Biography of Henry IV King England 1367-1413

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1361 Death of Henry of Grosmont

1362 Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

1381 Peasant's Revolt

1387 Charles "Bad" II King Navarre succeeded by Charles III King Navarre

1387 Battle of Radcot Bridge

1396 Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

1397 John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

1397 Richard II Rewards his Supporters

1398 Thomas Mowbray Duel

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1399 Henry IV lands at Ravenspur

1399 Richard II Abdication

1399 Coronation of Henry IV

1399 Epiphany Rising

1400 Parliament Henry IV 2: 30 Forfeiture of Earls

1400 Creation of Garter Knights

1401 Parliament Henry IV 2: 32 Suppression of the Lollards

1402 Battle of Bryn Glas

1402 Battle of Homildon Hill

1403 Marriage of Henry IV and Joanna of Navarre

1403 Battle of Shrewsbury

1406 John II King Castile Succeeds

1413 Death of King Henry IV Accession of Henry V

In 1342 [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (1) was created 1st Earl Richmond 5C 1342. It isn't clear whether his older brothers Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (11) and Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (3) had been created Earls before this time.

Double Royal Wedding

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey whereby two children of [his grandfather] King Edward III England (46) were married:

[his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Richmond.

John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) and [his aunt] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a daughter of King Edward III England. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) was a ward of [his grandfather] King Edward III England (55) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later on 12 Sep 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague.

Death of Henry of Grosmont

On 23 Mar 1361 [his grandfather] Henry of Grosmont (51) died at Leicester Castle. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark.

[his mother] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (15) succeeded 5th Earl Lancaster and 2nd Earl Derby 2C 1337. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (21) by marriage Earl Lancaster, Earl Derby 2C 1337. Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (21) succeeded 5th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

On 10 Apr 1362 [his aunt] Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (23) died. Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (17) succeeded 6th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (22) by marriage 6th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265 adding a fourth Earldom to Earl Richmond 5C 1342, Earl Lancaster and Earl Derby 2C 1337.

Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

On 13 Nov 1362, his fiftieth birthday, [his grandfather] King Edward III England (50) created two sons as Dukes ...

[his uncle] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (23) was created 1st Duke Clarence 1C 1362. Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (30) by marriage Duchess Clarence.

[his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (22) was created 1st Duke Lancaster 2C 1362. Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (17) by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

On 15 Apr 1367 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 was born to [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (27) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (22) at Bolingbroke Castle. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

On 12 Sep 1368 [his mother] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (23) died at Tutbury Castle. Her last words were said to be "Souveyne vous de moi" ("Don't forget me") the 'S' of which was possibly subsequently represented on the Lancastrian Esses Collar. She was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

On 21 Sep 1371 [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (31) and Constance of Castile (17) were married at Roquefort, Landes He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster. His younger brother Edmund of Langley (30) married Constance's sister in July 1372.

On 16 Jan 1373 Humphrey Bohun 7th Earl Hereford 6th Earl Essex 2nd Earl of Northampton 1341-1373 (31) died. He was buried at Walden Abbey. Earl of Northampton 3C 1337 abeyant between his two daughters Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (7) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (5) although it appears to have been claimed by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (5) husband of Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (5). Earl Hereford 6C 1199 and Earl Essex 3C 1239 extinct although there was an heir: Gilbert Bohun 1251-1298 who appears to have been illegally disinherited. His two daughters shared his estates

In 1374 [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (18) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (8) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

In 1375 [his future brother-in-law] Charles III King Navarre 1361-1425 (14) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort Navarre 1363-1425 (11) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1377 [his grandfather] King Edward III England (64) created three new Garter Knights:

61st Richard of Gloucester (10) (the future Richard III).

62nd Henry Bolingbroke (10) (the future Henry IV).

63rd John Burley 1325-1383 (52).

On 24 Jun 1380 John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke 1372-1389 (7) and [his sister] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (17) were married at Kenilworth Castle. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

On 05 Feb 1381 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (13) and [his wife] Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (13) were married at Arundel Castle. They were second cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Peasant's Revolt

On 14 Jun 1381 the rebels gained access to the Tower Hill capturing Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (52), the future Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (14), Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 (1) and Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (65).

Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (65) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Canterbury Cathedral.

On 24 Jun 1386 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (34) and [his sister] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (23) were married at Plymouth. They were half second cousins once removed. He a great grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 09 Aug 1386 [his son] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 was born to Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (19) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (18) at Monmouth Castle.

On 02 Oct 1386 John Montfort V Duke Brittany 1339-1399 (47) and [his future wife] Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England 1370-1437 (16) were married at Saillé. They were second cousins twice removed. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his future wife] She by marriage Duchess Brittany 1221 Dreux, Earl Richmond 1C 1136. His third marriage, her first. The marriage proceeded when her father Charles "Bad" II King Navarre 1332-1387 (53) agreed to give his daughter 120,000 gold francs and to pay 6,000 francs owed to John, duke of Brittany (47), for the rent of certain lands. He, John, gave her the cities of Nantes and Guerrand.

Charles "Bad" II King Navarre succeeded by Charles III King Navarre

On 01 Jan 1387 Charles "Bad" II King Navarre 1332-1387 (54) died. Charles III King Navarre 1361-1425 (26) succeeded III King Navarre. Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort Navarre 1363-1425 (24) by marriage Queen Consort Navarre.

On 02 Feb 1387 John "Good Great" I King Portugal 1357-1433 (29) and [his sister] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 (26) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his sister] She by marriage Queen Consort Portugal.

Battle of Radcot Bridge

On 22 Dec 1387 the forces of the Lords Appellant led by the future Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (20) prevented the forces of King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (20) commanded by Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (25) from crossing the bridge over the River Thames at Radcot in Oxfordshire. When [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (32) arrived with further Lord Appellant forces the King's men were encircled. The King's men attempted to force the crossing of the bridge at which time the only casualties occurred including Thomas Molyneux Constable Chester Castle 1338-1387 (49) who was killed by Thomas Mortimer 1350-1399 (37). Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (25) narrowly escaped to France. Around 800 of his men drowned in the marshes whilst trying to escape.

Before 17 Sep 1388 Henry III King Castile 1379-1406 and [his half-sister] Catherine of Lancaster were married at Palencia Cathedral. They were half second cousins. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his half-sister] She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

Before 30 Sep 1388 [his son] Thomas Lancaster 1st Duke Clarence 1388-1421 was born to Henry IV King England 1367-1413 and Mary Bohun 1368-1394.

On 07 Dec 1388 Jeanne Montfort 1387-1388 (1) died.

On 20 Jun 1389 [his son] John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 was born to Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (22) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (21).

On 03 Oct 1390 [his son] Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 was born to Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (23) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (22).

In 1391 Robert Ferrers 2nd Baron Ferrers Wem 1373-1393 (18) and [his illegitimate half-sister] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (12) were married at Beaufort en Vallée. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate half-sister] She by marriage Baroness Ferrers Wem.

In 1392 [his daughter] Blanche Lancaster Elector Palatinate 1392-1409 was born to Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (24) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (24) at Peterborough Castle.

On 04 Jun 1394 [his daughter] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Denmark 1394-1430 was born to Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (27) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (26) at Peterborough Castle. His mother (26) died in childbirth. She was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark.

Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

On 13 Jan 1396 [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (55) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (45) were married at Lincoln Cathedral. He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

Before 29 Nov 1396 Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 and [his illegitimate half-sister] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate half-sister] She by marriage Baroness Neville Raby.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The king (29) at this time resided at Eltham, whither he had summoned all his vassals and dependants. He had collected round London, in the counties of Kent and Essex, upwards of ten thousand archers, and had with him his [Note. maternal half-brother] brother sir John Holland (45), the earl marshal (28), the earl of Salisbury (47), with many other great barons and knights. The king (29) sent orders to the citizens of London not to admit the [his father] duke of Lancaster (56) within their walls; but they replied, they knew of no reason why they should refuse him admittance, and the duke resided there with his son the earl of Derby (29), as did the duke of York (55) with his son the earl of Rutland (24). The king loved the earl of Rutland (24) and the earl marshal (28) beyond measure: the first dissembled his opinions concerning the death of the duke of Gloucester (41), and would willingly have seen peace restored on both sides. He said, that his late uncle (41) had on several occasions treated the king (29) very unbecomingly. The Londoners considered, also, that great mischiefs might befal England from these dissensions between the king, his uncles, and their supporters; that, since the duke of Gloucester (41) was now dead, it could not be helped; and that he, in some measure, had been the cause of it, by his too great freedom of speech, and from his attempts to excite the people of England to break the truces that had been signed between France and England. The citizens, therefore, prudently dissembled their thoughts; and, as what was done could not now be undone, they feared, should matters be pushed to extremities, they might suffer very considerably in their commerce from th king of France.

