Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 September 1665. 30 Sep 1665. Up and to the office, where busy all the morning, and at noon with Sir W. Batten (64) to Coll. Cleggat to dinner, being invited, where a very pretty dinner to my full content and very merry. The great burden we have upon us at this time at the office, is the providing for prisoners and sicke men that are recovered, they lying before our office doors all night and all day, poor wretches.
Having been on shore, the captains won't receive them on board, and other ships we have not to put them on, nor money to pay them off, or provide for them. God remove this difficulty! This made us followed all the way to this gentleman's house and there are waited for our coming out after dinner.
Hither come Luellin to me and would force me to take Mr. Deering's 20 pieces in gold he did offer me a good while since, which I did, yet really and sincerely against my will and content, I seeing him a man not likely to do well in his business, nor I to reap any comfort in having to do with, and be beholden to, a man that minds more his pleasure and company than his business.
Thence mighty merry and much pleased with the dinner and company and they with me I parted and there was set upon by the poor wretches, whom I did give good words and some little money to, and the poor people went away like lambs, and in good earnest are not to be censured if their necessities drive them to bad courses of stealing or the like, while they lacke wherewith to live.
Thence to the office, and there wrote a letter or two and dispatched a little business, and then to Captain Cocke's (48), where I find Mr. Temple, the fat blade, Sir Robert. Viner's (34) chief man. And we three and two companions of his in the evening by agreement took ship in the Bezan and the tide carried us no further than Woolwich about 8 at night, and so I on shore to my wife, and there to my great trouble find my wife out of order, and she took me downstairs and there alone did tell me her falling out with both her mayds and particularly Mary, and how Mary had to her teeth told her she would tell me of something that should stop her mouth and words of that sense. Which I suspect may be about Brown, but my wife prays me to call it to examination, and this, I being of myself jealous, do make me mightily out of temper, and seeing it not fit to enter into the dispute did passionately go away, thinking to go on board again. But when I come to the stairs I considered the Bezan would not go till the next ebb, and it was best to lie in a good bed and, it may be, get myself into a better humour by being with my wife. So I back again and to bed and having otherwise so many reasons to rejoice and hopes of good profit, besides considering the ill that trouble of mind and melancholly may in this sickly time bring a family into, and that if the difference were never so great, it is not a time to put away servants, I was resolved to salve up the business rather than stir in it, and so become pleasant with my wife and to bed, minding nothing of this difference.
So to sleep with a good deal of content, and saving only this night and a day or two about the same business a month or six weeks ago, I do end this month with the greatest content, and may say that these last three months, for joy, health, and profit, have been much the greatest that ever I received in all my life in any twelve months almost in my life, having nothing upon me but the consideration of the sicklinesse of the season during this great plague to mortify mee. For all which the Lord God be praised!
Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 October 1665. 01 Oct 1665. Lord's Day. Called up about 4 of the clock and so dressed myself and so on board the Bezan, and there finding all my company asleep I would not wake them, but it beginning to be break of day I did stay upon the decke walking, and then into the Maister's cabbin and there laid and slept a little, and so at last was waked by Captain Cocke's (48) calling of me, and so I turned out, and then to chat and talk and laugh, and mighty merry. We spent most of the morning talking and reading of "The Siege of Rhodes", which is certainly (the more I read it the more I think so) the best poem that ever was wrote. We breakfasted betimes and come to the fleete about two of the clock in the afternoon, having a fine day and a fine winde. My Lord received us mighty kindly, and after discourse with us in general left us to our business, and he to his officers, having called a council of wary, we in the meantime settling of papers with Mr. Pierce and everybody else, and by and by with Captain Cuttance.
