Biography of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

1216 Death of King John

1236 Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

1239 Christening of Edward I

1254 Wedding of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile

1264 Battle of Northampton

1264 Battle of Lewes

1265 Prince Edward's Escape from Kenilworth Castle

1265 Battle of Evesham

1272 Death of Henry III

1274 Coronation Edward I

1277 Treaty of Aberconwy

1290 Eleanor Crosses

1290 Death of Eleanor of Castile

1295 Edward I Creates New Barons 36th Parliament

1297 Marriage of Princess Elizabeth and John of Holland

1298 Battle of Falkirk

1299-Edward I Creates New Barons

1299 Edward I and Margaret of France Wedding

1301 Edward II Created Prince of Wales

1303 Battle of Roslyn

1304 Siege of Stirling Castle

1305 Robert "The Bruce" murders John "Red Comyn"

1305 Execution of William Wallace

1307 Death of Edward I

1314 Battle of Bannockburn

1318 Death of Queen Consort Margaret of France

Death of King John

On 19 Oct 1216 [his grandfather] John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (49) died at Newark Castle. Henry III King England 1207-1272 (9) succeeded III King England.

John Monmouth 1182-1248 (34) was present.

On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke 1146-1219 (70).

King John's will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it. Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:

I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.

In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté.

The signatories were:

Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 – 1227) Papal Legate.

Bishop Peter de Roches -1238, Bishop of Winchester.

Richard le Poer (? – 1237), Bishop of Chichester.

Sylvester of Worcester, Bishop of Worcester.

Aimery de St-Maur (? -?1219), Master of the English Templars.

William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke 1146-1219 (70).

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln 1170-1232 (46).

William Ferrers 4th Earl Derby 1168-1247 (48).

William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer.

Walter de Lacy (ca 1172–1241) Lord of Meath.

John: (1182 – 1248) Lord of Monmouth.

Savaric de Mauléon (? – 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205.

Falkes de Bréauté (? – 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.

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Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

On 14 Jan 1236 [his father] Henry III King England 1207-1272 (28) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (13) were married at Canterbury Cathedral by Archbishop Edmund Rich 1174-1240 (61). They were fourth cousins. He a son of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.

On 17 Jun 1239 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 was born to [his father] Henry III King England 1207-1272 (31) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (16) at Westminster Palace.

Christening of Edward I

On 22 Jun 1239 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 was christened at Westminster Abbey. Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex 1204-1275 (35) as godfather. He was named after Edward "Confessor" King England 1003-1066.

In 1249 [his future brother-in-law] Alfonso X King Castile X King Leon 1221-1284 (27) and Violante Barcelona Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189.

On 25 or 26 Dec 1251 Alexander III King Scotland 1241-1286 (10) and [his sister] Margaret Queen of Scotland 1240-1275 (11) were married at York Minster. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She a daughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his sister] She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland. The couple remained in York until Jan 1252 after which they travelled to Edinburgh.

On 30 May 1252 Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon 1199-1252 (53) died. Alfonso X King Castile X King Leon 1221-1284 (30) succeeded X King Castile, X King Leon. Violante Barcelona Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon by marriage Queen Consort Castile, Queen Consort Leon.

Wedding of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile

On 01 Nov 1254 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (15) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile (13) were married at Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189.

Battle of Northampton

On 06 Apr 1264 the future Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (24), Philip Marmion 5th Baron Marmion 1233-1291 (30) and Roger Leybourne 1215-1271 (49) fought for the King at Northampton Castle during the Battle of Northampton. Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (56) fought for the rebels with his son Simon "Younger" Montfort 1240-1271 (24) who was captured.

Battle of Lewes

On 14 May 1264 the army of Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (56) including [his future son-in-law] Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford 1243-1295 (20), Henry Hastings 1235-1269 (29) and Nicholas Segrave 1st Baron Segrave 1238-1295 (26) defeated the army of Henry III King England 1207-1272 (56) during the Battle of Lewes at Lewes. Henry III King England 1207-1272 (56), his son the future Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (24), Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex 1204-1275 (60), Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (55), John "Red" Comyn 1st Lord Baddenoch 1220-1275 (44), Philip Marmion 5th Baron Marmion 1233-1291 (30) and John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield 1232-1299 (32) were captured. John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304 (33), John Balliol 1207-1268 (56), Robert Bruce 5th Lord Annandale 1215-1295 (49), Roger Leybourne 1215-1271 (49) and William de Valence 1st Earl Pembroke -1296 fought for the King. Guy Lusignan -1264 was killed. Fulk IV Fitzwarin 1220-1264 (44) drowned. Walter de Cantelupe Bishop of Worcester 1191-1266 (73) was present and blessed the Montfort army before the battle.

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Prince Edward's Escape from Kenilworth Castle

On 28 May 1265 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (25), with the help of Roger Leybourne 1215-1271 (50), escaped from Kenilworth Castle whilst on a hunting trip. He had been held there as a hostage following the Battle of Lewes as a condition of the Mise of Lewes (the now lost peace treaty).

Battle of Evesham

On 04 Aug 1265 the army loyal to [his father] Henry III King England 1207-1272 (57), led by his son the future Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (26), supported by Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford 1243-1295 (21), Warin Basingburne and John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield 1232-1299 (33) defeated the rebel army of Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (57) at the Battle of Evesham.

Roger Leybourne 1215-1271 (50) fought and reputedly saved the King's life.

Adam Mohaut rescued the King.

Alan de Plunket de Kilpec -1299 fought for the King.

Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (57) and his son Henry Montfort 1238-1265 (26) were killed.

Hugh Despencer 1st Baron Despencer 1223-1265 (41) was killed by Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer Wigmore 1231-1282 (34).

Simon Beauchamp 1234-1265 (31), Ralph Basset 1215-1265 (50), William Devereux 1219-1265 (46), Hugh Troyes -1265, Richard Trussel -1265, Peter Montfort 1205-1265 (60), William Mandeville -1265, William Crepping -1265, William Birmingham -1265, Guy Balliol -1265 and Thomas Astley 1215-1265 (50) were killed. Henry Hastings 1235-1269 (30), Humphrey Bohun 1225-1265 (40), Nicholas Segrave 1st Baron Segrave 1238-1295 (27), John Vesci -1289, John Fitzjohn and Guy Montfort Count Nola 1244-1288 (21) were captured.

John Vesci -1289 was wounded and taken prisoner.

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On 25 Oct 1265 [his brother] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (20) was created 1st Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

On 13 Jul 1266 [his son] John Plantagenet 1266-1271 was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (27) and Eleanor of Castile (25).

In 1267 [his brother] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (21) was created 1st Earl Lancaster.

On 06 May 1268 [his son] Henry Plantagenet 1268-1274 was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (28) and Eleanor of Castile (27) at Windsor Castle.

