Biography of Henry III King England 1207-1272

1199 Death of Richard I

1216 Death of King John

1216 Gloucester Coronation of Henry III

1220 Westminster Coronation of Henry III

1233 Battle of Monmouth

1236 Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

1242 Battle of Taillebourg

1254 Wedding of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile

1264 Battle of Lewes

1265 Battle of Evesham

1266 Dictum of Kenilworth

1272 Death of Henry III

In 1186 [his half-brother] William de Valence 1st Earl Pembroke -1296 and Beatrix Courtenay -1245 were married.

On 29 Aug 1189 [his father] John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (22) and Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex 1173-1217 (16) were married at Marlborough Castle. They were half second cousins. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. [his father] She by marriage Earl Gloucester 1C 1121.

Death of Richard I

On 06 Apr 1199 [his uncle] Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (41) was besieging Châlus-Chabrol Castle, Domfront. During the course of the evening [his uncle] Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (41) was shot by a crossbow. The wound quickly became gangrenous; Richard died in the arms of his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine (77). John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (32) succeeded I King England.

There was a brother between Richard and John named [his uncle] Geoffrey Duke of Brittany (40) who had a son Arthur (12), who was around twelve, and a daughter Eleanor (15), who was around fifteen, whose mother was Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany 1161-1201 (38).

King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (33) had planned for Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184-1241 (15) to marry his son, probably to bring Brittany into the French Royal family, possibly to pursue a claim on England.

King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (33), and Brittany, supported Arthur's (12) claim to the English throne. In the resulting war Arhur (12) was captured, imprisoned and never seen again. Eleanor (15) was captured, probably around the same time as Arthur, and imprisoned, more or less, for the remainder of her life, even after King John's death through the reign of King Henry III since she represented a threat to Henry's succession.

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On 24 Aug 1200 [his father] John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (33) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (12) were married at Angoulême. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She had been engaged to Hugh Lusignan IX Count Lusignan 1163-1219 (37) who subsequently appealed to King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (35), their feudal overlord, who used the position to justify a war against John.

On 01 Oct 1207 Henry III King England 1207-1272 was born to [his father] John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (40) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (19) at Winchester Castle.

Death of King John

On 19 Oct 1216 [his father] John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (49) died at Newark Castle. Henry III King England 1207-1272 (9) succeeded III King England.

John Monmouth 1182-1248 (34) was present.

On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke 1146-1219 (70).

King John's will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it. Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:

I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.

In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté.

The signatories were:

Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 – 1227) Papal Legate.

Bishop Peter de Roches -1238, Bishop of Winchester.

Richard le Poer (? – 1237), Bishop of Chichester.

Sylvester of Worcester, Bishop of Worcester.

Aimery de St-Maur (? -?1219), Master of the English Templars.

William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke 1146-1219 (70).

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln 1170-1232 (46).

William Ferrers 4th Earl Derby 1168-1247 (48).

William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer.

Walter de Lacy (ca 1172–1241) Lord of Meath.

John: (1182 – 1248) Lord of Monmouth.

Savaric de Mauléon (? – 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205.

Falkes de Bréauté (? – 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.

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Gloucester Coronation of Henry III

On 28 Oct 1216 Henry III King England 1207-1272 (9) was crowned III King England at Gloucester Cathedral during the Gloucester Coronation of Henry III at which Cardinal Guala Bicchieri 1150-1227 (66) presided, Sylvester Bishop of Worcester -1218 and Simon Apulia Bishop of Exeter -1223 anointed the King. The coronation took place in Gloucester since London was at the time held by rebels. John Monmouth 1182-1248 (34) was present.

On 10 May 1220 [his step-father] Hugh Lusignan X Count Lusignan V Count La Marche 1183-1249 (37) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (32) were married. She by marriage Countess Lusignan, Count La Marche.

Westminster Coronation of Henry III

On 17 May 1220 Henry III King England 1207-1272 (12) was crowned III King England at Westminster Abbey during the Westminster Coronation of Henry III since the Pope didn't consider the earlier Gloucester Coronation of Henry III to have been performed correctly. Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury 1150-1228 (70) presided.

On 21 Jun 1221 Alexander II King Scotland 1198-1249 (22) and [his sister] Joan Plantagenet Queen of Scotland 1210-1238 (10) were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She a daughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. [his sister] She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

In 1223 Henry III King England 1207-1272 (15) visited Bromholm Priory to take the holy waters.

On 23 Apr 1224 William "The Younger" Marshal 2nd Earl Pembroke 1190-1231 (34) and [his sister] Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Pembroke Countess Leicester 1215-1275 (9) were married. She a daughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

1225 Letter X. Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England 1165 1230 to Henry III King England 1207 1272. 1225. Letter X. Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England 1165-1230 (60) to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (17).

To her lord and dearest nephew Henry, by God's grace illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, Berengaria, by the same grace formerly the humble queen of England, wishes health and prosperous success to his utmost desires.

We requested you by our letters patent, sent to you by Friar Walter de Persona, our chaplain of the Cistercian order, that you would send to us by the said Friar Walter and Master Simon, our clerks, 1000 marks sterling, which you owe us at this feast of All Saints, according to the composition of our dowry solemnly drawn out between us and you. But since the said Master Simon, being detained by sickness, cannot come over to you, we send in his stead our servant Martin, the bearer of these presents, earnestly requesting you to send us the thousand marks by the said Friar Walter, and by this Martin, or by one of them, if by any chance impediment both cannot come to you. In testimony of which we send you our present letters patent. Given at Mans, the Sunday next before the Feast of the Apostles Simon and Jade/ in the month of October, the year of our Lord 1226.

In 1225 [his brother] Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (15) was created 1st Earl Cornwall 4C 1225.

In 1227 King Henry III (19) gave Abbot's Woods to Flaxby Abbey.

On 30 Mar 1231 [his brother] Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (22) and Isabel Marshal Countess Cornwall, Gloucester and Hertford 1200-1240 (30) were married at Fawley. He a son of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She by marriage Countess Cornwall.

In 1232 Ednyfed "Fychan aka Younger" Tudor 1170-1246 (62) represented Llewellyn "The Great" Aberffraw 1172-1240 (60) at a meeting with Henry III King England 1207-1272 (24).

