Biography of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

1327 Abdication of Edward II

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1361 Creation of Garter Knights

1361 Death of Henry of Grosmont

1361 Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

1362 Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

1367 Battle of Nájera

1376 Good Parliament

1376 Death of the Black Prince

1377 Death of Edward III

1381 Peasant's Revolt

1382 Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

1385 Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

1389 Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

1392 Death of Isabella of Castile

1396 Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

1396 Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

1397 Legitimation of the Beauforts

1397 John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

1396 Battle of Nicopolis

1397 Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

1397 Richard II Rewards his Supporters

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1415 Southampton Plot

1485 Birth of Catherine of Aragon

Abdication of Edward II

On 25 Jan 1327 [his grandfather] King Edward II of England (42) abdicated II King England. His son King Edward III England (14) succeeded III King England.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

On 24 Jan 1328 [his father] King Edward III England (15) and Philippa of Hainault (13) were married at York Minster. They were second cousins. He a son of King Edward II of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. She by marriage Queen Consort England.

On 06 Mar 1340 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 was born to [his father] King Edward III England (27) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (25) at the Prinsenhof Palace in Ghent.

In 1342 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (1) was created 1st Earl Richmond 5C 1342. It isn't clear whether his older brothers [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (11) and Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (3) had been created Earls before this time.

On 12 May 1343 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (12) was created Prince of Wales.

In 1344 Ralph Stafford -1347 and [his future sister-in-law] Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (4) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

In 1352 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) and Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (19) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) by marriage 4th Earl Ulster. She was the sole heir of her father and brought the de Burgh inheritance of the lands of Ulster to the marriage. As a consequence of their earlier betrothal he had been called Earl Ulster since 1347.

In 1352 William Wittelsbach I Duke Lower Bavaria 1330-1389 (21) and [his future sister-in-law] Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (12) were marriedin London He a great x 4 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Duchess Lower Bavaria. William Wittelsbach I Duke Lower Bavaria 1330-1389 (21) by marriage 5th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

Double Royal Wedding

In May 1359 [his father] King Edward III England (46) and his son Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (28) took part in a tournament in London. For the amusement of the citizens both Edwards and their friends dressed as the mayor and aldermen of London. The tournament possibly in celebration of the two Royal marriages of his children John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) on 19 May 1359.

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey whereby two children of [his father] King Edward III England (46) were married:

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and [his wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his wife] She by marriage Countess Richmond.

John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) and [his sister] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a daughter of King Edward III England. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) was a ward of [his father] King Edward III England (55) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later on 12 Sep 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague.

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On 31 Mar 1360 [his daughter] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (20) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (15) at Leicester Castle. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

1361 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1361 [his father] King Edward III England (48) created three of his sons as Garter Knights ...

35th [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (22).

36th John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (20).

37th [his brother] Edmund of Langley (19).

38th Edward Despencer 1st Baron Despencer 3rd Baron Burghesh 1335-1375 (25).

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Death of Henry of Grosmont

On 23 Mar 1361 [his former father-in-law] Henry of Grosmont (51) died at Leicester Castle. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark.

[his former wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (15) succeeded 5th Earl Lancaster and 2nd Earl Derby 2C 1337. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (21) by marriage Earl Lancaster, Earl Derby 2C 1337. Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (21) succeeded 5th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

On 10 Oct 1361 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (31) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (33) were married at Windsor Castle. They were half first cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Princess of Wales. His first wife, her second (or third depending on how you count them) husband. She had four children already. They had known each other since childhood. Thirty-one and thirty-three respectively. A curious choice for the heir to the throne; foreign princesses were usual. They were married nearly fifteen years and had two children.

In 1362 [his son] John Lancaster 1362-1365 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (21) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (16). He a grandson of King Edward III England.

In 1362 [his brother] Edmund of Langley (20) was created 1st Earl Cambridge 2C 1362.

On 10 Apr 1362 [his former sister-in-law] Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria 1339-1362 (23) died. Her sister Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (17) succeeded 6th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (22) by marriage 6th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265 adding a fourth Earldom to Earl Richmond 5C 1342, Earl Lancaster and Earl Derby 2C 1337.

Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

On 13 Nov 1362, his fiftieth birthday, [his father] King Edward III England (50) created two sons as Dukes ...

[his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (23) was created 1st Duke Clarence 1C 1362. Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (30) by marriage Duchess Clarence.

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (22) was created 1st Duke Lancaster 2C 1362. [his former wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (17) by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

Before 21 Feb 1363 [his daughter] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 at Burford. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In 1365 [his son] Edward Lancaster 1365-1365 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (24) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (19). He a grandson of King Edward III England. In 1365 [his son] Edward Lancaster 1365-1365 died. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark.

On 27 Jul 1365 Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons 1340-1397 (25) and [his sister] Isabella Plantagenet Countess Bedford and Soissons 1332-1382 (33) were married at Windsor Castle. She a daughter of King Edward III England.