Anon called down to my Lord, and there with him till supper talking and discourse; among other things, to my great joy, he did assure me that he had wrote to the King (35) and Duke (31) about these prize-goods, and told me that they did approve of what he had done, and that he would owne what he had done, and would have me to tell all the world so, and did, under his hand, give Cocke (48) and me his certificate of our bargains, and giving us full power of disposal of what we have so bought. This do ease my mind of all my fear, and makes my heart lighter by £100 than it was before. He did discourse to us of the Dutch fleete being abroad, eighty-five of them still, and are now at the Texell, he believes, in expectation of our Eastland ships coming home with masts and hempe, and our loaden Hambrough ships going to Hambrough. He discoursed against them that would have us yield to no conditions but conquest over the Dutch, and seems to believe that the Dutch will call for the protection of the King of France (27) and come under his power, which were to be wished they might be brought to do under ours by fair means, and to that end would have all Dutch men and familys, that would come hither and settled, to be declared denizens; and my Lord did whisper to me alone that things here must break in pieces, nobody minding any thing, but every man his owne business of profit or pleasure, and the King (35) some little designs of his owne, and that certainly the Kingdom could not stand in this condition long, which I fear and believe is very true.
So to supper and there my Lord the kindest man to me, before all the table talking of me to my advantage and with tenderness too that it overjoyed me.
So after supper Captain Cocke (48) and I and Temple on board the Bezan, and there to cards for a while and then to read again in "Rhodes" and so to sleep. But, Lord! the mirth which it caused me to be waked in the night by their snoaring round about me; I did laugh till I was ready to burst, and waked one of the two companions of Temple, who could not a good while tell where he was that he heard one laugh so, till he recollected himself, and I told him what it was at, and so to sleep again, they still snoaring.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 November 1665. 27 Nov 1665. Up, and being to go to wait on the Duke of Albemarle (56), who is to go out of towne to Oxford to-morrow, and I being unwilling to go by water, it being bitter cold, walked it with my landlady's little boy Christopher to Lambeth, it being a very fine walke and calling at half the way and drank, and so to the Duke of Albemarle (56), who is visited by every body against his going; and mighty kind to me: and upon my desiring his grace to give me his kind word to the Duke of Yorke (32), if any occasion there were of speaking of me, he told me he had reason to do so; for there had been nothing done in the Navy without me.
His going, I hear, is upon putting the sea business into order, and, as some say, and people of his owne family, that he is agog to go to sea himself the next year. Here I met with a letter from Sir G. Carteret (55), who is come to Cranborne, that he will be here this afternoon and desires me to be with him. So the Duke would have me dine with him.
So it being not dinner time, I to the Swan, and there found Sarah all alone in the house.... So away to the Duke of Albemarle (56) again, and there to dinner, he most exceeding kind to me to the observation of all that are there. At dinner comes Sir G. Carteret (55) and dines with us.
After dinner a great deal alone with Sir G. Carteret (55), who tells me that my Lord hath received still worse and worse usage from some base people about the Court. But the King (35) is very kind, and the Duke do not appear the contrary; and my Chancellor (56) swore to him "by—-I will not forsake my Lord of Sandwich (40)". Our next discourse is upon this Act for money, about which Sir G. Carteret (55) comes to see what money can be got upon it. But none can be got, which pleases him the thoughts of, for, if the Exchequer should succeede in this, his office would faile. But I am apt to think at this time of hurry and plague and want of trade, no money will be got upon a new way which few understand. We walked, Cocke (48) and I, through the Parke with him, and so we being to meet the Vice-Chamberlayne to-morrow at Nonsuch, to treat with Sir Robert Long (65) about the same business, I into London, it being dark night, by a hackney coach; the first I have durst to go in many a day, and with great pain now for fear. But it being unsafe to go by water in the dark and frosty cold, and unable being weary with my morning walke to go on foot, this was my only way. Few people yet in the streets, nor shops open, here and there twenty in a place almost; though not above five or sixe o'clock at night.
So to Viner's (34), and there heard of Cocke (48), and found him at the Pope's Head, drinking with Temple. I to them, where the Goldsmiths do decry the new Act, for money to be all brought into the Exchequer, and paid out thence, saying they will not advance one farthing upon it; and indeed it is their interest to say and do so.