On 24 Jun 1268 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (29) took the cross at Northampton, along with his brother [his brother] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (23) and cousin Henry "Almain" Cornwall 1235-1271 (32), from Papal Legate Ottobuono Fieschi (58).

On 08 Apr 1269 [his brother] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (24) and Aveline Forz Countess Lancaster -1274 were married. He a son of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Countess Lancaster.

On 18 Jun 1269 [his daughter] Eleanor Plantagenet 1269-1298 was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (30) and Eleanor of Castile (28) at Windsor Castle.

On 20 Aug 1270 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (31) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile (29) sailed from Dover to Tunis via Sicily. On arrival at Sicily Charles King Sicily 1227-1285 (43), brother of the recently deceased Louis IX King France 1214-1270 (56), had signed a treaty with the Emir so Edward returned to Sicily.

Before 09 May 1271 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile sailed from Palermo and travelled to Acre arriving on 09 May 1271. They were later joined by Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296, John "The Red" Capet I Duke Brittany 1218-1286 and Teobaldo Visconti Archdeacon of Liège (who would become Pope a month later).

In Apr 1272 [his daughter] Joan of Acre was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (32) and Eleanor of Castile (31) at Acre.

On 16 Jun 1272 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (32) was attacked by an assasin who stabbed him with a poisoned dagger. He survived but was in a weakened state for some time.

On 22 Sep 1272 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (33) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile (31) left Acre for Scily where he spend the winter convalescing. Whilst there he learned of the death of his father Henry III King England 1207-1272 (64), his uncle Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (63) and his eldest son John Plantagenet 1266-1271 (6).

Death of Henry III

On 16 Nov 1272 [his father] Henry III King England 1207-1272 (65) died at Westminster. Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (33) succeeded I King England. Eleanor of Castile (31) by marriage Queen Consort England.

After Apr 1273 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 travelled to Paris to pay homage to Philip "Bold" III King France 1245-1285 for his lands in Gascony.

Around Apr 1273 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (33) took part in a tournament at Chalon-sur-Saône. It isn't clear who made the invitation. Chroniclers appear to have confused Chalon-sur-Saône with Châlons-en-Champagne, and the invitee as the unknown Count of Châlons.

After Apr 1273 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile travelled to Gascony to deal with the revolt of Gaston VII Viscount of Béarn 1225-1290. They stayed in Gascony for a year.

Before Apr 1273 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile were hosted by his old friend the recently appointed Pope Gregory X 1230-1276 at his Court in Orvieto at which Edward was awarded a tenth of the clergy for three years to pay for his recent Crusade.

On 24 Nov 1273 [his son] Alfonso Plantagenet 1273-1284 was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (34) and Eleanor of Castile (32) in Bayonne. Their ninth child. He was named after Eleanor's (32) half-brother Alfonso X King Castile X King Leon 1221-1284 (52) who was also the child's godfather and attended his christening.

On 02 Aug 1274 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (35) and [his wife] Eleanor of Castile (33) arrived at Dover after an absence of four years. They travelled to London via Tonbridge Castle, home of Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford 1243-1295 (30) and Reigate Castle, home of John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304 (43).

Coronation Edward I

On 19 Aug 1274 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (35) was crowned I King England at Westminster Abbey. [his wife] Eleanor of Castile (33) was crowned Queen Consort England.

Alexander III King Scotland 1241-1286 (32) and [his sister] Margaret Queen of Scotland 1240-1275 (33) attended.

On 26 Feb 1275 [his sister] Margaret Queen of Scotland 1240-1275 (34) died at Cupar Castle, Cupar. She was buried at Dunfermline Abbey.

On 15 Mar 1275 [his daughter] Margaret Plantagenet Duchess Brabant 1275-1333 was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (35) and Eleanor of Castile (34) at Windsor Castle.

On 03 Feb 1276 [his brother] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (31) and Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 1248-1302 (28) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She by marriage Countess Lancaster.

Treaty of Aberconwy

In 1277 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (37) and Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw 1233-1282 (44) signed the Treaty of Aberconwy by which Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw 1233-1282 (44) agreed that Welsh self-rule would end with the death of Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw 1233-1282 (44). As part of the Treaty Owain "The Red" Aberffraw 1232-1282 (45) was released from Dolbadarn Castle.

In 1277 Rhuddlan Castle was commissioned by Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (37). Work was initially started by Master Betram but was completed by James of St George Master Mason. It was completed in 1282.

1279 Letter XVI Constance Widow of Henry of Germany the Nephew of Henry III to Edward I. 1279. Letter XVI. Constance Widow of Henry of Germany, the Nephew of Henry III to Edward I (39).

To the most serene prince, and, if it please him, her dearest lord, Edward, by God's grace king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine, his humble and devoted Constance, relict of the late noble man Henry of Germany (43), wishes health, and commends herself with devoted obsequiousness and honour.

Be it known to your excellency, that for some time last past I have not dared, through fear of you to write to your highness, nor to signify anything to you, whereof of good cause I grieved, and was beyond measure distressed at heart. But now, by the leave and counsel of the Lord Bishop of Bath (40), and Lord Otho de Grandison (41), I have dared to write to you, which gives me all possible joy, supplicating your royal majesty that you will deign diligently to search out and inquire the truth from the said lord bishop and Sir Otho concerning my estate, and about all things which have hitherto been done and at tempted about me; for they, if they choose, can for the most part certify you as to the premises. Yet I much desire, and long above all things, that I could speak face to face with your highness about my estate and other things concerning me. Wherefore I pray your lordship, as affectionately and humbly as I can, by that dear love which by your favour you were wont to bear me, and still bear as I hope, that if it would please you that I might come to your highness, you will command my lord and father (54), when he shall be in England, to send for me by his letters. And I believe he will do it willingly, if you will command or advise it. Please it your highness to give credence to our dear and trusty clerk, Master William R., of Miremont, the present bearer, in reference to the premises and all other things which he will say to you on our behalf. May the Most High long preserve your person and dominions, and give you increase of favour and honour!

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Letter XX Eleanora Queen Dowager of England to her son Edward I. After 1279. Letter XX. [his mother] Eleanora Queen-Dowager of England (56) to her son Edward I (39).

To the most noble prince and our dearest son, Edward, by God's grace king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Guienne, Eleanora, hoxnble nun of the order of Fontevraud of the convent of Amesbury, health and our blessing.

Sweetest son, our abbess of Fontevraud has prayed us that we would entreat the King of Sicily to guard and preserve the franchises of her house, which some people wish to damage. And, because we know well that he will do much more for your prayer than for ours, for you have better deserved it, we pray you, good son^ that for love of us you will request and especi-^ ally require this thing from him; and that he would command that the things which the abbess holds in his lordship may be in his protection and guard, and that neither she nor hers may be molested or grieved. Good son, if it please you, command that the billet be hastily delivered. We wish you health in the sweet Jesus, to whom we commend you.

