Biography of Abigail Clere aka Williams Actor

1665 Great Plague of London

1665 Battle of Vågen

1666 St James' Day Battle

1666 Paper Bill

1666 Poll Bill

Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 September 1665. 03 Sep 1665. Lord's Day. Up; and put on my coloured silk suit very fine, and my new periwigg, bought a good while since, but durst not wear, because the plague was in Westminster when I bought it; and it is a wonder what will be the fashion after the plague is done, as to periwiggs, for nobody will dare to buy any haire, for fear of the infection, that it had been cut off of the heads of people dead of the plague. Before church time comes Mr. Hill (35) (Mr. Andrews (33) failing because he was to receive the Sacrament), and to church, where a sorry dull parson, and so home and most excellent company with Mr. Hill (35) and discourse of musique. I took my Lady Pen (41) home, and her daughter Pegg, and merry we were; and after dinner I made my wife show them her pictures, which did mad Pegg Pen, who learns of the same man and cannot do so well.

After dinner left them and I by water to Greenwich, where much ado to be suffered to come into the towne because of the sicknesse, for fear I should come from London, till I told them who I was. So up to the church, where at the door I find Captain Cocke (48) in my Lord Bruncker's (45) coach, and he come out and walked with me in the church-yarde till the church was done, talking of the ill government of our Kingdom, nobody setting to heart the business of the Kingdom, but every body minding their particular profit or pleasures, the King (35) himself minding nothing but his ease, and so we let things go to wracke. This arose upon considering what we shall do for money when the fleete comes in, and more if the fleete should not meet with the Dutch, which will put a disgrace upon the King's actions, so as the Parliament and Kingdom will have the less mind to give more money, besides so bad an account of the last money, we fear, will be given, not half of it being spent, as it ought to be, upon the Navy. Besides, it is said that at this day our Lord Treasurer (58) cannot tell what the profit of Chimney money is, what it comes to per annum, nor looks whether that or any other part of the revenue be duly gathered as it ought; the very money that should pay the City the £200,000 they lent the King (35), being all gathered and in the hands of the Receiver and hath been long and yet not brought up to pay the City, whereas we are coming to borrow 4 or £500,000 more of the City, which will never be lent as is to be feared.

Church being done, my Lord Bruncker (45), Sir J. Minnes (66), and I up to the Vestry at the desire of the justices of the Peace, Sir Theo. Biddulph (53) and Sir W. Boreman (53) and Alderman Hooker (53), in order to the doing something for the keeping of the plague from growing; but Lord! to consider the madness of the people of the town, who will (because they are forbid) come in crowds along with the dead corps to see them buried; but we agreed on some orders for the prevention thereof.

Among other stories, one was very passionate, methought, of a complaint brought against a man in the towne for taking a child from London from an infected house. Alderman Hooker (53) told us it was the child of a very able citizen in Gracious_Street, a saddler, who had buried all the rest of his children of the plague, and himself and wife now being shut up and in despair of escaping, did desire only to save the life of this little child; and so prevailed to have it received stark-naked into the arms of a friend, who brought it (having put it into new fresh clothes) to Greenwich; where upon hearing the story, we did agree it should be permitted to be received and kept in the towne.

Thence with my Lord Bruncker (45) to Captain Cocke's (48), where we mighty merry and supped, and very late I by water to Woolwich, in great apprehensions of an ague. Here was my Lord Bruncker's (45) lady of pleasure, who, I perceive, goes every where with him; and he, I find, is obliged to carry her, and make all the courtship to her that can be.

1. TT. Assumed to be Abigail Clere aka Williams Actor who William Brouncker 2nd Viscount Brounckner 1620-1684 (45) lived with for many years.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Around 1660 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 1607-1667 holding his Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 September 1665. 05 Sep 1665. Up, and walked with some Captains and others talking to me to Greenwich, they crying out upon Teddiman's management of the business of Bergen, that he staid treating too long while he saw the Dutch fitting themselves, and that at first he might have taken every ship, and done what he would with them. How true I cannot tell. Here we sat very late and for want of money, which lies heavy upon us, did nothing of business almost.

Thence home with my Lord Bruncker (45) to dinner where very merry with him and his doxy.

After dinner comes Colonell Blunt in his new chariot made with springs; as that was of wicker, wherein a while since we rode at his house. And he hath rode, he says, now this journey, many miles in it with one horse, and out-drives any coach, and out-goes any horse, and so easy, he says. So for curiosity I went into it to try it, and up the hill to the heath, and over the cart-rutts and found it pretty well, but not so easy as he pretends, and so back again, and took leave of my Lord and drove myself in the chariot to the office, and there ended my letters and home pretty betimes and there found W. Pen (44), and he staid supper with us and mighty merry talking of his travells and the French humours, etc., and so parted and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 September 1665. 08 Sep 1665. Waked, and fell in talk with my wife about the letter, and she satisfied me that she did not know from whence it come, but believed it might be from her cozen Franke Moore lately come out of France. The truth is the thing I think cannot have much in it, and being unwilling (being in other things so much at ease) to vex myself in a strange place at a melancholy time, passed all by and were presently friends. Up, and several with me about business. Anon comes my Lord Bruncker (45), as I expected, and we to the enquiring into the business of the late desertion of the Shipwrights from worke, who had left us for three days together for want of money, and upon this all the morning, and brought it to a pretty good issue, that they, we believe, will come to-morrow to work.

To dinner, having but a mean one, yet sufficient for him, and he well enough pleased, besides that I do not desire to vye entertainments with him or any else. Here was Captain Cocke (48) also, and Mr. Wayth. We staid together talking upon one business or other all the afternoon.

In the evening my Lord Bruncker (45) hearing that Mr. Ackeworth's clerke, the Dutchman who writes and draws so well, was transcribing a book of Rates and our ships for Captain Millet a gallant of his mistress's, we sent for him for it. He would not deliver it, but said it was his mistress's and had delivered it to her. At last we were forced to send to her for it; she would come herself, and indeed the book was a very neat one and worth keeping as a rarity, but we did think fit, and though much against my will, to cancell all that he had finished of it, and did give her the rest, which vexed her, and she bore it discreetly enough, but with a cruel deal of malicious rancour in her looks. I must confess I would have persuaded her to have let us have it to the office, and it may be the board would not have censured too hardly of it, but my intent was to have had it as a Record for the office, but she foresaw what would be the end of it and so desired it might rather be cancelled, which was a plaguy deal of spite. My Lord Bruncker (45) being gone and company, and she also, afterwards I took my wife and people and walked into the fields about a while till night, and then home, and so to sing a little and then to bed. I was in great trouble all this day for my boy Tom who went to Greenwich yesterday by my order and come not home till to-night for fear of the plague, but he did come home to-night, saying he staid last night by Mr. Hater's advice hoping to have me called as I come home with my boat to come along with me.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 September 1665. 09 Sep 1665. Up and walked to Greenwich, and there we sat and dispatched a good deal of business I had a mind to.

At noon, by invitation, to my Lord Bruncker's (45), all of us, to dinner, where a good venison pasty, and mighty merry. Here was Sir W. Doyly (51), lately come from Ipswich about the sicke and wounded, and Mr. Evelyn (44) and Captain Cocke (48). My wife also was sent for by my Lord Bruncker (45), by Cocke (48), and was here.

After dinner, my Lord (45) and his mistress would see her home again, it being a most cursed rainy afternoon, having had none a great while before, and I, forced to go to the office on foot through all the rain, was almost wet to my skin, and spoiled my silke breeches almost. Rained all the afternoon and evening, so as my letters being done, I was forced to get a bed at Captain Cocke's (48), where I find Sir W. Doyly (51), and he, and Evelyn (44) at supper; and I with them full of discourse of the neglect of our masters, the great officers of State, about all business, and especially that of money: having now some thousands prisoners, kept to no purpose at a great charge, and no money provided almost for the doing of it. We fell to talk largely of the want of some persons understanding to look after businesses, but all goes to rack. "For", says Captain Cocke (48), "my Lord Treasurer (58), he minds his ease, and lets things go how they will: if he can have his £8000 per annum, and a game at l'ombre, [Spanish card game] he is well. My Chancellor (56) he minds getting of money and nothing else; and my Lord Ashly (44) will rob the Devil and the Alter, but he will get money if it be to be got".

But that that put us into this great melancholy, was newes brought to-day, which Captain Cocke (48) reports as a certain truth, that all the Dutch fleete, men-of-war and merchant East India ships, are got every one in from Bergen the 3d of this month, Sunday last; which will make us all ridiculous. The fleete come home with shame to require a great deale of money, which is not to be had, to discharge many men that must get the plague then or continue at greater charge on shipboard, nothing done by them to encourage the Parliament to give money, nor the Kingdom able to spare any money, if they would, at this time of the plague, so that, as things look at present, the whole state must come to ruine.

Full of these melancholy thoughts, to bed; where, though I lay the softest I ever did in my life, with a downe bed, after the Danish manner, upon me, yet I slept very ill, chiefly through the thoughts of my Lord Sandwich's (40) concernment in all this ill successe at sea.

Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Around 1672 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683. Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

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1665 Battle of Vågen

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 September 1665. 10 Sep 1665. Lord's Day. Walked home; being forced thereto by one of my watermen falling sick yesterday, and it was God's great mercy I did not go by water with them yesterday, for he fell sick on Saturday night, and it is to be feared of the plague. So I sent him away to London with his fellow; but another boat come to me this morning, whom I sent to Blackewall for Mr. Andrews (33). I walked to Woolwich, and there find Mr. Hill (35), and he and I all the morning at musique and a song he hath set of three parts, methinks, very good.

Anon comes Mr. Andrews (33), though it be a very ill day, and so after dinner we to musique and sang till about 4 or 5 o'clock, it blowing very hard, and now and then raining, and wind and tide being against us, Andrews and I took leave and walked to Greenwich. My wife before I come out telling me the ill news that she hears that her father is very ill, and then I told her I feared of the plague, for that the house is shut up. And so she much troubled she did desire me to send them something; and I said I would, and will do so.

But before I come out there happened newes to come to the by an expresse from Mr. Coventry (37), telling me the most happy news of my Lord Sandwich's (40) meeting with part of the Dutch; his taking two of their East India ships, and six or seven others, and very good prizes and that he is in search of the rest of the fleet, which he hopes to find upon the Wellbancke, with the loss only of the Hector, poor Captain Cuttle. This newes do so overjoy me that I know not what to say enough to express it, but the better to do it I did walk to Greenwich, and there sending away Mr. Andrews (33), I to Captain Cocke's (48), where I find my Lord Bruncker (45) and his mistress, and Sir J. Minnes (66). Where we supped (there was also Sir W. Doyly (51) and Mr. Evelyn (44)); but the receipt of this newes did put us all into such an extacy of joy, that it inspired into Sir J. Minnes (66) and Mr. Evelyn (44) such a spirit of mirth, that in all my life I never met with so merry a two hours as our company this night was. Among other humours, Mr. Evelyn's (44) repeating of some verses made up of nothing but the various acceptations of may and can, and doing it so aptly upon occasion of something of that nature, and so fast, did make us all die almost with laughing, and did so stop the mouth of Sir J. Minnes (66) in the middle of all his mirth (and in a thing agreeing with his own manner of genius), that I never saw any man so out-done in all my life; and Sir J. Minnes's (66) mirth too to see himself out-done, was the crown of all our mirth. In this humour we sat till about ten at night, and so my Lord (45) and his mistress home, and we to bed, it being one of the times of my life wherein I was the fullest of true sense of joy.

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 September 1665. 17 Sep 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and before I went out of my chamber did draw a musique scale, in order to my having it at any time ready in my hand to turn to for exercise, for I have a great mind in this Vacation to perfect myself in my scale, in order to my practising of composition, and so that being done I down stairs, and there find Captain Cocke (48) under the barber's hands, the barber that did heretofore trim Commissioner Pett (55), and with whom I have been. He offered to come this day after dinner with his violin to play me a set of Lyra-ayres upon it, which I was glad of, hoping to be merry thereby. Being ready we to church, where a company of fine people to church, and a fine Church, and very good sermon, Mr. Plume' being a very excellent scholler and preacher. Coming out of the church I met Mrs. Pierce, whom I was ashamed to see, having not been with her since my coming to town, but promised to visit her.

Thence with Captain Cocke (48), in his coach, home to dinner, whither comes by invitation my Lord Bruncker (45) and his mistresse and very good company we were, but in dinner time comes Sir J. Minnes (66) from the fleete, like a simple weak man, having nothing to say of what he hath done there, but tells of what value he imagines the prizes to be, and that my Lord Sandwich (40) is well, and mightily concerned to hear that I was well. But this did put me upon a desire of going thither; and, moving of it to my Lord, we presently agreed upon it to go this very tide, we two and Captain Cocke (48). So every body prepared to fit himself for his journey, and I walked to Woolwich to trim and shift myself, and by the time I was ready they come down in the Bezan yacht, and so I aboard and my boy Tom, and there very merrily we sailed to below Gravesend, and there come to anchor for all night, and supped and talked, and with much pleasure at last settled ourselves to sleep having very good lodging upon cushions in the cabbin.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 September 1665. 19 Sep 1665. About 4 or 5 of the clock we come to Greenwich, and, having first set down my Lord Bruncker (45), Cocke (48) and I went to his house, it being light, and there to our great trouble, we being sleepy and cold, we met with the ill newes that his boy Jacke was gone to bed sicke, which put Captain Cocke (48) and me also into much trouble, the boy, as they told us, complaining of his head most, which is a bad sign it seems. So they presently betook themselves to consult whither and how to remove him. However I thought it not fit for me to discover too much fear to go away, nor had I any place to go to.

So to bed I went and slept till 10 of the clock and then comes Captain Cocke (48) to wake me and tell me that his boy was well again. With great joy I heard the newes and he told it, so I up and to the office where we did a little, and but a little business.

At noon by invitation to my Lord Bruncker's (45) where we staid till four of the clock for my Lady Batten and she not then coming we to dinner and pretty merry but disordered by her making us stay so long.

After dinner I to the office, and there wrote letters and did business till night and then to Sir J. Minnes's (66), where I find my Lady Batten come, and she and my Lord Bruncker (45) and his mistresse, and the whole house-full there at cards.

But by and by my Lord Bruncker (45) goes away and others of the company, and when I expected Sir J. Minnes (66) and his sister should have staid to have made Sir W. Batten (64) and Lady sup, I find they go up in snuffe to bed without taking any manner of leave of them, but left them with Mr. Boreman. The reason of this I could not presently learn, but anon I hear it is that Sir J. Minnes (66) did expect and intend them a supper, but they without respect to him did first apply themselves to Boreman, which makes all this great feude.

However I staid and there supped, all of us being in great disorder from this, and more from Cocke's (48) boy's being ill, where my Lady Batten and Sir W. Batten (64) did come to town with an intent to lodge, and I was forced to go seek a lodging which my W. Hewer (23) did get me, viz., his own chamber in the towne, whither I went and found it a very fine room, and there lay most excellently.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715.

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Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 September 1665. 20 Sep 1665. Called up by Captain Cocke (48) (who was last night put into great trouble upon his boy's being rather worse than better, upon which he removed him out of his house to his stable), who told me that to my comfort his boy was now as well as ever he was in his life.

So I up, and after being trimmed, the first time I have been touched by a barber these twelvemonths, I think, and more, went to Sir J. Minnes's (66), where I find all out of order still, they having not seen one another till by and by Sir J. Minnes (66) and Sir W. Batten (64) met, to go into my Lord Bruncker's (45) coach, and so we four to Lambeth, and thence to the Duke of Albemarle (56), to inform him what we have done as to the fleete, which is very little, and to receive his direction.

But, Lord! what a sad time it is to see no boats upon the River; and grass grows all up and down White Hall court, and nobody but poor wretches in the streets! And, which is worst of all, the Duke (31) showed us the number of the plague this week, brought in the last night from the Lord Mayor; that it is encreased about 600 more than the last, which is quite contrary to all our hopes and expectations, from the coldness of the late season. For the whole general number is 8,297, and of them the plague 7,165; which is more in the whole by above 50, than the biggest Bill yet; which is very grievous to us all.

I find here a design in my Lord Bruncker (45) and Captain Cocke (48) to have had my Lord Bruncker (45) chosen as one of us to have been sent aboard one of the East Indiamen, and Captain Cocke (48) as a merchant to be joined with him, and Sir J. Minnes (66) for the other, and Sir G. Smith (50) to be joined with him. But I did order it so that my Lord Bruncker (45) and Sir J. Minnes (66) were ordered, but I did stop the merchants to be added, which would have been a most pernicious thing to the King (35) I am sure. In this I did, I think, a very good office, though I cannot acquit myself from some envy of mine in the business to have the profitable business done by another hand while I lay wholly imployed in the trouble of the office.