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John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Of the appointment of the earl of Somerset. 32. The king (30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman [his illegitimate half-brother] John Beaufort (24), knight, son of our beloved uncle John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and Edmund of York (55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (53), bishops; Henry of Derby (29), Edward of Rutland (24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (28), earls; Reginald Grey (35), Ralph Neville (33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].

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Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 King Richard II (30) rewarded his relations with Dukedoms possibly for their part in the arrest, trial and execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) ...

His older half-brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (45) was created 1st Duke Exeter 1C 1397. [his sister] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (34) by marriage Duchess Exeter.

His nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (23) was created 1st Duke Surrey.

His second cousin once removed Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 1C 1397 probably for arranging the murder of [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42). Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 1366-1425 (31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His first cousin Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2C 1397. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale.

His illegitimate first cousin [his illegitimate half-brother] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset 2C 1397, 1st Marquess Dorset 1C 1397. Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (33) was created 1st Earl Westmoreland 1C 1397. [his illegitimate half-sister] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (18) by marriage Countess Westmoreland.

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On 27 Nov 1397 [his illegitimate half-brother] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) and Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) were married. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Countess Somerset.

Thomas Mowbray Duel

On 16 Sep 1398 the future Henry IV (31) spent the night at Baginton Castle, the home of his friend William Bagot. Thomas Mowbray (30) spent the night at his home Caludon Castle.

Before 16 Sep 1398 the future Henry IV reported to King Richard II that Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 had made a treasonous remark regarding Richard's rule. Richard II proposed a duel of honour at Gosford Green Caludon Coventry, neat Mowbray's home Caludon Castle.

On 17 Sep 1398 King Richard II (31), the nobility and thousands of spectators assembled at Gosford Green to witness the duel between the future Henry IV (31) and Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (30). the future Henry IV (31) had had new armour constructed. Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (25) and Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (24) managed the proceedings. Just as the duel was to commence King Richard II (31) stopped it. After two hours of deliberation King Richard II (31) had his decision announced; both men were to be exiled. the future Henry IV (31) for ten years,Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (30) forever.

On 19 Oct 1398 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (30) left England never to return.

See Froissart Book 2 Chapters 94 to 96.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. At this time, a conversation passed between the earl of Derby (31) and the earl-marshal (30), in which the state of the king (31) and the counsellors whom he trusted became the subject of discussion. The earl marshal (30) caught at the following words the other had made use of, with a good intent, thinking they would never have been mentioned again, for they were neither arrogant nor traitorous: " Holy Mary ! fair cousin, what does the king next intend to do? Will he drive all the nobles out of England? There will soon be none left; and he plainly shows he is not desirous to add to the honour of his realm." The earl marshal (30) made no reply, but treasured this speech in his mind, as he considered it very impertinent, in regard to the king, and thought within himself that the earl of Derby (31) was well inclined to excite troubles in England, for he was marvellously beloved by the Londoners. He therefore determined (for the devil entered his brain, and what has been ordained to happen must come to pass), to report this speech in the presence of the king and his nobility.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The earl of Derby (31) resided in London, for he had his house there, and kept up his state. The [his father] duke of Lancaster (58), the duke of York (57), the earl of Northumberland (56), and many other great lords, for he was much beloved, were his securities to appear and answer the challenge. The earl marshal (30) was sent to the Tower of London, where he lived with his household. These two lords made ample provision of all things necessary for the combat; and the earl of Derby (31) sent off messengers to Lombardy to have armour from sir Galeas, duke of Alilan. The duke complied with joy, and gave the knight, called sir Francis, who had brought the message, the choice of all his armour for the earl of Derby (31). When he had selected what he wished for in plated and mail armour, the lord of Milan, out of his abundant love to the earl, ordered four of the best armourers in Milan to accompany the knight to England, that the earl of Derby (31) might be more completely armed. The earl marshal (30), on the other hand, sent into Germany, whence he thought he should be ably assisted by his friends. Each provided himself most magnificently, to outshine the other; but the greater splendour was shown by the earl of Derby, for I must say that, when the earl marshal undertook this business, he expected to have been better supported than he was by the king. It was hinted to the king, by those near his person, — "Sire, you have no occasion to interfere further in this matter: dissemble your thoughts, and leave them to themselves: they are fully capable of managing it. The earl of Derby is wondrous popular in the kingdom, but more especially in London; and, should the citizens perceive that you take part with the earl marshal against the earl of Derby, you will irrecoverably lose their affection."

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 96. 19 Oct 1398. When the two earls heard the sentence the king (31) had passed on them, they were much cast down, and not without cause. The earl marshal (30) bitterly repented what he had said and done, but he could not foresee its consequences: he had firmly relied on being otherwise supported by the king (31) than he was, or he would not have thought of it. It was, however, necessary to make his preparations for banishment. He settled the payments of his income through the Lombards of Bruges, and, quitting England, arrived at Calais, where he had been governor. He staid there a short time, to receive part of his equipage which had been left behind. On his departure he took leave of the townsmen of Calais, and having fixed his route, would not go to France nor Hainault, for he had not any business at these places, but went to Bruges, where he staid fifteen days. On leaving this town, he visited Ghent, Mechlin, Louvain, St. Tron, Utrecht, Aix and Cologne, where we will leave him, and speak of the earl of Derby (31), who in like manner made his preparations for obeying his sentence of banishment.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 96. After 19 Oct 1398. The day the earl of Derby (31) mounted his horse to leave London, upwards of forty thousand men were in the streets, bitterly lamenting his departure: " Ah, gentle earl ! will you then quit us? This country will never be happy until your return, and the days until then will be insufferably long. Through envy, treachery and fear, are you driven out of a kingdom where you are more worthy to reside than those which cause it. You are of such high birth and gallantry, that none others can be compared to you. Why then will you leave us, gentle earl? You have never done wTong by thought or deed, and are incapable of so doing." Thus did men and women so piteously complain, that it was grievous to hear them. The earl of Derby (31) was not accompanied by trumpets, nor the music of the town, but with tears and lamentations. Some of the knights who attended him whispered each other—'See the conduct of the people, how readily they complain for trifles ! Whoever is inclined to stir up the Londoners against the king may soon effect it, and force the king to seek another country, and the earl of Derby (31) to remain: but this is not the moment, for, since my lord of Lancaster suffers it, we must be patient."

The mayor of London and several of the principal citizens, accompanied the earl of Derby (31) as far as Dartford: some even rode to Dover with him, and remained in his company until he embarked on board the vessel that was to convey him to Calais, when they returned to their homes. The earl of Derby, before his arrival at Calais, had sent a knight and herald to the king of France, and to the dukes of Orléans (26), Berry (57), Burgundy (56) and Bourbon (61), to know if it were agreeable to them that he should fix his residence in Paris, paying punctually for all that he or his people might want, and if the court would receive him.