In 1366 [his son] John Lancaster 1366-1367 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (25) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (20). He a grandson of King Edward III England. In 1367 [his son] John Lancaster 1366-1367 (1) died. He was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark.

After 1367 John Savile of Shelley and Golcar 1325-1399 transferred his allegiance to the new duke, John of Gaunt, becoming a member of the latter’s affinity, at a fee of £20 a year during this period. In return for his annuity he took part in at least three expeditions to France.

Battle of Nájera

On 03 Apr 1367 the forces of Peter "Cruel" I King Castile 1334-1369 (32) commanded by Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (36) defeated the army of Henry "Fratricide" II King Castile 1334-1379 (33) at the Battle of Nájera at Nájera. The English forces included John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (27), William Scrope 1325-1367 (42), Peter Courtenay 1346-1405 (21), John Devereux 1st Baron Devereux 1337-1393 (30), John Savile of Shelley and Golcar 1325-1399 (42), Bernard Brocas 1330-1395 (37) and Thomas Banastre 1334-1379 (33).

The forces of Henry "Fratricide" II King Castile 1334-1379 (33) included Bertrand Geusclin 1320-1380 (47). The battle achieved little since Bertrand Geusclin 1320-1380 (47) escaped.

John Ferrers 4th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1331-1367 (36) was killed. His son Robert Ferrers 5th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1358-1413 (9) succeeded 5th Baron Ferrers Chartley. Margaret Despencer Baroness Ferrers Chartley -1415 by marriage Baroness Ferrers Chartley.

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On 15 Apr 1367 [his son] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (27) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (22) at Bolingbroke Castle. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

In 1368 [his daughter] Isabel Lancaster 1368-1368 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (27) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (22). She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In Jun 1368 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) and Violante Visconti 1354-1386 (14) were married in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore Milan. He a son of King Edward III England. The wedding festivities were lavish and ostentatious. The banquet, held outside, included 30 courses of meat and fish presented fully gilded. Between the courses the guests were given gifts such as suits of armor, bolts of cloth, war horses, arms, and hunting dogs. Among the guests were Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400 (25), Petrarch, Jean Froissart and John Hawkwood.

On 12 Sep 1368 [his former wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (23) died at Tutbury Castle. Her last words were said to be "Souveyne vous de moi" ("Don't forget me") the 'S' of which was possibly subsequently represented on the Lancastrian Esses Collar. She was buried at St Paul's Cathedral.

On 07 Oct 1368 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) died from poisoning at Alba. Duke Clarence 1C 1362 extinct. There was strong speculation he had been poisoned by his wife's (14) father (48). He was buried at Clare Priory. His daughter Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (13) succeeded 5th Earl Ulster.

On 15 Aug 1369 [his mother] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (55) died at Windsor Castle. She was given a state funeral six months later on 09 Jan 1370 at which she was interred at on the northeast side of the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey. Her alabaster effigy was executed by sculptor Jean de Liège.

On 24 Aug 1369 Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl Dunbar aka March 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 (17) and [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (14) were married at Reading Abbey. They were fourth cousins. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess March. Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl Dunbar aka March 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 (17) by marriage 5th Earl Ulster.

In 1370 Sir Godfrey Foljambe (26) the younger (son of the eminent lawyer and retainer of John of Gaunt (29)) confirmed him in possession of part of the manors of Over Haddon, Rowsley, Wardlow, Monyash and Chelmorton in Derbyshire, which were to Gaunt (29) himself.

On 21 Sep 1371 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (31) and Constance of Castile (17) were married at Roquefort, Landes He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster. His younger brother Edmund of Langley (30) married Constance's sister in July 1372.

After 21 Sep 1371 Isabella of Castile accompanied her sister Constance of Castile to England after her marriage to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399.

On 09 Feb 1372 Constance of Castile (18), the wife of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (31) made a ceremonial entryin London.

On 11 Jul 1372 [his brother] Edmund of Langley (31) and Isabella of Castile (17) were married at Wallingford. He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Cambridge. She being the younger sister of Constance of Castile (18) who had married Edmund's older brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (32) a year before.

In 1373 [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (32) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (22). He a grandson of King Edward III England.

On 31 Mar 1373 [his daughter] Catherine of Lancaster was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (33) and Constance of Castile (19) at Hertford Castle. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In Apr 1373 Gaunt’s (33) receiver was ordered to pay the 30 archers whom Saville (48) and Sir Robert Rockley had commanded on one of these recent operations. Sir John (48) probably had the duke (33) to thank for the knighthood which was bestowed upon him in the late 1360s; and he also acquired the marriage of Elizabeth Thornton (16), one of his patron’s wards, albeit for ‘un grant somme’.