1279 Letter XVII Eleanora Queen Dowager of England to her son Edward I. 1279. Letter XVII. [his mother] Eleanora Queen-Dowager of England (56) to her son Edward I (39).

Eleanora, by God's grace queen of England, to our dear son Edward, by the same grace king of England, health and our blessing.

Know, sweet son, that we have understood that a marriage is in agitation between the son of the King of Sicily (51) and the daughter of the King of Germany (60); and, if this alliance is made, we may well be disturbed in the right that we have to the fourth part of Provence, which thing would be great damage to us, and this damage would be both ours and yours. Where fore we pray and require you, that you will specially write to the aforesaid king, that since Provence is held from the empire, and his dignity demands that he should have right done to us about it, he will regard the right that we have, and cause us to hold it. Of this thing we especially require you, and we commend you to God.

Letter XXI Eleanora Queen Dowager of England to her son Edward I. After 1279. Letter XXI. [his mother] Eleanora Queen-Dowager of England (56) to her son Edward I (39).

To the most noble prince and her very dear son, Edward, by God's grace king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine, Eleanora, humble nun of the order of Fontevraud, of the convent of Amesbury, wishes health and her blessing.

Sweetest son, we know well how great is the desire that a mother has to see her child when she has been long away from him, and that dame Margaret de Nevile (24), companion of Master John Painter Giffard (47), has not seen for a long time past her child, who is in the keeping of dame Margaret de Weyland, and has a great desire to see him. We pray you, sweetest son, that you will command and pray the aforesaid Margaret de Weyland, that she will suffer that the mother may have the solace of her child for some time, after her desire. Dearest son, we commend you to God. Given at Amesbury, the 4th day of March.

On 11 Mar 1279 [his daughter] Mary Plantagenet 1279-1332 was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (39) and Eleanor of Castile (38) at Woodstock Palace.

08 Jul 1279 Letter XVIII Eleanora Princess of Wales to her cousin Edward I. 08 Jul 1279. Letter XVIII. Eleanora Princess of Wales (27) to her cousin Edward I (40).

To her excellent lord and well-beloved cousin, the Lord Edward, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, and dake of Aquitaine, his devoted cousin Eleonora, princess of Wales, lady of Snowdon, with such sincere affection as becometh, sends health to so great and so near a kinsman.

Be it known to your excellency, that we desire to hear good and prosperous news concerning your state and condition: therefore we entreat your excellency, humbly and earnestly, for our love's sake, that you deign to make known to us, as your humble cousin, and one ready to do your good pleasures, your state; and whether you wish any thing within our power which may redound to your honour^ or may please your majesty.

Although, as we have heard, the contrary hereto hath been reported of us to your excellency by some; and we believe, notwithstanding, that you in no wise give credit to any who report unfavourably concerning our lord and ourself, until you learn from ourselves if such speeches contain truth: because you shewed, of your grace, so much honour and so much friendliness to our lord and ourself, when you were at the last time at Worcester.

Wherefore, whatever you shall demand from us in this, or other matters that you wish, we shall ever be ready, according to our ability, to execute and accomplish.

Given at Llanmaes, the 8th day of July.

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18 Oct 1280 Letter XIX Eleanora Princess of Wales to her cousin Edward I. 18 Oct 1280. Letter XIX. Eleanora Princess of Wales (28) to her cousin Edward I (41).

To the most excellent prince, and also her very dear cousin, the Lord Edward, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine, his devoted Eleonora, princess of Wales, lady of Snowdon, sends health, with such sincere affection as becometh to so great a lord and so near a kinsman.

We make it known to your excellency by these presents, that we, blessed be God, enjoy good health and prosperity; which same we not only desire, but long to learn, concerning yourself.

And whereas it has been reported to us bj some that you propose to have it debated, in the present parliament, touching the relieving the condition of our very dear brother, the Lord Amalric (38), therefore, with clasped hands, and with bended knees and tearful groanings, we supplicate your majesty that, reverencing from your inmost soul the Divine mercy (which holds out the hand of pity to all, especially to those who seek Him with their whole heart), yoo would deign mercifully to jbake again to your grace and favour our aforesaid brother and your kinsman, who humbly craveth, as we understand, your kindness.

For if your excellency, as we have often known, mercifully condescends to strangers, with much more reason, as we think, ought you to hold out the hand of pity to one so near to you by the ties of nature.

May you long fare well in the Lord !

Given at Saint Anneir, on the feast of Saint Luke the Evangelist.

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On 31 Aug 1281 Eric II King Norway 1268-1299 (13) and [his niece] Margaret Dunkeld Queen Consort Norway 1261-1283 (20) were married at Bergen. She a granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

In Feb 1282 John Vesci -1289 was sent with Antony Bek Bishop of Durham 1245-1311 (37) to negotiate a marriage between Alfonso (16), son of King Peter III of Aragon (42), and King Edward's (42) daughter [his daughter] Eleanor (12), which resulted in the signing of the contract as proxy at Huesca.

On 07 Aug 1282 [his daughter] Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Countess Essex Hereford and Holland 1282-1316 was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (43) and Eleanor of Castile (41) at Rhuddlan Castle.

On 14 Nov 1282 [his nephew] Alexander Dunkeld Prince Scotland 1264-1284 (18) and Margaret Dampierre Duchess Gueders 1272-1331 (10) were married. They were half third cousins once removed. He a grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 5 granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087.

In 1283 Roger Mowbray 1st Baron Mowbray 1257-1297 (26) was created 1st Baron Mowbray 1C 1283 by his half second cousin once removed Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (43).

On 09 Apr 1283 Margaret "Maid of Norway" I Queen Scotland 1283-1290 was born to Eric II King Norway 1268-1299 (15) and [his niece] Margaret Dunkeld Queen Consort Norway 1261-1283 (22) at Tønsberg. She a great granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his niece] Margaret Dunkeld Queen Consort Norway 1261-1283 (22) died in childbirth. She was buried at Tønsberg.

On 22 Jun 1283 Dafydd ap Gruffudd Aberffraw Prince of Wales 1238-1283 (44) and Owain ap Dafydd Aberffraw 1275-1325 (8) were captured at Nanhysglain Bangor. Dafydd (44), seriously wounded in the struggle, was brought to King Edward's (44) camp at Rhuddlan that same night. Dafydd (44) was taken from here to Chester and then on to Shrewsbury. Dafydd (44) and Dafydd's wife Elizabeth de Ferrers (67), their daughter Gwladys, infant niece Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn (1), and Dafydd's six illegitimate daughters were also taken prisoner at the same time.

In 1284 [his future brother-in-law] Charles Valois I Count Valois 1270-1325 (13) was created I Count Valois.