Battle of Monmouth

On 25 Nov 1233 the Battle of Monmouth was fought between supporters of the King (26), commanded by Baldwin Guines III Count Guînes 1200-1244 (33), and rebels opposed to the influence of Poitevins and Lusignans; the [his step-father] King's step-father's (50) faction. The rebels were commanded by Richard Marshal 3rd Earl Pembroke 1191-1234 (42). Battle is somewhat of an over-statement. Richard Marshal 3rd Earl Pembroke 1191-1234 (42) and his men were riding to to reconnoitre the town. Baldwin Guines III Count Guînes 1200-1244 (33) and his forces, who were in the town, decided attack was the best form defence. Marshal's men appear to have suffered in retreat although Marshal escaped.

John Monmouth 1182-1248 (51) took control of Monmouth following the battle.

On 27 May 1234 Louis IX King France 1214-1270 (20) and [his future sister-in-law] Margaret Provence Queen Consort France 1221-1295 (13) were married. They were half third cousins. He a great grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Queen_Consort_France.

Before 1235 [his half-brother] Hugh Lusignan XI Count Lusignan VI Count La Marche II Count Angoulême 1221-1250 and Yolande Capet Countess Lusignan, La Marche and Angoulême 1219-1272 were married. They were third cousins. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

On 20 Jul 1235 Frederick I King Jerusalem II Holy Roman Emperor 1194-1250 (40) and [his sister] Isabella Plantagenet Holy Roman Empress 1214-1241 (21) were married at Worms Cathedral. She a daughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.

Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

On 14 Jan 1236 Henry III King England 1207-1272 (28) and [his wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (13) were married at Canterbury Cathedral by Archbishop Edmund Rich 1174-1240 (61). They were fourth cousins. He a son of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.

Chronica Majora 1236 King Henry marries Eleanor, daughter of the count of Provence. 14 Jan 1236. Anno Domini 1236, which was the twentieth year of the reign of King Henry the Third, he held his court at Winchester at Christmas, where he observed that festival with rejoicings. He was at this time anxiously looking for the return of the special messengers, whom he had sent into Provence to [his father-in-law] Raymond (38), count of that province, with letters containing his own inmost thoughts about contracting a marriage with his daughter Eleanor (13). This said count was a man of illustrious race and brave in battle, but, by continual wars, he had wasted almost all the money he possessed. He had married the daughter (38) of Thomas (58), the late count of Savoy, and sister of the present count, Amadeus (39), a woman of remarkable beauty, by name Beatrice (38). This lady had issue by the aforesaid count, two daughters of great beauty, the elder of whom, named Margaret (15), was married to Louis (21), the French king, as we are told by a clerk named John de Gates; and the king of England had now, by the aforesaid messengers, demanded the younger one, a young lady of handsome appearance, in marriage. In order to obtain this favour, he had secretly sent Richard, prior of Hurle, in advance, who faithfully and with diligence brought the matter to a conclusion. On the prior's returning and telling the king the result, the latter sent him back to the count with some other messengers, namely, the bishops Hugh of Ely, and Robert of Hereford, and the brother of Robert de Sandford, the master of the Knights Templars. These messengers were received by the count on their arrival in Provence with the greatest honour and respect, and from his hands received his daughter Eleanor, for the purpose of being united to the King of England; she was also attended by her uncle, William, bishop elect of Valentia; a man of distinction, and by the count of Champagne, a relation of the English king. The king of Navarre, on learning that they would travel through his territories, went joyfully to meet them, and accompanied them as a guide through his dominions during a journey of five days and more; he also, from his natural generosity, paid all their expenses, both for horses and attendants. Their retinue consisted of more than three hundred horsemen, not including the people who followed them in great numbers. On reaching the boundaries of France, they obtained not only a safe but honourable passage through that country, under conduct of the French king (21) and his queen (15), the sister of the lady about to be married to the English king, and also of Blanche (47), the French king's mother. They embarked at the port of Sandwich [Note. Should be Wissant], and with full sail made for Dover, where they arrived, after a quick passage, before they were expected. Having thus safely landed, they set out for Canterbury, and were met by the king, who rushed into the arms of the messengers, and, having seen the lady and received possession of her, he married her at Canterbury; the ceremony being performed on the fourteenth of January, by Edmund, archbishop (61) of that place, assisted by the bishops, who had come with the lady, in the presence of the other nobles and prelates of the kingdom. On the 19th of January the king went to Westminster, where an extra-ordinary solemnity took place on the following day, which was Sunday, at which the king wore his crown and Eleanor was crowned queen. Thus was Henry the Third married at Canterbury, and the nuptials were celebrated in London, at Westminster, on the feast of St. Fabian and St. Sebastian.