In 1374 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (18) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (8) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

In 1374 [his son] John Lancaster 1374-1375 was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (33) and Constance of Castile (20). He a grandson of King Edward III England.

In 1375 [his illegitimate son] Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (34) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (24). He a grandson of King Edward III England.

Good Parliament

In 1376 John Savile of Shelley and Golcar 1325-1399 (51) was elected MP Yorkshire in the Good Parliament. During the Good Parliament, he was sufficiently trusted to conduct Thomas Caterton from Queenborough Castle for interrogation before Parliament. Caterton had been appealed for treason by Sir John Annesley, and the court party, including Gaunt (35), was anxious to protect him from attack. In the event, they were able to hold off the opposition, despite some damning revelations about their conduct of the war-effort. The duke (35) himself was singled out for particular criticism, and during the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 he fled into Scotland, leaving his Savoy Palace to be destroyed by the London mob. Gaunt (35) was, understandably, reluctant to cross the border again without the protection of a sizeable bodyguard. In late Jun 1376, therefore, his leading retainers in the north were instructed to provide an escort for his journey to Knaresborough. Not only did John Savile of Shelley and Golcar 1325-1399 (51) mobilize a personal retinue of ten men-at-arms and 40 archers; he also helped to suppress the rebellion in the north by serving on two commissions for the punishment of insurgents.

In 1376 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (20) was created 1st Earl Essex 4C 1376. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (10) by marriage Countess Essex.

Death of the Black Prince

On 08 Jun 1376 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (45) died of dysentery at Westminster Palace. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. His son Richard (9) succeeded King England. His niece Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (20) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England.

On 05 Oct 1376 Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (14) and [his niece] Philippa Guines Duchess Ireland 1367-1411 (9) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Oxford.

In 1377 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (21) was created 1st Earl Buckingham 3C 1377. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (11) by marriage Countess Buckingham.

Around Jan 1377 [his illegitimate son] Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (36) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (26). He a grandson of King Edward III England.

Death of Edward III

On 21 Jun 1377 [his father] King Edward III England (64) died of a stroke at Sheen Palace. He was buried in the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor. His grandson King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (10) succeeded II King England.

In 1379 [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (38) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (28). She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Before 07 Nov 1379 Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester 1373-1400 and [his niece] Constance York Countess Gloucester 1374-1416 were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Gloucester.

Around 1380 Thomas Erpingham 1355-1428 (25) was knighted by John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (39).

In 1380 Thomas Erpingham 1355-1428 (25) joined John of Gaunt's (39) service as an Esquire.

On 24 Jun 1380 [his son-in-law] John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke 1372-1389 (7) and Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (17) were married at Kenilworth Castle. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

After 24 Jun 1380 [his son-in-law] John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke 1372-1389 and Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 marriage annulled since she had become pregnant by John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 who she subsequently married. It isn't clear whether John Holland was punished; he was half-brother to King Richard II of England 1367-1400 through their mother Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385.

In 1381 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (8) and Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (8) were married. They were half first cousins once removed. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

On 05 Feb 1381 [his son] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (13) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (13) were married at Arundel Castle. They were second cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Peasant's Revolt

Patent Rolls Richard II 1381 1385. 15 Jun 1381. Commission of oyer and terminer to William Walleworth, mayor of London, Robert Bealknapp, Robert Knolles, Nicholas Brembre, John Philipot, Robert Launde, and William Cheyne, on information that great crowds of labourers and others have collected together, especially in the counties of Essex, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Middlesex, compelled their betters to go with them, killed many of the king's lieges, and burned many houses, entered the city of London, and burned the house of the king's uncle John, duke of Lancaster (41), called the 'Sauveye,' and the priory in Clerkenwelle of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and killed Simon, archbishop of Canterbury (65) and chancellor, and Robert de Hales (56), prior of the said Hospital. By К. June 15. London.

On 05 Jan 1382 [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (26) died at Cork. She was buried at Wigmore. Her son Roger Mortimer 4th Earl Dunbar aka March 6th Earl Ulster 1374-1398 (7) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England, 6th Earl Ulster

Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

On 20 Jan 1382 [his nephew] King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (15) and Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (15) were married at Westminster Abbey by Robert Braybrooke Bishop of London -1404. They were fourth cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort England.

It was the first royal wedding that including a Royal Procession from the Tower of London to Westminster Abbey.

Arranged by Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (52) the marriage not popular since it brought no dowry and little prospect of increased trade since Bohemia not a primary English trade partner.

On 05 Oct 1382 [his sister] Isabella Plantagenet Countess Bedford and Soissons 1332-1382 (50) died.

In Nov 1384 Henry of Bar 1362-1397 (22) and [his niece] Marie de Coucy Countess Soissons 1366-1405 (18) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In Dec 1384 Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (40) was retained for life by John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (44) in peace and war at an annual fee of 20 marks, charged upon the township of Bensall in Derbyshire [Note. Possibly Bonsall]. The benefits were certainly not all one-sided, for Wensley was expected to use his own influence as a member of the local bench and crown commissioner on the duke's behalf when the occasion demanded.

Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

On 06 Aug 1385 [his brother] Edmund of Langley (44) was created 1st Duke York 1C 1385 by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (18). Isabella of Castile (30) by marriage Duchess York.In 1385 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (29) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1C 1385, and around the same time 1st Duke Gloucester 1C 1385.Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (19) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale and Duke Gloucester 1C 1385.

On 24 Jun 1386 [his son-in-law] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (34) and Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (23) were married at Plymouth. They were half second cousins once removed. He a great grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 02 Feb 1387 [his son-in-law] John "Good Great" I King Portugal 1357-1433 (29) and Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 (26) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort Portugal.

In Feb 1388 Thomas Wendesley 1344-1403 (44) was commissioned to arrest persons charged with damaging John of Gaunt's (47) property.

Before 17 Sep 1388 [his son-in-law] Henry III King Castile 1379-1406 and Catherine of Lancaster were married at Palencia Cathedral. They were half second cousins. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

In Sep 1389 the Scrope vs Grosvenor Case was brought to the Court of Chivalry. Up to that time two families, Scrope and Grosvenor, had been using the armorial Scrope: Azure, a bend or.

Several hundred witnesses were called including John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (49), Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400 (46) and John Savile of Shelley and Golcar 1325-1399 (64).

On 03 Sep 1386 Owain Glyndŵr (27) gave evidence at the Church of John the Baptist Chester.

The Court decided in favour of Scrope.

Neither party was happy with the decision so [his nephew] King Richard II (22) was called upon to give his personal verdict.

On 27 May 1390 [his nephew] he confirmed that Grosvenor could not bear the undifferenced arms.

As a consequence of the case the Grosvenor has for many years used the name Bendor for horses and nicknames.

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Around 1390 Thomas Stafford 3rd Earl Stafford 1368-1392 (22) and [his niece] Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford 1383-1438 (7) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Stafford.

On 25 Feb 1390 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (17) was created 1st Earl Rutland 1C 1390. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (17) by marriage Countess Rutland.

In 1391 [his son-in-law] Robert Ferrers 2nd Baron Ferrers Wem 1373-1393 (18) and Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (12) were married at Beaufort en Vallée. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Baroness Ferrers Wem.

Death of Isabella of Castile

On 23 Dec 1392 Isabella of Castile (37) died. She the wife of [his brother] Edmund of Langley (51). Isabella had travelled to England with her sister Constance of Castile (38) who had married Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (52). Isabella and Edmund's marriage was not, apparently, a happy one. She is known to have had an affair with John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (40) who may have been the father of Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (7) progenitor of the House of York.

On 04 Nov 1393 [his brother] Edmund of Langley (52) and Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 (13) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Duchess York.

In 1394 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (21) was created 1st Earl Cork. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (21) by marriage Countess Cork.

On 24 Mar 1394 Constance of Castile (40) died at Leicester Castle. She was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark.

Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

On 13 Jan 1396 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (55) and [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (45) were married at Lincoln Cathedral. He a son of King Edward III England. [his wife] She by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

On 31 Oct 1396 [his nephew] King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (29) and Isabella Valois Queen Consort England 1389-1409 (6) were married. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. The marriage being one of the terms of a twenty-eight year peace treaty with France. He twenty-nine, she six. The marriage sowed the seeds subsequent rebellion since there was no prospect of an heir to secure the Crown.

William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414 (26) attended.