On 28 Jan 1284 [his nephew] Alexander Dunkeld Prince Scotland 1264-1284 (20) died at Lindores Abbey, Newburgh. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey.

On 02 Apr 1284 [his brother-in-law] Alfonso X King Castile X King Leon 1221-1284 (62) died. Sancho IV King Castile IV King Leon 1258-1295 (25) succeeded IV King Castile, IV King Leon. Maria Molina Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon by marriage Queen Consort Castile, Queen Consort Leon.

On 25 Apr 1284 [his son] King Edward II of England was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (44) and Eleanor of Castile (43) at Caernarfon Castle.

On 16 Aug 1284 [his future brother-in-law] Philip "The Fair" IV King France 1268-1314 (16) and Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 1273-1305 (11) were married. They were second cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She by marriage Queen_Consort_France.

In Jun 1285 John Vesci -1289 was sent with two others to negotiate the marriage between Edward's (45) daughter [his daughter] Elizabeth (2) and John (1), son of Floris V Count of Holland (30).

On 05 Oct 1285 Philip "Bold" III King France 1245-1285 (40) died. On 05 Oct 1285 Philip "The Fair" IV King France 1268-1314 (17) succeeded IV King France: Capet. Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 1273-1305 (12) by marriage Queen_Consort_France.

On 30 Apr 1290 [his son-in-law] Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford 1243-1295 (46) and Joan of Acre (18) were married at Clerkenwell. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She a daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Countess Gloucester, Earl Hertford 1C 1138.

On 08 Jul 1290 [his son-in-law] John "Peaceful" Reginar II Duke Brabant 1275-1312 (14) and Margaret Plantagenet Duchess Brabant 1275-1333 (15) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. She a daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

On 16 Aug 1290 [his future brother-in-law] Charles Valois I Count Valois 1270-1325 (20) and Margaret Capet Countess Valois 1273-1299 (17) were married. They were second cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She by marriage Countess Valois.

Death of Eleanor of Castile

On 28 Nov 1290 [his wife] Eleanor of Castile (49) died at Harby. Her viscera were buried at Lincoln Cathedral.

Eleanor Crosses

After 28 Nov 1290 [his wife] Eleanor of Castile's body was taken from Harby to Westminster Abbey. At each of the locations at which her body rested overnight Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 commissioned the building of an Eleanor Cross. Three remain. The best example being at Geddington__Northamptonshire.

On 24 Jun 1291 [his mother] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (68) died at Amesbury.

In 1292 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (52) stayed overnight at Warkworth Castle.

On 20 Dec 1292 King Edward I (53) stayed at Horton Castle for one night when returning from adjudicating the claim to the Scottish throne. The landholder, Sir Guiscard de Charron, had used the occasion of Edwards's visit to ask for the necessary permission to fortify his manor house, that Edward was currently a guest in. The license to crenelate was granted one week later in Newcastle.

On 30 Dec 1292 [his nephew] Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 (11) and Maud Chaworth 1282-1322 (10) were married. He a grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

On 20 Sep 1293 [his son-in-law] Henry of Bar III Count of Bar 1259- (34) and Eleanor Plantagenet 1269-1298 (24) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. She a daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

In 1294 [his nephew] Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (16) and Alice Lacy Countess Leicester Countess Lancaster 5th Countess Salisbury 4th Countess Lincoln 1281-1348 (12) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189.

1295 Edward I Creates New Barons 36th Parliament

On 24 Jun 1295 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (56) created new baronies through writs for summons to his 36th Parliament

John Montfort 1st Baron Montfort 1264-1296 (31) was created 1st Baron Montfort. Alice Plaunche Baroness Montfort by marriage Baroness Montfort.

Walter Fauconberg 1st Baron Fauconberg 1220-1304 (75) was created 1st Baron Fauconberg.

Thomas Furnival 1st Baron Furnivall 1260-1332 (35) was created 1st Baron Furnivall 1C 1295. Joan Despencer Baroness Furnivall 1258-1322 (37) by marriage Baroness Furnivall.

Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter 1247-1326 (48) was created 1st Baron Fitzwalter. Eleanor Ferrers Baroness Fitzwalter by marriage Baroness Fitzwalter.

Ralph Basset 1st Baron Basset Drayton 1264-1299 (31) was created 1st Baron Basset Drayton 2C 1295. Hawise Grey Baroness Basset Drayton 1255-1353 (40) by marriage Baroness Basset Drayton.

The following Baronies may have been created at the 36th Parliament or the 37th Parliament summoned on 30 Sep 1295.

John Wake 1st Baron Wake Liddell 1268-1300 (27) was created 1st Baron Wake Liddell.

Andrew Astley 1st Baron Astley 1246-1301 (49) was created 1st Baron Astley.

Thomas Berkeley 6th Baron Berkeley 1245-1321 (49) was created 1st Baron Berkeley 1C 1295. Joan Ferrers Baroness Berkeley -1309 by marriage Baroness Berkeley.

Reginald Grey 1st Baron Grey Wilton 1240-1308 (55) was created 1st Baron Grey Wilton 1C 1295. Maud Fitzhugh Baroness Grey Wilton 1222-1302 (73) by marriage Baroness Grey Wilton.

John Hastings 13th Baron Bergavenny 1st Baron Hastings 1262-1313 (33) was created 1st Baron Hastings 1C 1290 by a summons to Parliament. Isabel Valence Baroness Bergavenny Baroness Hastings -1305 by marriage Baroness Hastings.

Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1262-1331 (32) was created 1st Baron Neville Raby 1C 1295. Euphemia Clavering Baroness Neville Raby 1267-1329 (28) by marriage Baroness Neville Raby.

Nicholas Segrave 1st Baron Segrave 1238-1295 (57) was created 1st Baron Segrave 2C 1295.

John Beke 1st Baron Beke 1223-1301 (72) was created 1st Baron Beke (although there is some doubt whether he was created Baron).

Fulk Fitzwarin 1st Baron Fitzwarin 1251-1315 (43) was created 1st Baron Fitzwarin.

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On 05 Jun 1296 [his brother] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (51) died at Bayonne. He was buried at Westminster Abbey. Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (18) succeeded 2nd Earl of Leicester 2C 1265, 2nd Earl Lancaster. Alice Lacy Countess Leicester Countess Lancaster 5th Countess Salisbury 4th Countess Lincoln 1281-1348 (14) by marriage Countess of Leicester, Earl Lancaster.

On 27 Jun 1296 Floris Gerulfing V Count Holland 1254-1296 (42) was killed. [his future son-in-law] John Gerulfing I Count Holland 1284-1299 (12) succeeded I Count Holland.