The king of France, his brother and uncles, readily compled with his request, and apparently seemed very glad that he would come there; for, as they assured the knight, they very sincerely felt for the present disgrace of the earl. The knight and herald, on their return, met the earl at Calais; and the king of France had sent with them sir Charles de Ilangiers, to have all the cities and towns opened to the English as they travelled to Paris. The earl of Derby set out in gallant array, becoming his rank, and took the road to Amiens, where, and in every other town, he was handsomely received.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The king (31) attended to this advice, for he knew it was true: in consequence, he dissembled his opinion, and suffered each to provide for himself. The news of this combat between the earl of Derby and the earl marshal made a great noise in foreign parts: for it was to be for life or death, and before the king (31) and great barons of England. It was spoken of differently: some said, particularly in France, — " Let them fight it out: these English knights are too arrogant, and in a short time will cut each other's throats. They are the most perverse nation under the sun, and their island is inhabited by the proudest people." But others, more wise, said, — " The king of England (31) does not show great sense, nor that he is well advised, when for foolish words, undeserving serious notice, he permits two such valiant and noble lords, and of his kindred, thus to engage in mortal combat. He ought, according to the opinions of many wise men, to have said, when he first heard this charge, — "You earl of Derby (31), and you earl marshal (30), are my near relations: I command, therefore, that you harbour no hatred nor malevolence against each other, but live like friends and cousins as you are. Should your stay in this country become tiresome, travel into foreign parts, to Hungary or elsewhere, and seek for deeds of arms and adventures." If the king of England (31) had done so, or come forward to prevent this combat, he would have acted wisely, according to the opinions of men of sense and prudence.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The two earls, in the mean time, were making every preparation for their combat. The [his father] duke of Lancaster (58) never went near the king, and as seldom saw his son (31), acting throughout with great good sense. He knew the earl of Derby (31) was very popular with all ranks in England, but more particularly with the Londoners, who waited on him, and addressed him, — " Earl of Derby (31), make your mind easy: whatever may be the event of this combat it will turn out to your honour, in spite of the king and all his minions. We know well how things are managed, and what will be the result of them: this accusation has been invented by envy, to cause your banishment out of the kingdom, where they are aware you are so greatly beloved by all ranks and sexes; and should you be forced to quit us in sorrow, you shall return in joy, for you are more worthy to rule than Richard of Bordeaux (31). Whoever may choose to search the matter to the bottom, to discover the real origin of you both, will soon see that you have a greater right to the crown of England than he who wears it, although we have paid him homage, and acknowledged him for king these twenty years; but that was obtained by the entreaties of your grandfather, king Edward of happy memory, who was suspicious of what we hint, and feared the consequences. There was once a serious dispute on this subject between king Edward and your grandfather by your mother's side, duke Henry of Lancaster, but the great lords interfered and made up matters between them. King Edward was valiant and successful in all his enterprises, and had gained the love of his subjects high and low. Your grandfather of Lancaster only required from the king what was just, and served him and his kingdom so loyally, that his conduct deserved the commendation of all. Every one who knew him called him their old father. These things are worthy of king Richard's consideration, and may make him repent, if anji;hing can, at his leism-e, that he has not more prudently governed." Such conversations did many of the nobles and citizens of London hold with the earl of Derby, who was pleased with their affection, and received them kindly. He did not, however, neglect any preparations for his combat, but sent to every one of his friends throughout England, to entreat their company at the appointed day and place.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. King Richard (31), notwithstanding he had suffered this challenge and appeal to arms to be made in his presence, was imcertain how to act, and whether to allow the combat to take place or not. And although he was the king of England the most feared of any who had worn the crown, he was guarded day and night by two thousand archers, who were regularly paid weekly, and had confidence only in his brother the earl of Huntingdon (46), and the earls of Salisbury (48) and Rutland (25), his cousin, who were highly in his favour. He paid no regard to others, except a few of the knights of his chamber, who were his advisers. When the day for the combat was approaching, and the two lords had made their preparations, waiting only for the king's commands, king Richard's secret advisers asked, " Sire, what is your intention respecting this combat between your two cousins, the earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30)? Will you permit them to proceed?" " Yes," replied the king: "why not? I intend to be present myself and to see their prowess. We may perhaps learn, from the issue of this combat, what we are now ignorant of, although it may be very important for ns to know, that we may provide accordingly: for there is no one so great in England, but, if he anger me, he shall dearly pay for it. Should I allow myself to be any way governed by my subjects, they would soon overpower me; I know for certain that some of my kinsmen have held secret meetings respecting my government; but the most dangerous among them was the [his uncle] duke of Gloucester (43), for in all England there was none more wrong-headed. lie is now at peace, and henceforward we shall manage the rest well enough. But tell me, I pray you, why you ask the question?" " Sire," replied they, " we are bound to advise you to the best of our knowledge and abilities. We sometimes hear and observe what you cannot, for you are in your apartments, and we abroad in the fields, or in London, where many conversations are held that nearly touch you, as well as us. There is yet time to provide a remedy, and we earnestly advise you not to delay it." " What do you mean?" said the king: " speak out, and do not spare me; for I wish to act rightly, and to maintain justice in my kingdom." "Sire, the common report throughout England, but especially in London, is, that you are the cause of this combat, and that you have induced the earl marshal (30) to challenge the earl of Derby (31). The Londoners in general, and many of the prelates and nobles, say, that you are in the direct road to destroy all your kindred and kingdom, but that they will not suffer it to be done. Now, were the citizens to rise and be joined by the nobility, who could oppose them? You have no power but from your vassals; and they are now more suspicious of you than ever, from your marriage with a princess of France; and you are less beloved by your subjects on this account. Know, that if you allow these two earls to meet in arms, you will not be lord of the field, but the Londoners, united with the earl of Derby's (31) great connexions by blood, who are all much attached to him. The earl marshal (30) is become very unpopular, particularly with the citizens of London, who would willingly put him to death. Three parts of the people of England say, that when you heard the charge of the earl marshal (30), you should have acted otherwise than yon did, and checked the quarrel by telling them, "You are both my cousins and liege men, and I command that peace be henceforward between you;" and that you should have taken the earl of Derby (31) by the hand, and led him to your chamber with every token of affection. Because you did not this, the common report is, that you warmly take the part of the earl marshal (30) against the earl of Derby (31). Weigh well what we have said, for we have told you the truth, and you never had more occasion for good advice than at this moment."

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The earl of Derby (31) was confounded at this address, and retired a few paces, without demanding from the [his father] duke his father (58), or any of his friends, how he should act. Having mused a while, he advanced, with his hood in his hand, towards the king (31), and said, " Earl marshal (30), I say that thou art a false and wicked traitor, which I will bodily prove on thee, and here is my glove." The earl marshal (30), seeing his challenge was accepted, showed a good desire for the combat, by taking up the glove and saying, — "I refer your answer to the good pleasure of the king (31) and the lords now present. I will prove that what you have said is false, and that my words are true." Each of these lords then withdrew with his friends, and the time for serving wine and spices was passed by; for the king (31) showed he was sore displeased, and retired to his chamber and shut himself within it. His two uncles [Note. [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) and Edmund of Langley (57)] remained without with their children, as did the earls of Salisbury (48) and Huntingdon (46), the king's brother [Note. John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (46) was the King's maternal half-brother].

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The king (31), on hearing these words, changed colour (for they had boldly spoken out, and certainly what they had said could not be contradicted), turned aside and leant on a window, where he mused a considerable time. He then turned to those who had addressed him, namely, the archbishop of York (48), the earls of Huntingdon (46) and Salisbury (48), and three other knights of his chamber, and said, — " I have attentively heard everything you have advised, and should be blameworthy if I followed not your counsel: consider, therefore, how you would have me act." "Sire," replied their spokesman, "what we have been talking of is matter of great danger. You must dissemble your resentments, and put an end to this business, if you wish for peace and to preserve your honour. You ought to pay more respect to the general opinion of your realm than to the idle talk of two knights. It is believed throughout England that the lord marshal behaved himself very ill, and, by stirring up many things that were better forgotten, is desirous to pick a quarrel with the earl of Derby (31), raise the people, and throw all things into confusion. He must therefore suffer for so doing, and the earl of Derby (31) be acquitted. We have considered the matter in every point of view, and advise that, before they arm or make further preparations, you send them your commands to appear before you, and to abide by whatever you determine between them. You will therefore give judgment, that, within fifteen days, the earl marshal (30) quit England, without any hope of ever returning, and the earl of Derby (31) be banished thence for the space of ten years. When the time for their departure arrives, you will, to please the people, abridge four years of the earl of Derby's (31) sentence, so that his banishment will be only for six vears, but that he must not expect further favour. Such is the advice we give you: be very careful to prevent their meeting in arms, or the greatest mischiefs may arise from it." The king was thoughtful a moment, and replied, " You have faithfully advised me, and it shall be done."