Thence Cocke (48) and I to Sir G. Smith's (50), it being now night, and there up to his chamber and sat talking, and I barbing [shaving] against to-morrow; and anon, at nine at night, comes to us Sir G. Smith (50) and the Lieutenant of the Tower (50), and there they sat talking and drinking till past midnight, and mighty merry we were, the Lieutenant of the Tower (50) being in a mighty vein of singing, and he hath a very good eare and strong voice, but no manner of skill. Sir G. Smith (50) shewed me his lady's closett, which was very fine; and, after being very merry, here I lay in a noble chamber, and mighty highly treated, the first time I have lain in London a long time.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 December 1665. 11 Dec 1665. Lay long with great pleasure talking. So I left him and to London to the 'Change, and after discoursed with several people about business; met Mr. Gawden at the Pope's Head, where he brought Mr. Lewes and T. Willson to discourse about the Victualling business, and the alterations of the pursers' trade, for something must be done to secure the King (35) a little better, and yet that they may have wherewith to live.
After dinner I took him aside, and perfected to my great joy my business with him, wherein he deals most nobly in giving me his hand for the £4,000, and would take my note but for £3500. This is a great blessing, and God make me thankfull truly for it. With him till it was darke putting in writing our discourse about victualling, and so parted, and I to Viner's (34), and there evened all accounts, and took up my notes setting all straight between us to this day. The like to Colvill, and paying several bills due from me on the Tangier account.
Then late met Cocke (48) and Temple at the Pope's Head, and there had good discourse with Temple, who tells me that of the £80,000 advanced already by the East India Company, they have had £5000 out of their hands. He discoursed largely of the quantity of money coyned, and what may be thought the real sum of money in the Kingdom. He told me, too, as an instance of the thrift used in the King's business, that the tools and the interest of the money-using to the King (35) for the money he borrowed while the new invention of the mill money was perfected, cost him £35,000, and in mirthe tells me that the new fashion money is good for nothing but to help the Prince (45) if he can secretly get copper plates shut up in silver it shall never be discovered, at least not in his age.
Thence Cocke (48) and I by water, he home and I home, and there sat with Mr. Hill (35) and my wife supping, talking and singing till midnight, and then to bed1. (The passage between brackets is from a piece of paper inserted in this place.)
1. That I may remember it the more particularly, I thought fit to insert this additional memorandum of Temple's discourse this night with me, which I took in writing from his mouth. Before the Harp and Crosse money was cried down, he and his fellow goldsmiths did make some particular trials what proportion that money bore to the old King's money, and they found that generally it come to, one with another, about £25 in every £100. Of this money there was, upon the calling of it in, £650,000 at least brought into the Tower; and from thence he computes that the whole money of England must be full £6,250,000. But for all this believes that there is above £30,000,000; he supposing that about the King's coming in (when he begun to observe the quantity of the new money) people begun to be fearfull of this money's being cried down, and so picked it out and set it a-going as fast as they could, to be rid of it; and he thinks £30,000,000 the rather, because if there were but £16,250,000 the King (35) having £2,000,000 every year, would have the whole money of the Kingdom in his hands in eight years. He tells me about £350,000 sterling was coined out of the French money, the proceeds of Dunkirke; so that, with what was coined of the Crosse money, there is new coined about £1,000,000 besides the gold, which is guessed at £500,000. He tells me, that, though the King (35) did deposit the French money in pawn all the while for the £350,000 he was forced to borrow thereupon till the tools could be made for the new Minting in the present form, yet the interest he paid for that time came to £35,000, Viner (34) having to his knowledge £10,000 for the use of £100,000 of it.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 December 1665. 14 Dec 1665. Up, and to the office a while with my Lord Bruncker (45), where we directed Sir W. Warren in the business of the insurance as I desired, and ended some other businesses of his, and so at noon I to London, but the 'Change was done before I got thither, so I to the Pope's Head Taverne, and there find Mr. Gawden and Captain Beckford and Nick Osborne going to dinner, and I dined with them and very exceeding merry we were as I had [not] been a great while, and dinner being done I to the East India House and there had an assignment on Mr. Temple for the £2,000 of Cocke's (48), which joyed my heart; so, having seen my wife in the way, I home by water and to write my letters and then home to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 December 1666. 12 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where some accounts of Mr. Gawden's were examined, but I home most of the morning to even some accounts with Sir H. Cholmly (34), Mr. Moone, and others one after another. Sir H. Cholmly (34) did with grief tell me how the Parliament hath been told plainly that the King (36) hath been heard to say, that he would dissolve them rather than pass this Bill with the Proviso; but tells me, that the Proviso is removed, and now carried that it shall be done by a Bill by itself.