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Chronica Majora 1236 The ceremonies at the marriage of Henry the Third. 19 Jan 1236. There were assembled at the king's (28) nuptial festivities such a host of nobles of both sexes, such numbers of religious men, such crowds of the populace, and such a variety of actors, that London, with its capacious bosom, could scarcely contain them. The whole city was ornamented with flags and banners, chaplets and hangings, candles and lamps, and with wonderful devices and extraordinary representations, and all the roads were cleansed from mud and dirt, sticks, and everything offensive. The citizens, too, went out to meet the king (28) and [his wife] queen (13), dressed out in their ornaments, and vied with each other in trying the speed of their horses. On the same day, when they left the city for Westminster, to perform the duties of butler to the king (which office belonged to them by right of old, at the coronation), they proceeded thither dressed in silk garments, with mantles worked in gold, and with costly changes of raiment, mounted on valuable horses, glittering with new bits and saddles, and riding in troops arranged in order. They carried with them three hundred and sixty gold and silver cups, preceded by the king's trumpeters and with horns sounding, so that such a wonderful novelty struck all who beheld it with astonishment. The archbishop of Canterbury (61), by the right especially belonging to him, performed the duty of crowning, with the usual solemnities, the bishop of London assisting him as a dean, the other bishops taking their stations according to their rank. In the same way all the abbats, at the head of whom, as was his right, was the abbat of St. Alban's (for as the Protomartyr of England, B. Alban, was the chief of all the martyrs of England, so also was his abbat the chief of all the abbats in rank and dignity), as the authentic privileges of that church set forth. The nobles, too, performed the duties, which, by ancient right and custom, pertained to them at the coronations of kings. In like manner some of the inhabitants of certain cities discharged certain duties which belonged to them by right of their ancestors. The earl of Chester (29) carried the sword of St. Edward, which was called "Curtein", before the king, as a sign that he was earl of the palace, and had by right the power of restraining the king if he should commit an error. The earl was attended by the constable of Chester (44), and kept the people away with a wand when they pressed forward in a disorderly way. The grand marshal of England, the earl of Pembroke (39), carried a wand before the king and cleared the way before him both, in the church and in the banquet-hall, and arranged the banquet and the guests at table. The Wardens of the Cinque Ports carried the pall over the king, supported by four spears, but the claim to this duty was not altogether undisputed. The earl of Leicester (28) supplied the king with water in basins to wash before his meal; the Earl Warrenne performed the duty of king's Cupbearer, supplying the place of the earl of Arundel, because the latter was a youth and not as yet made a belted knight. Master Michael Belet was butler ex officio; the earl of Hereford (32) performed the duties of marshal of the king's household, and William Beauchamp (51) held the station of almoner. The justiciary of the forests arranged the drinking cups on the table at the king's right hand, although he met with some opposition, which however fell to the ground. The citizens of London passed the wine about in all directions, in costly cups, and those of Winchester superintended the cooking of the feast; the rest, according to the ancient statutes, filled their separate stations, or made their claims to do so. And in order that the nuptial festivities might not be clouded by any disputes, saving the right of any one, many things were put up with for the time which they left for decision at a more favourable opportunity. The office of chancellor of England, and all the offices connected with the king, are ordained and assized in the Exchequer. Therefore the chancellor, the chamberlain, the marshal, and the constable, by right of their office, took their seats there, as also did the barons, according to the date of their creation, in the city of London, whereby they each knew his own place. The ceremony was splendid, with the gay dresses of the clergy and knights who were present. The abbat of Westminster sprinkled the holy water, and the treasurer, acting the part of sub-dean, carried the Paten. Why should I describe all those persons who reverently ministered in the church to God as was their duty? Why describe the abundance of meats and dishes on the table & the quantity of venison, the variety of fish, the joyous sounds of the glee-men, and the gaiety of the waiters? Whatever the world could afford to create pleasure and magnificence was there brought together from every quarter.

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Chronica Majora 1236 A messenger arrives in England from the emperor. 11 Feb 1236. When the nuptial rejoicings were concluded, the king (28) left London and went to Merton, where he summoned the nobles to hear a message lately brought from the emperor (41), and to discuss the business of the kingdom. For messengers had come direct from the emperor to the king with letters, asking him without delay to send his brother [his brother] Richard, earl of Cornwall (27), whose circumspect skill report had spread far and wide, to make war on the king of the French. He also promised, by way of assistance, to send all the Imperial forces, especially in order to enable the English king (28) not only to recover his continental possessions, but also, when they were regained, to extend his former possessions. To this, the king (28) and the nobles there assembled, after due deliberation, replied that it would not be safe or prudent to send one so young out of the kingdom and to expose him to the doubtful chances and dangers of war, since he was the only apparent heir of the king and kingdom, and the hopes of all were centred in him next to the king. For the king, although he was married, had no children, and the queen his wife (13) was still young, and did not know whether she was fruitful or barren. But if it was agreeable to his excellency the emperor to summon any other brave man he chose, from amongst the nobles of the kingdom, for the purpose, they, the king, and all his friends and subjects, in accordance with his request, would at once render him all the assistance in their power. The messengers, on receiving this reply, returned to inform their lord.

Chronica Majora 1236 Certain new laws made by Henry the Third. 12 Feb 1236. About the same time, king Henry the Third (28), for the salvation of his soul and the improvement of his kingdom, influenced by a spirit of justice and piety, made some new laws, and ordered them to be inviolably observed throughout his kingdom.

In the first place with respect to widows, who, after the death of their husbands were deprived of their dowry, or could not hold it and their quarentin without a plea, it was decreed, that whoever should deforce them from their dowry, from the tenements of which their husbands died possessed, and the widows should afterwards recover their dowry by plea, and the deforcing party shall be conNdcted of unjust deforcement, they shall make the damages good to the said widows, to the fall value of the dowry falling to them, from the time of the decease of their husbands to the day on which they recovered possession by judgment, and nevertheless the deforcers themselves shall be at the king's mercy. Also, all widows shall henceforth be at liberty to bequeath all the com on their land, as well from their dowries, as from other lands and tenements, saving the services which are due to their lords from their dowries and other tenements. Also, whoever shall have been disseised from his free tenement, and shall have recovered possession by assize of a new disseisin before the justiciaries, or shall have made a disseisin with their cognizance, and when disseised shall have held possession through the sheriff, if the said disseisers shall have disseised them after the circuit of the justiciaries or during the same, and shall be convicted thereof, they shall be taken and detained in a prison of our lord the king, until by him they are liberated, either by ransom or in any other manner. And the following is the form of conviction to be observed with regard to them: When the complainants come to the court, they shall have a brief from the king directed to the sheriff, in which shall be contained their evidence of the disseisin made on disseisin, and therein the Sheriff of shall be ordered to take with him the overseers of the pleas of the crown, and other legal officers, and to go in person to the tenement or pasture about which the complaint has been made, and in their presence, by jurors first, and by other neighbours and liege men, to make a careful inquisition in the matter, and if they shall discover it to be disseised as above mentioned, then they shall proceed according to the provisions before declared, but if not, then the complainants shall be at the mercy of the king, and the other party shall go away quit. The same shall be done in the case of those who recover possession by assize of the death of their predecessor; the same also shall be done in the case of all tenements recovered by juries in the king's court. Also, whereas several of the nobles of England have enfeoffed knights and their free tenants of small tenements in their manors, and have complained that they cannot effect their conveniency as regarded the residue of their manors, as of wastes, woods, and pastures, so that the feoffees might have sufficient as was proper according to their tenements, it was provided and granted, that feoffees of this kind, from whomsoever they should hereafter bring an assize of a new disseisin, if before the justiciaries it shall be proved that they have sufficient pasturage, in proportion to their tenement, together with free ingress and egress from their tenements to that pasture, they shall be content with the same, and those of whom such complaint has been made shall be satisfied with having effected their will in the matter of their waste lands, woods, and pastures; but if they say that they have not sufficient pasture or sufficient ingress and egress, then the truth shall be inquired into by assize. And if it is discovered by assize that there was any obstruction in the ingress or egress, or that the pasture was not sufficient, as aforesaid, then he shall receive possession after inspection by the jurors, so that at their discretion and on their oaths, the complainants may have sufficient pasture and free ingress and egress, in the form above stated. And the disseisers shall remain at the mercy of the king, and shall pay damages, as they used to be paid before this provision; but if it shall be found by assize that the complainants have sufficient pasture and free ingress and egress, as aforesaid, then the other party shall be allowed to do what is right with the residue, and shall depart quietly. It is also granted by our lord the king, with the consent of the nobles, that from this time, interest shall not accumulate against a minor from the time of the decease of his predecessor, whose heir he is, till he lawfully comes of age; but that on this account the payment of the principal shall not be delayed. Also, with respect to those who commit offences in parks and warrens, a discussion was entered upon, but not decided, for the nobles demanded to have each his own prison for offenders they might take in their parks and warrens; but this the king would not grant them, and therefore this remains as formerly.