Before 29 Nov 1396 [his son-in-law] Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 and Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Baroness Neville Raby.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The [his nephew] king (29) at this time resided at Eltham, whither he had summoned all his vassals and dependants. He had collected round London, in the counties of Kent and Essex, upwards of ten thousand archers, and had with him his [Note. maternal half-brother] brother sir John Holland (45), the earl marshal (28), the earl of Salisbury (47), with many other great barons and knights. The [his nephew] king (29) sent orders to the citizens of London not to admit the duke of Lancaster (56) within their walls; but they replied, they knew of no reason why they should refuse him admittance, and the duke resided there with his son the earl of Derby (29), as did the duke of York (55) with his son the earl of Rutland (24). The king loved the earl of Rutland (24) and the earl marshal (28) beyond measure: the first dissembled his opinions concerning the death of the duke of Gloucester (41), and would willingly have seen peace restored on both sides. He said, that his late uncle (41) had on several occasions treated the [his nephew] king (29) very unbecomingly. The Londoners considered, also, that great mischiefs might befal England from these dissensions between the king, his uncles, and their supporters; that, since the duke of Gloucester (41) was now dead, it could not be helped; and that he, in some measure, had been the cause of it, by his too great freedom of speech, and from his attempts to excite the people of England to break the truces that had been signed between France and England. The citizens, therefore, prudently dissembled their thoughts; and, as what was done could not now be undone, they feared, should matters be pushed to extremities, they might suffer very considerably in their commerce from th king of France.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The resentments of the citizens began to cool, and they offered to mediate between the [his nephew] king (29) and the duke of Lancaster (56), who was mightily angered by the murder of his brother (41). He bethought himself, however, that as his [his nephew] nephew (29) was married to the daughter (7) of the king of France (28), should he wage war against [his nephew] king Richard (29), his two daughters married in Castille and Portugal might suffer for it, from the French carrying a war into those countries. The duke (56) was beside forced to change his mind, whether he would or not, froii; the solicitations of the citizens of London and some of the English prelates, who had been the mediators between the king and his uncles. The king obtained peace, on promising from that day forward to be solely guided by the advice of the duke of Lancaster (56), engaging never to do anything without first consulting him. The promise, however, he paid not any regard to, but followed the counsels of the rash and evil-minded, for which hereafter he severely suffered, as shall be related in this history. Thus did the [his nephew] king of England (29) gain peace from his uncles for the murder of the duke of Gloucester (41), and now governed more fiercely than before. He went with his state to Pleshy in Essex, which had belonged to his uncle of Gloucester (41), and should have descended to his son Humphrey (16) as heir to his father; but the king took possession of it, for it is the rule in England for the king to have the wardship of all children who have lost their fathers, and are under twenty-one years of age at which period their estates are restored to them. [his nephew] King Richard (29) took his cousin Humphrey of Gloucester (16) in ward, appropriating all his possessions to his own profit. He made him live with him, and the duchess (31) and her two daughters with the queen (7).

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. Thus were affairs carried on in England, and daily going from bad to worse, as you will find it related. When the dukes of Lancaster (56) and [his brother] York (55) heard of their brother's (41) death at Calais, they instantly suspected the king (29) their nephew was guilty of it. At the time, they were not together, but each at his country-seat, according to the custom in England. They wrote to each other to consult how they should act on the occasion, and hastened to London because they knew the citizens were very angry at the event. On their arrival, they had several meetings, and declared that the putting the duke of Gloucester (41) to death for some foolish words ought not to be passed over in silence, nor borne; for, although he had warmly opposed the treaty with France, he had not acted upon it; that there was an essential difference between talking and acting, and that words alone did not deserve the severe punishment he had suffered, and that this matter must be inquired into and amended. The two brothers were in a situation to have thrown England into confusion, for there were enow who would have supported them, more especially all the kindred of the late earl of Arundel (51), which is a powerful family in England, and the family of the earl of Stafford.

Legitimation of the Beauforts

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 28. Be it remembered that on Tuesday, the fifteenth day of the parliament [4 February 1397], the chancellor (53), by order of the [his nephew] king (30), declared that our holy father the pope, in reverence of the most excellent person of the [his nephew] king (30) and his honourable uncle the duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster (56), and of his blood, has enabled and legitimized my lord John Beaufort (24), his brothers [Note. Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (22) and Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (20)], and his sister (18). And therefore our lord the king, as sole ruler of his kingdom of England, for the honour of his blood, willed and enabled of his abundant royal power, and legitimized, of his own authority, the said John, his said brothers, and sister. And he also pronounced and published the ability and legitimation, according to the form of the charter of the king made thereon.

John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Of the appointment of the earl of Somerset. 32. The [his nephew] king (30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman John Beaufort (24), knight, son of our beloved uncle John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and Edmund of York (55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (53), bishops; Henry of Derby (29), Edward of Rutland (24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (28), earls; Reginald Grey (35), Ralph Neville (33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 30. Also, on the Saturday [10 February 1397], the chancellor (53) announced by the [his nephew] king's (30) command that reason willed that one should honour and enhance the estate of worthy and virtuous persons. Wherefore the [his nephew] king (30) - considering the nobility and virtue of his cousin [his illegitimate son] Sir John Beaufort (24), son of his uncle of Guyenne and Lancaster (56), and the great honour he had done his person on various expeditions and labours in many kingdoms and lands overseas, to the great honour of the king and kingdom; and also to encourage him and others to do such honour; and also to strengthen the royal sceptre which could best be supported in honour by worthy and valiant persons - had, of his royal dignity and special grace, made and created the said John an earl, and given him the name and honour of the earl of Somerset, to have to him and his male heirs lawfully engendered of his body, with twenty pounds a year to be taken from the issues and profits of the county of Somerset for his title and the name of earl.

Note. On 10 Feb 1397 [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Earl Somerset 2C 1397.

Battle of Nicopolis

On 18 Feb 1397 Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons 1340-1397 (57) died whilst a prisoner following the Battle of Nicopolis without male issue. Earl Bedford 2C 1366 extinct. Count Soissons 1367. His daughter [his niece] Marie de Coucy Countess Soissons 1366-1405 (30) succeeded Count Soissons 1367.

