for the sincere love and trust which the king has in him, and for his sake, remits and will forbear the great punishment of attainting the said countess, which she or anyone else doing the same has deserved; and in consideration of the foregoing, our said sovereign lord wills that it be enacted, ordained and decreed, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons assembled in this present parliament, and by authority of the same, that the said countess henceforth shall be legally unable to have, inherit or enjoy any manors, lands or tenements, or other hereditaments or possessions whatsoever, and also henceforth shall be unable to bear or have any name of estate or dignity; and that the said countess shall forfeit to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs all the castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments and possessions, whatsoever they may be, of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised or possessed of estate of fee-simple, fee-tail, term of life, in dower or otherwise. And be it ordained by the said authority that all the said castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments with the appurtenances of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised of estate of fee-simple or fee-tail, shall remain to the said Thomas for term of his life, and after his death to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs. And moreover, all the lordships, manors, lands, tenements, rents, services and reversions of which the said countess, or any other person to her use, is now seised of estate, term of her life or in dower, shall remain to the said Thomas during her life. And if the said Thomas dies during the lifetime of the said countess, they shall remain to the king; saving to every person and persons, except the said countess and her heirs, their right, title and interest in the said lands and tenements.

Around 1520 Unknown Artist. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Execution of Roger Clifford

On 02 May 1485 Roger Clifford 1437-1485 (48) was beheaded at Tower Hill for supporting Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28).

On 12 Mar 1491 Robert Chamberlayne 1438-1491 (53) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Perkin Warbreck Plot

On 16 Feb 1495 William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (60) and Simon Montfort -1495 were beheaded at Tower Hill for their part in the Perkin Warbeck Plot.

On 24 Nov 1496 John Radclyffe 9th Baron Fitzwalter 1452-1496 (44) was beheaded at Calais for trying to bribe his jailers.

On 29 Jun 1497 James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley Heighley 1463-1497 (34) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Blackfriars Church, Holborn. His son John Tuchet 8th Baron Audley Heighley 1483-1557 (14) succeeded 8th Baron Audley Heighley in Staffordshire. Mary Griffin Baroness Audley Heighley by marriage Baroness Audley Heighley in Staffordshire.

On 21 Aug 1497 Lorenzo Tornabuoni 1465-1497 (32) was beheaded for scheming with France against Florence.

In 1488 Domenico Ghirlandaio Painter 1448-1494 (39). Portrait of Giovanna degli Albizzi 1468-1488 (19) commissioned around the time of her death by her husband Lorenzo Tornabuoni 1465-1497 (23). The figure is wearing precious clothes including a gamurra vest. On the right, behind her, are a hanging coral necklace (perhaps a rosary), a partly closed prayer book, and a Latin inscription, taken from an epigram by the 1st century AD poet Martial. She also holds a handkerchief. The figure of Giovanna is idealized in appearance and proportion which was the tradition of the time.
Many aspects of this portrait hold symbolic significance in emphasizing her wealth, status, and piety. Giovanna's fine clothing indicates her status and the wealth of her family.
The Tornabuoni emblem is present on her clothes, as well as two "Ls" on her shoulder, referring to her husband, Lorenzo.
In addition to the clothes, the presence of pearls and brooches also emphasizes the family's wealth.
The pendant featured in the portrait shows a small diamond set in gold above a large ruby with three pearls hanging beneath it. This was a signature ornament found in depictions of Giovanna and came from Lodovica's dowry.
The coral beads seen in the background are likely a rosary, signifying Giovanna's religious piety.
The book seen behind Giovanna, possibly a prayer book, also refers to her piety and educated status.
A significant aspect of the background in this portrait is the cartellino behind Giovanna. The inscription is a modified excerpt of a poem by the author Martial: "ARS VTINAM MORES ANIMVM QVU EFFINGERE POSSES PVCHRIOR IN TERRIS NVLLA TABELLA FORET MCCCCLXXXVIII". This translates to "Art, would that you could represent character and mind! There would be no more beautiful painting on earth 1488".

Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

On 17 Aug 1510 Edmund Dudley 1462-1510 (48) and Richard Empson 1450-1510 were beheaded at Tower Hill for constructive treason for having carried out King Henry VII's rigorous and arbitrary system of taxation. The new King Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (19) attempting to distance himself from his father's policies.

On 30 Apr 1513 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 (42) was beheaded at Tower Hill after having been imprisoned for seven years.

Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

On 22 Jun 1535 John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (65) was beheaded on Tower Hill.

On 06 Jul 1535 Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (57) was beheaded on Tower Hill.

Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

On 17 May 1536 George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33), Henry Norreys 1482-1536, Francis Weston 1511-1536, William Brereton 1487-1536 and Mark Smeaton 1512-1536 were beheaded at Tower Hill. They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 19 May 1536 Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).
Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:
Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.
To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.
She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.

Around 1543 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (59).

Bigod's Rebellion

Around May 1537 John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey Sleaford 1465-1537 (72) was beheaded at Lincoln.

On 02 Jun 1537 George Lumley -1537 was beheaded at Tower Hill.

On 30 Jun 1537 Thomas Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Templehurst 1467-1537 (70) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Exeter Conspiracy

On 08 Dec 1538 Edward Neville 1471-1538 (67) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

On 09 Jan 1539 Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (47) and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1539 were beheaded at Tower Hill.

On 03 Mar 1539 Nicholas Carew KG 1496-1539 (43) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Execution of Thomas Cromwell

On 28 Jul 1540 Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury 1503-1540 (37) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He, together with his chaplain, a Wiltshire clergyman named William Bird, Rector of Fittleton and Vicar of Bradford, who was suspected of sympathising with the pilgrims of grace of the north of England, was attainted by act of parliament. Hungerford was charged with employing Bird in his house as chaplain, knowing him to be a traitor; with ordering another chaplain, Hugh Wood, and one Dr. Maudlin to practise conjuring to detErmine the king's length of life, and his chances of victory over the northern rebels; and finally with committing offences forbidden by the Buggery Act 1533.