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Chronica Majora 1236 The emperor's present. Around 11 Jul 1236. In this year, about the feast of St. Benedict, the emperor (41) sent a handsome present to the king of England (28), consisting of eighteen valuable horses, and three mules laden with silks and other costly presents. He also sent some valuable horses and other desirable things to [his brother] Earl Richard (27), the king's brother.

Chronica Majora 1237 William, bishop elect of Valentia, leaves England, but soon returns. After 14 Feb 1237. About this time William, bishop elect of Valentia, to whom the king (29) had entirely intrusted the reins of government, seeing that the nobles had, not without reason, conceived great indignation against him, on that account took his departure for his own country; his lands and rich farms, which the king had given him, he placed in the hands of Aaron, a Jew of York, in the form of a pledge, receiving from him, by way of loan, nine hundred marks of new sterling money in hand. He then directed his steps towards Dover, under the guidance of the king himself, with the packsaddles of his beasts of burden full of gold, silver, and divers royal presents, besides some desirable jennets and valuable saddle horses. And so cunningly had this man managed matters, that the king, abandoning the example set him by the noble emperor and the careful king of France, who did not permit their backs to be trodden upon by their wives and their relatives and countrymen, deprived and drained of all his money, and become a needy man, suffered this bishop to pull his kingdom to pieces, and, being under the influence of his [his wife] wife (14), allowed him, on the least pretence, to consume the produce of his own temtories. He also allowed foreigners, — Poictevins, Germans, Provencals, and Romans, — to fatten themselves on the good things of the country, to the injury of his kingdom. The aforesaid bishop elect of Valentia then went to France, whence, after paying his respects to the king and his sister, he was without delay sent away in peace, and allowed to depart without any presents. He then sent the presents he had brought from England to Provence, and there distributed them, together with some horses loaded with an immense sum of money, and then returned empty lianded to England, where he was received by the king with open arms.

Chronica Majora 1237 The emperor summons all the princes of Christendom. Before 24 Jun 1237. In the same year, the emperor Frederick (42), by special messengers and imperial letters, summoned all the great Christian princes of the world to assemble on the day of St. John the Baptist's nativity, at Vaucouleurs, which is on the confines, or near the confines, of the empire and the French kingdom, there to discuss some difficult matters concerning the empire as well as the kingdom. The king of France, as if entertaining suspicion of this conference, proceeded at the time fixed to the place appointed, attended by a large army, which he had assembled for the purpose, and thus set dreadful and pernicious example to others, inasmuch as he went to discuss matters of peace in the same way as he would to attack his enemies. The king of England (29) made reasonable excuses for not coming in person; but sent a peaceful embassy, consisting of some of the chief men of the kingdom; namely, [his brother] Richard earl of Cornwall (28), his brother, with some other nobles, fit to manage a conference, under the guidance of the venerable archbishop of York (57) and the bishop of Ely, and other trustworthy persons selected for the purpose. The bishop of Winchester, although selected before all others, absolutely refused to go, and, not without reason, gave the following as the cause for excusing himself: " My lord king," said he " you lately laid a heavy complaint against me before the emperor, telling him that I, with some other nobles, disturbed your kingdom: whether you did this with justice, or unjustly, God knows; but I trust that I have saved my conscience in every respect. But if your words were now placed with confidence in my mouth and in your letters, and should declare that I was a familar and faithful friend of yours; all this would appear as contrary, and he would accuse both you and me of instability; and this would blacken your fame in a great degree. Therefore, because it would be manifestly to your dishonour, I will not go on any account." And in the opinion of many, this reply gave sufficient excuse for him. When all preparations had been made, and they were all ready to set sail on this journey, they were met by letters from the emperor, to say that he could not go to the conference then, as he had purposed; but that what he could not do then, should, by God's favour, be carried into effect on the Nativity of St. John the Baptist in the following year; and thus each and all of them returned without effecting anything. In this year, on the day of the Supper, the bishop of Hereford consecrated the holy unction in the church of St. Albans. About this time, too, John Scott (30), earl of Chester, closed his life about Whitsuntide, having been poisoned by the agency of his wife (19), the daughter of Llewellyn (65). The life of the bishop of Lincoln (69), too, was also attempted by the same means, and he was with difficulty recalled from the gates of death. In the same year, in the week before Whitsuntide, there fell storms of hail which exceeded the size of apples, killing the sheep; and they were followed by continued rain.

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In 1238 Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (30) and [his sister] Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Pembroke Countess Leicester 1215-1275 (23) were married at Westminster Palace. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She a daughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. [his sister] She by marriage Countess of Leicester.

On 04 Mar 1238 [his sister] Joan Plantagenet Queen of Scotland 1210-1238 (27) died at Havering atte Bower. She was buried at Tarrant Abbey.

On 17 Jun 1239 [his son] Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 was born to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (31) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (16) at Westminster Palace.

On 29 Sep 1240 [his daughter] Margaret Queen of Scotland 1240-1275 was born to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (32) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (17) at Windsor Castle.