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. Soon afterward, the king (31) called to him his uncles [Note. [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) and Edmund of Langley (57)], and demanded from them how he was to act on this occasion. " Sire, order your constable hither, and we will tell you." The earl of Rutland (25), constable of England, being sent for, came, and he was told, — " Constable go to the earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30), and oblige them to promise not to quit the kingdom without the king's permission." The constable obeyed the order, and returned to the king's apartment. You may believe the whole court was greatly troubled by this event, and many barons and knights were much displeased, who blamed the earl marshal for his conduct; but what he had said he could not now retract, and he showed by his manners that he made light of it, so arrogant and swollen with pride was his heart. The lords now separated, each for his own home. The [his father] duke of Lancaster (58), in spite of appearances, was much vexed at what had passed, and his opinion was, that the king should not have listened to such a charge, but instantly have annihilated it; and in this he was joined by the more sensible barons of the country.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The king (31) had it proclaimed that he would hold a solemn feast at his palace at Eltham on Palm Sunday, and sent particular invitations to the dukes of [his father] Lancaster (58) and York (57) and their children, who, not suspecting any mischief, came thither. When the day of the feast was arrived, and all the lords had retired after dinner with the king to his council-chamher, the earl marshal (30), having settled in his own mind how to act and what to say, cast himself on his knees before the king (31), and thus addressed him "Very dear and renowned lord, I am of your kindred, your liege man and marshal of England; and I have heside sworn on my loyalty, my hand within yours, that I would never conceal from you anything I might hear or see to your prejudice, on pain of being accounted a disloyal traitor. This I am resolved never to be, but to acquit myself before you and all the world." The king, fixing his eyes on him, asked, " Earl marshal (30), what is your meaning in saying thus? We will know it." "Very dear lord," replied the earl, " as I have declared, I will not keep any secret from you: order the earl of Derby (31) to come to your presence, and I will speak out." The earl of Derby (31) was called for, and the king made the earl marshal (30) rise, for he addressed him on his knees. On the earl of Derby's (31) arrival, who thought no harm, the earl marshal (30) spoke as follows: "Earl of Derby (31), I charge you with having thought and spoken disrespectfully against your natural lord the king of England, when you said he was unworthy to hold his crown: that without law or justice, or consulting his council, he disturbed the realm; and that, without any shadow of reason, he banished those valiant men from his kingdom who ought to be its defenders, for all of which I present my glove, and shall prove, my body against yours, that you are a false and wicked traitor."

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. You must know that the earl of Derby (31) and the late [his uncle] duke of Gloucester (43) had married two sisters [Note. Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (30) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (32)], daughters to the earl of Hereford and Northampton (57), constable of England: the children, therefore, of the earl of Derby (31) and duke of Gloucester were cousins-german by their mother's side, and one degree removed by their father's. To say the truth, the death of the duke of Gloucester had displeased many of the great barons of England, who frequently murmured at it when together; but the king had now so greatly extended his power, none dared to speak of it openly, nor act upon the current rumours of the mode of his death. The king had caused it to be proclaimed, that whoever should say anything respecting the duke of Gloucester or the earl of Arundel (52), should be reckoned a false and wicked traitor and incur his indignation. This threat had caused many to be silent, afraid of what might befal them, who were, nevertheless, much dissatisfied.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 95. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the king of England (31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of [his father] Lancaster (58) and York (57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (56), Salisbury (48) and Huntingdon (46). The earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The king (31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,— " Well then, I order that the earl marshal (30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the earl of Derby (31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The earl of Derby (31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's,1 he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of Castillo (25) and of Portugal (38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be hapi)y to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the king (31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without liope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by Isim and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30).

Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. — Ed.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. Soon after this conversation, the earl marshal (30), to flatter and gain favour with the king (31), said, — " My lord, all your enemies and ill-wishers are not dead, nor out of the kingdom." The king changed colour, and replied, "How, cousin, do you know this?" " I know it well," answer the earl marshal: " for the moment, I will not say more; but, that you may provide a remedy in time, have it proclaimed that you will hold a solemn feast on this ensuing Palm Sunday, and invite all the princes of your blood, particularly the earl of Derby (31), when you shall hear something that will surprise you, and what you are not suspicious of, notwithstanding it so nearly concerns you." The king (31) was very pensive on hearing this, and begged the earl marshal (30) to give him further information; that he might safely tell him all, for he would keep it secret. I know not if he did so; but the king, if he did, kept it to himself, and allowed the earl to act in the matter as he pleased; the consequences of which were as follows.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 96. After 19 Oct 1398. When the day of his exile drew near, he went to Eltham where the king (31) resided. He found there his [his father] father (58), the duke of York (57) his uncle, and with them the earl of Northumberland (56), sir Henry Percy (34) his son, and a great many barons and knights of England, vexed that his ill fortune should force him out of England. The greater part of them accompanied him to the presence of the king (31), to learn his ultimate pleasure as to this banishment. The king (31) pretended that he was very happy to see these lords: he entertained them well, and there was a full court on the occasion. The earl of Salisbury (48), and the earl of Huntingdon (46), who had married the [his father] duke of Lancaster's (58) daughter (35), were present, and kept near to the earl of Derby (31), whether through dissimulation or not I am ignorant. When the time for the earl of Derby's (31) taking leave arrived, the king (31) addressed his cousin with great apparent humility, and said, "that as God might help him, the words which had passed between him and the lord marshal had much vexed him; and that he had judged the matter between them to the best of his understanding, and to satisfy the people, who had murmured greatly at this quarrel. Wherefore, cousin," he added, " to relieve you somewhat of your pain, I now remit four years of the term of your banishment, and reduce it to six years instead often. Make your preparations, and provide accordingly." "My lord," replied the earl, "I humbly thank you; and, when it shall be your good pleasure, you will extend your mercy." The lords present were satisfied with the answer, and for this time were well pleased with the king's (31) behaviour, for he received them kindly. Some of them returned with the earl of Derby (31) to London. The earl's baggage had been sent forward to Dover, and he was advised by his father, on his arrival at Calais, to go straight to Paris, and wait on the king of France (29) and his cousins the princes of France, for by their means he would be the sooner enabled to shorten his exile than by any other. Had not the duke of Lancaster earnestly pressed this matter, like a father anxious to console his son, he would have taken the direct road to the count d'Ostrevant in Hainault.

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In 1399 Philip Vache 1348-1408 (51) was appointed 92nd Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31).

In 1399 [his son] Thomas Lancaster 1st Duke Clarence 1388-1421 (10) was appointed 94th Knight of the Garter by his father Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31).

In 1399 [his son] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (12) was created Prince of Wales.

Before 1399 Richard Vere 11th Earl Oxford 1385-1417 and [his niece] Alice Holland Countess Oxford 1392-1406 were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In 1399 [his son] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (12) was appointed 93rd Knight of the Garter by his father Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31).

Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) died at Leicester Castle. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (48) was by his side. He was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

He was buried in the Choir of Old St Paul's Cathedral with his first wife [his mother] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (53).

Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster 2C 1362, 7th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) witheld the future Henry IV's (31) inheritance from him giving Henry (31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

Letter XXVII Joanna of Navarre afterwards Queen of Henry IV to King Richard II. 15 Mar 1399. Letter XXVII. [his future wife] Joanna of Navarre (29) afterwards Queen of Henry IV to King Richard II (32).

My most dear and redoubted lord,.

I desire every day to be certified of your good estate, which our Lord grant that it may ever be as good as your heart desires and as I should wish it for myself. If it would please you to let me know of it, you would give me great rejoicings in my heart, for every time that I hear good news of you I am most perfectly glad at heart. And if to know tidings from this side would give you pleasure, when this was written my lord (31), I, and our children were together in good health of our persons, thanks to our Lord, who by his grace ever grant you the same. I pray you, my dearest and most redoubted lord, that it would ever please you to have the affairs of my said lord well recommended, as well in reference to the deliverance of his lands as other things, which lands in your hands are the cause why he sends his people promptly towards you. So may it please you hereupon to provide him with your gracious remedy, in such manner that he may enjoy his said lands peaceably; even as he and I have our perfect surety and trust in you more than in any other. And let me know your good pleasure, and I will accomplish it willingly and with a good heart to my power.

My dearest and most redoubted lord, I pray the Holy Spirit that he will have you in his holy keeping.

Written at Vannes, the 15th day of March. The Duchess of Bretagne.

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Henry IV lands at Ravenspur

On 07 Jul 1399 [his uncle] Edmund of Langley (58) appointed William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (49), Henry Green 1347-1399 (52) and John Bussy Speaker of the House of Commons -1399 to protect Kent against invasion by Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (32).

After 07 Jul 1399 Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (32) landed at Ravenspur with Thomas Rempston -1406.

William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414 (29) joined Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (32) with a large retinue.

In Aug 1399 Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (55), following the success of Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) received a grant for life of land worth £24 a year in the High Peak, and within the next few months three lucrative stewardships of Macclesfield, the High Peak and Chesterfield were in his hands.

Richard II Abdication

On 19 Aug 1399 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) surrendered to Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (32) at Flint Castle. William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414 (29) was present [Note. Wikipedia states Berkeley Castle?]