Thence back again by my Lord's coach to my Lord Bruncker's (45) house, where I find my Lady Batten, who is become very great with Mrs. Williams (my Lord Bruncker's (45) whore), and there we dined and were mighty merry.

After dinner I to the office there to write letters, to fit myself for a journey to-morrow to Nonsuch to the Exchequer by appointment.

That being done I to Sir J. Minnes (66) where I find Sir W. Batten (64) and his Lady gone home to Walthamstow in great snuffe as to Sir J. Minnes (66), but yet with some necessity, hearing that a mayde-servant of theirs is taken ill. Here I staid and resolved of my going in my Lord Bruncker's (45) coach which he would have me to take, though himself cannot go with me as he intended, and so to my last night's lodging to bed very weary.

Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 September 1665. 21 Sep 1665. Up between five and six o'clock; and by the time I was ready, my Lord's coach comes for me; and taking Will Hewer (23) with me, who is all in mourning for his father, who is lately dead of the plague, as my boy Tom's is also, I set out, and took about £100 with me to pay the fees there, and so rode in some fear of robbing. When I come thither, I find only Mr. Ward, who led me to Burgess's bedside, and Spicer's, who, watching of the house, as it is their turns every night, did lie long in bed to-day, and I find nothing at all done in my business, which vexed me. But not seeing how to helpe it I did walk up and down with Mr. Ward to see the house; and by and by Spicer and Mr. Falconbrige come to me and he and I to a towne near by, Yowell, there drink and set up my horses and also bespoke a dinner, and while that is dressing went with Spicer and walked up and down the house and park; and a fine place it hath heretofore been, and a fine prospect about the house. A great walk of an elme and a walnutt set one after another in order. And all the house on the outside filled with figures of stories, and good painting of Rubens' or Holben's doing. And one great thing is, that most of the house is covered, I mean the posts, and quarters in the walls; covered with lead, and gilded. I walked into the ruined garden, and there found a plain little girle, kinswoman of Mr. Falconbridge, to sing very finely by the eare only, but a fine way of singing, and if I come ever to lacke a girle again I shall think of getting her.

Thence to the towne, and there Spicer, Woodruffe, and W. Bowyer and I dined together and a friend of Spicer's; and a good dinner I had for them. Falconbrige dined somewhere else, by appointment. Strange to see how young W. Bowyer looks at 41 years; one would not take him for 24 or more, and is one of the greatest wonders I ever did see.

After dinner, about 4 of the clock we broke up, and I took coach and home (in fear for the money I had with me, but that this friend of Spicer's, one of the Duke's guard did ride along the best part of the way with us). I got to my Lord Bruncker's (45) before night, and there I sat and supped with him and his mistresse, and Cocke (48) whose boy is yet ill.

Thence, after losing a crowne betting at Tables [Cribbage], we walked home, Cocke (48) seeing me at my new lodging, where I went to bed. All my worke this day in the coach going and coming was to refresh myself in my musique scale, which I would fain have perfecter than ever I had yet.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 September 1665. 22 Sep 1665. Up betimes and to the office, meaning to have entered my last 5 or 6 days' Journall, but was called away by my Lord Bruncker (45) and Sir J. Minnes (66), and to Blackwall, there to look after the storehouses in order to the laying of goods out of the East India ships when they shall be unloaden.

That being done, we into Johnson's house, and were much made of, eating and drinking. But here it is observable what he tells us, that in digging his late Docke, he did 12 foot under ground find perfect trees over-covered with earth. Nut trees, with the branches and the very nuts upon them; some of whose nuts he showed us. Their shells black with age, and their kernell, upon opening, decayed, but their shell perfectly hard as ever. And a yew tree he showed us (upon which, he says, the very ivy was taken up whole about it), which upon cutting with an addes [adze], we found to be rather harder than the living tree usually is. They say, very much, but I do not know how hard a yew tree naturally is1. The armes, they say, were taken up at first whole, about the body, which is very strange.

Thence away by water, and I walked with my Lord Bruncker (45) home, and there at dinner comes a letter from my Lord Sandwich (40) to tell me that he would this day be at Woolwich, and desired me to meet him. Which fearing might have lain in Sir J. Minnes' (66) pocket a while, he sending it me, did give my Lord Bruncker (45), his mistress, and I occasion to talk of him as the most unfit man for business in the world.

Though at last afterwards I found that he was not in this faulty, but hereby I have got a clear evidence of my Lord Bruncker's (45) opinion of him. My Lord Bruncker (45) presently ordered his coach to be ready and we to Woolwich, and my Lord Sandwich (40) not being come, we took a boat and about a mile off met him in his Catch, and boarded him, and come up with him; and, after making a little halt at my house, which I ordered, to have my wife see him, we all together by coach to Mr. Boreman's, where Sir J. Minnes (66) did receive him very handsomely, and there he is to lie; and Sir J. Minnes (66) did give him on the sudden, a very handsome supper and brave discourse, my Lord Bruncker (45), and Captain Cocke (48), and Captain Herbert being there, with myself. Here my Lord did witness great respect to me, and very kind expressions, and by other occasions, from one thing to another did take notice how I was overjoyed at first to see the King's letter to his Lordship, and told them how I did kiss it, and that, whatever he was, I did always love the King (35). This my Lord Bruncker (45) did take such notice [of] as that he could not forbear kissing me before my Lord, professing his finding occasion every day more and more to love me, and Captain Cocke (48) has since of himself taken notice of that speech of my Lord then concerning me, and may be of good use to me.

Among other discourse concerning long life, Sir J. Minnes (66) saying that his great-grandfather was alive in Edward the Vth's time; my Lord Sandwich (40) did tell us how few there have been of his family since King Harry the VIIIth; that is to say, the then Chiefe Justice, and his son the Lord Montagu, who was father to Sir Sidney (84)2, who was his father. And yet, what is more wonderfull, he did assure us from the mouth of my Lord Montagu (40) himself, that in King James's time ([when he] had a mind to get the King (35) to cut off the entayle of some land which was given in Harry the VIIIth's time to the family, with the remainder in the Crowne); he did answer the King (35) in showing how unlikely it was that ever it could revert to the Crown, but that it would be a present convenience to him; and did show that at that time there were 4,000 persons derived from the very body of the Chiefe Justice. It seems the number of daughters in the family having been very great, and they too had most of them many children, and grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. This he tells as a most known and certain truth.

After supper, my Lord Bruncker (45) took his leave, and I also did mine, taking Captain Herbert home to my lodging to lie with me, who did mighty seriously inquire after who was that in the black dress with my wife yesterday, and would not believe that it was my wife's mayde, Mercer, but it was she.

1. The same discovery was made in 1789, in digging the Brunswick Dock, also at Blackwall, and elsewhere in the neighbourhood.

2. These are the words in the MS., and not "his son and the Lord Montagu", as in some former editions. Pepys seems to have written Lord Montagu by mistake for Sir Edward Montagu.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 September 1665. 28 Sep 1665. Up, and being mightily pleased with my night's lodging, drank a cup of beer, and went out to my office, and there did some business, and so took boat and down to Woolwich (having first made a visit to Madam Williams, who is going down to my Lord Bruncker (45)) and there dined, and then fitted my papers and money and every thing else for a journey to Nonsuch to-morrow.

That being done I walked to Greenwich, and there to the office pretty late expecting Captain Cocke's (48) coming, which he did, and so with me to my new lodging (and there I chose rather to lie because of my interest in the goods that we have brought there to lie), but the people were abed, so we knocked them up, and so I to bed, and in the night was mightily troubled with a looseness (I suppose from some fresh damp linen that I put on this night), and feeling for a chamber-pott, there was none, I having called the mayde up out of her bed, she had forgot I suppose to put one there; so I was forced in this strange house to rise and shit in the chimney twice; and so to bed and was very well again, and

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 October 1665. 02 Oct 1665. We having sailed all night (and I do wonder how they in the dark could find the way) we got by morning to Gillingham, and thence all walked to Chatham; and there with Commissioner Pett (55) viewed the Yard; and among other things, a teame of four horses come close by us, he being with me, drawing a piece of timber that I am confident one man could easily have carried upon his back. I made the horses be taken away, and a man or two to take the timber away with their hands. This the Commissioner did see, but said nothing, but I think had cause to be ashamed of.

We walked, he and I and Cocke (48), to the Hill-house, where we find Sir W. Pen (44) in bed and there much talke and much dissembling of kindnesse from him, but he is a false rogue, and I shall not trust him, but my being there did procure his consent to have his silk carried away before the money received, which he would not have done for Cocke (48) I am sure.

Thence to Rochester, walked to the Crowne, and while dinner was getting ready, I did there walk to visit the old Castle ruines, which hath been a noble place, and there going up I did upon the stairs overtake three pretty mayds or women and took them up with me, and I did 'baiser sur mouches et toucher leur mains1' and necks to my great pleasure: but, Lord! to see what a dreadfull thing it is to look down the precipices, for it did fright me mightily, and hinder me of much pleasure which I would have made to myself in the company of these three, if it had not been for that. The place hath been very noble and great and strong in former ages.

So to walk up and down the Cathedral, and thence to the Crowne, whither Mr. Fowler, the Mayor of the towne, was come in his gowne, and is a very reverend magistrate. After I had eat a bit, not staying to eat with them, I went away, and so took horses and to Gravesend, and there staid not, but got a boat, the sicknesse being very much in the towne still, and so called on board my Lord Bruncker (45) and Sir John Minnes (66), on board one of the East Indiamen at Erith, and there do find them full of envious complaints for the pillageing of the ships, but I did pacify them, and discoursed about making money of some of the goods, and do hope to be the better by it honestly.

So took leave (Madam Williams being here also with my Lord (45)), and about 8 o'clock got to Woolwich and there supped and mighty pleasant with my wife, who is, for ought I see, all friends with her mayds, and so in great joy and content to bed.

1. TT. baiser sur mouches et toucher leur mains. Kiss their beauty spots and touched their hands.

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Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 October 1665. 03 Oct 1665. Up, and to my great content visited betimes by Mr. Woolly, my uncle Wight's (63) cozen, who comes to see what work I have for him about these East India goods, and I do find that this fellow might have been of great use, and hereafter may be of very great use to me, in this trade of prize goods, and glad I am fully of his coming hither. While I dressed myself, and afterwards in walking to Greenwich we did discourse over all the business of the prize goods, and he puts me in hopes I may get some money in what I have done, but not so much as I expected, but that I may hereafter do more. We have laid a design of getting more, and are to talk again of it a few days hence.

To the office, where nobody to meet me, Sir W. Batten (64) being the only man and he gone this day to meet to adjourne the Parliament to Oxford.

Anon by appointment comes one to tell me my Lord Rutherford is come; so I to the King's Head to him, where I find his lady (25), a fine young Scotch lady, pretty handsome and plain. My wife also, and Mercer, by and by comes, Creed bringing them; and so presently to dinner and very merry; and after to even our accounts, and I to give him tallys, where he do allow me £100, of which to my grief the rogue Creed has trepanned me out of £50. But I do foresee a way how it may be I may get a greater sum of my Lord to his content by getting him allowance of interest upon his tallys.

That being done, and some musique and other diversions, at last away goes my Lord and Lady, and I sent my wife to visit Mrs. Pierce, and so I to my office, where wrote important letters to the Court, and at night (Creed having clownishly left my wife), I to Mrs. Pierce's and brought her and Mrs. Pierce to the King's Head and there spent a piece upon a supper for her and mighty merry and pretty discourse, she being as pretty as ever, most of our mirth being upon "my Cozen" (meaning my Lord Bruncker's (45) ugly mistress, whom he calls cozen), and to my trouble she tells me that the fine Mrs. Middleton (20) is noted for carrying about her body a continued sour base smell, that is very offensive, especially if she be a little hot. Here some bad musique to close the night and so away and all of us saw Mrs. Belle Pierce (as pretty as ever she was almost) home, and so walked to Will's lodging where I used to lie, and there made shift for a bed for Mercer, and mighty pleasantly to bed.

This night I hear that of our two watermen that use to carry our letters, and were well on Saturday last, one is dead, and the other dying sick of the plague. The plague, though decreasing elsewhere, yet being greater about the Tower and thereabouts.

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Jane Needham 1645-1692. One of the Windsor Beauties.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 October 1665. 23 Oct 1665. Up, and after doing some business I down by water, calling to see my wife, with whom very merry for ten minutes, and so to Erith, where my Lord Bruncker (45) and I kept the office, and dispatched some business by appointment on the Bezan. Among other things about the slopsellers, who have trusted us so long, they are not able, nor can be expected to trust us further, and I fear this winter the fleete will be undone by that particular.

Thence on board the East India ship, where my Lord Bruncker (45) had provided a great dinner, and thither comes by and by Sir John Minnes (66) and before him Sir W. Warren and anon a Perspective glasse maker, of whom we, every one, bought a pocket glasse. But I am troubled with the much talke and conceitedness of Mrs. Williams and her impudence, in case she be not married to my Lord (45).

They are getting themselves ready to deliver the goods all out to the East India Company, who are to have the goods in their possession and to advance two thirds of the moderate value thereof and sell them as well as they can and the King (35) to give them 6 per cent. for the use of the money they shall so advance. By this means the company will not suffer by the King's goods bringing down the price of their own.

Thence in the evening back again with Sir W. Warren and Captain Taylor in my boat, and the latter went with me to the office, and there he and I reckoned; and I perceive I shall get £100 profit by my services of late to him, which is a very good thing.

Thence to my lodging, where I find my Lord Rutherford, of which I was glad. We supped together and sat up late, he being a mighty wanton man with a daughter in law of my landlady's, a pretty conceited woman big with child, and he would be handling her breasts, which she coyly refused.

But they gone, my Lord and I to business, and he would have me forbear paying Alderman Backewell (47) the money ordered him, which I, in hopes to advantage myself, shall forbear, but do not think that my Lord will do any thing gratefully more to me than he hath done, not that I shall get any thing as I pretended by helping him to interest for his last £7700, which I could do, and do him a courtesy too. Discourse being done, he to bed in my chamber and I to another in the house.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 November 1665. 01 Nov 1665. Lay very long in bed discoursing with Mr. Hill (35) of most things of a man's life, and how little merit do prevail in the world, but only favour; and that, for myself, chance without merit brought me in; and that diligence only keeps me so, and will, living as I do among so many lazy people that the diligent man becomes necessary, that they cannot do anything without him, and so told him of my late business of the victualling, and what cares I am in to keepe myself having to do with people of so different factions at Court, and yet must be fair with them all, which was very pleasant discourse for me to tell, as well as he seemed to take it, for him to hear.

At last up, and it being a very foule day for raine and a hideous wind, yet having promised I would go by water to Erith, and bearing sayle was in danger of oversetting, but ordered them take down their sayle, and so cold and wet got thither, as they had ended their dinner. How[ever], I dined well, and after dinner all on shore, my Lord Bruncker (45) with us to Mrs. Williams's lodgings, and Sir W. Batten (64), Sir Edmund Pooly (46), and others; and there, it being my Lord's birth-day, had every one a green riband tied in our hats very foolishly; and methinks mighty disgracefully for my Lord to have his folly so open to all the world with this woman.

But by and by Sir W. Batten (64) and I took coach, and home to Boreman, and so going home by the backside I saw Captain Cocke (48) 'lighting out of his coach (having been at Erith also with her but not on board) and so he would come along with me to my lodging, and there sat and supped and talked with us, but we were angry a little a while about our message to him the other day about bidding him keepe from the office or his owne office, because of his black dying. I owned it and the reason of it, and would have been glad he had been out of the house, but I could not bid him go, and so supped, and after much other talke of the sad condition and state of the King's matters we broke up, and my friend and I to bed.

This night coming with Sir W. Batten (64) into Greenwich we called upon Coll. Cleggatt, who tells us for certaine that the King of Denmark (56) hath declared to stand for the King of England (35), but since I hear it is wholly false.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 November 1665. 16 Nov 1665. Up, and fitted myself for my journey down to the fleete, and sending my money and boy down by water to Eriffe, [Erith] I borrowed a horse of Mr. Boreman's son, and after having sat an houre laughing with my Lady Batten and Mrs. Turner (42), and eat and drank with them, I took horse and rode to Eriffe, where, after making a little visit to Madam Williams, who did give me information of W. Howe's having bought eight bags of precious stones taken from about the Dutch Vice-Admirall's neck, of which there were eight dyamonds which cost him £60,000 sterling, in India, and hoped to have made £2000 here for them. And that this is told by one that sold him one of the bags, which hath nothing but rubys in it, which he had for 35s.; and that it will be proved he hath made £125 of one stone that he bought. This she desired, and I resolved I would give my Lord Sandwich (40) notice of.