On 28 Jul 1540 Thomas Cromwell (55) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540.

Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

On 10 Dec 1541. At Tyburn ....
Francis Dereham (28) was hanged.
Thomas Culpepper 1514-1541 (27) was beheaded. He was buried at St Sepulchre-without-Newgate, Holborn.

Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

On 13 Feb 1542 Catherine Howard (19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 were beheaded at Tower Green. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547.

In 1546 Unknown Artist. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 (30) wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right , his left .

On 19 Jan 1547 Henry Howard 1516-1547 (31) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham. He had follisshly added the arms of Edward the Confessor to his own arms. he was charged with treasonably quartering the royal arms. His father survived sentence since the King died the day before it was due to take place.

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 20 Mar 1549 Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour Sudeley 1508-1549 (41) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Edward Seymour's Execution

On 22 Jan 1552 Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (52) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. King Edward VI (14) noted in his diary ... "the duke of Somerset had his head cut off upon Tower Hill between eight and nine o'clock in the morning".
On 26 Feb 1552 Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) and Michael Stanhope 1507-1552 were beheaded at Tower Hill for plotting to assassinate John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (48). Both men protested their innocence to the end.
Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 22 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (49) was beheaded at Tower Hill. His son John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick 1527-1554 (26) succeeded 2nd Earl Warwick (2C 1547), 2nd Viscount Lisle (5C 1543). Anne Seymour Viscountess Lisle 1538-1588 (15) by marriage Viscountess Lisle (5C 1543).

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley

On 12 Feb 1554 Lady Jane Grey (18) was beheaded at Tower Green by order of Queen Elizabeth I (20). She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. Guildford Dudley (19) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Wyatt's Rebellion

On 23 Feb 1554 Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (37) was beheaded at Tower Hill. .

On 11 Apr 1554 Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554 (33) was beheaded at Tower Hill. .

Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554 (29).

On 22 Aug 1572 Thomas Percy 7th Earl of Northumberland 1528-1572 (44) was beheaded at The Pavement in York. His brother Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585 (40) succeeded 8th Earl of Northumberland (1C 1377).

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

On 08 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) was beheaded in the Great Hall in Fotheringhay Castle.
George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), Richard Knightley 1532-1615 (55) and Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624 (13) witnessed her execution.
There are few extant original sources describing Mary's execution. Those that do exist are somewhat contradictory. They include The letter-books of Sir Amias Poulet, Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots, the Calendar of State Papers, Spain (known as the Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603 and Beale's sketch of the execution. The most reliable primary source appears to be Jebb's De vita et rebus gestis serenissimæ principis Mariæ Scotorum Reginæ published in Paris in 1589 in French; there doesn't appear to be an extant translation.

Battle of Carrickfergus

On Nov 1597 John Chichester -1597 was beheaded by Randal "Arranach" Macdonnell 1st Earl Antrim -1636 at Carrickfergus, County Antrim.

Essex Rebellion

On 25 Feb 1601 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London during the Essex Rebellion.

On 18 Mar 1601 Charles Danvers 1568-1601 (33) and Christopher Blount 1565-1601 was beheaded for their part in the Essex Rebellion.

On 21 May 1613 John Maxwell 9th Lord Maxwell 1583-1613 (30) was beheaded at Edinburgh for the murder of the Laird of Johnstone.

On 29 Oct 1618 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (64) was beheaded at Old Palace Yard. He was buried in St Margaret's Church.

In 1585 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (31).

In 1588 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (34).

On 14 May 1631 Mervyn Tuchet 2nd Earl Castlehaven 1593-1631 (38) was beheaded at Tower Hill for the unnatural crime of sodomy, committed with his page Laurence (or Florence) FitzPatrick, who conFessed to the crime and was executed; and assisting Giles Browning (alias Broadway), who was also executed, in the rape of his wife Anne, Countess of Castlehaven, in which Lord Castlehaven was found to have participated by restraining her. His son James Tuchet 3rd Earl Castlehaven 1617-1686 (14) succeeded 3rd Earl Castlehaven, 3rd Baron Audley of Orier. Elizabeth Brydges Countess Castlehaven 1619-1678 (12) by marriage Countess Castlehaven. He didn't succeed to his father's English titles as a result of his father's attainder.

Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

On 12 May 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48) was beheaded at Tower Hill. His execution was attended by an enormous crowd.

On 19 Jul 1644 John Gordon 1st Baronet Gordon 1610-1644 (34) was beheaded for treason. On 19 Jul 1644 His son John Gordon 2nd Baronet Gordon 1632-1665 (12) succeeded 2nd Baronet Gordon of Haddo for suppressing the Conventers.

Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

On 23 Dec 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (35) was beheaded at Tower Hill. His son John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692 (9) succeeded 3rd Baronet Carew of Antony in Cornwall.

Parliament Executes the Hothams

On 02 Jan 1645 John Hotham 1610-1645 (35) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians at Tower Hill.

On 03 Jan 1645 John Hotham 1st Baronet Hotham 1589-1645 (55) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians; his son having been executed the previous day. His grandson John Hotham 2nd Baronet Hotham 1632-1689 (12) succeeded 2nd Baronet Hotham of Scorborough in Yorkshire.

On 10 Jan 1645 William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645 (71) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St John's College.

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

In 1650 Henry Hyde Royalist 1605-1650 (45) was beheaded.

On 08 Jun 1658 Henry Slingsby 1st Baronet Scriven 1602-1658 (56) was beheaded on Tower Hill for being a Royalist. His son Thomas Slingsby 2nd Baronet Scriven 1636-1688 (21) succeeded 2nd Baronet Slingsby Scriven.