Floris (42) has transferred his allegiance to France inviting the enmity of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (57) who relied on him to support the valuable English wool trade. Edward conspired with Guy of Flanders to kidnap Floris. Floris was captured during a hunting party and taken to Muiderslot castle. Concerned about their safety the kidnappers attempted to take Floris to a safer location during which jounrney they were attacked by an angry mob of local peasants. Floris was killed.

In Jan 1297 [his son-in-law] Ralph Monthermer 1st Baron Monthermer 1270-1325 (27) and Joan of Acre (24) were married in secret greatly offending her father Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (57). She a daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his son-in-law] Ralph Monthermer 1st Baron Monthermer 1270-1325 (27) was imprisoned; he was released in Aug 1297.

Marriage of Princess Elizabeth and John of Holland

On 08 Jan 1297 [his son-in-law] John Gerulfing I Count Holland 1284-1299 (13) and Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Countess Essex Hereford and Holland 1282-1316 (14) were married at Ipswich. He a great x 4 grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. She a daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Countess Holland. The wedding was attended by her sister Margaret Plantagenet Duchess Brabant 1275-1333 (21), her father King Edward I (57), her brother Edward (12) and her future second husband Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex 1276-1322 (21).

In 1298 [his future brother-in-law] Louis I Count Évreux 1276-1319 (21) was created I Count Évreux.

Battle of Falkirk

On 22 Jul 1298 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (59) defeated the Scottish army led by William Wallace -1305 during the Battle of Falkirk at Falkirk using archers to firstly attack the Scottish shiltrons with the heavy cavalry with infantry completing the defeat.

John de Graham -1247 and John Stewart of Bonkyll 1246-1298 (52) were killed.

The English were described in the Falkirk Roll that lists 111 men with their armorials including:

Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315 (26).

Walter Beauchamp 1243-1303 (55).

Roger Bigod 5th Earl Norfolk 1245-1306 (53).

Humphrey Bohun 3rd Earl Hereford 2nd Earl Essex 1249-1298 (49).

Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (24).

Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester 1261-1326 (37).

William Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers Groby 1272-1325 (26).

Thomas Berkeley 6th Baron Berkeley 1245-1321 (52).

Maurice Berkeley 7th Baron Berkeley 1271-1326 (27).

Henry Grey 1st Baron Grey Codnor 1255-1308 (43).

Reginald Grey 1st Baron Grey Wilton 1240-1308 (58).

John Grey 2nd Baron Grey Wilton 1268-1323 (30).

John Mohun 1st Baron Mohun Dunster 1269-1330 (29).

Simon Montagu 1st Baron Montagu 1250-1316 (48).

Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330 (11).

William Ros 1st Baron Ros Helmsley 1255-1316 (43).

John Segrave 2nd Baron Segrave 1256-1325 (42).

Nicholas Segrave 1256-1321 (42).

Robert Vere 6th Earl Oxford 1257-1331 (41).

Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby 1267-1314 (30).

[his nephew] Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (20).

[his nephew] Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 (17).

John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304 (67).

Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy 1273-1314 (25).

Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon 1276-1340 (21).

Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl Arundel 1267-1302 (31).

Henry Beaumont 4th Earl Buchan 1279-1340 (19).

John Capet II Duke Brittany 1239-1305 (59).

Philip Darcy 1258-1333 (40).

Robert Fitzroger.

Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter 1247-1326 (51), or possiby a Roger Fitzwalter?.

Simon Fraser -1306.

Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 (23).

John Wake 1st Baron Wake Liddell 1268-1300 (30), and.

Henry Lacy 3rd Earl Lincoln 4th Earl Salisbury 1251-1311 (47).

William Scrope 1245-1312 (53) was knighted.

John Moels 1st Baron Moels 1269-1310 (29) fought.

John Lovell 1st Baron Lovel 1254-1311 (44) fought.

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1299-Edward I Creates New Barons

On 06 Feb 1299 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (59) created a number of new Barons by writ of summons to Edward's 44th Parliament ...

John Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers Chartley 1271-1312 (27) was created 1st Baron Ferrers Chartley.

John Lovell 1st Baron Lovel 1254-1311 (45) was created 1st Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh. Joan Ros Baroness Lovel 1260-1348 (39) by marriage Baroness Lovel of Titchmarsh.

William Ros 1st Baron Ros Helmsley 1255-1316 (44) was created 1st Baron Ros Helmsley. Maud Vaux Baroness Ros 1257-1316 (42) by marriage Baroness Ros Helmsley.

William Devereux 1st Baron Devereux Lyonshall 1244-1314 (55) was created 1st Baron Devereux Lyonshall. Lucy Burnell Baroness Devereux Lyonshall by marriage Baroness Devereux Lyonshall.

Adam Welles 1st Baron Welles 1249-1311 (50) was created 1st Baron Welles. Joan D'Engayne Baroness Welles and Ughtred -1315 by marriage Baroness Welles.

Robert Clinton 1st Baron Clinton 1258-1310 (41) was created 1st Baron Clinton. Ida Odingsells Baroness Clinton 1265-1321 (34) by marriage Baroness Clinton.

John Moels 1st Baron Moels 1269-1310 (30) was created 1st Baron Moels.

The next baronies may not have been created on 06 Feb 1299 but were created in 1299 possibly for Edward's 45th and 46th Parliaments on 10 Apr 1299 and 21 Sep 1299 respectively.

Edmund Deincourt 1st Baron Deincourt 1250-1327 (49) was created 1st Baron Deincourt 1C 1299.

John Strange 1st Baron Strange Knockin 1253-1309 (46) was created 1st Baron Strange Knockin 2C 1299. Maud Eiville Baroness Strange Knockin by marriage Baroness Strange Knockin.

John St John Lagenham 1st Baron St John Lagenham 1250-1316 (49) was created 1st Baron St John Lagenham.

Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (24) was created 1st Baron Clifford. Maud Clare Baroness Clifford Baroness Welles 1276-1327 (23) by marriage Baroness Clifford.

Henry Grey 1st Baron Grey Codnor 1255-1308 (44) was created 1st Baron Grey Codnor. Eleanor Courtenay Baroness Grey Codnor by marriage Baroness Grey Codnor.

John Mohun 1st Baron Mohun Dunster 1269-1330 (30) was created 1st Baron Mohun Dunster.

Roger Scales 1st Baron Scales -1304 was created 1st Baron Scales.

John St John 1st Baron St John Basing 1273-1329 (25) was created 1st Baron St John Basing.

John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Somerset 1274-1336 (24) was created 1st Baron Beauchamp Somerset.

Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby 1267-1314 (31) was created 1st Baron Zouche Ashby.

Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy 1273-1314 (25) was created 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299. Eleanor Fitzalan Baroness Percy 1284-1328 (15) by marriage Baroness Percy of Alnwick.

William Grandison 1st Baron Grandison 1262-1335 (37) was created 1st Baron Grandison. Sibylla Tregoz Baroness Grandison by marriage Baroness Grandison.