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

Around 08 Sep 1397 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42) was murdered in Calais for his role as leader of the Lords Appellant. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1C 1385 extinct. His son Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham 1381-1399 (16) succeeded 2nd Earl Buckingham 3C 1377.

Walter Clopton Chief Justice -1400 was part of the inquiry into his death the outcome of which is not known. A John Hall was executed for the murder.

Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 [his nephew] King Richard II (30) rewarded his relations with Dukedoms possibly for their part in the arrest, trial and execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) ...

His older half-brother [his son-in-law] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (45) was created 1st Duke Exeter 1C 1397. Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (34) by marriage Duchess Exeter.

His nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (23) was created 1st Duke Surrey.

His second cousin once removed Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 1C 1397 probably for arranging the murder of [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42). Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 1366-1425 (31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His first cousin [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2C 1397. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale.

His illegitimate first cousin [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset 2C 1397, 1st Marquess Dorset 1C 1397. Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset.

[his son-in-law] Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (33) was created 1st Earl Westmoreland 1C 1397. Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (18) by marriage Countess Westmoreland.

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On 27 Nov 1397 [his illegitimate son] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) and Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) were married. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Countess Somerset.

On 28 Jun 1398 Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (20) and [his niece] Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford 1383-1438 (15) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Stafford. She had, around eight years previously, married his brother Thomas Stafford 3rd Earl Stafford 1368-1392 (30) who had died in 1392.

Before 07 Oct 1398 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 and Philippa Mohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess York 1367-1431 were married. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The [his nephew] king (31) had it proclaimed that he would hold a solemn feast at his palace at Eltham on Palm Sunday, and sent particular invitations to the dukes of Lancaster (58) and York (57) and their children, who, not suspecting any mischief, came thither. When the day of the feast was arrived, and all the lords had retired after dinner with the king to his council-chamher, the earl marshal (30), having settled in his own mind how to act and what to say, cast himself on his knees before the [his nephew] king (31), and thus addressed him "Very dear and renowned lord, I am of your kindred, your liege man and marshal of England; and I have heside sworn on my loyalty, my hand within yours, that I would never conceal from you anything I might hear or see to your prejudice, on pain of being accounted a disloyal traitor. This I am resolved never to be, but to acquit myself before you and all the world." The king, fixing his eyes on him, asked, " Earl marshal (30), what is your meaning in saying thus? We will know it." "Very dear lord," replied the earl, " as I have declared, I will not keep any secret from you: order the earl of Derby (31) to come to your presence, and I will speak out." The earl of Derby (31) was called for, and the king made the earl marshal (30) rise, for he addressed him on his knees. On the earl of Derby's (31) arrival, who thought no harm, the earl marshal (30) spoke as follows: "Earl of Derby (31), I charge you with having thought and spoken disrespectfully against your natural lord the king of England, when you said he was unworthy to hold his crown: that without law or justice, or consulting his council, he disturbed the realm; and that, without any shadow of reason, he banished those valiant men from his kingdom who ought to be its defenders, for all of which I present my glove, and shall prove, my body against yours, that you are a false and wicked traitor."

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The [his son] earl of Derby (31) was confounded at this address, and retired a few paces, without demanding from the duke his father (58), or any of his friends, how he should act. Having mused a while, he advanced, with his hood in his hand, towards the king (31), and said, " Earl marshal (30), I say that thou art a false and wicked traitor, which I will bodily prove on thee, and here is my glove." The earl marshal (30), seeing his challenge was accepted, showed a good desire for the combat, by taking up the glove and saying, — "I refer your answer to the good pleasure of the king (31) and the lords now present. I will prove that what you have said is false, and that my words are true." Each of these lords then withdrew with his friends, and the time for serving wine and spices was passed by; for the king (31) showed he was sore displeased, and retired to his chamber and shut himself within it. His two uncles [Note. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) and Edmund of Langley (57)] remained without with their children, as did the earls of Salisbury (48) and Huntingdon (46), the king's brother [Note. John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (46) was the King's maternal half-brother].