On 27 May 1661 Archibald Campbell 1st Marquess Argyll 1607-1661 (54) was beheaded for his perceived treason on the restoration of Charles II at Edinburgh. He was buried at Kilmun Church.

On 14 Jun 1662 Henry "Younger" Vane 1613-1662 (49) was beheaded at Tower Hill for treason against King Charles II (32). He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

On 29 Dec 1680 William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford 1614-1680 (66) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was attainted; Viscount Stafford extinct. Henry Stafford Howard 1st Earl Stafford 1648-1719 (32) de jure 2nd Baron Stafford (5C 1640).

Rye House Plot

On 21 Jul 1683 William Russell 1639-1683 (43) was beheaded by Jack Ketch -1686 at Lincoln's Inn for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. The executioner was so inept that he took four axe blows to separate the head from the body. After the first failed blow his victim looked up and said "You dog, did I give you 10 guineas to use me so inhumanely?".

On 07 Dec 1683 Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (60) was beheaded at Tower Hill during the Rye House Plot.

Argyll's Rising

On 30 Jun 1685 Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (56) was beheaded on the Maiden (an early gullotine) in Edinburgh for his part in Argyll's Rising. His son Archibald Campbell 1st Duke Argyll 1658-1703 (26) succeeded 10th Earl Argyll. Elizabeth Tollemache Duchess Argyll 1659-1735 (25) by marriage Countess Argyll.

Battle of Sedgemoor

On 15 Jul 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (36) was beheaded at Tower Hill. Francis Turner Bishop 1637-1700 (47) acted a Chaplain.

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

On 28 Jan 1697 John Fenwick 3rd Baronet 1645-1697 (52) was beheaded for his part in the 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:
George Seton 5th Earl of Winton 1678-1749. The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.
On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure 1672-1716 was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale 1676-1744. On 09 Feb 1716 he was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (35) effected his escape from the Tower of London by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (26) was.
James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater 1692-1723 (23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave 1695-1719 (20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond 1671-1722 (44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 appealed to George I King Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727 (54) in person without success. On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne 1665-1726 was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.
On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh -1716 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.
The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723 (50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

Jack Cade's Rebellion

James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele 1395-1450 was beheaded. His son William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 succeeded 2nd Baron Saye and Sele.
His son in law William Cromer 1416-1450 was beheaded.

Execution of Three Lords

On 09 Mar 1649 at the Old Palace Yard ...
Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649 was executed.
Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649 was beheaded.
James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton 1606-1649 was beheaded for his support of the Royalist cause and his leading an army against Cromwell. His brother William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton 1616-1651 succeeded 2nd Duke Hamilton by special remainder.
John Owen 1600-1666 had been sentenced to death but was subsequently pardoned.

burned at the stake

Treason Act

In 1351 the Treason Act defined Treason for the first time: High Treason and Petty Treason, and the associated penalties. Hanging, drawing an quartering for men, burning for women.

Execution of Joan of Arc

On 30 May 1431 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (19) was burned at the stake witnessed by Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (56) at Old Market Place, Rouen.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

In 1441 Eleanor Cobham 1400-1452 (41), wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (50), brother of the deceased Henry V King England 1386-1422, uncle of Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke. All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessd to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" 1415-1441 (26). Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London.
Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" 1415-1441 (26) was burned at the stake.
Eleanor was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.

In 1528 Patrick Hamilton -1528 was burned at the stake.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 25 May 1537 Margaret Stafford 1511-1537 (26) was burned at the stake at Smithfield.

On 16 Oct 1555 Hugh Latimer Bishop of Worcester 1487-1555 (68) was burned at the stake.

drowned in a butt of wine

In 534 Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 was drowned in a butt of wine. The Annals of Ulster report ... The drowning of Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 in a vat full of wine on the hilltop of Cleitech above Bóinn ie at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

On 18 Feb 1478 Edward's brother George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was drowned in a butt of wine; Malmsey wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London This story may be an invention. William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason. The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

executed

In 844 Bernard Poitiers Duke Septimania 795-844 (49) was executed.

In 853 Gauzbert Rorgonide I Count Maine -853 was executed.

In 891 al-Mutarrif Umayyad -891 was executed.

In 921 al-Asi Umayyad -921 was executed.

In 941 Órlaith íngen Cennétig Queen Consort Ireland -941 was executed apparently as a consequence of her having a relationshoip with her stepson Óengus mac Donnchad Donn -945.

In 1017 Eadwig "Aetheling" Wessex -1017 was executed by Canute aka Cnut King England 995-1035 (22). He was buried at Tavistock Abbey, Tavistock.

In 1214 Baldwin Rouerge 1165-1214 (49) was executed.

On 02 May 1230 William Braose 1204-1230 (26) was executed by Llewellyn "The Great" Aberffraw 1172-1240 (58) for having been found in the bedchamber of his wife Joan Plantagenet 1191-1237 (39). His daughter Eva Braose 1227-1255 (3) succeeded 10th Baron Bergavenny (Feudal Creation). William Cantilupe -1254 by marriage Baron Bergavenny (Feudal Creation).

On 27 Jun 1296 Floris Gerulfing V Count Holland 1254-1296 (42) was executed.

Before May 1322 John Giffard 2nd Baron Giffard Brimpsfield 1287-1322 was executed by King Edward II of England for being a rebel.

In 1350 Raoul Brienne II Count Eu, II Count Guînes 1315-1350 (35) was executed.

Merciless Parliament

In Feb 1388 Merciless Parliament sought to cleanse Richard II King England 1367-1400 (21) 's administration. Simon Burley 1340-1388 (48) was executed. Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (58) was sentenced to be hung, drawn and quartered. Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (26) was attainted. Nicholas Brembre -1399 was tried. Walter Clopton Chief Justice -1400 pronounced the death sentences.