So I on board my Lord Bruncker (45); and there he and Sir Edmund Pooly (46) carried me down into the hold of the India shipp, and there did show me the greatest wealth lie in confusion that a man can see in the world. Pepper scattered through every chink, you trod upon it; and in cloves and nutmegs, I walked above the knees; whole rooms full. And silk in bales, and boxes of copper-plate, one of which I saw opened.

Having seen this, which was as noble a sight as ever I saw in my life, I away on board the other ship in despair to get the pleasure-boat of the gentlemen there to carry me to the fleet. They were Mr. Ashburnham (61) and Colonell Wyndham; but pleading the King's business, they did presently agree I should have it.

So I presently on board, and got under sail, and had a good bedd by the shift, of Wyndham's; and so,

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 November 1665. 26 Nov 1665. Lord's Day. Up, though very late abed, yet before day to dress myself to go toward Erith, which I would do by land, it being a horrible cold frost to go by water: so borrowed two horses of Mr. Hovell and his friend, and with much ado set out, after my horses being frosted1 (which I know not what it means to this day), and my boy having lost one of my spurs and stockings, carrying them to the smith's; but I borrowed a stocking, and so got up, and Mr. Tooker with me, and rode to Erith, and there on board my Lord Bruncker (45), met Sir W. Warren upon his business, among others, and did a great deale, Sir J. Minnes (66), as God would have it, not being there to hinder us with his impertinences.

Business done, we to dinner very merry, there being there Sir Edmund Pooly (46), a very worthy gentleman. They are now come to the copper boxes in the prizes, and hope to have ended all this weeke.

After dinner took leave, and on shore to Madam Williams, to give her an account of my Lord's letter to me about Howe, who he has clapped by the heels on suspicion of having the jewells, and she did give me my Lord Bruncker's (45) examination of the fellow, that declares his having them; and so away, Sir W. Warren riding with me, and the way being very bad, that is, hard and slippery by reason of the frost, so we could not come to past Woolwich till night. However, having a great mind to have gone to the Duke of Albemarle (56), I endeavoured to have gone farther, but the night come on and no going, so I 'light and sent my horse by Tooker, and returned on foot to my wife at Woolwich, where I found, as I had directed, a good dinner to be made against to-morrow, and invited guests in the yarde, meaning to be merry, in order to her taking leave, for she intends to come in a day or two to me for altogether.

But here, they tell me, one of the houses behind them is infected, and I was fain to stand there a great while, to have their back-door opened, but they could not, having locked them fast, against any passing through, so was forced to pass by them again, close to their sicke beds, which they were removing out of the house, which troubled me; so I made them uninvite their guests, and to resolve of coming all away to me to-morrow, and I walked with a lanthorne, weary as I was, to Greenwich; but it was a fine walke, it being a hard frost, and so to Captain Cocke's (48), but he I found had sent for me to come to him to Mrs. Penington's, and there I went, and we were very merry, and supped, and Cocke (48) being sleepy he went away betimes. I stayed alone talking and playing with her till past midnight, she suffering me whatever 'ego voulais avec ses mamilles [to do whatever I wanted with her breasts].... Much pleased with her company we parted, and I home to bed at past one, all people being in bed thinking I would have staid out of town all night.

1. Frosting means, having the horses' shoes turned up by the smith.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 December 1665. 20 Dec 1665. I was called by my Lord Bruncker (45) in his coach with his mistresse, and Mr. Cottle the lawyer, our acquaintance at Greenwich, and so home to Greenwich, and thence I to Mrs. Penington, and had a supper from the King's Head for her, and there mighty merry and free as I used to be with her, and at last, late, I did pray her to undress herself into her nightgowne, that I might see how to have her picture drawne carelessly (for she is mighty proud of that conceit), and I would walk without in the streete till she had done. So I did walk forth, and whether I made too many turns or no in the darke cold frosty night between the two walls up to the Parke gate I know not, but she was gone to bed when I come again to the house, upon pretence of leaving some papers there, which I did on purpose by her consent.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 December 1665. 22 Dec 1665. He gone, I to my Lord Bruncker's (45), and there spent the evening by my desire in seeing his Lordship open to pieces and make up again his watch, thereby being taught what I never knew before; and it is a thing very well worth my having seen, and am mightily pleased and satisfied with it. So I sat talking with him till late at night, somewhat vexed at a snappish answer Madam Williams did give me to herself, upon my speaking a free word to her in mirthe, calling her a mad jade. She answered, we were not so well acquainted yet.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 January 1666. 04 Jan 1666. Up, and to the office, where my Lord Bruncker (46) and I, against Sir W. Batten (65) and Sir J. Minnes (66) and the whole table, for Sir W. Warren in the business of his mast contract, and overcome them and got them to do what I had a mind to, for indeed my Lord being unconcerned in what I aimed at.

So home to dinner, where Mr. Sheldon come by invitation from Woolwich, and as merry as I could be with all my thoughts about me and my wife still in pain of her tooth.

He anon took leave and took Mrs. Barbary his niece home with him, and seems very thankful to me for the £10 I did give him for my wife's rent of his house, and I am sure I am beholding to him, for it was a great convenience to me, and then my wife home to London by water and I to the office till 8 at night, and so to my Lord Bruncker's (46), thinking to have been merry, having appointed a meeting for Sir J. Minnes (66) and his company and Mrs. Knipp again, but whatever hindered I know not, but no company come, which vexed me because it disappointed me of the glut of mirthe I hoped for. However, good discourse with my Lord and merry, with Mrs. Williams's descants upon Sir J. Minnes's (66) and Mrs. Turner's (43) not coming. So home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 January 1666. 05 Jan 1666. I with my Lord Bruncker (46) and Mrs. Williams by coach with four horses to London, to my Lord's house in Covent-Guarden. But, Lord! what staring to see a nobleman's coach come to town. And porters every where bow to us; and such begging of beggars! And a delightfull thing it is to see the towne full of people again as now it is; and shops begin to open, though in many places seven or eight together, and more, all shut; but yet the towne is full, compared with what it used to be. I mean the City end; for Covent-Guarden and Westminster are yet very empty of people, no Court nor gentry being there. Set Mrs. Williams down at my Lord's house and he and I to Sir G. Carteret (56), at his chamber at White Hall, he being come to town last night to stay one day.

So my Lord and he and I much talke about the Act, what credit we find upon it, but no private talke between him and I So I to the 'Change, and there met Mr. Povy (52), newly come to town, and he and I to Sir George Smith's (51) and there dined nobly. He tells me how my Lord Bellases (51) complains for want of money and of him and me therein, but I value it not, for I know I do all that can be done. We had no time to talk of particulars, but leave it to another day, and I away to Cornhill to expect my Lord Bruncker's (46) coming back again, and I staid at my stationer's house, and by and by comes my Lord, and did take me up and so to Greenwich, and after sitting with them a while at their house, home, thinking to get Mrs. Knipp, but could not, she being busy with company, but sent me a pleasant letter, writing herself "Barbary Allen".

I went therefore to Mr. Boreman's for pastime, and there staid an houre or two talking with him, and reading a discourse about the River of Thames, the reason of its being choked up in several places with shelfes; which is plain is, by the encroachments made upon the River, and running out of causeways into the River at every wood-wharfe; which was not heretofore when Westminster Hall and White Hall were built, and Redriffe Church, which now are sometimes overflown with water. I had great satisfaction herein.

So home and to my papers for lacke of company, but by and by comes little Mrs. Tooker and sat and supped with me, and I kept her very late talking and making her comb my head, and did what I will with her. So late to bed.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705. Around 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689. Around 1669 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689.

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Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 January 1666. 13 Jan 1666. At the office all the morning, where my Lord Bruncker (46) moved to have something wrote in my matter as I desired him last night, and it was ordered and will be done next sitting.

Home with his Lordship to Mrs. Williams's, in Covent-Garden, to dinner (the first time I ever was there), and there met Captain Cocke (49); and pretty merry, though not perfectly so, because of the fear that there is of a great encrease again of the plague this week. And again my Lord Bruncker (46) do tell us, that he hath it from Sir John Baber; who is related to my Lord Craven (57), that my Lord Craven (57) do look after Sir G. Carteret's (56) place, and do reckon himself sure of it.

After dinner Cocke (49) and I together by coach to the Exchange, in our way talking of our matters, and do conclude that every thing must breake in pieces, while no better counsels govern matters than there seem to do, and that it will become him and I and all men to get their reckonings even, as soon as they can, and expect all to breake. Besides, if the plague continues among us another yeare, the Lord knows what will become of us. I set him down at the 'Change, and I home to my office, where late writing letters and doing business, and thence home to supper and to bed. My head full of cares, but pleased with my wife's minding her worke so well, and busying herself about her house, and I trust in God if I can but clear myself of my Lord Sandwich's (40) bond, wherein I am bound with him for £1000 to T. Pepys, I shall do pretty well, come what will come.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of William Craven 1st Earl Craven 1608-1697.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 January 1666. 18 Jan 1666. Up before day and thence rode to London before office time, where I met a note at the doore to invite me to supper to Mrs. Pierces because of Mrs. Knipp, who is in towne and at her house.

To the office, where, among other things, vexed with Major Norwood's (52) coming, who takes it ill my not paying a bill of Exchange of his, but I have good reason for it, and so the less troubled, but yet troubled, so as at noon being carried by my Lord Bruncker (46) to Captain Cocke's (49) to dinner, where Mrs. Williams was, and Mrs. Knipp, I was not heartily merry, though a glasse of wine did a little cheer me.

After dinner to the office. Anon comes to me thither my Lord Bruncker (46), Mrs. Williams, and Knipp. I brought down my wife in her night-gowne, she not being indeed very well, to the office to them and there by and by they parted all and my wife and I anon and Mercer, by coach, to Pierces; where mighty merry, and sing and dance with great pleasure; and I danced, who never did in company in my life, and Captain Cocke (49) come for a little while and danced, but went away, but we staid and had a pretty supper, and spent till two in the morning, but got home well by coach, though as dark as pitch, and so to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 February 1666. 01 Feb 1666. Up and to the office, where all the morning till late, and Mr. Coventry (38) with us, the first time since before the plague, then hearing my wife was gone abroad to buy things and see her mother and father, whom she hath not seen since before the plague, and no dinner provided for me ready, I walked to Captain Cocke's (49), knowing my Lord Bruncker (46) dined there, and there very merry, and a good dinner.

Thence my Lord and his mistresse, Madam Williams, set me down at the Exchange, and I to Alderman Backewell's (48) to set all my reckonings straight there, which I did, and took up all my notes.

So evened to this day, and thence to Sir Robert Viner's (35), where I did the like, leaving clear in his hands just £2000 of my owne money, to be called for when I pleased. Having done all this I home, and there to the office, did my business there by the post and so home, and spent till one in the morning in my chamber to set right all my money matters, and so to bed.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Robert Vyner Banker 1st Baronet 1631-1688 and Mary Whitchurch Lady Vyner -1674 and their children.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 February 1666. 08 Feb 1666. Up, and all the morning at the office. At noon to the 'Change, expecting to have received from Mr. Houbland, as he promised me, an assignment upon Viner (35), for my reward for my getting them the going of their two ships to Tangier, but I find myself much disappointed therein, for I spoke with him and he said nothing of it, but looked coldly, through some disturbance he meets with in our business through Colonell Norwood's (52) pressing them to carry more goods than will leave room for some of their own. But I shall ease them.

Thence to Captain Cocke's (49), where Mr. Williamson (32), Wren (37), Boldell and Madam Williams, and by and by Lord Bruncker (46), he having been with the King (35) and Duke (32) upon the water to-day, to see Greenwich house, and the yacht Castle is building of, and much good discourse.

So to White Hall to see my Lord Sandwich (40), and then home to my business till night, and then to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 March 1666. 06 Mar 1666. Up betimes and did much business before office time.

Then to the office and there till noon and so home to dinner and to the office again till night.

In the evening being at Sir W. Batten's (65), stepped in (for I have not used to go thither a good while), I find my Lord Bruncker (46) and Mrs. Williams, and they would of their own accord, though I had never obliged them (nor my wife neither) with one visit for many of theirs, go see my house and my wife; which I showed them and made them welcome with wine and China oranges (now a great rarity since the war, none to be had). There being also Captain Cocke (49) and Mrs. Turner (43), who had never been in my house since I come to the office before, and Mrs. Carcasse, wife of Mr. Carcasses. My house happened to be mighty clean, and did me great honour, and they mightily pleased with it.

They gone I to the office and did some business, and then home to supper and to bed. My mind troubled through a doubtfulness of my having incurred Sir W. Coventry's (38) displeasure by not having waited on him since his coming to towne, which is a mighty faulte and that I can bear the fear of the bad effects of till I have been with him, which shall be to-morrow, God willing. So to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 March 1666. 07 Mar 1666. Up betimes, and to St. James's, thinking Mr. Coventry (38) had lain there; but he do not, but at White Hall; so thither I went and had as good a time as heart could wish, and after an houre in his chamber about publique business he and I walked up, and the Duke being gone abroad we walked an houre in the Matted Gallery: he of himself begun to discourse of the unhappy differences between him and my Lord of Sandwich (40), and from the beginning to the end did run through all passages wherein my Lord hath, at any time, gathered any dissatisfaction, and cleared himself to me most honourably; and in truth, I do believe he do as he says. I did afterwards purge myself of all partiality in the business of Sir G. Carteret (56), (whose story Sir W. Coventry (38) did also run over,) that I do mind the King's interest, notwithstanding my relation to him; all which he declares he firmly believes, and assures me he hath the same kindnesse and opinion of me as ever. And when I said I was jealous of myself, that having now come to such an income as I am, by his favour, I should not be found to do as much service as might deserve it; he did assure me, he thinks it not too much for me, but thinks I deserve it as much as any man in England.

All this discourse did cheer my heart, and sets me right again, after a good deal of melancholy, out of fears of his disinclination to me, upon the differences with my Lord Sandwich (40) and Sir G. Carteret (56); but I am satisfied throughly, and so went away quite another man, and by the grace of God will never lose it again by my folly in not visiting and writing to him, as I used heretofore to do.

Thence by coach to the Temple, and it being a holyday, a fast-day, there 'light, and took water, being invited, and down to Greenwich, to Captain Cocke's (49), where dined, he and Lord Bruncker (46), and Matt. Wren (37), Boltele, and Major Cooper, who is also a very pretty companion; but they all drink hard, and, after dinner, to gaming at cards.

So I provoked my Lord to be gone, and he and I to Mr. Cottle's and met Mrs. Williams (without whom he cannot stir out of doors) and there took coach and away home. They carry me to London and set me down at the Temple, where my mind changed and I home, and to writing and heare my boy play on the lute, and a turne with my wife pleasantly in the garden by moonshine, my heart being in great peace, and so home to supper and to bed. The King (35) and Duke (32) are to go to-morrow to Audly End, in order to the seeing and buying of it of my Lord Suffolke (47).

Before 1744 Enoch

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 March 1666. 09 Mar 1666. Up, and being ready, to the Cockpitt to make a visit to the Duke of Albemarle (57), and to my great joy find him the same man to me that [he has been] heretofore, which I was in great doubt of, through my negligence in not visiting of him a great while; and having now set all to rights there, I am in mighty ease in my mind and I think shall never suffer matters to run so far backward again as I have done of late, with reference to my neglecting him and Sir W. Coventry (38).

Thence by water down to Deptford, where I met my Lord Bruncker (46) and Sir W. Batten (65) by agreement, and to measuring Mr. Castle's (37) new third-rate ship, which is to be called the Defyance1. And here I had my end in saving the King (35) some money and getting myself some experience in knowing how they do measure ships.

Thence I left them and walked to Redriffe, and there taking water was overtaken by them in their boat, and so they would have me in with them to Castle's house, where my Lady Batten and Madam Williams were, and there dined and a deale of doings. I had a good dinner and counterfeit mirthe and pleasure with them, but had but little, thinking how I neglected my business. Anon, all home to Sir W. Batten's (65) and there Mrs. Knipp coming we did spend the evening together very merry. She and I singing, and, God forgive me! I do still see that my nature is not to be quite conquered, but will esteem pleasure above all things, though yet in the middle of it, it has reluctances after my business, which is neglected by my following my pleasure. However musique and women I cannot but give way to, whatever my business is. They being gone I to the office a while and so home to supper and to bed.

1. William Castell wrote to the Navy Commissioners on February 17th, 1665-66, to inform them that the "Defiance" had gone to Longreach, and again, on February 22nd, to say that Mr. Grey had no masts large enough for the new ship. Sir William Batten (65) on March 29th asked for the consent of the Board to bring the "Defiance" into dock (" Calendar of State Papers", Domestic, 1665-66, pp. 252, 262, 324).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 March 1666. 16 Mar 1666. Till 7 this morning. Up and all the morning about the Victualler's business, passing his account.