On 30 Sep 1399 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) became IV King England. He had usurped his cousin Richard II (32) and Richard's heir the seven year old Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March (7) who was descended from Edward III's second son [his uncle] Lionel of Antwerp Duke of Clarence (60). This second usurption was to have far reaching consequences since it subsequently became the descent by which the House of York claimed precedence over the House of Lancaster being one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (35) was appointed Earl Marshal.

On 03 Oct 1399 [his former sister-in-law] Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (33) died. She was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund. She has a monumental brass, representing the deceased in her conventual dress, as a nun of Barking Abbey.

Coronation of Henry IV

On 13 Oct 1399 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) was crowned IV King England at Westminster Abbey by Thomas Fitzalan Archbishop York and Canterbury 1353-1414 (46).

Robert Braybrooke Bishop of London -1404 carried the sacraments and said mass.

The future [his son] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (13) carried the Sword Curtana. Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 1338-1401 (61) and/or John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (26) carried a sword wrapped in red and bound with golden straps symbolising two-fold mercy. Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (57) carried the Lancaster Sword.

Thomas Percy 1st Earl Worcester 1343-1403 (56) carried the Steward's baton. Thomas Erpingham 1355-1428 (44) carried a Sword.

Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (21) was appointed Knight of the Bath. [his son] John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (10), John Arundell 1366-1435 (33) and Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (17) were knighted.

Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (49) attended.

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On 10 Nov 1399 [his son] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (13) was created 1st Duke Lancaster 3C 1399 by his father Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32).

On 20 Nov 1399 Robert Waterton Constable 1360-1425 (39) was appointed Master of the Horse to the newly crowned Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32).

Epiphany Rising

In Dec 1399 the Epiphany Rising was an attempt to restore King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) to the throne replacing Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32).

On 17 Dec 1399 the conspirators met at Abbey House Westminster Abbey including Thomas Blount 1352-1400 (47), Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester 1373-1400 (26), Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (25), John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (47), Ralph Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1360-1400 (39), John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 (49), Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (26), Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (45). They plotted to capture Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) at a Tournament in Windsor on the Feast of Epiphany hence the Epiphany Rising.

In 1400 John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke 1364-1443 (36) and [his sister] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (36) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Epiphany Rising

Before 07 Jan 1400 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 was forewarned, probably by Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415, and began to raise an army in London.

Parliament Henry IV 2: 30 Forfeiture of Earls

After 07 Jan 1400. Henry IV's Parliament. Also, be it remembered that whereas Thomas Holland, formerly earl of Kent, John Holland, formerly earl of Huntingdon, John Montague, formerly earl of Salisbury, Thomas, formerly Lord Despenser, and Ralph Lumley, knight, recently rose up in various parts of England and rode in warlike manner, treacherously, against our lord the king, contrary to their allegiance, to destroy our said lord the king and other great men of the realm, and to populate the said realm with people of another tongue, they were seized and beheaded in their armed uprising by the loyal lieges of oursaid lord the king; and for that reason all the lords temporal present in parliament, by the assent of the king, declared and adjudged the said Thomas, John, John, Thomas, and Ralph to be traitors for their armed uprising against their aforesaid liege lord, and that they should forfeit as traitors all the lands and tenements that they held in fee simple on 5 January, the eve of the feast of the Epiphany of our lord Jesus Christ, in the first year of the reign of our aforesaid lord [1400], or after, as the law of the land requires, together with all their goods and chattels, notwithstanding the fact that they were killed during the said armed uprising without due process of law.

Epiphany Rising

On 16 Jan 1400 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (48) was executed at Pleshy Castle. [his nephew] John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter 1395-1447 (4) succeeded 2nd Earl Huntingdon 4C 1388. He was captured by Joan Fitzalan Countess Essex Hereford and Northampton 1347-1419 (53) whose brother Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (54) John Holland had had executed three years before. She arranged for the children of her dead brother to witness the execution of John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (48) at Pleshy Castle; her primary seat.

Letter XXVIII Joanna of Navarre afterwards Queen of Henry IV to her future Husband Henry IV. 15 Feb 1400. Letter XXVIII. [his future wife] Joanna of Navarre (30) afterwards Queen of Henry IV to her future Husband Henry IV (32).

My very dear and most honourable lord and cousin, Since I am desirous to hear of your good estate, which our Lord grant that it may ever be as good as your noble heart knows best how to desire, and, indeed, as I would wish it for myself, I pray you, my most dear and honoured lord and cousin, that it would please you very often to let me know the certainty of it, for the very great joy and gladness of my heart; for every time that I can hear good news of you, it rejoices my heart very greatly. And if of your courtesy you would hear the same from across here, thanks to you, at the writing of these presents I and my children were together in good health of our persons, thanks to God who grant yon the same, as Johanna of Bayalen, who is going over to you, can tell you more fully, whom please it yon to have recommended in the business on which she is going over. And if anything that I can do over here will give you pleasure, I pray you to let me know it, and I will accomplish it with a very good heart, according to my power.

My dearest and most honoured lord and cousin, I pray the Holy Spirit to have you in his holy keeping.

Written at Vannes, the 15th day of February. Thb Duchess of Bretagne.

1400 Creation of Garter Knights

Around Apr 1400 the newly crowned Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) created a number of new Garter Knights, including his children, to replace those of who had been executed during the Epiphany Rising.

95th [his son] John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (10).

96th [his son] Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (9).

97th Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (18).

98th [his illegitimate half-brother] Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (23).

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Letter XXIX The Prioress of Rowney to King Henry IV. 12 Nov 1400. Letter XXIX. The Prioress of Rowney to King Henry IV (33).

To the most excellent prince and lord in Christy lord' Henry, by God's grace illustrous king of England and France, and lord of Ireland, his humble and devoted oratrice the prioress of Rowney sends the divine suffrages of prayers, with all sorts of reverence and honour;.

By the tenor of these presents I certify to your royal highness that the sister Joanna Adeleshey, a nun of the order of St. Benedict, and notoriously professed in the same house, wanders and roams abroad from country to country, in a secular habit despising her vow of obedience to the grievous danger of her soul, and manifest scandal of her order, and pernicious example of others. May it therefore please your royal excellency of your royal clemency, hitherto ever gracious, to extend the secular arm for the capture of the said Joanna, to be chastised according to the rule of her order in a ease of this kind, lest for want of due chastisement a plant given up to divine culture may thus perish. And may He who gives to all kings to reign preserve your royal majesty in prosperity. Given at Rbwney, the 12th day of November, a.d. 1400.

Richard II Abdication

Around 1401. Jean Creton Painter Chronicler -1420. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (33) (in black) surrendering to Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (33) (holding the white staff) at Flint Castle.

Around 1401 Thomas Erpingham 1355-1428 (46) was appointed 103rd Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (33).

In 1401 William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1370-1409 (31) was appointed 100th Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (33).

Parliament Henry IV 2: 32 Suppression of the Lollards

In Mar 1401. Henry IV's (33) Parliament enacted "De heretico comburendo" by which heretics were to be burned at the stake in reation to the Lollard movement.

The request "... the said church would be injured or gravely oppressed or even perturbed by certain perverse doctrines, or wicked, heretical or erroneous opinions; nevertheless, various perfidious and perverse people of a certain new sect, believing damnable things of the said faith, the sacrament of the church, and its authority, rashly usurping the office of preacher, contrary to divine and ecclesiastical law, perversely and maliciously preach and teach these days, publicly and secretly, under simulation of the colour of sanctity, various new doctrines and wicked, heretical and erroneous opinions, contrary to this same faith and the holy decrees of the sacrosanct church ...".

The answer: "and they shall cause these same persons to be publicly burnt in a high place; and may punishment of this sort strike fear into the minds of others.".

On 02 Mar 1401 William Sawtrey was the first heretic to be burned although his burning pre-dated the statute.

In Aug 1401 Thomas Rempston -1406 was appointed 101st Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (34).

Before 01 Jun 1402 Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 and [his niece] Constance Holland Countess Norfolk Countess Nottingham 1387-1437 were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Norfolk, Earl Nottingham 2C 1383.

Battle of Bryn Glas

On 22 Jun 1402 Owain Glyndŵr (43) defeated the army of Edmund Mortimer 1376-1408 (25) at Knighton Radnorshire Welsh March, who was captured, at the Battle of Bryn Glas.

Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (35) made no attempt to ransom Edmund Mortimer 1376-1408 (25) and, as a consequence, Edmund Mortimer 1376-1408 (25) changed his allegiance, and subsequently married Owain's (43) daughter.

On 25 Jun 1402 Walter Devereux 1361-1402 (41) died from wounds.