Epiphany Rising

On 16 Jan 1400 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (48) was executed at Pleshy Castle. His son John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter 1395-1447 (4) succeeded 2nd Earl Huntingdon (4C 1388). He (48) was captured by Joan Fitzalan Countess Essex, Hereford and Northampton 1347-1419 (53) whose brother Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 John Holland had had executed three years before. She arranged for the children of her dead brother to witness the execution of John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (48) at Pleshy Castle; her primary seat.

Battle of Homildon Hill

On 14 Sep 1402 Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (60) and his son Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (38) lay in wait at at Homildon Hill for the Scots to return from their laying waste to Northumberland. The Battle of Homildon Hill was a victory for the English forces whose longbowmen decimated the Scottish schiltrons. Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh 1358-1425 (44) fought for the English.
John Swinton -1402 was killed.
Thomas Dunbar 5th Earl Moray 1371-1422 (31) and Henry Sinclair 2nd Earl Orkney 1375-1420 (27) were captured.
Archibald Douglas 1st Duke Touraine 1372-1424 was wounded. Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (35) forbade the ransoming of Scottish prisoners so that he could concentrate on the Welsh. By doing so he created a rift with the Percy family who subsequently defected to Owain ap Gruffudd Glyndŵr (43).
William Stewart -1402 was executed by Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (38) having been captured.
John Stewart -1420 fought at the Battle of Homildon Hill.

In 1412 Rhys ap Tudor Tudor -1412 was executed at Chester.

Battle of Arkinholm

On 01 May 1455 the Douglas rebellion was brought to an end at the Battle of Arkinholm near Langholm. Archibald Douglas 8th Earl Moray 1426-1455 (29) was killed. Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde -1455 was executed. John Douglas 1433-1463 (22) escaped.

Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

After 26 Jun 1460 Osbert Mumford -1460 was executed at Rysbank Tower.

Battle of Northampton 1460

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (28), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the Battle of Northampton 1460.
Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (38) was captured.
Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham (1C 1444), 7th Earl Stafford (1C 1351), 8th Baron Stafford (1C 1299).
John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury, 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (11) succeeded 3rd Earl Shrewsbury (2C 1442), 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall (1C 1295), 12th Baron Strange Blackmere (1C 1309), 9th Baron Talbot (1C 1331)
Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (37) was killed.
John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (50) was killed. His son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont.
Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 fought.
William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and William Norreys 1441-1507 (19) were knighted.
Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460 was executed following the battle. .

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33) and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was killed. His son Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) succeeded 4th Duke York (1C 1385), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge (3C 1414).
Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (29), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed. Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed. Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.
The Yorkist army was commanded by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471.
The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy 1426-1461 (35), Ralph Bigod 1410-1461, John Bigod -1461, Robert Cromwell 1390-1461, Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1412-1461, Ralph Eure 1412-1461, John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, John Beaumont 1428-1461, Thomas Dethick 1400-1461, Everard Simon Digby -1461, William Plumpton -1461 and William Welles 1410-1461 who were killed.
Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39) was killed. His son Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland (1C 1377). Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland 1458-1485 (3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland (1C 1377).
Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (55) was killed. His son Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.
Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (60), William Norreys 1441-1507 (20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (30), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33), Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471. Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (41) were captured.
On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon 1432-1461 (29) was beheaded at York. His brother John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (26) succeeded 15th Earl Devon (2C Courtenay). Laura Bourchier Countess Devon 1440- by marriage Countess Devon (2C Courtenay).
Robert Dethick 1375-1461 (86) was killed.
John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland 1416-1461 (45) was killed.
Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43) was executed.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

On 20 Feb 1462 Aubrey Vere -1462 was executed at Tower Hill.

Battle of Hexham

On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hexham during the Battle of Hexham.
Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (36), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (36).
Of the Lancastrian army William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (49) fought. Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (33) and Philip Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer 1424-1464 (40) were both captured.
Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) was beheaded following the battle. His brother Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471 succeeded 4th Duke Somerset (2C 1448).
On 18 May 1464 Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (33) was executed at Newcastle on Tyne.
Philip Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer 1424-1464 (40) was executed at Middleham. His son Henry Wentworth 5th Baron Despencer 1448-1501 (16) succeeded 5th Baron Despencer (5C 1387).

Battle of Edgecote Moor

On 27 Jul 1469 William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469 (46) was executed. His son William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1451-1491 (18) succeeded 2nd Earl Pembroke (8C 1468), 2nd Baron Herbert Raglan, 2nd Baron Herbert Powis. Mary Woodville Countess Pembroke by marriage Countess Pembroke (8C 1468).

On 17 Aug 1469 Humphrey Stafford 1st Earl Devon 1439-1469 (30) was executed by a mob at Bridgwater.

On 20 Jun 1483 Fernando II Duke of Braganza 1430-1483 (53) was executed by John II King Portugal 1455-1495 (28) who then confiscated the assets of the House of Braganza and the family fled to Castile.