He tells me how the King (36) hath lately paid about £30,0001 to clear debts of my Baroness Castlemayne's (26); and that she and her husband (32) are parted for ever, upon good terms, never to trouble one another more.
He says that he hears £400,000 hath gone into the Privypurse since this warr; and that that hath consumed so much of our money, and makes the King (36) and Court so mad to be brought to discover it.
He gone, and after him the rest, I to the office, and at noon to the 'Change, where the very good newes is just come of our four ships from Smyrna, come safe without convoy even into the Downes, without seeing any enemy; which is the best, and indeed only considerable good newes to our Exchange, since the burning of the City; and it is strange to see how it do cheer up men's hearts. Here I saw shops now come to be in this Exchange, and met little Batelier, who sits here but at £3 per annum, whereas he sat at the other at £100, which he says he believes will prove of as good account to him now as the other did at that rent.
From the 'Change to Captain Cocke's (49), and there, by agreement, dined, and there was Charles Porter (35), Temple, Fenn, Debasty, whose bad English and pleasant discourses was exceeding good entertainment, Matt. Wren (37), Major Cooper, and myself, mighty merry and pretty discourse.
They talked for certain, that now the King (36) do follow Mrs. Stewart (19) wholly, and my Baroness Castlemayne (26) not above once a week; that the Duke of York (33) do not haunt my Lady Denham (26) so much; that she troubles him with matters of State, being of my Lord Bristoll's (54) faction, and that he avoids; that she is ill still.
After dinner I away to the office, where we sat late upon Mr. Gawden's accounts, Sir J. Minnes (67) being gone home sick. I late at the office, and then home to supper and to bed, being mightily troubled with a pain in the small of my back, through cold, or (which I think most true) my straining last night to get open my plate chest, in such pain all night I could not turn myself in my bed. Newes this day from Brampton, of Mr. Ensum, my sister's (25) sweetheart, being dead: a clowne.
1. Two thousand pounds of this sum went to Alderman Edward Bakewell (48) for two diamond rings, severally charged £1000 and £900, bought March 14th, 1665-66 (Second addenda to Steinman's "Memoir of the Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1878, p. 4.).
Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 June 1667. 23 Jun 1667. Lord's Day. Up to my chamber, and there all the morning reading in my Lord Coke's Pleas of the Crowne, very fine noble reading. After church time comes my wife and Sir W. Pen (46) his lady (43) and daughter (16); and Mrs. Markham and Captain Harrison (who come to dine with them), by invitation end dined with me, they as good as inviting themselves. I confess I hate their company and tricks, and so had no great pleasure in [it], but a good dinner lost.
After dinner they all to church, and I by water alone to Woolwich, and there called on Mr. Bodham: and he and I to see the batterys newly raised; which, indeed, are good works to command the River below the ships that are sunk, but not above them. Here I met with Captain Cocke (50) and Matt. Wren (38), Fenn, and Charles Porter (35), and Temple and his wife. Here I fell in with these, and to Bodham's with them, and there we sat and laughed and drank in his arbour, Wren (38) making much and kissing all the day of Temple's wife.
It is a sad sight to see so many good ships there sunk in the River, while we would be thought to be masters of the sea. Cocke (50) says the bankers cannot, till peace returns, ever hope to have credit again; so that they can pay no more money, but people must be contented to take publick security such as they can give them; and if so, and they do live to receive the money thereupon, the bankers will be happy men. Fenn read me an order of council passed the 17th instant, directing all the Treasurers of any part of the King's revenue to make no payments but such as shall be approved by the present Lords Commissioners; which will, I think, spoil the credit of all his Majesty's service, when people cannot depend upon payment any where. But the King's declaration in behalf of the bankers, to make good their assignments for money, is very good, and will, I hope, secure me. Cocke (50) says, that he hears it is come to it now, that the King (37) will try what he can soon do for a peace; and if he cannot, that then he will cast all upon the Parliament to do as they see fit: and in doing so, perhaps, he may save us all.