On 06 Jul 1402 [his son-in-law] Louis Wittelsbach III Elector Palatine 1378-1436 (24) and Blanche Lancaster Elector Palatinate 1392-1409 (10) were married. She a daughter of Henry IV King England 1367-1413.

Battle of Homildon Hill

On 14 Sep 1402 Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (60) and his son Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (38) lay in wait at Homildon Hill for the Scots to return from their laying waste to Northumberland. The Battle of Homildon Hill was a victory for the English forces whose longbowmen decimated the Scottish schiltrons. Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh 1358-1425 (44) fought for the English.

John Swinton -1402 was killed.

Thomas Dunbar 2nd Earl Moray 1371-1422 (31) and Henry Sinclair 2nd Earl Orkney 1375-1420 (27) were captured.

Archibald Douglas 1st Duke Touraine 1372-1424 (30) was wounded. Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (35) forbade the ransoming of Scottish prisoners so that he could concentrate on the Welsh. By doing so he created a rift with the Percy family who subsequently defected to Owain ap Gruffudd Glyndŵr (43).

William Stewart of Jedworth and Teviotdale 1356-1402 (46) was executed by Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (38) having been captured.

John Stewart 1st of Dalswinton and Garlies 1370-1420 (32) fought at the Battle of Homildon Hill.

Letter XXX Christine Dunbar Countess of March to Henry IV. 1403. Letter XXX. Christine Dunbar Countess of March to Henry IV (35).

My most excellent and redoubted sovereign lord,.

I recommend myself to you as entirely as terrestrial creature can think or devise to the crowned king of the world, humbly thanking you on my knees for the high favours and benefits that you have conferred upon me before this time, piously supplicating for your gracious continuance, and particularly for the gracious refreshment which you lately sent. May God reward you for it, since I cannot.

My most gracious lord, may it please you to know that my lord my husband (65) and I have been in such hardships and distress since we were banished from our country, that I am yet involved in heavy debt, from which without your gracious aid and succour I cannot deliver myself; and now the pestilence is so violent and severe where we are, that I am very fearful lest I shoald die in this great debt that I have incurred. And by no intreaty that we can make can we obtain sufferance from our enemies to retire to our fortress of Colbrandspath, there to wait till the mortality has ceased. And for this cause I humbly entreat your high royal majesty that you will be pleased to have me in remembrance when you shall find leisure, and help me, that by your gracious relief I may be freed from the debt which makes me sad. Besides this, my most redoubted and gracious lord, we suffer great enmity on account of the death of Sir Henry Percy (38), which oftentimes is so heavy to my husband and his people, that they wish themselves dead, if they may not retire from this country, seeing that the people of the said Sir Henry Percy do nothing but hear comfortable news of you, in order then to do the malice that is in their hearts. And, my most gracious and sovereign lord, touching the capture of our people by those attending on the Earl of Douglas (13) deign to give credence to the bearer of this, and ordain such remedy as you please, according to what the said bearer shall tell you by word of mouth. And I pray most earnestly the ever-blessed God of Heaven to grant you a long life, with all increase of honour and joy, together with victory over yoar enemies; and after this mprtal life may he grant you the kingdom of glory. Amen.

Your humble oratrice, The Countess of March of Scotland.

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Around 1403 Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (39) was appointed 105th Knight of the Garter by his fifth cousin Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (35).

Marriage of Henry IV and Joanna of Navarre

On 07 Feb 1403 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (35) and [his wife] Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England 1370-1437 (33) were married at Winchester. They were third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his wife] Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England 1370-1437 (33) was crowned Queen Consort England. His third marriage, her second. She had eight children with her first husband but, despite ten years of marriage, none with Henry.

On 03 Apr 1403 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (35) and [his wife] Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England 1370-1437 (33) were married by proxy at Eltham Palace with Antoine de Riczi representing [his wife] Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England 1370-1437 (33).

Around May 1403 Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (25) was appointed 104th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).

Battle of Shrewsbury

On 21 Jul 1403 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36), with his son the future [his son] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (16), defeated the rebel army of Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39) at the Battle of Shrewsbury at the site now known as Battlefield Shrewsbury. [his son] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (16) took an arrow to the side of his face leaving him severely scarred. John Stanley 1350-1414 (53) was wounded in the throat. Thomas Strickland 1367-1455 (36) fought and was awarded £38 and two of the rebel Henry's horses. Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (21) fought for the King. Walter Blount 1348-1403 (55), the King's Standard Bearer, was killed by Archibald Douglas 1st Duke Touraine 1372-1424 (31).

Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (59) and Edmund Cockayne 1356-1403 (47) were killed.

Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (25) was killed. Humphrey Stafford succeeded 6th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 7th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.

Hugh Shirley 1351-1403 (52) was killed; he was one of four knights dressed as Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).

Of the rebels, Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (39), Madog Kynaston 1360-1403 (43) and John Clifton -1403 were killed. Thomas Percy 1st Earl Worcester 1343-1403 (60) was beheaded after the battle. Richard Vernon 1355-1403 (48) was hanged.

John Rossall -1403 was killed. His sister Eleanor Rossall 1377-1432 (26) inherited a half-share in the Rossall Shrewsbury estates.

John Massey 1338-1403 (65) was killed.

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On 22 Jul 1403 Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (21) was appointed 99th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).

Around 1404 Edmund Holland 4th Earl Kent 1384-1408 (19) was appointed 106th Knight of the Garter by his second cousin Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).

Around 1404 John Stanley 1350-1414 (54) was appointed 109th Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).

In 1404 Richard Grey 1st or 4th Baron Grey Codnor 1371-1418 (33) was appointed 107th Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).

Around 1404 William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414 (34) was appointed 108th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (36).

Before 15 Feb 1404 [his illegitimate half-brother] Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 and Margaret Neville Countess Dorest 1384-1413 were married. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

In 1405 John Lovell 5th Baron Lovel 1341-1408 (64) was appointed 111th Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (37).

Around 1405 [his future son-in-law] Eric King Norway King Denmark King Sweden 1381-1459 (24) was appointed 110th Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (37).

Letter XXXI Philippa Queen of Portugal to her brother Henry IV. 04 Nov 1405. Letter XXXI. [his sister] Philippa Queen of Portugal (45) to her brother Henry IV (38).

Most high and most puissant prince, my most supremely beloved brother.

I recommend myself to your high nobleness as humbly and entirely as I can or know how with all my entire heart, supremely desiring to hear and know often of your estate and health; and in special of the prosperity of your most genteel person, as good, pleasant, and joyous news as you yourself, most noble prince, could best devise, or in any manner desire, for your sovereign ease and comfort. And because I am certain that you would most willingly hear similar things from here, I signify to you that the king my sovereign lord, all my children, your own nephews, who wish always to be most humbly recommended to you, and I their mother, your own sister, at the making of these presents were all well and hearty of body, thanks to our Creator, who ever maintain you in honour and prosperity according to your desire.

Most high and puissant prince, my best beloved brother, please it you to know that by Mr. John Wiltshire, knight and ambassador of our cousin the Earl of Arundel (20), I am here informed how a sum of gold is yet owing to you by the said earl, which he pledged himself to pay you for the license which it pleased your gracious lordship to grant and give him in his nonage,, that he might marry according to his wish, and in whatever place he saw fitting to his estate. And since you know well, my supremely best-loved brother, that he is now married not after his own seeking but as by your commandment, in part at my instance, I therefore supplicate you, since you are so great and noble a prince, as entirely as I know how, that it will please you to quit claim to the said sum at this my request, in order that I, who am in part the cause of his marriage, may be the cause of the acquittal of the said sum. And if there be anything in these parts which might give you pleasure, may it please you to command and certify it to me, and I will do it to my utmost power without hypocrisy. So I pray our sovereign Lord Jesu ever to give you prosperity, plesaunce, and joy, and very long to endure. Written at the palace of Lisbon, the 4th day of November.

Your entire and loyal sister, P. de P.

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Around 1406 [his niece] Alice Holland Countess Oxford 1392-1406 (14) died.

Letter XXXII Joanna Counters of Westmoreland to her brother Henry IV. 1406. Letter XXXII. [his illegitimate half-sister] Joanna Counters of Westmoreland (27) to her brother Henry IV (38).

Most high and puissant prince, and most excellent sovereign lord,.