Buckingham's Rebellion

In Oct 1483 Buckingham's Rebellion was an attempt to replace Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) with Henry Tudor (26). Richard Haute -1487 took part. He escaped execution, and was subsequently pardoned.
Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30) was attainted.
On 02 Nov 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (29) was beheaded in Salisbury Marketplace for his part in the rebellion. His son Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (5) succeeded 8th Earl Stafford (1C 1351), 9th Baron Stafford (1C 1299).
On 08 Nov 1483 Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (43) was executed at Exeter Castle, Exeter.
Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28) and Eleanor Bohun Countess Ormonde 1304-1363 escaped to Henry VII in Brittany. Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (18), Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (32) and Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon -1509 took part.!The rebellion was suppressed by Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (33) and Robert Willoughby 1st Baron Willoughby Broke 1452-1502 (31).
On 04 Dec 1483 George Browne 1440-1483 (43) was beheaded at Tower Hill.
On 23 Jan 1484 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (40) was subject to an attainder in the first Parliament of Richard III for her involvement. Whilst the Act was described as an Attainder Richard in effect transferred all of Margaret's property to her husband Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48) as follows:
An act for the attainder of Margaret, countess of Richmond (40):
Because Margaret, countess of Richmond, mother of the king's great rebel and traitor, Henry, earl of Richmond, has lately conspired, leagued and committed high treason against our sovereign lord King Richard III in various ways, and in particular by sending messages, writings and tokens to the said Henry, urging, instigating and stirring him by them to come into this realm to make war upon our said sovereign lord; to which urging, instigation and stirring the said Henry applied himself, as experience has recently shown. Also, the said countess supplied great sums of money within the city of London as well as elsewhere in this realm to be employed in the execution of the said treason and malicious purpose; and the said countess also conspired, leagued and plotted the destruction of our said sovereign lord, and knew of and assented to, and assisted in the treason planned and committed by Henry, late Duke of Buckingham, and his supporters, for which he and some of his supporters have been attainted by an act in this present parliament. Nevertheless, our said sovereign lord, of his special grace, mindful of the good and faithful service which Thomas, Lord Stanley, has given and intends to give our said sovereign lord, and for the sincere love and trust which the king has in him, and for his sake, remits and will forbear the great punishment of attainting the said countess, which she or anyone else doing the same has deserved; and in consideration of the foregoing, our said sovereign lord wills that it be enacted, ordained and decreed, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons assembled in this present parliament, and by authority of the same, that the said countess henceforth shall be legally unable to have, inherit or enjoy any manors, lands or tenements, or other hereditaments or possessions whatsoever, and also henceforth shall be unable to bear or have any name of estate or dignity; and that the said countess shall forfeit to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs all the castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments and possessions, whatsoever they may be, of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised or possessed of estate of fee-simple, fee-tail, term of life, in dower or otherwise. And be it ordained by the said authority that all the said castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments with the appurtenances of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised of estate of fee-simple or fee-tail, shall remain to the said Thomas for term of his life, and after his death to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs. And moreover, all the lordships, manors, lands, tenements, rents, services and reversions of which the said countess, or any other person to her use, is now seised of estate, term of her life or in dower, shall remain to the said Thomas during her life. And if the said Thomas dies during the lifetime of the said countess, they shall remain to the king; saving to every person and persons, except the said countess and her heirs, their right, title and interest in the said lands and tenements.

Around 1520 Unknown Artist. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge, St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

Stafford and Lovell Rebellion

Around Apr 1486 the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion was an armed uprising against Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (29). With the failure of the plot Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (30) fled to Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 (39) in Flanders.
On 08 Jul 1486 Humphrey Stafford 1426-1486 (60) and Thomas Stafford -1486 was executed at Tyburn.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

On 28 Nov 1499 Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (24) was executed at Tower Hill.
Documentation held in Spain apparently describes Catherine of Aragon's (13) parents Ferdinand II King Aragon 1452-1516 (47) and Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (48) expressing concern that Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (24) was a potential claimant to throne, and being reluctant for their daughter to marry Arthur Prince of Wales (13) whilst there was a threat to his (13) accession causing Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (42) to use Perkin Warbreck's attempted escape with Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (24) as a means to an end. .

Around 1492. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519 (32). Portrait of Catherine of Aragon (6).

Around 1520 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England 1485-1536 (34).

Around 1490. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519 (30). Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (38).

Around 1502. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519 (42). Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (50).

Around 1500. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502 (13).

Trial of James Tyrrell

On 06 May 1502 James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (47) was executed.

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

On 17 May 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was executed at Tower Hill for no specific reason other than his having a significant amount of Plantagenet blood and was, therefore, considered a threat by Henry VIII (29). He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523, disinheriting his children.
He was buried at St Peter's Church, Britford.

On Dec 1531 Rhys ap Gruffydd Deheubarth 1508-1531 (23) was executed by Henry VIII (40) for treason for purportedly for inscribing the name Fitz Uryan on his armour at City of London.

Execution of the Fitzgeralds

On 03 Feb 1537 the six Fitzgeralds, nephew and five uncles, Thomas "Silken" Fitzgerald 10th Earl Kildare 1513-1537 (24), James Fitzgerald 1496-1537, Oliver Fitzgerald 1496-1537, Richard Fitzgerald -1537, John Fitzgerald -1537 and Walter Fitzgerald 1496-1537 were executed at Tyburn.
Gerald "Wizard Earl" Fitzgerald 11th Earl Kildare 1525-1585 (12) succeeded 11th Earl Kildare.

On 20 Dec 1538 Edward Arden -1538 was executed at Tyburn.

On 10 Jul 1539 Adrian Fortescue 1476-1539 (63) was executed at Tower Hill for treason.

Exeter Conspiracy

On 27 May 1541, after some two and a half years of imprisonment, Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (67) was executed at Tower Green, Tower of London.

Around 1535 Unknown Artist. Portrait of unknown woman formerly thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541 (61).

On 28 Jun 1541 Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane 1479-1541 (62) was executed for having allowed Gerald "Wizard Earl" Fitzgerald 11th Earl Kildare 1525-1585 (16), his sister's son, to escape capture at Tower of London.

On 13 Dec 1548 John Melville of Raith -1548 was executed in Edinburgh.

In 1554 Thomas Grey -1554 was executed at Tower Hill.

In 1557 Charles Stourton 8th Baron Stourton 1520-1557 (37) was executed for the murder of William Hartgill and his son John Hartgill. His son John Stourton 9th Baron Stourton 1553-1588 (4) succeeded 9th Baron Stourton.

On 28 May 1557 Thomas Stafford 1533-1557 (24) was executed at Tower Hill.

In 1562 John Gordon -1562 was executed during the Battle of Corrichie: Earl Huntly's Forces.