At noon to the 'Change, and did several businesses, and thence to the Crowne behind the 'Change and dined with my Lord Bruncker (46) and Captain Cocke (49) and Fenn, and Madam Williams, who without question must be my Lord's wife, and else she could not follow him wherever he goes and kisse and use him publiquely as she do.

Thence to the office, where Sir W. Pen (44) and I made an end of the Victualler's business, and thence abroad about several businesses, and so in the evening back again, and anon called on by Mr. Povy (52), and he and I staid together in my chamber till 12 at night ending our reckonings and giving him tallys for all I was to pay him and so parted, and I to make good my Journall for two or three days, and begun it till I come to the other side, where I have scratched so much, for, for want of sleep, I begun to write idle and from the purpose. So forced to breake off, and to bed1.

1. There are several erasures in the original MS.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 March 1666. 19 Mar 1666. Up betimes and upon a meeting extraordinary at the office most of the morning with Lord Bruncker (46), Sir W. Coventry (38), and Sir W. Pen (44), upon the business of the accounts. Where now we have got almost as much as we would have we begin to lay all on the Controller, and I fear he will be run down with it, for he is every day less and less capable of doing business.

Thence with my Lord Bruncker (46), Sir W. Coventry (38) to the ticket office, to see in what little order things are there, and there it is a shame to see how the King (35) is served.

Thence to the Chamberlain of London, and satisfy ourselves more particularly how much credit we have there, which proves very little.

Thence to Sir Robert Long's (66), absent. About much the same business, but have not the satisfaction we would have there neither. So Sir W. Coventry (38) parted, and my Lord and I to Mrs. Williams's, and there I saw her closett, where indeed a great many fine things there are, but the woman I hate. Here we dined, and Sir J. Minnes (67) come to us, and after dinner we walked to the King's play-house, all in dirt, they being altering of the stage to make it wider. But God knows when they will begin to act again; but my business here was to see the inside of the stage and all the tiring-rooms and machines; and, indeed, it was a sight worthy seeing. But to see their clothes, and the various sorts, and what a mixture of things there was; here a wooden-leg, there a ruff, here a hobbyhorse, there a crown, would make a man split himself to see with laughing; and particularly Lacy's (51) wardrobe, and Shotrell's. But then again, to think how fine they show on the stage by candle-light, and how poor things they are to look now too near hand, is not pleasant at all. The machines are fine, and the paintings very pretty.

Thence mightily satisfied in my curiosity I away with my Lord to see him at her house again, and so take leave and by coach home and to the office, and thence sent for to Sir G. Carteret (56) by and by to the Broad Streete, where he and I walked two or three hours till it was quite darke in his gallery talking of his affairs, wherein I assure him all will do well, and did give him (with great liberty, which he accepted kindly) my advice to deny the Board nothing they would aske about his accounts, but rather call upon them to know whether there was anything more they desired, or was wanting. But our great discourse and serious reflections was upon the bad state of the Kingdom in general, through want of money and good conduct, which we fear will undo all.

Thence mightily satisfied with this good fortune of this discourse with him I home, and there walked in the darke till 10 o'clock at night in the garden with Sir W. Warren, talking of many things belonging to us particularly, and I hope to get something considerably by him before the year be over. He gives me good advice of circumspection in my place, which I am now in great mind to improve; for I think our office stands on very ticklish terms, the Parliament likely to sit shortly and likely to be asked more money, and we able to give a very bad account of the expence of what we have done with what they did give before. Besides, the turning out the prize officers may be an example for the King (35) giving us up to the Parliament's pleasure as easily, for we deserve it as much. Besides, Sir G. Carteret (56) did tell me tonight how my Lord Bruncker (46) himself, whose good-will I could have depended as much on as any, did himself to him take notice of the many places I have; and though I was a painful man, yet the Navy was enough for any man to go through with in his owne single place there, which much troubles me, and shall yet provoke me to more and more care and diligence than ever.

Thence home to supper, where I find my wife and Mrs. Barbary with great colds, as I also at this time have. This day by letter from my father he propounds a match in the country for Pall, which pleased me well, of one that hath seven score and odd pounds land per annum in possession, and expects £1000 in money by the death of an old aunt. He hath neither father, mother, sister, nor brother, but demands £600 down, and £100 on the birth of first child, which I had some inclination to stretch to. He is kinsman to, and lives with, Mr. Phillips, but my wife tells me he is a drunken, ill-favoured, ill-bred country fellow, which sets me off of it again, and I will go on with Harman (29). So after supper to bed.

Before 13 Jul 1673 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Robert Long 1st Baronet Long 1600-1673.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 April 1666. 04 Apr 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (44) in his coach to White Hall, in his way talking simply and fondly as he used to do, but I find myself to slight him and his simple talke, I thank God, and that my condition will enable me to do it.

Thence, after doing our business with the Duke of Yorke (32), with Captain Cocke (49) home to the 'Change in his coach. He promises me presently a dozen of silver salts, and proposes a business for which he hath promised Mrs. Williams for my Lord Bruncker (46) a set of plate shall cost him £500 and me the like, which will be a good business indeed.

After done several businesses at the 'Change I home, and being washing day dined upon cold meate, and so abroad by coach to Hales's (66), and there sat till night, mightily pleased with my picture, which is now almost finished.

So by coach home, it being the fast day and to my chamber and so after supper to bed, consulting how to send my wife into the country to advise about Pall's marriage, which I much desire, and my father too, and two or three offers are now in hand.

Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 April 1666. 05 Apr 1666. Up, and before office time to Lombard Street, and there at Viner's (35) was shewn the silver plates, made for Captain Cocke (49) to present my Lord Bruncker (46); and I chose a dozen of the same weight to be bespoke for myself, which he told me yesterday he would give me on the same occasion.

To the office, where the falsenesse and impertinencies of Sir W. Pen (44) would make a man mad to think of.

At noon would have avoided, but could not, dining with my Lord Bruncker (46) and his mistresse with Captain Cocke (49) at the Sun Taverne in Fish Streete, where a good dinner, but the woman do tire me, and indeed how simply my Lord Bruncker (46), who is otherwise a wise man, do proceed at the table in serving of Cocke (49), without any means of understanding in his proposal, or defence when proposed, would make a man think him a foole.

After dinner home, where I find my wife hath on a sudden, upon notice of a coach going away to-morrow, taken a resolution of going in it to Brampton, we having lately thought it fit for her to go to satisfy herself and me in the nature of the fellow that is there proposed to my sister. So she to fit herself for her journey and I to the office all the afternoon till late, and so home and late putting notes to "It is decreed, nor shall thy fate, &c". and then to bed. The plague is, to our great grief, encreased nine this week, though decreased a few in the total. And this encrease runs through many parishes, which makes us much fear the next year.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 April 1666. 07 Apr 1666. Lay pretty long to-day, lying alone and thinking of several businesses. So up to the office and there till noon.

Thence with my Lord Bruncker (46) home by coach to Mrs. Williams's, where Bab. Allen and Dr. Charleton dined. Bab and I sang and were mighty merry as we could be there, where the rest of the company did not overplease.

Thence took her by coach to Hales's (66), and there find Mrs. Pierce and her boy and Mary. She had done sitting the first time, and indeed her face is mighty like at first dash.

Thence took them to the cakehouse, and there called in the coach for cakes and drank, and thence I carried them to my Chancellor's (57) new house to shew them that, and all mightily pleased, thence set each down at home, and so I home to the office, where about ten of the clock W. Hewer (24) comes to me to tell me that he has left my wife well this morning at Bugden, which was great riding, and brings me a letter from her. She is very well got thither, of which I am heartily glad.

After writing several letters, I home to supper and to bed. The Parliament of which I was afraid of their calling us of the Navy to an account of the expense of money and stores and wherein we were so little ready to give them a good answer [will soon meet]. The Bishop of Munster, every body says, is coming to peace with the Dutch, we having not supplied him with the money promised him.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 June 1666. 20 Jun 1666. Up, but in some pain of the collique. I have of late taken too much cold by washing my feet and going in a thin silke waistcoate, without any other coate over it, and open-breasted, but I hope it will go over. I did this morning (my father being to go away to-morrow) give my father some money to buy him a horse, and for other things to himself and my mother and sister, among them £20, besides undertaking to pay for other things for them to about £3, which the poor man takes with infinite kindnesse, and I do not thinke I can bestow it better.

Thence by coach to St. James's as usual to wait on the Duke of York (32), after having discoursed with Collonell Fitzgerald, whom I met in my way and he returned with me to Westminster, about paying him a sum of 700 and odd pounds, and he bids me defalk £25 for myself, [Abate from an amount.] which is a very good thing; having done with the Duke I to the Exchequer and there after much ado do get my business quite over of the difficulty of breaking a great tally into little ones and so shall have it done tomorrow.

Thence to the Hall and with Mrs. Martin home and staid with her a while, and then away to the Swan and sent for a bit of meat and dined there, and thence to Faythorne (50), the picture-seller's, and there chose two or three good Cutts to try to vernish, and so to Hales's (66) to see my father's picture, which is now near finished and is very good, and here I staid and took a nap of an hour, thinking my father and wife would have come, but they did not; so I away home as fast as I could, fearing lest my father this day going abroad to see Mr. Honiwood at Major Russell's might meet with any trouble, and so in great pain home; but to spite me, in Cheapside I met Mrs. Williams in a coach, and she called me, so I must needs 'light and go along with her and poor Knipp (who is so big as she can tumble and looks-every day to lie down) as far as Paternoster Row, which I did do and there staid in Bennett's shop with them, and was fearfull lest the people of the shop, knowing me, should aske after my father and give Mrs. Williams any knowledge of me to my disgrace. Having seen them done there and accompanied them to Ludgate I 'light and into my owne coach and home, where I find my father and wife had had no intent of coming at all to Hales's (66). So I at home all the evening doing business, and at night in the garden (it having been these three or four days mighty hot weather) singing in the evening, and then home to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 July 1666. 06 Jul 1666. Up, and after doing some business at my office abroad to Lumbard Street, about the getting of a good sum of money, thence home, in preparation for my having some good sum in my hands, for fear of a trouble in the State, that I may not have all I have in the world out of my hands and so be left a beggar. Having put that in a way, I home to the office, and so to the Tower; about shipping of some more pressed men, and that done, away to Broad Streete, to Sir G. Carteret (56), who is at a pay of tickets all alone, and I believe not less than one thousand people in the streets. But it is a pretty thing to observe that both there and every where else, a man shall see many women now-a-days of mean sort in the streets, but no men; men being so afeard of the press.

I dined with Sir G. Carteret (56), and after dinner had much discourse about our publique business; and he do seem to fear every day more and more what I do; which is, a general confusion in the State; plainly answering me to the question, who is it that the weight of the warr depends [upon]? that it is only Sir W. Coventry (38). He tells me, too, the Duke of Albemarle (57) is dissatisfied, and that the Duchesse (47) do curse Coventry (38) as the man that betrayed her husband to the sea: though I believe that it is not so.

Thence to Lombard Street, and received £2000, and carried it home: whereof £1000 in gold. The greatest quantity not only that I ever had of gold, but that ever I saw together, and is not much above half a 100 lb. bag full, but is much weightier. This I do for security sake, and convenience of carriage; though it costs me above £70 the change of it, at 18 1/2d. per piece. Being at home, I there met with a letter from Bab Allen, [Mrs. Knipp] to invite me to be god-father to her boy, with Mrs. Williams, which I consented to, but know not the time when it is to be.

Thence down to the Old Swan, calling at Michell's, he not being within, and there I did steal a kiss or two of her, and staying a little longer, he come in, and her father, whom I carried to Westminster, my business being thither, and so back again home, and very busy all the evening. At night a song in the garden and to bed.

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St James' Day Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 July 1666. 27 Jul 1666. Up and to the office, where all the morning busy.

At noon dined at home and then to the office again, and there walking in the garden with Captain Cocke (49) till 5 o'clock. No newes yet of the fleete. His great bargaine of Hempe with us by his unknown proposition is disliked by the King (36), and so is quite off; of which he is glad, by this means being rid of his obligation to my Lord Bruncker (46), which he was tired with, and especially his mistresse, Mrs. Williams, and so will fall into another way about it, wherein he will advise only with myself, which do not displease me, and will be better for him and the King (36) too. Much common talke of publique business, the want of money, the uneasinesse that Parliament will find in raising any, and the ill condition we shall be in if they do not, and his confidence that the Swede is true to us, but poor, but would be glad to do us all manner of service in the world.

He gone, I away by water from the Old Swan to White Hall. The waterman tells me that newes is come that our ship Resolution is burnt, and that we had sunke four or five of the enemy's ships. When I come to White Hall I met with Creed, and he tells me the same news, and walking with him to the Park I to Sir W. Coventry's (38) lodging, and there he showed me Captain Talbot's letter, wherein he says that the fight begun on the 25th; that our White squadron begun with one of the Dutch squadrons, and then the Red with another so hot that we put them both to giving way, and so they continued in pursuit all the day, and as long as he stayed with them: that the Blue fell to the Zealand squadron; and after a long dispute, he against two or three great ships, he received eight or nine dangerous shots, and so come away; and says, he saw The Resolution burned by one of their fire-ships, and four or five of the enemy's. But says that two or three of our great ships were in danger of being fired by our owne fire-ships, which Sir W. Coventry (38), nor I, cannot understand. But upon the whole, he and I walked two or three turns in the Parke under the great trees, and do doubt that this gallant is come away a little too soon, having lost never a mast nor sayle. And then we did begin to discourse of the young gentlemen captains, which he was very free with me in speaking his mind of the unruliness of them; and what a losse the King (36) hath of his old men, and now of this Hannam, of The Resolution, if he be dead, and that there is but few old sober men in the fleete, and if these few of the Flags that are so should die, he fears some other gentlemen captains will get in, and then what a council we shall have, God knows. He told me how he is disturbed to hear the commanders at sea called cowards here on shore, and that he was yesterday concerned publiquely at a dinner to defend them, against somebody that said that not above twenty of them fought as they should do, and indeed it is derived from the Duke of Albemarle (57) himself, who wrote so to the King (36) and Duke (32), and that he told them how they fought four days, two of them with great disadvantage. The Count de Guiche, who was on board De Ruyter (59), writing his narrative home in French of the fight, do lay all the honour that may be upon the English courage above the Dutch, and that he himself [Sir W. Coventry (38)] was sent down from the King (36) and Duke of Yorke (32) after the fight, to pray them to spare none that they thought had not done their parts, and that they had removed but four, whereof Du Tell is one, of whom he would say nothing; but, it seems, the Duke of Yorke (32) hath been much displeased at his removal, and hath now taken him into his service, which is a plain affront to the Duke of Albemarle (57); and two of the others, Sir W. Coventry (38) did speake very slenderly of their faults. Only the last, which was old Teddiman, he says, is in fault, and hath little to excuse himself with; and that, therefore, we should not be forward in condemning men of want of courage, when the Generalls, who are both men of metal, and hate cowards, and had the sense of our ill successe upon them (and by the way must either let the world thinke it was the miscarriage of the Captains or their owne conduct), have thought fit to remove no more of them, when desired by the King (36) and Duke of Yorke (32) to do it, without respect to any favour any of them can pretend to in either of them.

At last we concluded that we never can hope to beat the Dutch with such advantage as now in number and force and a fleete in want of nothing, and he hath often repeated now and at other times industriously that many of the Captains have: declared that they want nothing, and again, that they did lie ten days together at the Nore without demanding of any thing in the world but men, and of them they afterward, when they went away, the generalls themselves acknowledge that they have permitted several ships to carry supernumeraries, but that if we do not speede well, we must then play small games and spoile their trade in small parties. And so we parted, and I, meeting Creed in the Parke again, did take him by coach and to Islington, thinking to have met my Lady Pen (42) and wife, but they were gone, so we eat and drank and away back, setting him down in Cheapside and I home, and there after a little while making of my tune to "It is decreed", to bed.

1667. Ferdinand Bol 1616-1680. Portrait of Admiral Michiel de Ruyter 1607-1676.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 July 1666. 28 Jul 1666. Up, and to the office, where no more newes of the fleete than was yesterday. Here we sat and at noon to dinner to the Pope's Head, where my Lord Bruncker (46) and his mistresse dined and Commissioner Pett (55), Dr. Charleton, and myself, entertained with a venison pasty by Sir W. Warren. Here very pretty discourse of Dr. Charleton's, concerning Nature's fashioning every creature's teeth according to the food she intends them; and that men's, it is plain, was not for flesh, but for fruit, and that he can at any time tell the food of a beast unknown by the teeth. My Lord Bruncker (46) made one or two objections to it that creatures find their food proper for their teeth rather than that the teeth were fitted for the food, but the Doctor, I think, did well observe that creatures do naturally and from the first, before they have had experience to try, do love such a food rather than another, and that all children love fruit, and none brought to flesh, but against their wills at first.