I recommend myself to your royal and high lordship in the most obedient manner which, with my whole, entire, and simple heart, I can most humbly do, as she who desires to know of you, and of your most noble estate and most perfect health, such prosperity as your royal and most honourable heart can desire. And may it please your high nobleness to understand that I write now to your royal presence in behalf of your loyal liege and esquire, Christopher Standith, who, as he has certified me, has been in your service in Wales every time you have been there against your enemies, and besides, in all your most honourable journeys since your coronation, in which he has expended the substance that he could acquire of his own and of his friends, in such wise that, whereas he and my well beloved his wife Margaret (daughter to Mr. Thomas Fleming, who was chancellor and servant during his life to my most honoured and redoubted lord your father, whom God assoil) kept house and establishment, they have left it, and the said Margaret is lodged very uncomfortably with her children, of whom she has many, having one or two every year; and all this on account of the great charge which her said husband has incurred and still incurs in your service; to whom, of your gracious goodness and gentleness, you have aforetime promised guerdon of his labour, whenever he should spy out [something] from which [he could have a living] of 40 marks or of 40 pounds. And, most puissant and excellent prince and my most sovereign lord, he is the youngest [and his father has dismissed him from] his service, and that merely because he and his wife married each other for downright love, without thinking this time [what they should have to live upon. Wherefore 1) entreat your most high and puissant lordship to consider that the said Margaret should dwell [in some suitable place, or else with the queen your wife, whom God protect; and that she is come to me trusting that my [intercession] might avail her with you. May it please you to be gracious lord to her and her said husband, and of your guerdon [assist them] to support in their persons poor gentility, that their affiance may turn to good effect for them, and to my honour, if it please you, by their finding succour from your royal and most excellent nobility^ on account of this my most effectual supplication.

Most high and puissant prince and most excellent sovereign lord, I pray God to grant you a most honourable and long life, and preserve you in his most excellent keeping, and give entire joy and gladness as much as your gentle and most noble heart would choose or desire. !Written at the castle of Raby. Your most humble and obedient subject, if it please you, J. DB W.

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On 26 Oct 1406 [his son-in-law] Eric King Norway King Denmark King Sweden 1381-1459 (25) and Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Denmark 1394-1430 (12) were married. She a daughter of Henry IV King England 1367-1413.

John II King Castile Succeeds

On 25 Dec 1406 Henry III King Castile 1379-1406 (27) died. [his nephew] John II King Castile 1405-1454 (1) succeeded II King Castile.

Around 1407 Hugh Burnell 2nd Baron Burnell 1347-1420 (60) was appointed 112th Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (39).

On 16 Jun 1407 John IV Count Armagnac 1396-1450 (10) and [his step-daughter] Blanche Montfort Countess Armagnac 1397-1418 (10) were married. They were second cousins. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

On 26 Jul 1407 Alan IX Viscount Rohan 1382-1462 (25) and [his step-daughter] Marguerite Montfort Viscountess Rohan 1392-1428 (15) were married. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

In 1408 Robert Umfraville 1363-1437 (45) was appointed 116th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (40).

Around 1408 Gilbert Talbot 8th Baron Strange Blackmere 5th Baron Talbot 1383-1419 (25) was appointed 114th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (40).

Before 1408 Edward Charleton 5th Baron Cherleton 1370-1421 was appointed 113th Knight of the Garter by his third cousin once removed Henry IV King England 1367-1413.

Around 1408 John "Good Great" I King Portugal 1357-1433 (50) was appointed 102nd Knight of the Garter by his half fourth cousin Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (40).

In 1409 John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke 1364-1443 (45) was appointed 117th Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin once removed Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (41).

In 1409 Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh 1358-1425 (51) was appointed 115th Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (41).

Around 1410 John Grey 1387-1439 (23) and [his niece] Constance Holland Countess Norfolk Countess Nottingham 1387-1437 (23) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Baroness Grey Ruthyn 1324.

Around 1410 Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham 1373-1415 (37) was appointed 118th Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (42).

On 16 Mar 1410 [his illegitimate half-brother] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (37) died at Hospital of St Katharine's by the Tower Tower Hill. He was buried at St Michael's Chapel. Henry Beaufort 2nd Earl Somerset 1401-1418 (9) succeeded 2nd Earl Somerset 2C 1397.

On 25 Nov 1410 Isabel de Lingen 1370-1447 (40) was granted a Royal License to found a Collegiate Church at St Bartholemew's Church Tong by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (43) at a cost of £40.

In 1411 Thomas Morley 5th Baron Marshal 4th Baron Morley 1354-1416 (57) was appointed 119th Knight of the Garter by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (43).

On 05 Jul 1411 [his illegitimate half-brother] Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (34) was created 1st Earl Dorset 2C 1411. Margaret Neville Countess Dorest 1384-1413 (27) by marriage Countess Dorset.

In Nov 1411 [his son] Thomas Lancaster 1st Duke Clarence 1388-1421 (23) and Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (26) were married. They were first cousins once removed. He a son of Henry IV King England 1367-1413. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Letter XXXIII Catherine Daughter of John of Gaunt Queen of Castile and Leon to her brother Henry IV. 1412. Letter XXXIII. [his half-sister] Catherine Daughter of John of Gaunt Queen of Castile and Leon (38), to her brother Henry IV (44).

Most high and powerful Don Henry, by God's grace king of England and France, lord of Ireland, my most dear and beloved, and with all my heart, and with my entire mind, most cherished brother and lord, I, undoubted Queen of Castile and Leon, mother of the king and his guardian, and Governor of his realms, send to recommend myself to your favour and benediction, and much to salute you as him, to whom I pray that God would give as much health and life with honour as you yourself desire.

Most dear and beloved brother and lord, I entreat that by all means, as continually as you can, you will certify and let me know of your health, and life, and good estate and of the [his wife] Queen (42) your companion, my dearest and best-loved sister; and of the Prince of Wales (25), and the other princes your sons, my dearest and best-loved nephews; by which you will do me most singular pleasure and honour, and it will be a thing which will greatly please me, since it ia one of the most principal things of this world at which my heart is most joyous and consoled. And since, dearest and best-loved brother and lord, I know well that you will be pleased with the same thing, I certify and let you know, that, at the time when this letter was written, the said king my son (6), your dearest and best-loved nephew, and I, and the infantas Donna Maria (10) and Donna Catalina (9) my daughters, your dearest and best-loved nieces, are well, and in good disposition of our persons; praise to God, who thus grant us to continue, and by his same grace grant it to you at all times.

Moreover, dearest and best-loved brother and lord, we give you to know that, having seen your writing which you sent me by John de Samora, your messenger, and understood its contents, whereas I find there how you complain that the truce was past some days before a prolongation was fixed for another following year, according as he will make relation to you. About this, and, moreover, about the coming of your ambassadors, who should come to join themselves with those whom the king my son should send, to see and determine upon the damage and mischief which those who are injured have received of their own goods, f send to you the said John de Samora, who will speak of some things that he will have to say to you from me, and of others which have been already confirmed in my name, which he will tell you. Wherefore, dearest and best-beloved brother and lord, I request you that it would please you to give faith and credence to the things that he will say to you on my part in this matter. Dearest and best-loved brother and lord, may the Holy Trinity ever have you in his holy keeping! Written in the city of Valladolid, the 30th day of July. I THE Queen.

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Letter XXXIV Joanna de Kynnesley to King Henry IV. After 1412. Letter XXXIV. Joanna de Kynnesley to King Henry IV (44).

Supplicates most humbly a poor and simple woman, Joanna de Kynnesley; that whereas John de Kynnesley, her husband, by hate and malice, was put in prison within the castle of Norwich, where he has long lain through false suggestions, that it would please your most gracious lordship, for the love of God, and for the souls of your most noble faher and mother, whom God assoil, to grant and give to your said suppliant your gracious letters, sealed under your seal, made in due form, directed to the Sheriff of the county of Norfolk, charging and straitly commanding him to deliver up the body of the said John out of prison, that he may go at large, to an swer before your royalty, in case any one should accuse him; and she will pray God for you and for your progenitors for ever.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1412. And the same yere the kyng (44) let make to be smetyn newe nowblys, but they were of lasse wyght thenne was the olde nobylle by the paysse of an halpeny wyght, soo that a nobylle shuld wey but iiij d. and halfe a peny, and that l. nowblys shulde make a pounde of Troye wyght.

In 1412 [his son] Thomas Lancaster 1st Duke Clarence 1388-1421 (23) was created 1st Duke Clarence 2C 1412 by his father Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (44). Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (27) by marriage Duchess Clarence.