Otto Grandison 1st Baron Grandison 1238-1328 (61) was created 1st Baron Grandison.

Thomas de Multon 1st Baron Multon of Egremont 1276-1322 (22) was created 1st Baron Multon Egremont. Eleanor Burgh Baroness Multon Egremont 1282-1324 (17) by marriage Baroness Multon Egremont.

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Edward I and Margaret of France Wedding

On 08 Sep 1299 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (60) and [his wife] Margaret of France Queen Consort England 1279-1318 (20) were married at Canterbury Cathedral. They were first cousins once removed. He a son of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his wife] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315 (27) was present.

On 29 Dec 1299 William Morley 1st Baron Morley -1302 was created 1st Baron Morley by writ of summons to King Edward I's (60) 47th Parliament. Isabel Mohaut Baroness Morley by marriage Baroness Morley.

On 25 May 1300 Rudolph Habsburg III Duke Austria 1282-1307 (18) and [his sister-in-law] Blanche Capet Duchess Austria 1278-1305 (22) were married. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his sister-in-law] She by marriage Duchess Austria.

On 01 Jun 1300 [his son] Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300-1338 was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (60) and Margaret of France Queen Consort England 1279-1318 (21) at Brotherton. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.81%.

On 25 Sep 1300 Edmund "Almain" Cornwall 2nd Earl Cornwall 1249-1300 (50) died. He was buried, heart and flesh, at Ashridge. His bones were interred at Hailes Abbey during a service attended by Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (61).

Edward II Created Prince of Wales

On 07 Feb 1301 [his son] King Edward II of England (16) was created Prince of Wales by his father Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (61); the first English heir to receive the title. He was created Earl Chester 5C 1301 the same day.

On 27 Jun 1301 King Edward I (62) visited Horton Castle.

On 05 Aug 1301 [his son] Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent 1301-1330 was born to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (62) and Margaret of France Queen Consort England 1279-1318 (22) at Woodstock Palace. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.81%.

In 1302 [his brother-in-law] Charles Valois I Count Valois 1270-1325 (31) and Catherine Courtenay Countess Valois 1274-1307 (27) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She by marriage Countess Valois.

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CVII Conflict of Roslyn. On the 27th of July 1302, [Note. The date here confusing since the Battle of Roslyn] is reported to have taken place on 24 Feb 1303] took place the great and famous engagement between the Scots and English, at Roslyn, where the English were defeated, though with great difficulty. From the beginning of the first war which ever broke out between the Scots and English, it is said, there never was so desperate a struggle, or one in which the stoutness of knightly prowess shone forth so brightly. The commander and leader in this struggle was John Comyn (33), the son. Now this was how this struggle came about, and the manner thereof. After the battle fought at Falkirk, the king of England (63) came not in person, for the nonce, this side of the water of Forth; but sent a good large force, which plundered the whole land of Fife, with all the lands lying near the town of Perth, after having killed a great many of the dwellers in those lands. On the return of this force, with countless spoils, that king (63) hied him home again with his host. Now this was brought about, doubtless, by God's agency: for had he made a lengthened stay then, or after the battle of Dunbar and the seizure of King John (53), he would either have subjugated the whole land of Scotland, and the dwellers therein, to his sway, or made it a waste with naught but floods and stones. But the goodness of God, Who alone tends and heals after wounds, so governed the actions and time of that king, that, being stirred up to battle, and engrossed with sundry wars, he could not put off all other matters, and give himself up to subduing this kingdom. So that king of England (63) went back with his men, having first appointed the officers of the sheriffdoms, and the wardens of the castles, in the districts beyond the water of Forth, which were then fully and wholly subject unto his sway — with the exception of a few outlaws (or, indeed, robbers), of Scottish birth, who were lurking in the woods, and could not, because of their misdeeds, submit to the laws. But John Comyn (33), then guardian of Scotland, and Simon Eraser, with their followers, day and night did their best to harass and annoy, by their great prowess, the aforesaid king's officers and bailiffs; and from the time of that king's departure, for four years and more, the English and the Anglicized Scots were harried by them, in manifold ways, by mutual slaughter and carnage, according to the issue of various wars.

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On 14 Nov 1302 [his son-in-law] Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex 1276-1322 (26) and Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Countess Essex Hereford and Holland 1282-1316 (20) were married. They were third cousins. She a daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Countess Essex, Earl Hereford 6C 1199. Westminster Abbey.

In or before 1303 [his brother-in-law] Louis I Count Évreux 1276-1319 (26) and Margaret Artois Countess Évreux 1285-1311 (18) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Évreux.

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CIX The King of England scours the plains and hills and brings the Kingdom of Scotland under peaceful subjection to himself . In revenge for the foregoing outrages, the king of England (63), with a very large force, both by sea and by land, entered Scotland, in the year 1303, with the deliberate design of once for all fully bringing it, and the dwellers therein, under his yoke; or, of sweeping out the inhabitants altogether, and reducing the land itself to an utter and irreclaimable wilderness. Having, therefore, scoured the hills and plains, both on this side of the hills and beyond them, he, in person, reached Lochindorb; and, after making some stay there, he received the submission of the northern districts, and appointed officers of his in all the castles and fortified towns surrendered to him. Returning thence leisurely, he received the submission of all the communities, as well as fortresses and castles they passed through, with none to withstand or attack him; and, after much winding about through the land, he got to Dunfermline, where he lingered a long time, wintering there until Candlemas. The same year, his son and heir, [his son] Edward of Carnarvon (18), Prince of Wales, made a long stay in the town of Perth. Food was in such plenty there, for the whole of the aforesaid time, that a laggen, Scottish measure, of good wine sold for fourpence.