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. Soon afterward, the [his nephew] king (31) called to him his uncles [Note. John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) and Edmund of Langley (57)], and demanded from them how he was to act on this occasion. " Sire, order your constable hither, and we will tell you." The earl of Rutland (25), constable of England, being sent for, came, and he was told, — " Constable go to the earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30), and oblige them to promise not to quit the kingdom without the king's permission." The constable obeyed the order, and returned to the king's apartment. You may believe the whole court was greatly troubled by this event, and many barons and knights were much displeased, who blamed the earl marshal for his conduct; but what he had said he could not now retract, and he showed by his manners that he made light of it, so arrogant and swollen with pride was his heart. The lords now separated, each for his own home. The duke of Lancaster (58), in spite of appearances, was much vexed at what had passed, and his opinion was, that the king should not have listened to such a charge, but instantly have annihilated it; and in this he was joined by the more sensible barons of the country.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The [his son] earl of Derby (31) resided in London, for he had his house there, and kept up his state. The duke of Lancaster (58), the duke of York (57), the earl of Northumberland (56), and many other great lords, for he was much beloved, were his securities to appear and answer the challenge. The earl marshal (30) was sent to the Tower of London, where he lived with his household. These two lords made ample provision of all things necessary for the combat; and the [his son] earl of Derby (31) sent off messengers to Lombardy to have armour from sir Galeas, duke of Alilan. The duke complied with joy, and gave the knight, called sir Francis, who had brought the message, the choice of all his armour for the [his son] earl of Derby (31). When he had selected what he wished for in plated and mail armour, the lord of Milan, out of his abundant love to the earl, ordered four of the best armourers in Milan to accompany the knight to England, that the [his son] earl of Derby (31) might be more completely armed. The earl marshal (30), on the other hand, sent into Germany, whence he thought he should be ably assisted by his friends. Each provided himself most magnificently, to outshine the other; but the greater splendour was shown by the earl of Derby, for I must say that, when the earl marshal undertook this business, he expected to have been better supported than he was by the king. It was hinted to the king, by those near his person, — "Sire, you have no occasion to interfere further in this matter: dissemble your thoughts, and leave them to themselves: they are fully capable of managing it. The earl of Derby is wondrous popular in the kingdom, but more especially in London; and, should the citizens perceive that you take part with the earl marshal against the earl of Derby, you will irrecoverably lose their affection."

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 95. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the [his nephew] king of England (31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of Lancaster (58) and York (57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (56), Salisbury (48) and Huntingdon (46). The earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The [his nephew] king (31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,— " Well then, I order that the earl marshal (30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the earl of Derby (31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The earl of Derby (31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's,1 he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of Castillo (25) and of Portugal (38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be hapi)y to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the [his nephew] king (31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without liope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by Isim and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30).

Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. — Ed.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The duke of Lancaster (58) was much vexed and melancholy at seeing the [his nephew] king of England (31), his nephew, thus badly conduct himself, but knew not to whom to open his thoughts. He, like a wise man, considered the consequences that might ensue, and at times said to those he most confided in, " Our nephew will ruin everything before he have done: he too readily listens to evil counsellors, who will destroy him and his kingdom. Should he live long, he will lose by little and little all it has cost his predecessors and us so much pains to gain. He encourages discord between his nobles and great lords, bv whom he ought to be honoured and served, and the country guarded. He has put my brother (43) to death, for it is now notorious he ordered it, and likewise the earl of Arundel (52), because they told him the truth; but this he refuses to hear, and will not listen to any one who does not flatter his own imaginations. He cannot sooner ruin his country than by exciting hatreds among his nobility and principal towns. The French are too subtle a race, for one misfortune that befals us they would wish ten, as they can never obtain their ends, or recover their domains, but through ourselves; and everv day there are examples of the misery of kingdoms when divided. Such has been the unfortunate lot of France, Castille, Naples, and the Roman state; and the present schism is the ruin of the contending popes, as well as the church. Flanders is another example which we have seen of self-destraction. Friesland is at this moment in a similar state, oppressed by the war of the count of Hainault, and ruining themselves by domestic quarrels. We shall be in the same situation unless God prevent it, from the appearance of the present state of affairs. The king has consented that my son and heir, for I have none other by my first two marriages, should be challenged to mortal combat for a mere trifle; and I, his father (58), dare not say a word against it, in regard to my own and my son's honour; for my son has the feelings of a knight, and is of sufficient strength to encounter the earl marshal (30). Howbeit, let the best be made of it, they will never again love each other as they did before." Such were the conversations of the duke of Lancaster (58).