Chronica Majora: The confirmation of Master Nicholas of Farnhamy in the bishopric of Durham. On the 9th of June, in this year. Master Nicholas of Farnham, bishop elect of Durham, was consecrated bishop of that see in St. Oswald's church at Gloucester, by Walter, archbishop of York (61), in the presence of the king (33) and [his wife] queen (18), with numerous bishops and abbats. But inasmuch as a question had been mooted concerning his profession, amongst some who wished to excite discord, the said Nicholas refused to claim a liberty that was not his due, or to show himself insolent or recalcitrant; he therefore, at his consecration, in public, before all the prelates and nobles, and in the presence of his metropolitan, the said Archbishop Walter, solemnly and distinctly made his profession in a loud voice, according to custom, as follows; " I Nicholas, bishop elect of the church of Durham, acknowledge canonical subjection, reverence, and obedience to the church of York, and to you, father Walter, its archbishop, and this I subscribe with my own hand." He then immediately, in the presence of all assembled, marked the sign of the cross in ink at the head of the charter, and delivered the same to the archbishop to be kept in his possession in his treasury.

On 27 Jun 1241 Gilbert Marshal 4th Earl Pembroke 1197-1241 (44) was killed in a tournament at Ware. He was buried at Temple Church next to his father. Walter Marshal 5th Earl Pembroke 1199-1245 (42), who also attended the tournament, succeeded 5th Earl Pembroke 2C 1199. The King Henry III King England 1207-1272 (33) had expressly forbidden the tournament leading to anger at his disobeying the King's orders.

Chronica Majora: Wales reduced to subjection to King Henry the Third, without a battle. David (29) had, as before stated, sworn to present himself before the king (34), saving his person and honour, and the persons and honour of his subjects, at London or elsewhere, as the king should determine; and had, moreover, given hostages to him for the fulfilment of his promise: he accordingly came to the king, at London, on the eighth day after Michaelmas, and after having sworn fealty and allegiance, and all security and good faith, he was dismissed in peace, as he was so near a relation of the king, and allowed to return home. Henry thus, under God's favour, triumphed over his enemies, and subdued Wales without bloodshed, and without having to tempt the doubtful chances of war. Wales, in this case, discovered that the words of our Lord, mentioned in the Gospel, were not without truth; namely, that " every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation."

On 01 Dec 1241 [his sister] Isabella Plantagenet Holy Roman Empress 1214-1241 (27) died at Foggia. She was buried at Andria Cathedral, Andria.

On 24 Jun 1242 [his daughter] Beatrice Plantagenet 1242-1275 was born to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (34) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (19) at Bordeaux.

Battle of Taillebourg

On 21 Jul 1242 the forces of Henry III King England 1207-1272 (34) and [his half-brother] Hugh Lusignan XI Count Lusignan VI Count La Marche II Count Angoulême 1221-1250 (21) fought against the forces of at Louis IX King France 1214-1270 (28) and his brother Alphonse Capet Count Poitou II Count Toulose 1220-1271 (21) at Taillebourg during the Battle of Taillebourg. The battle was a decisive victory for the French. Henry thereafter signed a five-year truce with the French.

In 1243 Raymond Rouerge VII Count Toulose 1197-1249 (45) and [his half-sister] Margaret Lusignan Countess Toulose 1226-1288 (17) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his half-sister] She by marriage Countess Toulose.

On 23 Nov 1243 [his brother] Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (34) and Sanchia Provence Queen Consort Germany 1228-1261 (15) were married at Westminster Abbey. They were fourth cousins. He a son of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She by marriage Countess Cornwall.

On 16 Jan 1245 [his son] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 was born to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (37) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (22)in London.

In 1246 [his half-brother] Hugh Lusignan XI Count Lusignan VI Count La Marche II Count Angoulême 1221-1250 (25) succeeded II Count Angoulême. Yolande Capet Countess Lusignan, La Marche and Angoulême 1219-1272 (27) by marriage Countess Angoulême.

On 04 Jun 1246 [his mother] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (58) died at Fontevraud Abbey.

In 1247 [his half-brother] William de Valence 1st Earl Pembroke -1296 was created 1st Earl Pembroke 3C 1247. Joan Munchensi Countess Pembroke 1230-1307 (17) by marriage Countess Pembroke.

In 1247 [his half-brother] William de Valence 1st Earl Pembroke -1296 and Joan Munchensi Countess Pembroke 1230-1307 (17) were married.

In 1247 John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304 (16) and [his half-sister] Alice Lusignan Countess Surrey 1224-1256 (23) were married. [his half-sister] She by marriage Countess Surrey.

In 1249 Robert Ferrers 6th Earl Derby 1239-1279 (10) and [his niece] Mary or Marie Lusignan Countess Derby 1242-1266 (7) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

On 05 Jun 1249 [his half-brother] Hugh Lusignan XI Count Lusignan VI Count La Marche II Count Angoulême 1221-1250 (28) succeeded XI Count Lusignan, VI Count La Marche. Yolande Capet Countess Lusignan, La Marche and Angoulême 1219-1272 (30) by marriage Countess Lusignan, Count La Marche.

On 06 Apr 1250 [his half-brother] Hugh Lusignan XI Count Lusignan VI Count La Marche II Count Angoulême 1221-1250 (29) died. Hugh Lusignan XII Count Lusignan VII Count La Marche III Count Angoulême 1235-1270 (15) succeeded XII Count Lusignan, VII Count La Marche, III Count Angoulême.

On 05 Dec 1250 [his half-brother] Aymer Lusignan Bishop of Winchester 1222-1250 (28) died at Paris.

On 25 or 26 Dec 1251 [his son-in-law] Alexander III King Scotland 1241-1286 (10) and Margaret Queen of Scotland 1240-1275 (11) were married at York Minster. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She a daughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland. The couple remained in York until Jan 1252 after which they travelled to Edinburgh.

In 1252 Roger Leybourne 1215-1271 (37) was pardoned by Henry III King England 1207-1272 (44).

In 1253 Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford 1243-1295 (9) and [his niece] Alice or Alix Lusignan Countess Gloucester Countess Hertford 1236-1290 (16) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

On 25 Nov 1253 [his daughter] Katherine Plantagenet 1253-1257 was born to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (46) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (30) at Westminster Palace.

On 29 Jan 1254 [his nephew] Hugh Lusignan XII Count Lusignan VII Count La Marche III Count Angoulême 1235-1270 (19) and Jeanne Fougères Countess Lusignan Countess La Marche Countess Angoulême were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Countess Lusignan, Count La Marche, Count Angoulême.

13 Feb 1254 Letter XII Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223 1291 and Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209 1272 to Henry III King England 1207 1272. 13 Feb 1254. Letter XII. [his wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (31) and Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (45) to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (46).