Thence with my Lord Bruncker (46) to White Hall, where no news.

So to St. James's to Sir W. Coventry (38), and there hear only of the Bredah's being come in and gives the same small account that the other did yesterday, so that we know not what is done by the body of the fleete at all, but conceive great reason to hope well.

Thence with my Lord to his coach-house, and there put in his six horses into his coach, and he and I alone to Highgate. All the way going and coming I learning of him the principles of Optickes, and what it is that makes an object seem less or bigger and how much distance do lessen an object, and that it is not the eye at all, or any rule in optiques, that can tell distance, but it is only an act of reason comparing of one mark with another, which did both please and inform me mightily. Being come thither we went to my Lord Lauderdale's (50) house to speake with him, about getting a man at Leith to joyne with one we employ to buy some prize goods for the King (36); we find (him) and his lady (54) and some Scotch people at supper. Pretty odd company; though my Lord Bruncker (46) tells me, my Lord Lauderdale (50) is a man of mighty good reason and judgement. But at supper there played one of their servants upon the viallin some Scotch tunes only; several, and the best of their country, as they seemed to esteem them, by their praising and admiring them: but, Lord! the strangest ayre that ever I heard in my life, and all of one cast. But strange to hear my Lord Lauderdale (50) say himself that he had rather hear a cat mew, than the best musique in the world; and the better the musique, the more sicke it makes him; and that of all instruments, he hates the lute most, and next to that, the baggpipe.

Thence back with my Lord to his house, all the way good discourse, informing of myself about optiques still, and there left him and by a Hackney home, and after writing three or four letters, home to supper and to bed.

Before 05 Aug 1661 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Thomas Hales 3rd Baronet Hales 1695-1762 and John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682. Ham House Ham Richmond. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682 and Elizabeth Murray Duchess Lauderdale 1626-1698. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682 wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682.

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Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 August 1666. 06 Aug 1666. Up, and to the office a while, and then by water to my Baroness Montagu's (41), at Westminster, and there visited my Lord Hinchingbroke (18), newly come from Hinchingbroke, and find him a mighty sober gentleman, to my great content.

Thence to Sir Ph. Warwicke (56) and my Lord Treasurer's (59), but failed in my business; so home and in Fenchurch-streete met with Mr. Battersby; says he, "Do you see Dan Rawlinson's (52) door shut up?" (which I did, and wondered). "Why", says he, "after all the sickness, and himself spending all the last year in the country, one of his men is now dead of the plague, and his wife and one of his mayds sicke, and himself shut up"; which troubles me mightily.

So home; and there do hear also from Mrs. Sarah Daniel, that Greenwich is at this time much worse than ever it was, and Deptford too: and she told us that they believed all the towne would leave the towne and come to London; which is now the receptacle of all the people from all infected places. God preserve us!

So by and by to dinner, and, after dinner in comes Mrs. Knipp, and I being at the office went home to her, and there I sat and talked with her, it being the first time of her being here since her being brought to bed. I very pleasant with her; but perceive my wife hath no great pleasure in her being here, she not being pleased with my kindnesse to her. However, we talked and sang, and were very pleasant.

By and by comes Mr. Pierce and his wife, the first time she also hath been here since her lying-in, both having been brought to bed of boys, and both of them dead. And here we talked, and were pleasant, only my wife in a chagrin humour, she not being pleased with my kindnesse to either of them, and by and by she fell into some silly discourse wherein I checked her, which made her mighty pettish, and discoursed mighty offensively to Mrs. Pierce, which did displease me, but I would make no words, but put the discourse by as much as I could (it being about a report that my wife said was made of herself and meant by Mrs. Pierce, that she was grown a gallant, when she had but so few suits of clothes these two or three years, and a great deale of that silly discourse), and by and by Mrs. Pierce did tell her that such discourses should not trouble her, for there went as bad on other people, and particularly of herself at this end of the towne, meaning my wife, that she was crooked, which was quite false, which my wife had the wit not to acknowledge herself to be the speaker of, though she has said it twenty times. But by this means we had little pleasure in their visit; however, Knipp and I sang, and then I offered them to carry them home, and to take my wife with me, but she would not go: so I with them, leaving my wife in a very ill humour, and very slighting to them, which vexed me. However, I would not be removed from my civility to them, but sent for a coach, and went with them; and, in our way, Knipp saying that she come out of doors without a dinner to us, I took them to Old Fish Streete, to the very house and woman where I kept my wedding dinner, where I never was since, and there I did give them a joie of salmon, and what else was to be had. And here we talked of the ill-humour of my wife, which I did excuse as much as I could, and they seemed to admit of it, but did both confess they wondered at it; but from thence to other discourse, and among others to that of my Lord Bruncker (46) and Mrs. Williams, who it seems do speake mighty hardly of me for my not treating them, and not giving her something to her closett, and do speake worse of my wife, and dishonourably, but it is what she do of all the world, though she be a whore herself; so I value it not. But they told me how poorly my Lord carried himself the other day to his kinswoman, Mrs. Howard, and was displeased because she called him uncle to a little gentlewoman that is there with him, which he will not admit of; for no relation is to be challenged from others to a lord, and did treat her thereupon very rudely and ungenteely.

Knipp tells me also that my Lord keeps another woman besides Mrs. Williams; and that, when I was there the other day, there was a great hubbub in the house, Mrs. Williams being fallen sicke, because my Lord was gone to his other mistresse, making her wait for him, till his return from the other mistresse; and a great deale of do there was about it; and Mrs. Williams swounded at it, at the very time when I was there and wondered at the reason of my being received so negligently. I set them both at home, Knipp at her house, her husband being at the doore; and glad she was to be found to have staid out so long with me and Mrs. Pierce, and none else; and Mrs. Pierce at her house, and am mightily pleased with the discretion of her during the simplicity and offensiveness of my wife's discourse this afternoon. I perceive by the new face at Mrs. Pierce's door that our Mary is gone from her.

So I home, calling on W. Joyce in my coach, and staid and talked a little with him, who is the same silly prating fellow that ever he was, and so home, and there find my wife mightily out of order, and reproaching of Mrs. Pierce and Knipp as wenches, and I know not what. But I did give her no words to offend her, and quietly let all pass, and so to bed without any good looke or words to or from my wife.

In or before 1674. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 October 1666. 25 Oct 1666. Up betimes and by water to White Hall, and there with Sir G. Carteret (56) to Sir W. Coventry (38), who is come to his winter lodgings at White Hall, and there agreed upon a method of paying of tickets; and so I back again home and to the office, where we sate all the morning, but to little purpose but to receive clamours for money.

At noon home to dinner, where the two Mrs. Daniels come to see us, and dined with us.

After dinner I out with my wife to Mrs. Pierce's, where she hath not been a great while, from some little unkindness of my wife's to her when she was last here, but she received us with mighty respect and discretion, and was making herself mighty fine to go to a great ball to-night at Court, being the Queene's (56) birthday; so the ladies for this one day do wear laces, but to put them off again to-morrow.

Thence I to my Lord Bruncker's (46), and with him to Mrs. Williams's where we met Knipp. I was glad to see the jade. Made her sing; and she told us they begin at both houses to act on Monday next. But I fear, after all this sorrow, their gains will be but little. Mrs. Williams says, the Duke's house will now be much the better of the two, because of their women; which I am glad to hear.

Thence with Lord Bruncker (46) to White Hall and there spoke with Sir W. Coventry (38) about some office business, and then I away to Mrs. Pierce's, and there saw her new closet, which is mighty rich and fine. Her daughter Betty grows mighty pretty.

Thence with my wife home and to do business at the office. Then to Sir W. Batten's (65), who tells me that the House of Parliament makes mighty little haste in settling the money, and that he knows not when it will be done; but they fall into faction, and libells have been found in the House. Among others, one yesterday, wherein they reckon up divers great sums to be given away by the King (36), among others, £10,000 to Sir W. Coventry (38), for weare and teare (the point he stood upon to advance that sum by, for them to give the King (36)); Sir G. Carteret (56) £50,000 for something else, I think supernumerarys; and so to Matt. Wren £5000 for passing the Canary Company's patent; and so a great many other sums to other persons.

So home to supper and to bed.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 November 1666. 10 Nov 1666. Up and to the office, where Sir W. Coventry (38) come to tell us that the Parliament did fall foul of our accounts again yesterday; and we must arme to have them examined, which I am sorry for: it will bring great trouble to me, and shame upon the office. My head full this morning how to carry on Captain Cocke's (49) bargain of hemp, which I think I shall by my dexterity do, and to the King's advantage as well as my own.

At noon with my Lord Bruncker (46) and Sir Thomas Harvy (41), to Cocke's (49) house, and there Mrs. Williams and other company, and an excellent dinner. Mr. Temple's wife, after dinner, fell to play on the harpsicon, till she tired everybody, that I left the house without taking leave, and no creature left standing by her to hear her.

Thence I home and to the office, where late doing of business, and then home. Read an hour, to make an end of Potter's Discourse of the Number 666, which I like all along, but his close is most excellent; and, whether it be right or wrong, is mighty ingenious.

Then to supper and to bed. This is the fatal day that every body hath discoursed for a long time to be the day that the Papists, or I know not who, had designed to commit a massacre upon; but, however, I trust in God we shall rise to-morrow morning as well as ever. This afternoon Creed comes to me, and by him, as, also my Lady Pen (42), I hear that my Lady Denham (26) is exceeding sick, even to death, and that she says, and every body else discourses, that she is poysoned; and Creed tells me, that it is said that there hath been a design to poison the King (36). What the meaning of all these sad signs is, the Lord knows; but every day things look worse and worse. God fit us for the worst!

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667. One of the Windsor Beauties.

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Paper Bill

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 December 1666. 15 Dec 1666. Up and to the office, where my Lord Bruncker (46) newly come to town, from his being at Chatham and Harwich to spy enormities: and at noon I with him and his lady Williams, to Captain Cocke's (49), where a good dinner, and very merry.

Good news to-day upon the Exchange, that our Hamburgh fleete is got in; and good hopes that we may soon have the like of our Gottenburgh, and then we shall be well for this winter. Very merry at dinner. And by and by comes in Matt. Wren (37) from the Parliament-house; and tells us that he and all his party of the House, which is the Court party, are fools, and have been made so this day by the wise men of the other side; for, after the Court party had carried it yesterday so powerfully for the Paper-Bill1, yet now it is laid aside wholly, and to be supplied by a land-tax; which it is true will do well, and will be the sooner finished, which was the great argument for the doing of it. But then it shews them fools, that they would not permit this to have been done six weeks ago, which they might have had. And next, they have parted with the Paper Bill, which, when once begun, might have proved a very good flower in the Crowne, as any there. So do really say that they are truly outwitted by the other side.

Thence away to Sir R. Viner's (35), and there chose some plate besides twelve plates which I purpose to have with Captain Cocke's (49) gift of £100, and so home and there busy late, and then home and to bed.

1. It was called "A Bill for raising part of the supply for his Majesty by an imposition on Sealed Paper and Parchment" B.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 January 1667. 05 Jan 1667. At the office all the morning, thinking at noon to have been taken home, and my wife (according to appointment yesterday), by my Lord Bruncker (47), to dinner and then to a play, but he had forgot it, at which I was glad, being glad of avoyding the occasion of inviting him again, and being forced to invite his doxy, Mrs. Williams.

So home, and took a small snap of victuals, and away, with my wife, to the Duke's house, and there saw "Mustapha", a most excellent play for words and design as ever I did see. I had seen it before but forgot it, so it was wholly new to me, which is the pleasure of my not committing these things to my memory.

Home, and a little to the office, and then to bed, where I lay with much pain in my head most of the night, and very unquiet, partly by my drinking before I went out too great a draught of sack, and partly my eyes being still very sore.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 February 1667. 10 Feb 1667. Lord's Day. Up and with my wife to church, where Mr. Mills made an unnecessary sermon upon Original Sin, neither understood by himself nor the people.

Home, where Michell and his wife, and also there come Mr. Carter, my old acquaintance of Magdalene College, who hath not been here of many years. He hath spent his time in the North with the Bishop of Carlisle (58) much. He is grown a very comely person, and of good discourse, and one that I like very much. We had much talk of our old acquaintance of the College, concerning their various fortunes; wherein, to my joy, I met not with any that have sped better than myself.

After dinner he went away, and awhile after them Michell and his wife, whom I love mightily, and then I to my chamber there to my Tangier accounts, which I had let run a little behind hand, but did settle them very well to my satisfaction, but it cost me sitting up till two in the morning, and the longer by reason that our neighbour, Mrs. Turner (44), poor woman, did come to take her leave of us, she being to quit her house to-morrow to my Lord Bruncker (47), who hath used her very unhandsomely. She is going to lodgings, and do tell me very odde stories how Mrs. Williams do receive the applications of people, and hath presents, and she is the hand that receives all, while my Lord Bruncker (47) do the business, which will shortly come to be loud talk if she continues here, I do foresee, and bring my Lord no great credit. So having done all my business, to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 February 1667. 20 Feb 1667. So home and to the office a while, and then home to supper, where Mrs. Turner (44) come to us, and sat and talked. Poor woman, I pity her, but she is very cunning. She concurs with me in the falseness of Sir W. Pen's (45) friendship, and she tells pretty storms of my Lord Bruncker (47) since he come to our end of the town, of people's applications to Mrs. Williams.

So, she gone, I back to my accounts of Tangier, which I am settling, having my new tallies from the Exchequer this day, and having set all right as I could wish, then to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 March 1667. 05 Mar 1667. Up, and to the office, where met and sat all the morning, doing little for want of money, but only bear the countenance of an office.

At noon home to dinner, and then to the office again, and there comes Martin my purser, and I walked with him awhile in the garden, I giving him good advice to beware of coming any more with high demands for supernumeraries or other things, for now Sir W. Pen (45) is come to mind the business, the passing of his accounts will not be so easy as the last. He tells me he will never need it again, it being as easy, and to as much purpose to do the same thing otherwise, and how he do keep his Captain's table, and by that means hath the command of his Captains, and do not fear in a 5th-rate ship constantly employed to get a £1000 in five years time, and this year, besides all his spendings, which are I fear high, he hath got at this day clear above £150 in a voyage of about five or six months, which is a brave trade. He gone I to the office, and there all the afternoon late doing much business, and then to see Sir W. Batten (66), whose leg is all but better than it was, and like to do well. I by discourse do perceive he and his Lady (43) are to their hearts out with my Lord Bruncker (47) and Mrs. Williams, to which I added something, but, I think, did not venture too far with them.

But, Lord! to see to what a poor content any acquaintance among these people, or the people of the world, as they now-adays go, is worth; for my part I and my wife will keep to one another and let the world go hang, for there is nothing but falseness in it.

So home to supper and hear my wife and girle sing a little, and then to bed with much content of mind.

Poll Bill

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 May 1667. 06 May 1667. Up and angry with my mayds for letting in watermen, and I know not who, anybody that they are acquainted with, into my kitchen to talk and prate with them, which I will not endure. Then out and by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (60), who continues still very ill, then to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (57) house, and there did a little business about my Tangier tallies, and so to Westminster Hall, and there to the Exchequer to consult about some way of getting our poor Creditors of the Navy (who served in their goods before the late Session of Parliament) paid out of the 11 months tax, which seems to relate only for goods to be then served in, and I think I have found out a way to bring them into the Act, which, if it do, I shall think a good service done.

Thence by coach home with Captain Cocke (50), in our way talking of my Lord Bruncker (47) and his Lady, who are mighty angry with us all of the office, about Carcasse's business, but especially with me, and in great confidence he bids me have a care of him, for he hath said that he would wound me with the person where my greatest interest is. I suppose he means Sir W. Coventry (39), and therefore I will beware of him, and am glad, though vexed to hear it.

So home to dinner, where Creed come, whom I vexed devilishly with telling him a wise man, and good friend of his and mine, did say that he lately went into the country to Hinchingbroke; and, at his coming to town again, hath shifted his lodgings, only to avoid paying to the Poll Bill, which is so true that he blushed, and could not in words deny it, but the fellow did think to have not had it discovered. He is so devilish a subtle false rogue, that I am really weary and afeard of his company, and therefore after dinner left him in the house, and to my office, where busy all the afternoon despatching much business, and in the evening to Sir R. Viner's (36) to adjust accounts there, and so home, where some of our old Navy creditors come to me by my direction to consider of what I have invented for their help as I have said in the morning, and like it mighty well, and so I to the office, where busy late, then home to supper and sing with my wife, who do begin to give me real pleasure with her singing, and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 May 1667. 21 May 1667. Up and to the office, where sat all the morning. At noon dined at home with my wife and find a new girle, a good big girle come to us, got by Payne to be our girle; and his daughter Nell we make our cook. This wench's name is Mary, and seems a good likely maid.