The King of France (28), it is believed, is engaged for this year1 so that we shall be safe as to him. The great misery the City and kingdom is like to suffer for want of coals in a little time is very visible, and, is feared, will breed a mutiny; for we are not in any prospect to command the sea for our colliers to come, but rather, it is feared, the Dutch may go and burn all our colliers at Newcastle; though others do say that they lie safe enough there. No news at all of late from Bredagh what our Treaters do.
By and by, all by water in three boats to Greenwich, there to Cocke's (50), where we supped well, and then late, Wren, Fenn, and I home by water, set me in at the Tower, and they to White Hall, and so I home, and after a little talk with my wife to bed.
1. Louis XIV (28).was at this time in Flanders, with his Queen (28), his mistresses, and all his Court. Turenne commanded under him. Whilst Charles was hunting moths at Baroness Castlemaine's (26), and the English fleet was burning, Louis was carrying on the campaign with vigour. Armentieres was taken on the 28th May; Charleroi on the 2nd June, St. Winox on the 6th, Fumes on the 12th, Ath on the 16th, Toumay on the 24th; the Escarpe on the 6th July, Courtray on the 18th, Audenarde on the 31st; and Lisle on the 27th August. B.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 December 1667. 30 Dec 1667. Up before day, and by coach to Westminster, and there first to Sir H. Cholmly (35), and there I did to my great content deliver him up his little several papers for sums of money paid him, and took his regular receipts upon his orders, wherein I am safe.
Thence to White Hall, and there to visit Sir G. Carteret (57), and there was with him a great while, and my Lady and they seem in very good humour, but by and by Sir G. Carteret (57) and I alone, and there we did talk of the ruinous condition we are in, the King (37) being going to put out of the Council so many able men; such as my Lord Anglesey (53), Ashly (46), Hollis (68), Secretary Morrice (65) (to bring in Mr. Trevor), and the Archbishop of Canterbury (69), and my Lord Bridgewater (44). He tells me that this is true, only the Duke of York (34) do endeavour to hinder it, and the Duke of York (34) himself did tell him so: that the King (37) and the Duke of York (34) do not in company disagree, but are friendly; but that there is a core in their hearts, he doubts, which is not to be easily removed; for these men do suffer only for their constancy to the Chancellor (58), or at least from the King's ill-will against him: that they do now all they can to vilify the clergy, and do accuse Rochester [Dolben]... and so do raise scandals, all that is possible, against other of the Bishops. He do suggest that something is intended for the Duke of Monmouth (18), and it may be, against the Queene (58) also: that we are in no manner sure against an invasion the next year: that the Duke of Buckingham (39) do rule all now, and the Duke of York (34) comes indeed to the Caball, but signifies little there. That this new faction do not endure, nor the King (37), Sir W. Coventry (39); but yet that he is so usefull that they cannot be without him; but that he is not now called to the Caball. That my Lord of Buckingham (39), Bristoll (55), and Arlington (49), do seem to agree in these things; but that they do not in their hearts trust one another, but do drive several ways, all of them. In short, he do bless himself that he is no more concerned in matters now; and the hopes he hath of being at liberty, when his accounts are over, to retire into the country. That he do give over the Kingdom for wholly lost. So after some other little discourse, I away, meeting with Mr. Cooling. I with him by coach to the Wardrobe, where I never was since the fire in Hatton Garden, but did not 'light: and he tells me he fears that my Lord Sandwich (42) will suffer much by Mr. Townsend's being untrue to him, he being now unable to give the Commissioners of the Treasury an account of his money received by many thousands of pounds, which I am troubled for.
Thence to the Old Exchange together, he telling me that he believes there will be no such turning out of great men as is talked of, but that it is only to fright people, but I do fear there may be such a thing doing. He do mightily inveigh against the folly of the King (37) to bring his matters to wrack thus, and that we must all be undone without help. I met with Cooling at the Temple-gate, after I had been at both my booksellers and there laid out several pounds in books now against the new year. From the 'Change (where I met with Captain Cocke (50), who would have borrowed money of me, but I had the grace to deny him, he would have had 3 or £400) I with Cocke (50) and Mr. Temple (whose wife was just now brought to bed of a boy, but he seems not to be at all taken with it, which is a strange consideration how others do rejoice to have a child born), to Sir G. Carteret's (57), in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and there did dine together, there being there, among other company, Mr. Attorney Montagu (49), and his fine lady, a fine woman.