To their most excellent lord, the lord Henry, by God's grace the illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, his most devoted consort Eleanora, by the same grace queen of England, and his devoted and faithful Richard earl of Cornwall, send health with all reverence and honour.

Be it known to your revered lordship that the lords the earl marshall (45) and John de Bailiol (46), being hindered at sea by a contrary wind during twelve days, came to us in England on the Wednesday after the Purification of Blessed Mary last past.

We had been treating with your prelates and the magnates of your kingdom of England before the advent of the said Earl and John, on the quinzaines of St. Hilary last past about your subsidy, and after the arrival of the said Earl and John, with certain of the aforesaid prelates and magnates, the archbishops and bishops answered us that if the King of Castile (32) should come against you in Gascony each of them would assist you from his own property, so that you would be under perpetual obli gations to them; but with regard to granting you an aid from their clergy, they could do nothing without the assent of the said clergy; nor do they believe that their clergy can be induced to give you any help, unless the tenth of clerical goods granted to you for the first year of the crusade, which should begin in the present year, might be relaxed at once by your letters patent, and the collection of the said tenth for the said crusade, for the two following years, might be put in respite up to the term of two years before your passage to the Holy Land; and they will give diligence and treat with the clergy submitted to them, to induce them to assist you according to that form with a tenth of their benefices, in case the King of Castile should attack you in Gascony; but at the departure of the bearer of these presents no subsidy had as yet been granted by the aforesaid clergy. Moreover, as we have elsewhere signified to you, if the King of Castile should come against you in Gascony, all the earls and barons of your kingdom, who are able to cross the sea, will come to you in Gascony, with all their power; but from the other laymen who do not sail over to you we do not think that we can obtain any help for your use, unless you write to your lieutenants in England firmly to maintain your great charters of liberties, and to let this be distinctly perceived by your letters to each Sheriff of your kingdom, and publicly proclaimed through each county of the said kingdom; since, by this means, they would be more strongly animated cheerfully to grant you aid; for many persons complain that the aforesaid charters are not kept by your sheriffs and other bailiffs as they ought to be kept. Be it known, therefore, to your lordship, that we shall hold a conference with the aforesaid clergy and laity at Westminster, in the quinzaines of Passover next, about the aforesaid aid, and we supplicate your lordship that you will write us your good pleasure concerning these affairs with the utmost possible haste. For you will find us prepared and devoted, according to our power, to solicit the aforesaid aid for your use, and to do and procure all other things ....* which can contribute to your convenience and the increase of your honour. Given at Windsor, the 13th of February, in the thirty-eighth year of your reign.

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Wedding of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile

On 01 Nov 1254 [his son] Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (15) and Eleanor of Castile (13) were married at Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189.

On 09 Feb 1256 [his half-sister] Alice Lusignan Countess Surrey 1224-1256 (32) died.

1258 Letter XIV Lady Havisia de Neville to her Son Hugh de Neville. 1258. Letter XIV. Lady Havisia de Neville (38) to her Son, Hugh de Neville.

Havisia de Neville to her very dear son, Hugh de Neville, wishes health and the blessing of God and her own.

Know, dear son that I am well and hearty thanks to Grod, and am much rejoiced at the news that William Fitz Simon brought me of your health. God be thanked for it! Know, dear son, that our necessities of receiving the returns from your lands can avail nothing, on account of the great rule your adversary has in the king's court, unless you yourself were present. Wherefore your father-in-law and I, and all your other friends, agree that you should come to England, and we pray and entreat you, by the faith and love that you owe us, that you will not by any means fail in this; since you ought once again to return. For we know well that it would be a very great dishonour, and we consider it a great sin, to suffer us and ours to be disinherited by your indolence. !Therefore I anxiously pray you, dear son, that you will travel with all possible haste, and also, according to the counsel of all your friends, that you go to the court of Rome, and procure if you can the letter of the pope, express and stringent, to the king of England (50), that he should restore your lands, and have them restored. And that you may make a proper understanding at the court of all our needs, without omitting or concealing anything; that is, how you are placed with the king, and that you are compelled by a writing to hold the obligation (word missing in original), without contradiction and without ever making an acquisition to the contrary. For wise persons have said the acquisition would be worth nothing, unless it made express mention of this, that it was through no fault of yours that you made this the aforesaid obligation when in war, and through fear of prison. And know, good son, that the first acquisition you got at Rome for our lands was not such as you understood, for it was only a loving petition for your rights of the money which you ought to have had of the crusade allowance. The legate, thanks to him, has granted us that he would let us have it if we could espy out where it is, but we have not as yet found any, except what is in the hands of such as themselves would wish to go into the Holy Land; but as much as we may be able to acquire, now or henceforth, between this and St. John's day, we will then send you by the messengers of the Temple, who will bring their own money. And for God's sake, good son, guard against making such an obligation as you have made for Sir Ingelram de Umfranville; for I was grieved that it was proper to have it paid from our own demesne. And good, sweet, dear son, X anxiously pray you that you will send us word how much money you have really had by my command, for the thing is not in my power, for I could never spy a man who went to that part, that I might send you letters, which weighs no little upon me. For if it could be that I could often have good news of you, and comfort you again often by my messages, there would be nothing that could more rejoice me except it were to see and speak to you. And know, dear son, that my heart is grieved and alarmed day and night, since William Fitz Simon brought me news that you were so poorly provided with money; but God who is Almighty, if it please him, give you speedy amendment, and I will do it to my utmost power. Dear son, I pray you not to trust too much to the money of the crusade allowance, for they say that more great lords of England will take the cross; and they will take away as much as shall be raised for the crusade, as certain friends have given me to know. But do not ever cease, as you dearly love me, for no waiting for money, to borrow all the money that you can, and to go to the court of Rome to acquire for our necessities, and to hasten to come to England io accomplish our needs. For I hope, by the help of God, if you could well accomplish what you have to do about the acquisition of our lands, that you will see such change* in England, that never in our time could you have better accomplished your wish, or more to your honour. Wherefore cease not to solicit again about your coming, since you can here best serve God. I con^mend you to the true body of God, who give you life and health. Sir Walter de la Hide, Joanna your sister, and all our household, salute you. And know, dear son, that my counsel is that you obtain the letters of request of the legate of that country, and the letters of the master of the Temple and of the Hospital, to the legate of England and to other rich men, for your needs, and in testimony of your deeds in that country on the occasion of your coming. And ever take care of your house that you have there, if God give you courage to return.