After dinner I with Mr. Commander and Mr. Hide's brother to Lincolne's Inne Fields, and there viewed several coach-houses, and satisfied ourselves now fully in it, and then there parted, leaving the rest to future discourse between us.

Thence I home; but, Lord! how it went against my heart to go away from the very door of the Duke's play-house, and my Baroness Castlemayne's (26) coach, and many great coaches there, to see "The Siege of Rhodes". I was very near making a forfeit, but I did command myself, and so home to my office, and there did much business to my good content, much better than going to a play, and then home to my wife, who is not well with her cold, and sat and read a piece of Grand Cyrus in English by her, and then to my chamber and to supper, and so to bed.

This morning the Captain come from Holland did tell us at the board what I have said he reported yesterday. This evening after I come from the office Mrs. Turner (44) come to see my wife and me, and sit and talk with us, and so, my wife not being well and going to bed, Mrs. Turner (44) and I sat up till 12 at night talking alone in my chamber, and most of our discourse was of our neighbours. As to my Lord Bruncker (47), she says how Mrs. Griffin, our housekeeper's wife, hath it from his maid, that comes to her house often, that they are very poor; that the other day Mrs. Williams was fain to send a jewell to pawn; that their maid hath said herself that she hath got £50 since she come thither, and £17 by the payment of one bill; that they have a most lewd and nasty family here in the office, but Mrs. Turner (44) do tell me that my Lord hath put the King (36) to infinite charge since his coming thither in alterations, and particularly that Mr. Harper at Deptford did himself tell her that my Lord hath had of Foly, the ironmonger, £50 worth in locks and keys for his house, and that it is from the fineness of them, having some of £4 and £5 a lock, such as is in the Duke's closet; that he hath several of these; that he do keep many of her things from her of her own goods, and would have her bring a bill into the office for them; that Mrs. Griffin do say that he do not keep Mrs. Williams now for love, but need, he having another whore that he keeps in Covent Garden; that they do owe money everywhere almost for every thing, even Mrs. Shipman for her butter and cheese about £3, and after many demands cannot get it.

Mrs. Turner (44) says she do believe their coming here is only out of a belief of getting purchase by it, and that their servants (which was wittily said of her touching his clerks) do act only as privateers, no purchase, no pay. And in my conscience she is in the right. Then we fell to talk of Sir W. Pen (46), and his family and rise. She [Mrs. Turner (44)] says that he was a pityfull [fellow] when she first knew them; that his lady (43) was one of the sourest, dirty women, that ever she saw; that they took two chambers, one over another, for themselves and child, in Tower Hill; that for many years together they eat more meals at her house than at their own; did call brothers and sisters the husbands and wives; that her husband was godfather to one, and she godmother to another (this Margaret) of their children, by the same token that she was fain to write with her own hand a letter to Captain Twiddy, to stand for a godfather for her; that she brought my Lady, who then was a dirty slattern, with her stockings hanging about her heels, so that afterwards the people of the whole Hill did say that Mrs. Turner (44) had made Mrs. Pen (43) a gentlewoman, first to the knowledge of my Lady Vane (50), Sir Henry's (54) lady, and him to the knowledge of most of the great people that then he sought to, and that in short his rise hath been his giving of large bribes, wherein, and she agrees with my opinion and knowledge before therein, he is very profuse. This made him General; this got him out of the Tower when he was in; and hath brought him into what he is now, since the King's coming in: that long ago, indeed, he would drink the King's health privately with Mr. Turner; but that when he saw it fit to turn Roundhead, and was offered by Mr. Turner to drink the King's health, he answered "No"; he was changed, and now, he that would make him drink the King's health, or any health but the Protector's and the State's, or to that purpose, he would be the first man should sheath his sword in his guts. That at the King's coming in, he did send for her husband, and told him what a great man Sir W. Coventry (39) was like to be, and that he having all the records in his hands of the Navy, if he would transcribe what was of most present use of the practice of the Navy, and give them him to give Sir W. Coventry (39) from him, it would undoubtedly do his business of getting him a principal officer's place; that her husband was at £5 charge to get these presently writ; that Sir W. Pen (46) did give them Sir W. Coventry (39) as from himself, which did set him up with W. Coventry (39), and made him what he is, and never owned any thing of Mr. Turner in them; by which he left him in the lurch, though he did promise the Duke of Albemarle (58) to do all that was possible, and made no question of Mr. Turner's being what he desired; and when afterwards, too, did propose to him the getting of the Purveyor's place for him, he did tell Mr. Turner it was necessary to present Sir W. Coventry (39) 100 pieces, which he did, and W. Coventry took 80 of them: so that he was W. Coventry's mere broker, as Sir W. Batten (66) and my Lady did once tell my Lady Duchess of Albemarle (48), in the case of Mr. Falconer, whom W. Pen (46) made to give W. Coventry £200 for his place of Clerk of the Rope Yard of Woolwich, and to settle £80 a year upon his daughter Pegg (16), after the death of his wife, and a gold watch presently to his wife.

Mrs. Turner (44) do tell me that my Lady and Pegg (16) have themselves owned to her that Sir W. Coventry (39) and Sir W. Pen (46) had private marks to write to one another by, that when they in appearance writ a fair letter in behalf of anybody, that they had a little mark to show they meant it only in shew: this, these silly people did confess themselves of him. She says that their son, Mr. William Pen (22), did tell her that his father did observe the commanders did make their addresses to me and applications, but they should know that his father should be the chief of the office, and that she hath observed that Sir W. Pen (46) never had a kindness to her son, since W. Pen told her son that he had applied himself to me. That his rise hath been by her and her husband's means, and that it is a most inconceivable thing how this man can have the face to use her and her family with the neglect that he do them. That he was in the late war a most devilish plunderer, and that got him his estate, which he hath in Ireland, and nothing else, and that he hath always been a very liberal man in his bribes, that upon his coming into this part of the Controller's business wherein he is, he did send for T. Willson and told him how against his knowledge he was put in, and had so little wit as to say to him, "This will make the pot boyle, will it not, Mr. Willson? will it not make the pot boyle?" and do offer him to come in and do his business for him, and he would reward him. This Mr. Willson did come and tell her presently, he having been their servant, and to this day is very faithful to them. That her husband's not being forward to make him a bill for Rere Admirall's pay and Generall's pay both at the same time after he was first made Generall did first give him occasion of keeping a distance from him, since which they have never been great friends, Pen having by degrees been continually growing higher and higher, till now that he do wholly slight them and use them only as servants. Upon the whole, she told me stories enough to confirm me that he is the most false fellow that ever was born of woman, and that so she thinks and knows him to be.

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1658 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Vane

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 June 1667. 11 Jun 1667. Up, and more letters still from Sir W. Coventry (39) about more fire-ships, and so Sir W. Batten (66) and I to the office, where Bruncker (47) come to us, who is just now going to Chatham upon a desire of Commissioner Pett's (56), who is in a very fearful stink for fear of the Dutch, and desires help for God and the King (37) and kingdom's sake. So Bruncker (47) goes down, and Sir J. Minnes (68) also, from Gravesend. This morning Pett writes us word that Sheernesse is lost last night, after two or three hours' dispute. The enemy hath possessed himself of that place; which is very sad, and puts us into great fears of Chatham. Sir W. Batten (66) and I down by water to Deptford, and there Sir W. Pen (46) and we did consider of several matters relating to the dispatch of the fire-ships, and so Sir W. Batten (66) and I home again, and there to dinner, my wife and father having dined, and after dinner, by W. Hewer's (25) lucky advice, went to Mr. Fenn, and did get him to pay me above £400 of my wages, and W. Hewer (25) received it for me, and brought it home this night.

Thence I meeting Mr. Moore went toward the other end of the town by coach, and spying Mercer in the street, I took leave of Moore and 'light and followed her, and at Paul's overtook her and walked with her through the dusty street almost to home, and there in Lombard Street met The. Turner (15) in coach, who had been at my house to see us, being to go out of town to-morrow to the Northward, and so I promised to see her tomorrow, and then home, and there to our business, hiring some fire-ships, and receiving every hour almost letters from Sir W. Coventry (39), calling for more fire-ships; and an order from Council to enable us to take any man's ships; and Sir W. Coventry (39), in his letter to us, says he do not doubt but at this time, under an invasion, as he owns it to be, the King (37) may, by law, take any man's goods.

At this business late, and then home; where a great deal of serious talk with my wife about the sad state we are in, and especially from the beating up of drums this night for the trainbands upon pain of death to appear in arms to-morrow morning with bullet and powder, and money to supply themselves with victuals for a fortnight; which, considering the soldiers drawn out to Chatham and elsewhere, looks as if they had a design to ruin the City and give it up to be undone; which, I hear, makes the sober citizens to think very sadly of things.

So to bed after supper, ill in my mind. This afternoon Mrs. Williams sent to me to speak with her, which I did, only about news. I had not spoke with her many a day before by reason of Carcasses business.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 June 1667. 28 Jun 1667. Up, and hear Sir W. Batten (66) is come to town: I to see him; he is very ill of his fever, and come to town only for advice. Sir J. Minnes (68), I hear also, is very ill all this night, worse than before.

Thence I going out met at the gate Sir H. Cholmly (34) coming to me, and I to him in the coach, and both of us presently to St. James's, by the way discoursing of some Tangier business about money, which the want of I see will certainly bring the place into a bad condition. We find the Duke of York (33) and Sir W. Coventry (39) gone this morning, by two o'clock, to Chatham, to come home to-night: and it is fine to observe how both the King (37) and Duke of York (33) have, in their several late journeys to and again, done them in the night for coolnesse.

Thence with him to the Treasury Chamber, and then to the Exchequer to inform ourselves a little about our warrant for £30,000 for Tangier, which vexes us that it is so far off in time of payment. Having walked two or three turns with him in the Hall we parted, and I home by coach, and did business at the office till noon, and then by water to White Hall to dinner to Sir G. Carteret (57), but he not at home, but I dined with my Lady and good company, and good dinner. My Lady and the family in very good humour upon this business of his parting with his place of Treasurer of the Navy, which I perceive they do own, and we did talk of it with satisfaction. They do here tell me that the Duke of Buckingham (39) hath surrendered himself to Secretary Morrice (64), and is going to the Tower. Mr. Fenn, at the table, says that he hath been taken by the watch two or three times of late, at unseasonable hours, but so disguised that they could not know him: and when I come home, by and by, Mr. Lowther (26) tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (39) do dine publickly this day at Wadlow's, at the Sun Tavern; and is mighty merry, and sent word to the Lieutenant of the Tower (52), that he would come to him as soon as he had dined. Now, how sad a thing it is, when we come to make sport of proclaiming men traitors, and banishing them, and putting them out of their offices, and Privy Council, and of sending to and going to the Tower: God have mercy on us!

At table, my Lady and Sir Philip Carteret (26) have great and good discourse of the greatness of the present King of France—what great things he hath done, that a man may pass, at any hour in the night, all over that wild city [Paris], with a purse in his hand and no danger: that there is not a beggar to be seen in it, nor dirt lying in it; that he hath married two of Colbert's (42) daughters to two of the greatest Princes of France, and given them portions—bought the greatest dukedom in France, and given it to Colbert (42)1 and ne'er a Prince in France dare whisper against it, whereas here our King cannot do any such thing, but everybody's mouth is open against him for it, and the man that hath the favour also. That to several commanders that had not money to set them out to the present campagne, he did of his own accord—send them £1000 sterling a-piece, to equip themselves. But then they did enlarge upon the slavery of the people—that they are taxed more than the real estates they have; nay, it is an ordinary thing for people to desire to give the King (37) all their land that they have, and themselves become only his tenants, and pay him rent to the full value of it: so they may have but their earnings, But this will not be granted; but he shall give the value of his rent, and part of his labour too.

That there is not a petty governor of a province—nay, of a town, but he will take the daughter from the richest man in the town under him, that hath got anything, and give her to his footman for a wife if he pleases, and the King of France (28) will do the like to the best man in his kingdom—take his daughter from him, and give her to his footman, or whom he pleases.

It is said that he do make a sport of us now; and says, that he knows no reason why his cozen, the King (37) of England, should not be as willing to let him have his kingdom, as that the Dutch should take it from him, which is a most wretched thing that ever we should live to be in this most contemptible condition.

After dinner Sir G. Carteret (57) come in, and I to him and my Lady, and there he did tell me that the business was done between him and my Lord Anglesey (52); that himself is to have the other's place of Deputy Treasurer of Ireland, which is a place of honour and great profit, being far better, I know not for what reason, but a reason there is, than the Treasurer's, my Lord of Corke's (54), and to give the other his, of Treasurer of the Navy; that the King (37), at his earnest entreaty, did, with much unwillingness, but with owning of great obligations to him, for his faithfulness and long service to him and his father, and therefore was willing to grant his desire. That the Duke of York (33) hath given him the same kind words, so that it is done with all the good manner that could be, and he I perceive do look upon it, and so do I, I confess, as a great good fortune to him to meet with one of my Lord Anglesey's (52) quality willing to receive it at this time. Sir W. Coventry (39) he hath not yet made acquainted with it, nor do intend it, it being done purely to ease himself of the many troubles and plagues which he thinks the perverseness and unkindness of Sir W. Coventry (39) and others by his means have and is likely every day to bring upon him, and the Parliament's envy, and lastly to put himself into a condition of making up his accounts, which he is, he says, afeard he shall never otherwise be. My Chancellor (58), I perceive, is his friend in it.

I remember I did in the morning tell Sir H. Cholmly (34) of this business: and he answered me, he was sorry for it; for, whatever Sir G. Carteret (57) was, he is confident my Lord Anglesey (52) is one of the greatest knaves in the world, which is news to me, but I shall make my use of it. Having done this discourse with Sir G. Carteret (57), and signified my great satisfaction in it, which they seem to look upon as something, I went away and by coach home, and there find my wife making of tea, a drink which Mr. Pelling, the Potticary, tells her is good for her cold and defluxions.

I to the office (whither come Mr. Carcasse to me to sue for my favour to him), and Sir W. Pen's (46), where I find Mr. Lowther (26) come to town after the journey, and after a small visit to him, I to the office to do much business, and then in the evening to Sir W. Batten's (66), to see how he did; and he is better than he was. He told me how Mrs. Lowther had her train held up yesterday by her page, at his house in the country; which is so ridiculous a piece of pride as I am ashamed of.

He told me also how he hears by somebody that my Lord Bruncker's (47) maid hath told that her lady Mrs. Williams had sold her jewels and clothes to raise money for something or other; and indeed the last night a letter was sent from her to me, to send to my Lord, with about five pieces of gold in it, which methought at the time was but a poor supply.

I then to Sir W. Pen (46), who continues a little ill, or dissembles it, the latter of which I am apt to believe. Here I staid but little, not meaning much kindness in it; and so to the office, and dispatched more business; and then home at night, and to supper with my wife, and who should come in but Mr. Pelling, and supped with us, and told us the news of the town; how the officers of the Navy are cried out upon, and a great many greater men; but do think that I shall do well enough; and I think, if I have justice, I shall. He tells me of my Lord Duke of Buckingham (39), his dining to-day at the Sun, and that he was mighty merry; and, what is strange, tells me that really he is at this day a very popular man, the world reckoning him to suffer upon no other account than that he did propound in Parliament to have all the questions that had to do with the receipt of the taxes and prizes; but they must be very silly that do think he can do any thing out of good intention. After a great deal of tittle-tattle with this honest man, he gone we to bed. We hear that the Dutch are gone down again; and thanks be to God! the trouble they give us this second time is not very considerable.

1. The Carterets appear to have mystified Pepys, who eagerly believed all that was told him. At this time Paris was notoriously unsafe, infested with robbers and beggars, and abominably unclean. Colbert had three daughters, of whom the eldest was just married when Pepys wrote, viz., Jean Marie Therese, to the Duc de Chevreuse, on the 3rd February, 1667. The second daughter, Henriette Louise, was not married to the Duc de St. Aignan till January 21st, 1671; and the third, Marie Anne, to the Duc de Mortemart, February 14th, 1679. Colbert himself was never made a duke. His highest title was Marquis de Seignelay. B.

Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of William Morice 1602-1676. Around 1662 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of John Robinson Lord Mayor of London 1st Baronet 1615-1680. In 1676 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Annesley 1614-1686. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington 1612-1698.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 July 1667. 01 Jul 1667. Up betimes, about 9 o'clock, waked by a damned noise between a sow gelder and a cow and a dog, nobody after we were up being able to tell us what it was. After being ready we took coach, and, being very sleepy, droused most part of the way to Gravesend, and there 'light, and down to the new batterys, which are like to be very fine, and there did hear a plain fellow cry out upon the folly of the King's officers above, to spend so much money in works at Woolwich and Deptford, and sinking of good ships loaden with goods, when, if half the charge had been laid out here, it would have secured all that, and this place too, before now. And I think it is not only true in this, but that the best of the actions of us all are so silly, that the meanest people begin to see through them, and contemn them. Besides, says he, they spoil the river by it. Then informed ourselves where we might have some creame, and they guided us to one Goody Best's, a little out of the towne towards London road, and thither we went with the coach, and find it a mighty clean, plain house, and had a dish of very good creame to our liking, and so away presently very merry, and fell to reading of the several Advices to a Painter, which made us good sport, and indeed are very witty, and Creed did also repeat to me some of the substance of letters of old Burleigh in Queen (28) Elizabeth's time, which he hath of late read in the printed Cabbala, which is a very fine style at this day and fit to be imitated. With this, and talking and laughing at the folly of our masters in the management of things at this day, we got home by noon, where all well, and then to dinner, and after dinner both of us laid down upon the couch and chairs and to sleep, which I did for an hour or two, and then to the office, where I am sorry to hear that Sir J. Minnes (68) is likely to die this night, or to-morrow, I forgot to set down that we met this morning upon the road with Mrs. Williams going down to my Lord Bruncker (47); we bowed without speaking one to another, but I am ashamed at the folly of the man to have her down at this serious busy time, when the town and country is full of people and full of censure, and against him particularly. At Sir W. Batten's (66) my Lady tells me that she hears for certain that my Lord's maid of his lodging here do give out that Mrs. Williams hath been fain of late to sell her best clothes and jewels to get a little money upon, which is a sad condition.

Thence to the office, and did write to my Lord Bruncker (47) to give me a little satisfaction about the certainty of the chain's being broke, which I begin to doubt, and the more from Sir W. Pen's (46) discourse. It is worth while to read my letter to him entered in my letter book.

Home in the evening to supper, and so pretty betimes, about 10 o'clock, to bed, and slept well. This day letters are come that my sister (26) is very ill.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 August 1667. 22 Aug 1667. Up, and to the office; whence Lord Bruncker (47), J. Minnes (68), W. Pen (46), and I, went to examine some men that are put in there, for rescuing of men that were pressed into the service: and we do plainly see that the desperate condition that we put men into for want of their pay, makes them mad, they being as good men as ever were in the world, and would as readily serve the King (37) again, were they but paid. Two men leapt overboard, among others, into the Thames, out of the vessel into which they were pressed, and were shot by the soldiers placed there to keep them, two days since; so much people do avoid the King's service! And then these men are pressed without money, and so we cannot punish them for any thing, so that we are forced only to make a show of severity by keeping them in prison, but are unable to punish them.

Returning to the office, did ask whether we might visit Commissioner Pett (57), to which, I confess, I have no great mind; and it was answered that he was close prisoner, and we could not; but the Lieutenant of the Tower would send for him to his lodgings, if we would: so we put it off to another time. Returned to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon to Captain Cocke's (50) to dinner; where Lord Bruncker (47) and his Lady, Matt. Wren (38), and Bulteale, and Sir Allen Apsly (51); the last of whom did make good sport, he being already fallen under the retrenchments of the new Committee, as he is Master Falconer1 which makes him mad, and swears that we are doing that the Parliament would have done—that is, that we are now endeavouring to destroy one another. But it was well observed by some at the table, that they do not think this retrenching of the King's charge will be so acceptable to the Parliament, they having given the King (37) a revenue of so many £100,000's a-year more than his predecessors had, that he might live in pomp, like a king.

After dinner with my Lord Bruncker (47) and his mistress to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The Indian Emperour"; where I find Nell (17) come again, which I am glad of; but was most infinitely displeased with her being put to act the Emperour's daughter; which is a great and serious part, which she do most basely. The rest of the play, though pretty good, was not well acted by most of them, methought; so that I took no great content in it. But that, that troubled me most was, that Knipp sent by Moll to desire to speak to me after the play; and she beckoned to me at the end of the play, and I promised to come; but it was so late, and I forced to step to Mrs. Williams's lodgings with my Lord Bruncker (47) and her, where I did not stay, however, for fear of her shewing me her closet, and thereby forcing me to give her something; and it was so late, that for fear of my wife's coming home before me, I was forced to go straight home, which troubled me.

Home and to the office a little, and then home and to my chamber to read, and anon, late, comes home my wife, with Mr. Turner and Mrs. Turner (44), with whom she supped, having been with Mrs. Turner (44) to-day at her daughter's school, to see her daughters dancing, and the rest, which she says is fine. They gone, I to supper and to bed. My wife very fine to-day, in her new suit of laced cuffs and perquisites. This evening Pelling comes to me, and tells me that this night the Dutch letters are come, and that the peace was proclaimed there the 19th inst., and that all is finished; which, for my life, I know not whether to be glad or sorry for, a peace being so necessary, and yet the peace is so bad in its terms.

1. The post of Master Falconer was afterwards granted to Charles's son by Nell Gwyn (17), and it is still held by the Duke of St. Albans, as an hereditary office. B.

Before 08 Oct 1699 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Around1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Before 14 Nov 1687 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Nell Gwyn Actor 1650-1687. Around 1690 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans 1670-1726.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 September 1667. 10 Sep 1667. Up, and all the morning at the Office, where little to do but bemoan ourselves under the want of money; and indeed little is, or can be done, for want of money, we having not now received one penny for any service in many weeks, and none in view to receive, saving for paying of some seamen's wages.

At noon sent to by my Lord Bruncker (47) to speak with him, and it was to dine with him and his Lady Williams (which I have not now done in many months at their own table) and Mr. Wren (38), who is come to dine with them, the first time he hath been at the office since his being the Duke of York's (33) Secretary. Here we sat and eat and talked and of some matters of the office, but his discourse is as yet but weak in that matter, and no wonder, he being new in it, but I fear he will not go about understanding with the impatience that Sir W. Coventry (39) did.

Having dined, I away, and with my wife and Mercer, set my wife down at the 'Change, and the other at White Hall, and I to St. James's, where we all met, and did our usual weekly business with the Duke of York (33). But, Lord! methinks both he and we are mighty flat and dull over what we used to be, when Sir W. Coventry (39) was among us.

Thence I into St. James's Park, and there met Mr. Povy (53); and he and I to walk an hour or more in the Pell Mell, talking of the times. He tells me, among other things, that this business of the Chancellor (58) do breed a kind of inward distance between the King (37) and the Duke of York (33), and that it cannot be avoided; for though the latter did at first move it through his folly, yet he is made to see that he is wounded by it, and is become much a less man than he was, and so will be: but he tells me that they are, and have always been, great dissemblers one towards another; and that their parting heretofore in France is never to be thoroughly reconciled between them. He tells me that he believes there is no such thing like to be, as a composition with my Baroness Castlemayne (26), and that she shall be got out of the way before the Parliament comes; for he says she is as high as ever she was, though he believes the King (37) is as weary of her as is possible, and would give any thing to remove her, but he is so weak in his passion that he dare not do it; that he do believe that my Chancellor (58) will be doing some acts in the Parliament which shall render him popular; and that there are many people now do speak kindly of him that did not before; but that, if he do do this, it must provoke the King (37), and that party that removed him. He seems to doubt what the King of France (29) will do, in case an accommodation shall be made between Spain and him for Flanders, for then he will have nothing more easy to do with his army than to subdue us. Parted with him at White Hall, and, there I took coach and took up my wife and Mercer, and so home and I to the office, where ended my letters, and then to my chamber with my boy to lay up some papers and things that lay out of order against to-morrow, to make it clear against the feast that I am to have. Here Mr. Pelling come to sit with us, and talked of musique and the musicians of the town, and so to bed, after supper.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 October 1667. 29 Oct 1667. Up, and at the office, my Lord Bruncker (47) and I close together till almost 3 after noon, never stirring, making up a report for the Committee this afternoon about the business of discharging men by ticket, which it seems the House is mighty earnest in, but is a foolery in itself, yet gives me a great deal of trouble to draw up a defence for the Board, as if it was a crime; but I think I have done it to very good purpose. Then to my Lady Williams's, with her and my Lord, and there did eat a snapp of good victuals, and so to Westminster Hall, where we find the House not up, but sitting all this day about the method of bringing in the charge against my Chancellor (58); and at last resolved for a Committee to draw up the heads, and so rose, and no Committee to sit tonight. Here Sir W. Coventry (39) and Lord Bruncker (47) and I did in the Hall (between the two Courts at the top of the Hall) discourse about a letter of Sir W. Coventry's (39) to Bruncker, whereon Bruncker did justify his discharging men by ticket, and insists on one word which Sir W. Coventry (39) would not seem very earnest to have left out, but I did see him concerned, and did after labour to suppress the whole letter, the thing being in itself really impertinent, but yet so it is that Sir W. Coventry (39) do not desire to have his name used in this business, and I have prevailed with Bruncker for it.

Thence Bruncker and I to the King's house, thinking to have gone into a box above, for fear of being seen, the King (37) being there, but the play being 3 acts done we would not give 4s., and so away and parted, and I home, and there after a little supper to bed, my eyes ill, and head full of thoughts of the trouble this Parliament gives us.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 January 1668. 08 Jan 1668. Up, and it being dirty, I by coach (which I was forced to go to the charge for) to White Hall, and there did deliver the Duke of York (34) a memorial for the Council about the case of Tangiers want of money; and I was called in there and my paper was read. I did not think fit to say much, but left them to make what use they pleased of my paper; and so went out and waited without all the morning, and at noon hear that there is something ordered towards our help, and so I away by coach home, taking up Mr. Prin (68) at the Court-gate, it raining, and setting him down at the Temple: and by the way did ask him about the manner of holding of Parliaments, and whether the number of Knights and Burgesses were always the same? And he says that the latter were not; but that, for aught he can find, they were sent up at the discretion, at first, of the Sheriffes, to whom the writs are sent, to send up generally the Burgesses and citizens of their county: and he do find that heretofore the Parliament-men being paid by the country, several burroughs have complained of the Sheriffes putting them to the charge of sending up Burgesses; which is a very extraordinary thing to me, that knew not this, but thought that the number had been known, and always the same.

Thence home to the office, and so with my Lord Brouncker (48) and his mistress, Williams, to Captain Cocke's (51) to dinner, where was Temple and Mr. Porter, and a very good dinner, and merry.

Thence with Lord Brouncker (48) to White Hall to the Commissioners of the Treasury at their sending for us to discourse about the paying of tickets, and so away, and I by coach to the 'Change, and there took up my wife and Mercer and the girl by agreement, and so home, and there with Mercer to teach her more of "It is decreed", and to sing other songs and talk all the evening, and so after supper I to even my journall since Saturday last, and so to bed.

Yesterday Mr. Gibson, upon his discovering by my discourse to him that I had a willingness, or rather desire, to have him stay with me, than go, as he designed, on Sir W. Warren's account, to sea, he resolved to let go the design and wait his fortune with me, though I laboured hard to make him understand the uncertainty of my condition or service, but however he will hazard it, which I take mighty kindly of him, though troubled lest he may come to be a loser by it, but it will not be for want of my telling him what he was to think on and expect. However, I am well pleased with it, with regard to myself, who find him mighty understanding and acquainted with all things in the Navy, that I should, if I continue in the Navy, make great use of him.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 March 1668. 06 Mar 1668. Up betimes, and with Sir Prince to Sir W. Coventry's (40) chamber: where the first word he said to me was, "Good-morrow, Mr. Pepys, that must be Speaker of the Parliament-house:" and did protest I had got honour for ever in Parliament. He said that his brother (49), that sat by him, admires me; and another gentleman said that I could not get less than £1000 a-year if I would put on a gown and plead at the Chancery-bar; but, what pleases me most, he tells me that the Sollicitor-Generall did protest that he thought I spoke the best of any man in England. After several talks with him alone, touching his own businesses, he carried me to White Hall, and there parted; and I to the Duke of York's (34) lodgings, and find him going to the Park, it being a very fine morning, and I after him; and, as soon as he saw me, he told me, with great satisfaction, that I had converted a great many yesterday, and did, with great praise of me, go on with the discourse with me. And, by and by, overtaking the King (37), the King (37) and Duke of York (34) come to me both; and he [the King (37)] said, "Mr. Pepys, I am very glad of your success yesterday"; and fell to talk of my well speaking; and many of the Lords there. My Lord Barkeley (66) did cry the up for what they had heard of it; and others, Parliament-men there, about the King (37), did say that they never heard such a speech in their lives delivered in that manner. Progers, of the Bedchamber, swore to me afterwards before Brouncker (48), in the afternoon, that he did tell the King (37) that he thought I might teach the Sollicitor-Generall. Every body that saw me almost come to me, as Joseph Williamson (34) and others, with such eulogys as cannot be expressed. From thence I went to Westminster Hall, where I met Mr. G. Montagu (45), who come to me and kissed me, and told me that he had often heretofore kissed my hands, but now he would kiss my lips: protesting that I was another Cicero, and said, all the world said the same of me. Mr. Ashburnham (64), and every creature I met there of the Parliament, or that knew anything of the Parliament's actings, did salute me with this honour:—Mr. Godolphin (33);—Mr. Sands, who swore he would go twenty mile, at any time, to hear the like again, and that he never saw so many sit four hours together to hear any man in his life, as there did to hear me; Mr. Chichly (53),—Sir John Duncomb,—and everybody do say that the Kingdom will ring of my abilities, and that I have done myself right for my whole life: and so Captain Cocke (51), and others of my friends, say that no man had ever such an opportunity of making his abilities known; and, that I may cite all at once, Mr. Lieutenant of the Tower did tell me that Mr. Vaughan (64) did protest to him, and that, in his hearing it, said so to the Duke of Albemarle (59), and afterwards to W. Coventry, that he had sat twenty-six years in Parliament and never heard such a speech there before: for which the Lord God make me thankful! and that I may make use of it not to pride and vain-glory, but that, now I have this esteem, I may do nothing that may lessen it! I spent the morning thus walking in the Hall, being complimented by everybody with admiration: and at noon stepped into the Legg with Sir William Warren, who was in the Hall, and there talked about a little of his business, and thence into the Hall a little more, and so with him by coach as far as the Temple almost, and there 'light, to follow my Lord Brouncker's (48) coach, which I spied, and so to Madam Williams's, where I overtook him, and agreed upon meeting this afternoon, and so home to dinner, and after dinner with W. Pen (46), who come to my house to call me, to White Hall, to wait on the Duke of York (34), where he again and all the company magnified me, and several in the Gallery: among others, my Lord Gerard (50), who never knew me before nor spoke to me, desires his being better acquainted with me; and [said] that, at table where he was, he never heard so much said of any man as of me, in his whole life. We waited on the Duke of York (34), and thence into the Gallery, where the House of Lords waited the King's coming out of the Park, which he did by and by; and there, in the Vane-room, my Lord Keeper delivered a message to the King (37), the Lords being about him, wherein the Barons of England, from many good arguments, very well expressed in the part he read out of, do demand precedence in England of all noblemen of either of the King's other two kingdoms, be their title what it will; and did shew that they were in England reputed but as Commoners, and sat in the House of Commons, and at conferences with the Lords did stand bare. It was mighty worth my hearing: but the King (37) did only say that he would consider of it, and so dismissed them.

Thence Brouncker (48) and I to the Committee of Miscarriages sitting in the Court of Wards, expecting with Sir Prince to have been heard against Prince Rupert's (48) complaints for want of victuals. But the business of Holmes's charge against Sir Jer. Smith, which is a most shameful scandalous thing for Flag officers to accuse one another of, and that this should be heard here before men that understand it not at all, and after it hath been examined and judged in before the King (37) and Lord High Admirall and other able seamen to judge, it is very hard. But this business did keep them all the afternoon, so we not heard but put off to another day.

Thence, with the Lieutenant of the Tower, in his coach home; and there, with great pleasure, with my wife, talking and playing at cards a little—she, and I, and W. Hewer (26), and Deb., and so, after a little supper, I to bed.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 March 1668. 26 Mar 1668. Up betimes to the office, where by and by my Lord Brouncker (48) and I met and made an end of our business betimes. So I away with him to Mrs. Williams's, and there dined, and thence I alone to the Duke of York's (34) house, to see the new play, called "The Man is the Master", where the house was, it being not above one o'clock, very full. But my wife and Deb. being there before, with Mrs. Pierce and Corbet and Betty Turner (15), whom my wife carried with her, they made me room; and there I sat, it costing me 8s. upon them in oranges, at 6d. a-piece.

By and by the King (37) come; and we sat just under him, so that I durst not turn my back all the play. The play is a translation out of French, and the plot Spanish, but not anything extraordinary at all in it, though translated by Sir W. Davenant (62), and so I found the King (37) and his company did think meanly of it, though there was here and there something pretty: but the most of the mirth was sorry, poor stuffe, of eating of sack-posset and slabbering themselves, and mirth fit for clownes; the prologue but poor, and the epilogue little in it but the extraordinariness of it, it being sung by Harris (34) and another in the form of a ballet.