On 11 Aug 1564 Richard Blount 1510-1564 (54) was executed at Tower Hill.

Ridolphi Plot

On 02 Jun 1572 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (36) was executed for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

In 1578 Egremont Radclyffe -1578 was executed at Namur.

On 02 Jun 1581 James Douglas 4th Earl Morton 1516-1581 (65) was executed for his part in the murder of Lord Darnley.

In 1583 James Leybourne -1583 was executed for being a "Catholic Traitor".

Babington Plot

On 21 Sep 1586 Robert Gage -1586 was executed for his involvement in the Babington Plot.

Main and Bye Plot

On 05 Dec 1603 George Brooke 1568-1603 (35) was executed for his part in the Main and Bye Plot.

In 1615 Robert Stewart 1st Earl Orkney 1533-1615 (82) was executed. His son Patrick Stewart 2nd Earl Orkney succeeded 2nd Earl Orkney.

On 03 Dec 1678 Edward Coleman Courtier 1636-1678 (42) was executed.

On 23 Dec 1690 John Johnston 3rd Baronet Caskiebean 1648-1690 (42) was executed at Tyburn for having assisted Captain James Campbell 1660-1713 (30) in the abduction of.

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

In Apr 1696 John Friend Jacobite -1696 and William Parkyns 1649-1696 were executed for taking part in the 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III.

On 18 Aug 1746 William Boyd 4th Earl Kilmarnock 1705-1746 (41) was executed at Tower Hill. He was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

On 14 Mar 1757 John Byng 1704-1757 (52) was executed by firing squad for having been found guilty of his perceived failure to relieve the garrison at Menorca caused public outrage among fellow officers and the country at large.

On 17 Jul 1918 Alexei Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov -1918 was executed.

On 17 Jul 1918 Olga Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1895-1918 (22) was executed.

On 17 Jul 1918 Anastasia Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov -1918 was executed.

On 17 Jul 1918 Tatiana Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1897-1918 (21) was executed.

On 17 Jul 1918 Nicholas Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1868-1918 (50) was executed.

On 17 Jul 1918 Maria Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1899-1918 (19) was executed.

Battle of Bosworth

Walter Devereux 7th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1432-1485 was killed. His son John Devereux 8th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1464-1501 succeeded 8th Baron Ferrers Chartley
William Catesby 1450-1485 was executed at Leicester after the battle.
George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin, 5th Baron Mohun Dunster 1460-1504 held as a hostage by Richard III before the Battle of Bosworth.
Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 betrayed Richard III King England 1452-1485 by not committing his forces at the Battle of Bosworth.
John Iwardby 1449-1485 was killed.

Execution of Three Lords

On 09 Mar 1649 at the Old Palace Yard ...
Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649 was executed.
Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649 was beheaded.
James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton 1606-1649 was beheaded for his support of the Royalist cause and his leading an army against Cromwell. His brother William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton 1616-1651 succeeded 2nd Duke Hamilton by special remainder.
John Owen 1600-1666 had been sentenced to death but was subsequently pardoned.

William Butler was executed.

Thomas Cheadle was executed for having killed Richard Bulkeley -1650.

guillotined

Execution of Louis XVI

On 21 Jan 1793 Louis XVI King France 1754-1793 (38) was guillotined in Paris.

On 13 Apr 1794 Arthur Dillon 1750-1794 (43) guillotined.

hanged

Execution of William Wallace

On 23 Aug 1305 William Wallace -1305 was hanged at Elms, Smithfield. His head being displayed on London Bridge. .

On 20 Sep 1305 Nigel Bruce 1276-1305 (29) was hanged at Berwick on Tweed.

After 26 Mar 1306 Christopher Seton 1278-1306 was hanged.

On 04 Aug 1306 John Seton 1278-1306 (28) was hanged at Newcastle on Tyne following his capture by English forces after the fall of Tibbers Castle, Carronbridge.

On 07 Nov 1306 John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl 1266-1306 (40) was hanged on a scaffold thirty feet higher than the others to denote his status at City of London. His son David Strathbogie 10th Earl Atholl -1326 succeeded 10th Earl Atholl (1C ).

Execution of the Bruce Brothers

On 09 Feb 1307 Thomas Bruce 1284-1307 (23) and Alexander Bruce 1285-1307 were hanged at Carlisle. They being younger brothers of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland 1274-1329 (32).

Battle of Boroughbridge

On 16 Mar 1322 the rebel army led by Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (44) attempted to cross the bridge over the River Ure (between Ripon and York) at Boroughbridge. Their path was blocked by forces loyal to the King led by Andrew Harclay 1st Earl Carlisle 1270-1323 (52). . Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46), Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (34), John Botetort 1st Baron Botetort 1265-1324 (57) and John Maltravers 1st Baron Maltravers 1290-1365 (32) fought for the rebels. Roger Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford 1300-1322 (22), Nicholas Longford 1285-1356 (37), Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (44), John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray 1286-1322 (35) were captured. Warin Lisle 1271-1322 (51) was hanged after the battle. .
Following the battle Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester 1291-1347 (31) and his wife Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester -1342 were both imprisoned. He in Nottingham Castle and she in Sempringham Priory, Sempringham.
John Clinton 2nd Baron Clinton 1300-1335 (22), Ralph Greystoke 1st Baron Greystoke 1299-1323 (22), William Latimer 2nd Baron Latimer Corby 1276-1327 (46), Robert Lisle 1st Baron Lisle 1288-1344 (34), Domhnall Mar II Earl Mar 1293- and Peter Saltmarsh 1280-1338 (42) fought for the King.
Adam Everingham 1st Baron Laxton 1279-1341 (43) was captured.
Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford, 3rd Earl Essex 1276-1322 (46) was killed. His son John Bohun 5th Earl Hereford, 4th Earl Essex 1307-1336 (15) succeeded 5th Earl Hereford (6C 1199), 4th Earl Essex (3C 1239).