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1258 Letter XIII Matilda Prioress of the Convent of Barking to Henry III. 1258. Letter XIII. Matilda Prioress of the Convent of Barking to Henry III (50).

To her most excellent lord Henry, by God's grace illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, Matilda, humble prioress of Barking, and of the convent of the same place, wishes health, with due reverence and honour, and the suflFrages of her prayers.

Since the lady our mother, venerable for her religion, the lady Christina, late abbess of our house, did on the Monday next after the Feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, in the forty-third year of your reign, of her own good and spontaneous will, yield up the government of the said abbey, on account of the infirmity and debility of her body, and was absolved from it by our venerable father Foulk, bishop of London (69), we now, being destitute of the solace of an abbess, send to you our beloved sisters and fellow-nuns, Roesia de Argentes, Joanna de Wantham, and Agnes Costentin, humbly and de voutly supplicating that the bowels of your compassion may be moved towards us, and that the condescension of your mercy will grant us permission to elect some other as our abbess, so that henceforth you may receive from the highest retributor a worthy reward, and we may be henceforth obligated more specially to ofier up the merited suflfrages of our prayers for you and yours. Given at Barking the Tuesday after the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, in the forty-third year of your reign.

1260. In the year of grace 1260.Henry King of England (52), son of [his father] King John (93), etc.

Original Latin Text:

Anno gratiae MCCLX. Henricus rex Angliae (52), filius [his father] regis Johannis (93), pace firmata cum rege Franciae, ibidem per longum tempus moram traxit; nec in Angliam redire curavit, donec episcopi et magnates Angliae ei literatorie mandaverunt quod reverti in Angliam properaret; quod si non faceret, ad placitum suum in Anglia non rediret. Quo audito, rex in se reversus, in Angliam rediit; sed quidam malitiosi falsis rumoribus inter patrem et filium suum Edwardum discordiam seminavervmt, asserentes quod dictus Edwardus et consiliarii sui guerram domino regi movere procurarunt; propter quod dominus rex supra modum iratus, multos milites de partibus transmarinis usque Londoniam secum adduxit; et eis ultra pontem dimissis in partibus Sureiae, ipse civitatem Londonise ingressus est, et ibi aliquandiu moram fecit, portis civitatis firmatis et seratis, apposuit custodes, ut nullus nisi ab eo licentiatus ingrederetur.

Comes vero Gloverni, et Johannes Maunsel, et quidam alii qui de concilio regis fuerunt, ad placitum suum ingressum et egressum habuerunt.

Rex vero proliibuit, ne filius suus Edwardus, nec aliquis qui de consilio suo extiterat, coram ipso venirent, dicens, "Coram me non appareat filius mens Edwardus, quia si eum videro, quin ipsum osculer me non cohibebo.".

Tandem, amore paterno commotus, et magnatum precibus devictus, ipsum ad osculum pacis recepit, et regina mater sua similiter, quae, ut dicebatur, causa totius malitis extiterat.

Dum ista aguntur, quantos honores et quantas expensas, omnibus qui interesse voluerint, dominus Edwardus fecerit, lingua vix potest explicare.

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On 22 Jan 1260 [his son-in-law] John Capet II Duke Brittany 1239-1305 (21) and Beatrice Plantagenet 1242-1275 (17) were married. They were half second cousins twice removed. He a great x 5 grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. She a daughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

On 09 Nov 1261 [his sister-in-law] Sanchia Provence Queen Consort Germany 1228-1261 (33) died at Berkhamsted Castle.

Battle of Lewes

On 14 May 1264 the army of Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (56) including Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford 1243-1295 (20), Henry Hastings 1235-1269 (29) and Nicholas Segrave 1st Baron Segrave 1238-1295 (26) defeated the army of Henry III King England 1207-1272 (56) during the Battle of Lewes at Lewes. Henry III King England 1207-1272 (56), his son the future [his son] Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (24), Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex 1204-1275 (60), Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (55), John "Red" Comyn 1st Lord Baddenoch 1220-1275 (44), Philip Marmion 5th Baron Marmion 1233-1291 (30) and John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield 1232-1299 (32) were captured. John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304 (33), John Balliol 1207-1268 (56), Robert Bruce 5th Lord Annandale 1215-1295 (49), Roger Leybourne 1215-1271 (49) and William de Valence 1st Earl Pembroke -1296 fought for the King. Guy Lusignan -1264 was killed. Fulk IV Fitzwarin 1220-1264 (44) drowned. Walter de Cantelupe Bishop of Worcester 1191-1266 (73) was present and blessed the Montfort army before the battle.

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Battle of Evesham

On 04 Aug 1265 the army loyal to Henry III King England 1207-1272 (57), led by his son the future [his son] Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (26), supported by Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford 1243-1295 (21), Warin Basingburne and John Giffard 1st Baron Giffard Brimpsfield 1232-1299 (33) defeated the rebel army of Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (57) at the Battle of Evesham.

Roger Leybourne 1215-1271 (50) fought and reputedly saved the King's life.

Adam Mohaut rescued the King.

Alan de Plunket de Kilpec -1299 fought for the King.

Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (57) and his son [his nephew] Henry Montfort 1238-1265 (26) were killed.

Hugh Despencer 1st Baron Despencer 1223-1265 (41) was killed by Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer Wigmore 1231-1282 (34).

Simon Beauchamp 1234-1265 (31), Ralph Basset 1215-1265 (50), William Devereux 1219-1265 (46), Hugh Troyes -1265, Richard Trussel -1265, Peter Montfort 1205-1265 (60), William Mandeville -1265, William Crepping -1265, William Birmingham -1265, Guy Balliol -1265 and Thomas Astley 1215-1265 (50) were killed. Henry Hastings 1235-1269 (30), Humphrey Bohun 1225-1265 (40), Nicholas Segrave 1st Baron Segrave 1238-1295 (27), John Vesci -1289, John Fitzjohn and [his nephew] Guy Montfort Count Nola 1244-1288 (21) were captured.

John Vesci -1289 was wounded and taken prisoner.