Thence, by agreement, we all of us to the Blue Balls, hard by, whither Mr. Pierce also goes with us, who met us at the play, and anon comes Manuel, and his wife, and Knepp, and Harris (34), who brings with him Mr. Banister (38), the great master of musique; and after much difficulty in getting of musique, we to dancing, and then to a supper of some French dishes, which yet did not please me, and then to dance and sing; and mighty merry we were till about eleven or twelve at night, with mighty great content in all my company, and I did, as I love to do, enjoy myself in my pleasure as being the height of what we take pains for and can hope for in this world, and therefore to be enjoyed while we are young and capable of these joys. My wife extraordinary fine to-day, in her flower tabby suit, bought a year and more ago, before my mother's death put her into mourning, and so not worn till this day: and every body in love with it; and indeed she is very fine and handsome in it. I having paid the reckoning, which come to almost £4., we parted: my company and William Batelier, who was also with us, home in a coach, round by the Wall, where we met so many stops by the Watches, that it cost us much time and some trouble, and more money, to every Watch, to them to drink; this being encreased by the trouble the 'prentices did lately give the City, so that the Militia and Watches are very strict at this time; and we had like to have met with a stop for all night at the Constable's watch, at Mooregate, by a pragmatical Constable; but we come well home at about two in the morning, and so to bed. This noon, from Mrs. Williams's, my Lord Brouncker (48) sent to Somersett House to hear how the Duchess of Richmond (20) do; and word was brought him that she is pretty well, but mighty full of the smallpox, by which all do conclude she will be wholly spoiled, which is the greatest instance of the uncertainty of beauty that could be in this age; but then she hath had the benefit of it to be first married, and to have kept it so long, under the greatest temptations in the world from a King, and yet without the least imputation. This afternoon, at the play, Sir Fr. Hollis (25) spoke to me as a secret, and matter of confidence in me, and friendship to Sir W. Pen (46), who is now out of town, that it were well he were made acquainted that he finds in the House of Commons, which met this day, several motions made for the calling strictly again upon the Miscarriages, and particularly in the business of the Prises, and the not prosecuting of the first victory, only to give an affront to Sir W. Pen (46), whose going to sea this year do give them matter of great dislike. So though I do not much trouble myself for him, yet I am sorry that he should have this fall so unhappily without any fault, but rather merit of his own that made him fitter for this command than any body else, and the more for that this business of his may haply occasion their more eager pursuit against the whole body of the office.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Teresa Stewart Duchess Lennox and Richmond 1647-1702. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 May 1668. 15 May 1668. Up, and betimes to White Hall, and there met with Sir H. Cholmly (35) at Sir Stephen Fox's (41), and there was also the Cofferer (64), and we did there consider about our money and the condition of the Excise, and after much dispute agreed upon a state thereof and the manner of our future course of payments.

Thence to the Duke of York (34), and there did a little navy business as we used to do, and so to a Committee for Tangier, where God knows how my Lord Bellasses's (53) accounts passed; understood by nobody but my Lord Ashly (46), who, I believe, was mad to let them go as he pleased. But here Sir H. Cholmly (35) had his propositions read, about a greater price for his work of the Mole, or to do it upon account, which, being read, he was bid to withdraw. But, Lord! to see how unlucky a man may be, by chance; for, making an unfortunate minute when they were almost tired with the other business, the Duke of York (34) did find fault with it, and that made all the rest, that I believe he had better have given a great deal, and had nothing said to it to-day; whereas, I have seen other things more extravagant passed at first hearing, without any difficulty.

Thence I to my Lord Brouncker's (48), at Mrs. Williams's, and there dined, and she did shew me her closet, which I was sorry to see, for fear of her expecting something from me; and here she took notice of my wife's not once coming to see her, which I am glad of; for she shall not—a prating, vain, idle woman.

Thence with Lord Brouncker (48) to Loriners'-hall1, by Mooregate, a hall I never heard of before, to Sir Thomas Teddiman's burial, where most people belonging to the sea were. And here we had rings: and here I do hear that some of the last words that he said were, that he had a very good King, God bless him! but that the Parliament had very ill rewarded him for all the service he had endeavoured to do them and his country; so that, for certain, this did go far towards his death. But, Lord! to see among [the company] the young commanders, and Thomas Killigrew (56) and others that come, how unlike a burial this was, O'Brian taking out some ballads out of his pocket, which I read, and the rest come about me to hear! and there very merry we were all, they being new ballets.

By and by the corpse went; and I, with my Lord Brouncker (48), and Dr. Clerke, and Mr. Pierce, as far as the foot of London-bridge; and there we struck off into Thames Street, the rest going to Redriffe, where he is to be buried. And we 'light at the Temple, and there parted; and I to the King's house, and there saw the last act of "The Committee", thinking to have seen Knepp there, but she did not act. And so to my bookseller's, and there carried home some books-among others, "Dr. Wilkins's Reall Character", and thence to Mrs. Turner's (45), and there went and sat, and she showed me her house from top to bottom, which I had not seen before, very handsome, and here supped, and so home, and got Mercer, and she and I in the garden singing till ten at night, and so home to a little supper, and then parted, with great content, and to bed. The Duchesse of Monmouth's hip is, I hear, now set again, after much pain. I am told also that the Countess of Shrewsbury is brought home by the Duke of Buckingham (40) to his house, where his Duchess saying that it was not for her and the other to live together in a house, he answered, Why, Madam, I did think so, and, therefore, have ordered your coach to be ready, to carry you to your father's, which was a devilish speech, but, they say, true; and my Lady Shrewsbury is there, it seems.

1. The Loriners, or Lorimers (bit-makers), of London are by reputation an ancient mistery, but they were first incorporated by letters patent of 10 Queen Anne (December 3rd, 1711). Their small hall was at the corner of Basinghall Street in London Wall. The company has no hall now.

Before 1725. John James Baker Painter -1725. Portrait of Stephen Fox Paymaster 1627-1716. Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683. In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683 and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 August 1668. 09 Aug 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and walked to Holborne, where got John Powell's coach at the Black Swan, and he attended me at St. James's, where waited on the Duke of York (34): and both by him and several of the Privy-Council, beyond expectation, I find that my going to Sir Thomas Allen (35) was looked upon as a thing necessary: and I have got some advantage by it, among them.

Thence to White Hall, and thence to visit Lord Brouncker (48), and back to White Hall, where saw the Queen (29) and ladies; and so, with Mr. Slingsby (47), to Mrs. Williams's, thinking to dine with Lord Brouncker (48) there, but did not, having promised my wife to come home, though here I met Knepp, to my great content.

So home; and, after dinner, I took my wife and Deb. round by Hackney, and up and down to take the ayre; and then home, and made visits to Mrs. Turner (45), and Mrs. Mercer, and Sir W. Pen (47), who is come from Epsom not well, and Sir J. Minnes (69), who is not well neither. And so home to supper, and to set my books a little right, and then to bed. This day Betty Michell come and dined with us, the first day after her lying in, whom I was glad to see.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 October 1668. 18 Oct 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and with my boy Tom all the morning altering the places of my pictures with great pleasure, and at noon to dinner, and then comes Mr. Shales to see me, and I with him to recommend him to my Lord Brouncker's (48) service, which I did at Madam Williams's, and my Lord receives him.

Thence with Brouncker (48) to Lincolne's Inn, and Mr. Ball, to visit Dr. Wilkins (54), now newly Bishop of Chester: and he received us mighty kindly; and had most excellent discourse from him about his Book of Reall Character: and so I with Lord Brouncker (48) to White Hall, and there saw the Queen (29) and some ladies, and with Lord Brouncker (48) back, it again being a rainy evening, and so my Lord forced to lend me his coach till I got a Hackney which I did, and so home and to supper, and got my wife to read to me, and so to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 December 1668. 02 Dec 1668. Up, and at the office all the morning upon some accounts of Sir Prince, and at noon abroad with W. Hewer (26), thinking to have found Mr. Wren (39) at Captain Cox's, to have spoke something to him about doing a favour for Will's uncle Steventon, but missed him. And so back home and abroad with my wife, the first time that ever I rode in my own coach, which do make my heart rejoice, and praise God, and pray him to bless it to me and continue it. So she and I to the King's playhouse, and there sat to avoid seeing Knepp in a box above where Mrs. Williams happened to be, and there saw "The Usurper"; a pretty good play, in all but what is designed to resemble Cromwell and Hugh Peters, which is mighty silly. The play done, we to White Hall; where my wife staid while I up to the Duchesse's (31) and Queen's (30) side, to speak with the Duke of York (35): and here saw all the ladies, and heard the silly discourse of the King (38), with his people about him, telling a story of my Lord Rochester's (21) having of his clothes stole, while he was with a wench; and his gold all gone, but his clothes found afterwards stuffed into a feather bed by the wench that stole them. I spoke with the Duke of York (35), just as he was set down to supper with the King (38), about our sending of victuals to Sir Thomas Allen's (35) fleet hence to Cales [Cadiz] to meet him. And so back to my wife in my coach, and so with great content and joy home, where I made my boy to make an end of the Reall Character, which I begun a great while ago, and do please me infinitely, and indeed is a most worthy labour, and I think mighty easy, though my eyes make me unable to attempt any thing in it. To-day I hear that Mr. Ackworth's cause went for him at Guildhall, against his accusers, which I am well enough pleased with.

Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Wilmot 2nd Earl Rochester 1647-1680. Before 26 Jul 1680 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Wilmot 2nd Earl Rochester 1647-1680.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 February 1669. 17 Feb 1669. Up, and with W. Hewer (27) with me to Lincoln's Inn, by appointment, to have spoke with Mr. Pedley about Mr. Goldsborough's business and Mr. Weaver's, but he was gone out, and so I with Mr. Castle (40), the son-in-law of Weaver, to White Hall to look for him, but did not find him, but here I did meet with several and talked, and do hear only that the King (38) dining yesterday at the Dutch Embassador's, after dinner they drank, and were pretty merry; and, among the rest of the King's company, there was that worthy fellow my Lord of Rochester (21), and Tom Killigrew (57), whose mirth and raillery offended the former so much, that he did give Tom Killigrew (57) a box on the ear in the King's presence, which do much give offence to the people here at Court, to see how cheap the King (38) makes himself, and the more, for that the King (38) hath not only passed by the thing, and pardoned it to Rochester already, but this very morning the King (38) did publickly walk up and down, and Rochester I saw with him as free as ever, to the King's everlasting shame, to have so idle a rogue his companion. How Tom Killigrew (57) takes it, I do not hear. I do also this day hear that my Lord Privy Seale do accept to go Lieutenant into Ireland; but whether it be true or no, I cannot tell. So calling at my shoemaker's, and paying him to this day, I home to dinner, and in the afternoon to Colonel Middleton's house, to the burial of his wife, where we are all invited, and much more company, and had each of us a ring: and so towards evening to our church, where there was a sermon preached by Mills, and so home. At church there was my Lord Brouncker (49) and Mrs. Williams in our pew, the first time they were ever there or that I knew that either of them would go to church. At home comes Castle to me, to desire me to go to Mr. Pedly, this night, he being to go out of town to-morrow morning, which I, therefore, did, by Hackney-coach, first going to White Hall to meet with Sir W. Coventry (41), but missed him. But here I had a pleasant rencontre of a lady in mourning, that, by the little light I had, seemed handsome. I passing by her, I did observe she looked back again and again upon me, I suffering her to go before, and it being now duske. I observed she went into the little passage towards the Privy Water-Gate, and I followed, but missed her; but coming back again, I observed she returned, and went to go out of the Court. I followed her, and took occasion, in the new passage now built, where the walke is to be, to take her by the hand, to lead her through, which she willingly accepted, and I led her to the Great Gate, and there left her, she telling me, of her own accord, that she was going as far as, Charing Cross; but my boy was at the gate, and so je durst not go out con her, which vexed me, and my mind (God forgive me) did run apres her toute that night, though I have reason to thank God, and so I do now, that I was not tempted to go further.

So to Lincoln's Inn, where to Mr. Pedly, with whom I spoke, and did my business presently: and I find him a man of very good language, and mighty civil, and I believe very upright: and so home, where W. Batelier was, and supped with us, and I did reckon this night what I owed him; and I do find that the things my wife, of her own head, hath taken (together with my own, which comes not to above £5), comes to above £22. But it is the last, and so I am the better contented; and they are things that are not trifles, but clothes, gloves, shoes, hoods, &c. So after supper, to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 April 1669. 01 Apr 1669. Up, and with Colonel Middleton, at the desire of Rear-Admiral Kempthorne (49), the President, for our assisting them, to the Court-martiall on board a yacht in the River here, to try the business of the Purser's complaints, Baker against Trevanion, his Commander, of "The Dartmouth". But, Lord! to see what wretched doings there were among all the Commanders to ruin the Purser, and defend the Captain in all his rogueries, be it to the prejudice of the King (38) or Purser, no good man could bear! I confess I was pretty high, which did not at least the young gentlemen Commander like; and Middleton did the like. But could not bring it to any issue this day, sitting till two o'clock; and therefore we being sent for, went to Sir W. Pen's (47) by invitation to dine; where my wife was, and my Lord Brouncker (49) and his mistress, and Sir J. Minnes (70) and his niece; and here a bad dinner, and little mirth, I being little pleased with my host. However, I made myself sociable; and so, after dinner, my wife and I, with my Lord Brouncker (49) and his mistress, they set us down at my cozen Turner's, and there we staid awhile and talked; and particularly here we met with Dr. Ball, the Parson of the Temple, who did tell me a great many pretty stories about the manner of the Parsons being paid for their preaching at Paul's heretofore, and now, and the ground of the Lecture, and heretofore the names of the founders thereof, which were many, at some 5s., some 6s. per annum towards it: and had their names read in the pulpit every sermon among those holy persons that the Church do order a collect for, giving God thanks for.

By and by comes by my desire Commissioner Middleton's coach and horses for us, and we went with it towards the Park, thinking to have met The. Turner (17) and Betty, but did not; so turned back again to their lodging, and there found them and Mr. Batelier, and there, after a little talk, we took leave, and carry Batelier home with us.

So to supper, and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 May 1669. 07 May 1669. Up, and by coach to W. Coventry's (41); and there to talk with him a great deal with great content; and so to the Duke of York (35), having a great mind to speak to him about Tangier; but, when I come to it, his interest for my Lord_Middleton (61) is such that I dare not.

So to the Treasury chamber, and then walked home round by the Excise Office, having by private vows last night in prayer to God Almighty cleared my mind for the present of the thoughts of going to Deb. at Greenwich, which I did long after. I passed by Guildhall, which is almost finished, and saw a poor labourer carried by, I think, dead with a fall, as many there are, I hear.

So home to dinner, and then to the office a little, and so to see my Lord Brouncker (49), who is a little ill of the gout; and there Madam Williams told me that she heard that my wife was going into France this year, which I did not deny, if I can get time, and I pray God I may. But I wondering how she come to know it, she tells me a woman that my wife spoke to for a maid, did tell her so, and that a lady that desires to go thither would be glad to go in her company.

Thence with my wife abroad, with our coach, most pleasant weather; and to Hackney, and into the marshes, where I never was before, and thence round about to Old Ford and Bow; and coming through the latter home, there being some young gentlewomen at a door, and I seeming not to know who they were, my wife's jealousy told me presently that I knew well enough it was that damned place where Deb. dwelt, which made me swear very angrily that it was false, as it was, and I carried [her] back again to see the place, and it proved not so, so I continued out of humour a good while at it, she being willing to be friends, so I was by and by, saying no more of it.

So home, and there met with a letter from Captain Silas Taylor (44), and, with it, his written copy of a play that he hath wrote, and intends to have acted.-It is called "The Serenade, or Disappointment", which I will read, not believing he can make any good of that kind. He did once offer to show Harris (35) it, but Harris (35) told him that he would judge by one Act whether it were good or no, which is indeed a foolish saying, and we see them out themselves in the choice of a play after they have read the whole, it being sometimes found not fit to act above three times; nay, and some that have been refused at one house is found a good one at the other. This made Taylor say he would not shew it him, but is angry, and hath carried it to the other house, and he thinks it will be acted there, though he tells me they are not yet agreed upon it. But I will find time to get it read to me, and I did get my wife to begin a little to-night in the garden, but not so much as I could make any judgment of it.

So home to supper and to bed.

Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton 1608-1674.

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John Cromwell and Abigail Clere aka Williams Actor were married.

Abigail Clere aka Williams Actor was born to [her father] Henry Clere 1st Baronet Clere of Ormesby in Norfolk 1598-1622.