After dinner, I did understand from my Lady Jemimah that her brother Hinchingbroke's business was to be ended this day, as she thinks, towards his match, and they do talk here of their intent to buy themselves some new clothes against the wedding, which I am very glad of.
After dinner I did even with Sir G. Carteret (57) the accounts of the interest of the money which I did so long put out for him in Sir R. Viner's (36) hands, and by it I think I shall be a gainer about £28, which is a very good reward for the little trouble I have had in it.
Thence with Sir Philip Carteret (26) to the King's playhouse, there to see "Love's Cruelty", an old play, but which I have not seen before; and in the first act Orange Moll come to me, with one of our porters by my house, to tell me that Mrs. Pierce and Knepp did dine at my house to-day, and that I was desired to come home. So I went out presently, and by coach home, and they were just gone away so, after a very little stay with my wife, I took coach again, and to the King's playhouse again, and come in the fourth act; and it proves to me a very silly play, and to everybody else, as far as I could judge. But the jest is, that here telling Moll how I had lost my journey, she told me that Mrs. Knepp was in the house, and so shews me to her, and I went to her, and sat out the play, and then with her to Mrs. Manuel's, where Mrs. Pierce was, and her boy and girl; and here I did hear Mrs. Manuel and one of the Italians, her gallant, sing well. But yet I confess I am not delighted so much with it, as to admire it: for, not understanding the words, I lose the benefit of the vocalitys of the musick, and it proves only instrumental; and therefore was more pleased to hear Knepp sing two or three little English things that I understood, though the composition of the other, and performance, was very fine.
Thence, after sitting and talking a pretty while, I took leave and left them there, and so to my bookseller's, and paid for the books I had bought, and away home, where I told my wife where I had been. But she was as mad as a devil, and nothing but ill words between us all the evening while we sat at cards—W. Hewer (25) and the girl by—even to gross ill words, which I was troubled for, but do see that I must use policy to keep her spirit down, and to give her no offence by my being with Knepp and Pierce, of which, though she will not own it, yet she is heartily jealous. At last it ended in few words and my silence (which for fear of growing higher between us I did forbear), and so to supper and to bed without one word one to another.
This day I did carry money out, and paid several debts. Among others, my tailor, and shoemaker, and draper, Sir W. Turner (52), who begun to talk of the Commission of accounts, wherein he is one; but though they are the greatest people that ever were in the nation as to power, and like to be our judges, yet I did never speak one word to him of desiring favour, or bidding him joy in it, but did answer him to what he said, and do resolve to stand or fall by my silent preparing to answer whatever can be laid to me, and that will be my best proceeding, I think. This day I got a little rent in my new fine camlett cloak with the latch of Sir G. Carteret's (57) door; but it is darned up at my tailor's, that it will be no great blemish to it; but it troubled me. I could not but observe that Sir Philip Carteret (26) would fain have given me my going into a play; but yet, when he come to the door, he had no money to pay for himself, I having refused to accept of it for myself, but was fain; and I perceive he is known there, and do run upon the score for plays, which is a shame; but I perceive always he is in want of money1. In the pit I met with Sir Ch. North (31), formerly Mr. North, who was with my Lord at sea; and he, of his own accord, was so silly as to tell me he is married; and for her (36) quality (being a Lord's daughter, my Lord Grey (74)), and person, and beauty, and years, and estate, and disposition, he is the happiest man in the world. I am sure he is an ugly fellow; but a good scholar and sober gentleman; and heir to his father, now Lord North (74), the old Lord being dead.
1. The practice of gallants attending the Theatre without payment is illustrated by Mr. Lowe in his "Betterton (32)", from Shadwell's "True Widow": "1st Doorkeeper. Pray, sir, pay me: my masters will make me pay it. 3d Man. Impudent rascal, do you ask me for money? Take that, sirrah. 2nd Doorkeeper. Will you pay me, sir? 4th Man. No; I don't intend to stay. 2nd Doorkeeper. So you say every day, and see two or three acts for nothing"..