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On 25 Oct 1265 [his son] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (20) was created 1st Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

After 11 Jul 1266 [his niece] Mary or Marie Lusignan Countess Derby 1242-1266 died.

Dictum of Kenilworth

On 31 Oct 1266 the Dictum of Kenilworth was issued. The Dictum was a peace agreement between Henry III King England 1207-1272 (59) and the rebels who were besieged in the impregnable Kenilworth Castle. The committee included:

Walter Branscombe Bishop of Exeter 1220-1280 (46).

Walter Giffard Archbishop of York 1225-1279 (41).

Nicholas Ely Bishop -1280.

Gilbert Clare 8th Earl Gloucester 7th Earl Hertford -1314.

Humphrey Bohun 2nd Earl Hereford 1st Earl Essex 1204-1275 (62).

Philip Basset 1184-1271 (82).

John Balliol 1207-1268 (58).

Robert Walerand.

Alan Zouche 1203-1270 (63).

Roger Somery 2nd Baron Dudley 1190-1273 (76), and.

Warin Bassingbourne.

Robert Ferrers 6th Earl Derby 1239-1279 (27) and Henry Hastings 1235-1269 (31) were fined seven times their annual income. The Dictum, however, required the rebels to pay their fines before being restored to their lands; something of a Catch-22 since if they weren't restored to their lands, they would have no income to pay the fine.

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In 1267 [his son] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (21) was created 1st Earl Lancaster.

On 08 Apr 1269 [his son] Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (24) and Aveline Forz Countess Lancaster -1274 were married. He a son of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Countess Lancaster.

On 16 Jun 1269 [his brother] Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (60) and Beatrice Falkenburg Countess Cornwall were married at Kaiserslautern. He a son of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She by marriage Countess Cornwall.

After 25 Aug 1270 [his nephew] Hugh Lusignan XII Count Lusignan VII Count La Marche III Count Angoulême 1235-1270 died. Hugh Lusignan XIII Count Lusignan VIII Count La Marche IV Count Angoulême 1259-1303 succeeded XIII Count Lusignan, VIII Count La Marche, IV Count Angoulême.

On 02 Apr 1272 [his brother] Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (63) died at Berkhamsted Castle. He was buried at Hailes Abbey. Edmund "Almain" Cornwall 2nd Earl Cornwall 1249-1300 (22) succeeded 2nd Earl Cornwall 4C 1225.

On 06 Oct 1272 [his nephew] Edmund "Almain" Cornwall 2nd Earl Cornwall 1249-1300 (22) and Margaret Clare Countess Cornwall were married at the Ruislip. He a grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Countess Cornwall.

Death of Henry III

On 16 Nov 1272 Henry III King England 1207-1272 (65) died at Westminster. [his son] Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (33) succeeded I King England. Eleanor of Castile (31) by marriage Queen Consort England.

On 24 Jun 1291 [his wife] Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England 1223-1291 (68) died at Amesbury.

Chronica Majora: The bishop of Bangor entreats the king of England to procure the release of Griffin. During all this time Griffin, the son of Llewellyn, had been detained in prison by his brother David, who had treacherously summoned him to a friendly council. Griffin had gone there under the conduct of Richard, bishop of Bangor, and some other Welsh nobles; on account of which crime the said bishop left Wales, after excommunicating the said David. He now went to the king of England, and laid a severe complaint before him of this base crime, and earnestly entreated of the king to release Griffin, who was thus unjustly detained a prisoner by his nephew David, to prevent the taint of such an iniquitous transaction from reaching distant countries and the court of Rome, to the prejudice of his royal honour. The king, therefore, severely reproached his nephew David for his treachery, and both advised and ordered him to liberate his brother, and thus obtain a restoration of his good name, and absolution from the sentence of excommunication. This, however, David, obstinately refused to do, and told the king for certain, that if he were to release Griffin, Wales would never after enjoy security and peace. Griffin, being informed of this, secretly sent word to the king, that if he would release him from prison, he would in future hold his territory from him, the king; that he would faithfully pay him two hundred marks annually for it, with many thanks for his kind services; and he bound himself by oath to fulfil the same, and giving him at the same time a special hostage; besides this, that he would diligently assist him to subdue the Welsh at a distance, who were rebelling against him and were still unsubdued. Another most powerful Welsh chief, named Griffin, the son of Madoch, also promised the king trusty and unwearied assistance, if he would invade Wales, and make war against David, who was a false man, and acted unjustly to many of them.

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[his nephew] Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 and Marie Chatillon Countess Pembroke were married. They were half first cousins twice removed. She a great granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

Chronica Majora: The king of England marches into Wales with his army. Incited by these promises, the king made arrangements to enter Wales, He therefore issued royal letters, ordering all throughout England who owed him military service to assemble at Gloucester, in the beginning of autumn, equipped with horses and arms, to set out on an expedition which he had determined on. He next held a council at Shrewsbury, on the morrow of the feast of St. Peter "ad vincula," and within a fortnight he raised his standard, and turned his arms against his nephew David, as he had discovered him to be a traitor and rebel in every respect, and as he refused to come at any time to a peaceable conference at his, the king's, summons, even under a promise of safe-conduct; for in a stiff-necked and obstinate way he replaied that he would not, on any account, release his brother Griffin. The king then led his army, which was numerous and of great strength, in good order, towards Chester, as if about to make war immediately. David, however, feared to encounter his violence, both because the heat, which had continued intense for four months, had dried up all the lakes and marshy places of Wales, and because many of the Welsh nobles, especially the powerfid and prudent Griffin, the son of Madoch, who had become a great ally of the king's, loved Griffin more than him, David, and also because he was lying under an anathema, and feared lest he should become still worse off; he therefore sent word to the king that he would set Griffin at liberty, at the same time informing him with many reasonings, that if he did release him, he would excite renewed wars against him. David also imposed on the king the condition that he should receive him peaceably, on his binding himself by oath, and by giving hostages, and that he would not deprive him of his inheritance. This the king kindly conceded, and David thereupon released his brother Griffin, and sent him to the king, who, trusting to prudent advice, sent him, on his arrival, to London, under the protection and conduct of John of Lexington, to be there kept in the Tower, with some other nobles of Wales, the hostages of David and other Welsh princes. All these events occurred between the day of the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas-day.

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[his nephew] Guy Montfort Count Nola 1244-1288 and Margherita Aldobrandesca were married. He a grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.