Battle of Roslyn

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CVIII Conflict of Roslyn. 24 Feb 1303. When the aforesaid king (63) had got news of this, he sent off a certain nobleman, Ralph Confrere, his treasurer (Ralph de Manton, the Cofferer), a man stout in battle, and of tried judgment and wisdom, with a certain body of chosen knights, thoroughly well-armed, to seek out, in every hole and corner, those who troubled and disturbed the king's peace, and not to forbear punishing them with the penalty of death. So they entered Scotland, and went about ranging through the land, until they, at Roslyn, pitched their tents, split up into three lines apart, for want of free camping room. But the aforesaid John Comyn (34) and Simon, with their abettors, hearing of their arrival, and wishing to steal a march rather than have one stolen upon them, came briskly through from Biggar to Eoslyn, in one night, with some chosen men, who chose rather death before unworthy subjection to the English nation; and, all of a sudden, they fearlessly fell upon the enemy. But having been, a little before, roused by the sentries, all those of the first line seized their weapons, and manfully withstood the attacking foe. At length, however, the former were overcome. Some were taken, and some slain; while some, again, fled to the other line. But, while the Scots were sharing the booty, another line straightway appeared, in battle-array; so the Scots, on seeing it, slaughtered their prisoners, and armed their own vassals with the spoils of the slain; then, putting away their jaded horses, and taking stronger ones, they fearlessly hastened to the fray. When this second line had been, at length, overcome, though with difficulty, and the Scots thought they had ended their task, there appeared a third, mightier than the former, and more choice in their harness. The Scots were thunderstruck at the sight of them; and being both fagged out in manifold ways, — by the fatigues of travelling, watching, and want of food — and also sore distressed by the endless toil of fighting, began to be weary, and to quail in spirit, beyond belief. But, when the people were thus thrown into bewilderment, the aforesaid John and Simon, with, hearts undismayed, took up, with their weapons, the office of preachers; and, comforting them with their words, cheering them with their promises, and, moreover, reminding them of the nobleness of freedom, and the baseness of thraldom, and of the unwearied toil which their ancestors had willingly undertaken for the deliverance of their country, they, with healthful warnings, heartened them to the fray. So, being greatly emboldened by these and such-like words, the Scots laid aside all cowardice, and got back their strength. Then they slaughtered their prisoners, with whose horses and arms they were again — as it were — renewed; and, putting their trust in God, they and their armed vassals marched forward most bravely and dashingly to battle. The shock was so mighty and fierce, that many were run through, and bereft of life; and some of either host, after awful spear-thrusts, savage flail-strokes, and hard cudgelling, withdrew from the ranks, by hundreds, forties, and twenties, to the hills, time after time, fagged out and dazed by the day's fighting. There they would throw back their helmets, and let the winds blow upon them; and after having been thus cooled by the breeze, they would put away their wounded horses, and, mounting other fresh ones, would thus be made stronger against the onslaughts of the foe. So, after this manifold ordeal and awful struggle, the Scots, who, if one looked at the opposite side, were very few in number — as it were a handful of corn or flour compared with the multitude of the sea-sand — by the power, not of man, but of God, subdued their foes, and gained a happy and gladsome victory.

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John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CXI Stirling Castle besieged by the King of England. Just after Easter, in the year 1304, that same king besieged Strivelyn Castle for three months without a break. For this siege, he commanded all the lead of the refectory of Saint Andrews to be pulled down, and had it taken away for the use of his engines. At last, the aforesaid castle was surrendered and delivered unto him on certain conditions, drawn up in writing, and sealed with his seal. But when he had got the castle, the king (64) belied his troth, and broke through the conditions: for William Oliphant, the warden thereof, he threw bound into prison in London, and kept him a long time in thrall. The same year, when both great and small in the kingdom of Scotland (except William Wallace alone) had made their submission unto him; when the surrendered castles and fortified towns, which had formerly been broken down and knocked to pieces, had been all rebuilt, and he had appointed wardens of his own therein; and after all and sundry of Scottish birth had tendered him homage, the king (64), with the [his son] Prince of Wales (19), and his whole army, returned to England. He left, however, the chief warden as his lieutenant, to amend and control the lawlessness of all the rest, both Scots and English. He did not show his face in Scotland after this.

Siege of Stirling Castle

On 20 Jul 1304 William Oliphant Governor of -1313 surrendered Stirling Castle to Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (65).

Betwee 31 Aug 1304 or 01 Sep 1304 to 06 Sep 1304 King Edward I (65) stayed at Horton Castle.

Robert "The Bruce" murders John "Red Comyn"

On 10 Feb 1305 John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch 1269-1305 (36) was murdered by Robert the Bruce (30), future King of Scotland, before the High Altar of the Greyfriars Monastery Chapel. Robert Comyn -1305, John's uncle, was killed by Christopher Seton 1278-1306 (27). Christopher's brother John Seton 1278-1306 (27) was also present.

Murder, in a church, in front of the altar, regarded as a terrible crime. The act gave Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (65) cause to invade Scotland. Robert the Bruce was execommunicated by the Pope for his actions.

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CXVII John Comyn's Death. The same year, after the aforesaid Robert (30) had left the king of England (65) and returned home, no less miraculously than by God's grace, a day is appointed for him and the aforesaid John (36) to meet together at Dumfries; and both sides repair to the above-named place. John Comyn (36) is twitted with his treachery and belied troth. The lie is at once given. The evil-speaker is stabbed, and wounded unto death, in the church of the Friars; and the wounded man is, by the friars, laid behind the altar. On being asked by those around whether he could live, straightway his answer is: — " I can." His foes, hearing this, give him another wound; — and thus was he taken away from this world on the 10th of February.

On 01 Mar 1305 [his sister-in-law] Blanche Capet Duchess Austria 1278-1305 (27) died.

Execution of William Wallace

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CXVI Death of William Wallace. In the year 1305, William Wallace was craftily and treacherously taken by John of Menteith (30), who handed him over to the king of England (66); and he was, in London, torn limb from limb, and, as a reproach to the Scots, his limbs were hung on towers in sundry places throughout England and Scotland.

Before 12 Dec 1306 Roger Bigod 5th Earl Norfolk 1245-1306 died. In 1302 Roger Bigod 5th Earl Norfolk 1245-1306 surrendered his Earldom to King Edward I and was recreated Earl Norfolk 2C 1141 with the remainder "to the heirs of his body" effectively disinheriting his brother John Bigod 1250-1305. Its not clear why he did so. On his death the Earl Norfolk 2C 1141 extinct.

On 26 Feb 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (23) exiled by Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (67) for being his son [his son] Edward's (22) favourite.

On 23 Apr 1307 [his daughter] Joan of Acre (35) died at Clare.

Death of Edward I

On 07 Jul 1307 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (68) died at Burgh by Sands whilst on his way north to Scotland. [his son] King Edward II of England (23) succeeded II King England.

Edward (68) had gathered around him [his nephew] Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (29), Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315 (35), Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 (32) and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (33) and charged them with looking after his son in particular ensuring Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (23) didn't return from exile.

After 07 Jul 1307 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Battle of Bannockburn

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 3 Here the matter speaketh of some of the predecessors of king Edward of England. FIRST, the better to enter into the matter of this honourable and pleasant history of the noble Edward king of England (1), who was crowned at London the year of our Lord God MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday, living the king his father and the queen his mother, it is certain that the opinion of Englishmen most commonly was as then, and oftentimes it was seen in England after the time of king Arthur, how that between two valiant kings of England there was most commonly one between them of less sufficiency both of wit and of prowess: and this was right well apparent by the same icing Edward the third (1); for his grandfather (75), called the good king Edward the first, was right valiant, sage, wise and hardy, adventurous and fortunate jn all feats of war, and had much ado against the Scots, and conquered them three or four times; for the Scots could never have victory nor endure against him: and after his decease his son of his first wife, who was father to the said good king Edward the third, was crowned king and called [his son] Edward the second (30), who resembled nothing to his father in wit nor in prowess, but governed and kept his realm right wildly, and ruled himself by sinister counsel of certain persons, whereby at length he had no profit nor land, as ye shall hear after; for anon after he was crowned, Robert Bruce king of Scotland, who had often before given much ado to the said good king Edward the first, conquered again all Scotland, and brent and wasted a great part of the realm of England, a four or five days' journey within the realm at two times, and discomfited the king and all the barons of England at a place in Scotland called Stirling, by battle arranged the day of Saint John Baptist, in the seventh year of the reign of the same king Edward, in the year of our Lord MCCCXIV. The chase of this discomfiture endured two days and two nights, and the [his son] king of England (30) went with a small company to London and on mid-lent Sunday in the year of our Lord MCCCXVI. The Scots won again the city of Berwick by treason; but because this is no part of our matter, I will leave speaking thereof.