On 12 Jan 1412 John Mowbray 2nd Duke Norfolk 1392-1432 (20) and [his illegitimate niece] Katherine Neville Duchess Norfolk 1400-1483 (12) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate niece] She by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

Death of King Henry IV Accession of Henry V

On 20 Mar 1413 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (45) died in the Jerusalem Chamber Cheyneygates Westminster Abbey in Westminster Abbey confirming a prophesy that he would die in Jerusalem. [his son] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (26) succeeded V King England. His sons [his son] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (26) and Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (22) were present. He Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (45) was buried in the Chancel of Canterbury Cathedral.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 20 Mar 1413. Ande that same yere the kyng (45) dyde at Westemyster, the xx day of Marche, the yere of oure Lorde Ml CCCC and xij; and he ys byryde at Cauntyrbury be-syde the schryne.

On 10 Jun 1437 [his wife] Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England 1370-1437 (67) died at Havering atte Bower.

Letter XXXVI Constance Baroness Hussey to King Henry IV. 22 May 1441. Letter XXXVI. Constance Baroness Hussey to King Henry IV (74).

To the king our sovereign lord,.

Beseecheth meekly your humble and continual oratrice Dame Constance, the wife of Henry Husee, knight (80), the which was menial servant with the most worthy and Christian king your father, whose soul God assoil, and continued in his service as well beyond the sea as on this side the sea all the times of his noble reign, without any fee or reward; that whereas your said oratrice continued in the service of the noble princess your grandame, whose soul God assoil, as well in the time of your full noble father and ayeul (grandfather) as in yours, unto the time of his dying, in recompense of which service it liked the queen your said grandame, of her grace special, for the term of her life, to grant by her gracious letters patent unto your said oratrice 20/. yearly, to be taken of the issues and profits of the manor of Kingsthorp, in the county of Northampton; and also in likewise 100^. yearly, to be taken of the issues and profits of the manor of Odiham, in the county of Southampton, as in the said letters patent openly appeareth; that it please you of your especial grace tenderly to consider the long service of the said Sir Henry and Dame Constance, that they never had other fee nor reward than the said 25/., the which is now ceased by the death of your said grandame, and thereupon to grant unto your said oratrice, by your several letters patents, the said 25/. in like form as she had it, term of her life, yearly to be taken of the issues and profits of the manors abovesaid. And your said oratrice shall pray God continually for you. Beneath is written — "The Chamberlain of England. My lord hath granted this bill; notwithstanding that it was signed with his ow^n hand, yet he commanded me to endorse it.".

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII April 1509. Apr 1509. Will of Henry VII (52):

At his manor of Richmond March 24 Hen. VII., the King (52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.

Desires to be buried at Westminster, where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame [his former daughter-in-law] Katharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, 5,000l., by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.

His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all 250l, and shall distribute 2,000l. in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,250l. with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.

His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (59), Richard bp of Winchester (61), the bps of London and Rochester (39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thos. Lovell (31), Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson (59), Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.

His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.

Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.

For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.

Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,000l. upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark, and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.

To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the Prince (17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Hen. VII. for the fulfilment of his will.

Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.

Bequest of a dote of 50,000l. for the marriage of Lady Mary (13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Hen. VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the Prince (17), his Council and our said executors.".

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Before 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of William Warham Archbishop of Canterbury 1450-1532. Around 1620 based on a work of 1526.Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Warham Archbishop of Canterbury 1450-1532. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533. 1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: By the king in parliament. 33. Also, on the same Saturday [10 February 1397], a charter of the king made to the earl marshal touching his office of marshal of England, and the gold staff adorned with the emblem of the king's arms which he will carry in his office, was read and delivered to the said earl. The tenor of which charter follows:

The king to the same, greeting. Know that whereas recently by our letters patent of our special grace we granted to our beloved kinsman Thomas, earl of Nottingham, the office of marshal of England, together with the name and honour of earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, with all the fees, profits, and appurtenances whatsoever pertaining in any way to the said office, in perpetuity; as is fully contained in the same letters. We, mindful of the gracious and laudable services often performed by the aforementioned earl, on either side of the sea, for the benefit and honour of us and our kingdom, at no small effort, cost, and charge to him; and wishing therefore to provide for the estate and honour of that earl, of our special grace have granted in our present parliament for us and our heirs to the same earl the said office, and the name, title, and honour of earl marshal of England, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, together with all offices, commodities, profits and other appurtenances whatsoever, both in our courts and elsewhere, relating or pertaining in any way to the same office, in the same manner and as fully, freely, wholly, and peacefully as Thomas Brotherton, lately earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, father of our beloved kinswoman Margaret countess of Norfolk, [widow] of the aforesaid late earl, or Roger Bigod sometime earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, or any other after the death of the same former earl, or the same present earl, had or held the said office of marshal of England in their time.

Willing further and granting for us and our heirs, that the office of marshal of our Bench before us, which John Wicks holds for the term of his life by our grant, and the office of marshal in our treasury which Richard Gascoigne holds for his life by grant of our beloved brother Thomas earl of Kent, lately marshal of England, by our confirmation; and also the office of herald of the marshal before the steward and marshal of our household, which Guy Allesley holds for his life by grant of the lord Edward [III], late king of England, our grandfather, and by our confirmation; which offices after the death of the aforesaid John, Richard and Guy should revert to us and our heirs, after the death of the same John, Richard, and Guy shall remain to the aforementioned earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs in perpetuity. And that the same offices, and all other offices in any of our courts and elsewhere, which pertained, and used to pertain to the said office of marshal of England in times past, shall be fully restored, annexed, and reunited to the said office of marshal of England in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his male heirs may give, grant, or confer those offices on any suitable persons freely and without hindrance as soon as they shall have fallen vacant by death, demise, resignation, surrender, or in any other way, notwithstanding any of our letters patent made to the contrary.

Considering also the vigour and nobility of that earl, and that he may in future the more fittingly and honourably perform and exercise the aforesaid office, we have granted for us and our heirs to the same present earl that he and his said male heirs, marshals of England, by virtue of their aforesaid office should have, carry, and bear, as well in the presence as in the absence of us and our heirs, a certain gold staff, with both ends enamelled in black, and with the emblem of our arms decorating the top of the said staff, and with the emblem of the arms of that earl decorating the bottom of the said staff; notwithstanding that the same present earl in his time, or the aforementioned former earls, or any other who had the said office of marshal of England before this time, used to carry or bear a wooden staff. Witnessed by these, the venerable fathers Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert of London, William of Winchester, John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor, bishops; [his father] John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, Edmund of York, dukes, our beloved uncles; Henry of Derby, Edward of Rutland, Henry of Northumberland, earls; Reginald Grey of Ruthin, Ralph Neville, John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden, dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy, steward of our household, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February 1397.

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Transactions of Shropshire Archaeological Society 3rd Series Volume VIII 1908 Documents Relating to Tong College. The King to all those who shall see, or hear of these our letters, greeting. Know ye that of our special favour, and for the sum of £40- paid into the Treasury of our Chancellor, we have granted and given permission on our own behalf, and, as far as is in our power, on behalf of our heirs, to Isabel, relict of Fulke de Pembrugge, Knight, to Walter Swan [Shaw], clerk, and to William Mosse, clerk, that they may have authority to acquire from our beloved in Christ, the Abbot and Convent of Shrewsbury, which is in our patronage, the patrons of the Church of St. Bartholomew the Apostle, of Tong, in the County of Salop, and diocese of Lichfield, the advowson and patronage of this same Church of Tong, which is held from us in cabile; to be possessed and held for ever of us and our heirs by its due and accustomed services by the same Isabel, Walter, and William, their heirs and assignees; an annual pension of six shillings and eightpence accruing from the fruits and emoluments of this same Church of Tong, which the same Abbot and Convent and their predecessors have been wont to receive from it, being reserved to the same Abbot and Convent and their successors.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Opening of Parliament. 5. The following are assigned to be triers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales, and Scotland:

The archbishop of Canterbury.

[his father] The duke of Guyenne and duke of Lancaster.

[his uncle] The duke of Gloucester.

The bishop of London.

The bishop of Winchester.

The abbot of Westminster.

The earl of Derby.

The earl of Arundel.

The earl of Warwick.

Lord Neville.

Sir Richard le Scrope.

Sir Philip Spenser.

Sir Walter Clopton.

William Thirning.

William Rickhill.

John Wadham.

- to act all together, or at least six of the aforesaid prelates and lords; consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward, and chamberlain, and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the chamberlain's room near the Painted Chamber.

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