Despencer War Executions

On 23 Mar 1322 at York ...
Roger Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford 1300-1322 (22) was hanged. His brother Robert Clifford 3rd Baron Clifford 1305-1344 (16) succeeded 3rd Baron Clifford.
John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray 1286-1322 (35) was hanged. His son John Mowbray 3rd Baron Mowbray 1310-1361 (11) succeeded 3rd Baron Mowbray (1C 1283).

Battle of Boroughbridge

On 03 Mar 1323 Andrew Harclay 1st Earl Carlisle 1270-1323 (53) was hanged at Carlisle for having negotiated a truce with the Scots despite having successfuly defeated the rebels at the Battle of Boroughbridge a year before for which he was enobled by King Edward II of England (38).

On 27 Oct 1326 Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester 1261-1326 (65) was hanged at Bristol.

Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

On 24 Nov 1326 Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1286-1326 (40) was hanged in Hereford. Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (31) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (39) were present.
He was dragged naked through the streets, for the crowd's mistreatment. He was made a spectacle, which included writing on his body biblical verses against the capital sins he was accused of. Then he was hanged as a mere commoner, yet released before full asphyxiation could happen.
He was then tied firmly to a ladder and his genitals sliced off and burned while he was still conscious. His entrails were slowly pulled out; finally, his heart was cut out and thrown into a fire.
His body was beheaded and cut into four pieces. His head was mounted on the gates of London.

Execution of Roger Mortimer

On 29 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (43) was hanged naked at Tyburn accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights. His grandson Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March 1328-1360 (2) succeeded 2nd Earl March (1C 1328), 4th Baron Mortimer Wigmore.

Epiphany Rising

On 12 Jan 1400 Thomas Blount 1352-1400 (48) was hanged at Oxford by Thomas Erpingham 1355-1428 (45).

Battle of Shrewsbury

On 21 Jul 1403 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36), with his son the future Henry V King England 1386-1422 (16), defeated the rebel army of Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39) at the Battle of Shrewsbury at the site now known as Battlefield, Shrewsbury. Henry V King England 1386-1422 (16) took an arrow to the side of his face leaving him severely scarred. John Stanley 1350-1414 (53) was wounded in the throat. Thomas Strickland 1367-1455 (36) fought and was awarded £38 and two of the rebel Henry's horses. Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (21) fought for the King. Walter Blount 1348-1403 (55), the King's Standard Bearer, was killed by Archibald Douglas 1st Duke Touraine 1372-1424.
Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (59) and Edmund Cockayne 1356-1403 were killed.
Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (25) was killed. His son Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 succeeded 6th Earl Stafford (1C 1351), 7th Baron Stafford (1C 1299). Anne Neville Duchess Buckingham by marriage Baroness Stafford (1C 1299).
Hugh Shirley 1351-1403 (52) was killed; he was one of four knights dressed as Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).
Of the rebels, Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39), Madog Kynaston 1360-1403 and John Clifton -1403 were killed. Thomas Percy 1st Earl Worcester 1343-1403 (60) was beheaded after the battle. Richard Vernon 1355-1403 (48) was hanged.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

On 26 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford 1408-1462 (53) was hanged at Tower Hill. His son John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (19) succeeded 13th Earl Oxford (2C 1141).

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 12 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was arrested at Keyford and taken to Bath.
On 13 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 taken to Cirencester.
On 15 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 and John Thursby -1477 were hanged at Myton Gallows, Warwick.
In 1478 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was pardoned by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (34).

Yorkshire Rebellion

On 28 Apr 1489 Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (40) was hanged at York by the rebels when attempting to collect the tax. On 28 Apr 1489 His son Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (11) succeeded 5th Earl of Northumberland (1C 1377).
The King then sent an army of 8000 north led by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (46). The rebels dispersed; their leader John à Chambre was hanged for treason. The rebels then chose John Percy 1459- as their leader. His leadership proved less than reliable; he eventually fled to the court of Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 (42) (sister of Edward IV and Richard III) who remained sympathetic to the Yorkist cause.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

On 23 Nov 1499 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 (25) was hanged at Tyburn during the Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick.

On 05 Feb 1523 Agnes Cotell 1485-1523 (38) and William Mathewe were hanged at Tyburn for the murder of her first husband.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 02 Jun 1537 Thomas Percy 1504-1537 (33), Francis Bigod 1507-1537, and John Bulmer -1537 and Ralph Bulmer -1537 were hanged at Tyburn.

On 06 Jul 1537 Robert Constable 1478-1537 (59) was hanged in chains from the Beverley Gate in Kingston upon Hull witnessed by Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk (64).

On 12 Jul 1537 Robert Aske 1500-1537 (37) was hanged at York. William Lumley -1537 and Nicholas Tempest 1480-1537 were hanged at Tyburn.

In Aug 1540 Giles Heron 1504-1540 (36) was hanged at Tyburn for treason; not clear what his crime was?.

Trial of Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre

On 29 Jun 1541 Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (26) was hanged at Tyburn.

Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

On 10 Dec 1541. At Tyburn ....
Francis Dereham (28) was hanged.
Thomas Culpepper 1514-1541 (27) was beheaded. He was buried at St Sepulchre-without-Newgate, Holborn.

Babington Plot

On 20 Sep 1586 Anthony Babington 1561-1586 (24), John Ballard -1586, Henry Donn -1586, Thomas Salusbury 1564-1586 and Chideock Tichbourne 1562-1586 were hanged at St Giles' Field, Holborn for their involvement.

On 14 Feb 1601 Thomas Lee 1551-1601 (50) was hanged at Tyburn.

On 03 May 1606 Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50) was hanged in Old St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard, Old St Paul's Cathedral.