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Death of Queen Consort Margaret of France

On 14 Feb 1318 [his wife] Margaret of France Queen Consort England 1279-1318 (39) died at Marlborough Castle. She was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars. Her tomb was destroyed during the Reformation.

In 1339 William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl 1300-1353 (39) visited Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (99) at Château Gaillard.

On 28 Feb 1347 John Graham Earl Menteith -1347 was hanged, drawn and quartered by direct orders of King Edward I to whom he had previously sworn fealty.

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CXV Death of John Comyn's messenger. Now, when Robert was nearing the borders of the marches, there met him a messenger whom, when he sighted him afar off, he suspected, both from the fellow's gait and from his dress, to be a Scot. So, when he got nearer, he asked him whence he came and whither he was making his way. The messenger began to pour forth excuses for his sins; but Robert ordered his vassals to search him. Letters, sealed with Robert's seal about the covenant entered into between him and John Comyn, were found addressed to the king of England through this messenger, and were forthwith pulled out. The messenger's head was thereupon struck off, and God very much be praised for His guidance in this prosperous journey.

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CXIV King Robert accused before the King of England by John Comyn. As the said John's accusations were repeated, at length, one night, while the wine glittered in the bowl, and that king was hastening to sit down with his secretaries, he talked over Robert's death in earnest, — and shortly determined that he would deprive him of life on the morrow. But when the Earl of Gloucester, who was Robert's true and tried friend in his utmost need, heard of this, he hastily, that same night, sent the aforesaid Robert, by his keeper of the wardrobe, twelve pence and a pair of spurs. So the keeper of the wardrobe, who guessed his lord's wishes, presented these things to Robert, from his lord, and added these words: " My lord sends these to you, in return for what he, on his side, got from you yesterday." Robert understood, from the tokens offered him, that he was threatened by the danger of death; so he discreetly gave the pence to the keeper of the wardrobe, and forthwith sent him back to the Earl with greeting in answer, and with thanks.

Then, when twilight came on, that night, after having ostentatiously ordered his servants to meet him at Carlisle, with his trappings, on the evening of the following day, he straightway hastened towards Scotland, without delay, and never stopped travelling, day or night, until he was safe from the aforesaid king's spite. Tor he was under the guidance of One of whom it is written: — " There is no wisdom, no foresight, no understanding against the Lord, who knoweth how to snatch the good from trial, and mercifully to deliver from danger those that trust in Him.".

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John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CXIII League of King Bohert with John Comyn. So, in order that he might actually give effect to what he had gladly set his heart upon, for the good of the commonwealth, he humbly approached a certain noble, named John Comyn (who was then the most powerful man in the country), and faithfully laid before him the unworthy thraldom of the country, the cruel and endless tormenting of the people, and his own kind-hearted plan for giving them relief. Though, by right, and according to the laws and customs of the country, the honour of the kingly office and the succession to the governance of the kingdom were known to belong to him before any one else, yet, setting the public advantage before his own, Robert, in all purity and sincerity of purpose, gave John the choice of one of two courses: either that the latter should reign, and wholly take unto himself the kingdom, with its pertinents and royal honours, for ever, granting to the former all his own lands and possessions; or that all Robert's lands and possessions should come into the possession of John and his for ever, while the kingdom and the kingly honour were left to Robert. Thus, by their mutual advice as well as help, was to be brought to maturity the deliverance of the Scottish nation from the house of bondage and unworthy thraldom; and an indissoluble treaty of friendship and peace was to last between them. John was perfectly satisfied with the latter of the aforesaid courses; and thereupon a covenant was made between them, and guaranteed by means of sworn pledges, and by their indentures with their seals attached thereto. But John broke his word; and, heedless of the sacredness of his oath, kept accusing Robert before the king of England, through his ambassadors and private letters, and wickedly revealing that Robert's secrets. Although, however, Robert was more than once sounded thereupon by the aforesaid king, who even showed him the letters of his adversary who accused him, yet, inspired by God, he always returned an answer such that he over and over again softened the king's rage by his pleasant sayings and skilful words. The king, however, both because he was himself very wily and shrewd, and knew full well how to feign a sham friendship, and also because Robert was the true heir of the kingdom of Scotland, looked upon the latter with mistrust, — the more so because of John's accusations. So, because of his aforesaid grounds for mistrust, Edward bade Robert stay always at court; and he delayed putting him to death — or, at least, in prison — only until he could get the rest of this Robert's brothers together, and punish them and him at once, in one day, with sentence of death.

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John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CX The Estates of Scotland make their submission to the King of England. The same year, after the whole Estates of Scotland had made their submission to the king of England, John Comyn, then guardian, and all the magnates but William Wallace, little by little, one after another, made their submission unto him; and all their castles and towns — except Strivelyn Castle, and the warden thereof — were surrendered unto him. That year, the king kept Lent at Saint Andrews, where he called together all the great men of the kingdom, and held his parliament; and he made such decrees as he would, according to the state of the country — which, as he thought, had been gotten and won for him and his successors for ever — as well as about the dwellers therein.

John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation Volume IV Chapter CXII Rise of Bohert of Bruce King of Scotland. After the withdrawal of the king of England, the English nation lorded it in all parts of the kingdom of Scotland, ruthlessly harrying the Scots in sundry and manifold ways, by insults, stripes, and slaughter, under the awful yoke of slavery. But God, in His mercy, as is the wont of His fatherly goodness, had compassion on the woes, the ceaseless crying and sorrow, of the Scots; so He raised up a saviour and champion unto them — one of their own fellows, to wit, named Robert of Bruce. This man, seeing them stretched in the slough of woe, and reft of all hope of salvation and help, was inwardly touched with sorrow of heart; and, putting forth his hand unto force, underwent the countless and unbearable toils of the heat of day, of cold and hunger, by land and sea, gladly welcoming weariness, fasting, dangers, and the snares not only of foes, but also of false friends, for the sake of freeing his brethren.