On 29 Jun 1612 Robert Crichton 8th Lord Sanquhar -1612 was hanged in Westminster Palace Yard for having arranged the murder of his fencing Master John Painter Turner who had previously disfigured him during practice. At his trial Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (51) read the charges.

Battle of Carbisdale

On 21 May 1650 James Graham 1st Marquess Montrose 1612-1650 (37) was hanged at Edinburgh following his capture at the Battle of Carbisdale. His body was dismembered following his death. His son James Graham 2nd Marquess Montrose 1631-1669 (19) succeeded 2nd Marquess Montrose.

Trial and Execution of the Regicides

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn ...
Daniel Axtell Regicide 1622-1660 (38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall.
Francis Hacker Regicide -1660 was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

In 1691 John Ashton Jacobite -1691 was hanged at Tyburn.

In 1692 Andrew Clench -1692 was murdered between nine and eleven o'clock on the night of Monday by Henry Harrison who was subequently convicted of the murder. On 15 Apr 1692 Henry Harrison -1692 was hanged.

Execution of Earl Ferrers

On 05 May 1760 Laurence Shirley 4th Earl Ferrers 1720-1760 (39) was hanged at Tyburn (the last peer to be hanged) for having shot his old family steward. His estates were forfeited however in 1763 George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (21) granted the title Earl Ferrers and the family estates to his brother Washington Shirley 5th Earl Ferrers 1722-1778 (37).

In 1754 Jean-Etienne Liotard 1702-1789 (51). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (15).

In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788 (54). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (43).

In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788 (53). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (42).

In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788 (53). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (42).

In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788 (54). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (43).

Around 1768. Nathaniel Dance-Holland Painter 1735-1811 (32). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (29).

In 1804. Samuel Woodford Painter 1763-1817 (40). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (65).

Around 1800. William Beechey Painter 1753-1839 (46). Portrait of George III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820 (61).

On 12 Jun 1786 George Robert "Fighting Fitzgerald" Fitzgerald 1748-1786 (38) was hanged for conspiracy to murder Patrick Randall McDonnell an attorney who had acted for his father in their legal disputes, and with whom in consequence he had a longstanding feud at Castlebar, County Mayo.

hanged, drawn and quartered

On 03 Oct 1283 Dafydd ap Gruffudd Aberffraw Prince Wales 1238-1283 (45) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Shrewsbury. The first prominent person known to have suffered being hanged, drawn and quartered. Dafydd (45) was dragged through the streets of Shrewsbury attached to a horse's tail, then hanged alive, revived, then disembowelled and his entrails burned before him for "his sacrilege in committing his crimes in the week of Christ's passion", and then his body cut into four-quarters "for plotting the king's death". Geoffrey of Shrewsbury was paid 20 shillings for carrying out the act.

On 28 Feb 1347 John Graham Earl Menteith -1347 was hanged, drawn and quartered by direct orders of King Edward I to whom he had previously sworn fealty.

Treason Act

In 1351 the Treason Act defined Treason for the first time: High Treason and Petty Treason, and the associated penalties. Hanging, drawing an quartering for men, burning for women.

Peasant's Revolt

On 15 Jul 1381 John Ball 1338-1381 was hanged, drawn and quartered in St Albans in the presence of Richard II King England 1367-1400 (14).

Bigod's Rebellion

On 07 May 1537 Thomas Moigne 1510-1537 (27) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Lincoln.

Gunpowder Plot

On 30 Jan 1606 at Old St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard Everard Digby 1578-1606 (28) and Robert Wintour 1568-1606 were hanged, drawn and quartered.

On 31 Jan 1606 at Old St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35) and Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 were hanged, drawn and quartered.

On 07 Apr 1606 Humphrey Lyttelton 1562-1606 (44) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Red Hill, Worcester for his involvement in the Gunpowder Plot.

1641 Irish Rebellion

In 1645 Connor Maguire 2nd Baron of Enniskillen 1616-1645 (29) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn.

Trial and Execution of the Regicides

On 15 Oct 1660 John Carew Regicide 1622-1660 (38) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross..

On 16 Oct 1660 Hugh Peter Regicide 1598-1660 (62) and Hugh Cook Regicide 1608-1660 were hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross..

On 17 Oct 1660 Gregory Clement Regicide 1594-1660 (66), Adrian Scrope Regicide 1601-1660, John Jones Regicide 1597-1660 and Thomas Scot Regicide -1660 were hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross..

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn ...
Daniel Axtell Regicide 1622-1660 (38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall.
Francis Hacker Regicide -1660 was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

Popish Plot

On 03 Dec 1678 Edward Colman Courtier 1636-1678 (42) was hanged, drawn and quartered on a charge of treason having been implicated by Titus Oates 1649-1705 (29).

Rye House Plot

On 20 Jun 1684 Thomas Armstrong 1633-1684 (51) was dragged by hurdle to Tower Hill where he was hanged, drawn and quartered for his involvement in the Rye House Plot.

Argyll's Rising

On 30 Oct 1685 John Ayloffe 1645-1685 (40) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Temple Bar for his part in the Argyll's Rising.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:
George Seton 5th Earl of Winton 1678-1749. The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.
On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure 1672-1716 was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale 1676-1744. On 09 Feb 1716 he was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (35) effected his escape from the Tower of London by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (26) was.
James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater 1692-1723 (23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave 1695-1719 (20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond 1671-1722 (44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 appealed to George I King Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727 (54) in person without success. On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne 1665-1726 was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.
On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh -1716 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.
The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723 (50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

stoned to death

In 34 Saint Stephen 5-34 was stoned to death.

strangled

On 26 Jul 1518 Edward Hungerford -1522 was strangled by his wife Agnes Cotell 1485-1523 (33) at Farleigh Hungreford Castle with the aid of William Mathewe and William Inges, yeomen of Heytesbury.