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The two earls, in the mean time, were making every preparation for their combat. The duke of Lancaster (58) never went near the king, and as seldom saw his [his son] son (31), acting throughout with great good sense. He knew the [his son] earl of Derby (31) was very popular with all ranks in England, but more particularly with the Londoners, who waited on him, and addressed him, — " [his son] Earl of Derby (31), make your mind easy: whatever may be the event of this combat it will turn out to your honour, in spite of the king and all his minions. We know well how things are managed, and what will be the result of them: this accusation has been invented by envy, to cause your banishment out of the kingdom, where they are aware you are so greatly beloved by all ranks and sexes; and should you be forced to quit us in sorrow, you shall return in joy, for you are more worthy to rule than Richard of Bordeaux (31). Whoever may choose to search the matter to the bottom, to discover the real origin of you both, will soon see that you have a greater right to the crown of England than he who wears it, although we have paid him homage, and acknowledged him for king these twenty years; but that was obtained by the entreaties of your grandfather, king Edward of happy memory, who was suspicious of what we hint, and feared the consequences. There was once a serious dispute on this subject between king Edward and your grandfather by your mother's side, duke Henry of Lancaster, but the great lords interfered and made up matters between them. King Edward was valiant and successful in all his enterprises, and had gained the love of his subjects high and low. Your grandfather of Lancaster only required from the king what was just, and served him and his kingdom so loyally, that his conduct deserved the commendation of all. Every one who knew him called him their old father. These things are worthy of king Richard's consideration, and may make him repent, if anji;hing can, at his leism-e, that he has not more prudently governed." Such conversations did many of the nobles and citizens of London hold with the earl of Derby, who was pleased with their affection, and received them kindly. He did not, however, neglect any preparations for his combat, but sent to every one of his friends throughout England, to entreat their company at the appointed day and place.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 96. After 19 Oct 1398. When the day of his exile drew near, he went to Eltham where the [his nephew] king (31) resided. He found there his father (58), the duke of York (57) his uncle, and with them the earl of Northumberland (56), sir Henry Percy (34) his son, and a great many barons and knights of England, vexed that his ill fortune should force him out of England. The greater part of them accompanied him to the presence of the [his nephew] king (31), to learn his ultimate pleasure as to this banishment. The [his nephew] king (31) pretended that he was very happy to see these lords: he entertained them well, and there was a full court on the occasion. The earl of Salisbury (48), and the earl of Huntingdon (46), who had married the duke of Lancaster's (58) daughter (35), were present, and kept near to the earl of Derby (31), whether through dissimulation or not I am ignorant. When the time for the earl of Derby's (31) taking leave arrived, the [his nephew] king (31) addressed his cousin with great apparent humility, and said, "that as God might help him, the words which had passed between him and the lord marshal had much vexed him; and that he had judged the matter between them to the best of his understanding, and to satisfy the people, who had murmured greatly at this quarrel. Wherefore, cousin," he added, " to relieve you somewhat of your pain, I now remit four years of the term of your banishment, and reduce it to six years instead often. Make your preparations, and provide accordingly." "My lord," replied the earl, "I humbly thank you; and, when it shall be your good pleasure, you will extend your mercy." The lords present were satisfied with the answer, and for this time were well pleased with the [his nephew] king's (31) behaviour, for he received them kindly. Some of them returned with the earl of Derby (31) to London. The earl's baggage had been sent forward to Dover, and he was advised by his father, on his arrival at Calais, to go straight to Paris, and wait on the king of France (29) and his cousins the princes of France, for by their means he would be the sooner enabled to shorten his exile than by any other. Had not the duke of Lancaster earnestly pressed this matter, like a father anxious to console his son, he would have taken the direct road to the count d'Ostrevant in Hainault.

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Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) died at Leicester Castle. [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (48) was by his side. He was buried at St Paul's Cathedral.

He was buried in the Choir of St Paul's Cathedral with his first wife [his former wife] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (53).

[his son] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster 2C 1362, 7th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

[his nephew] King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) witheld [his son] the future Henry IV's (31) inheritance from him giving [his son] Henry (31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

Close Rolls Richard II 1396 1399 V6. 07 Jun 1399. Westminster Palace. To the keepers, occupiers, receivers or farmers of the lordship of Kyngeston in Dorsete for the time being. Order so long as the same shall remain in the king's hand to pay to John Swelle esquire 20 marks a year, which by a writing indented, confirmed by the king, John late duke of Lancastre (59) granted him for life, to be taken of the issues of the said lordship.

On 10 May 1403 [his wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (52) died. She was buried in Lincoln Cathedral.

Southampton Plot

On 31 Jul 1415, when King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (28) was in Portchester Castle preparing to invade France, Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl Dunbar aka March 7th Earl Ulster 1391-1425 (23) revealed the Southampton Plot to him (28). Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham 1373-1415 (42), Thomas Grey of Werke and Heaton 1384-1415 (30), and [his nephew] Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (30) were intending to replace King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (28) with Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl Dunbar aka March 7th Earl Ulster 1391-1425 (23) as King of England based on Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl Dunbar aka March 7th Earl Ulster 1391-1425 (23) having a better claim to the throne being descended from Edward III's second son Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (76) whereas King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (28) was descended from the third son John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (75).

Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1385-1452 (30), Richard Vere 11th Earl Oxford 1385-1417 (29), Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (27) and Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys 1351-1421 (64) sat in judgement.

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After 20 May 1475. St Mary's Church Ewelme. Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475. Wrist Garter. The effigy was, apparently, viewed to determine how a lady should wear the garter at the re-commencement of Lady of the Garter appointments in 1901 after a gap of several hundred years. A particularly fine Cadaver Underneath the chest on which Alice's effigy lies. Full-length in a shroud. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields.

Detail of the South Side of the Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71). From left to right ...

1 Roet impaled Chaucer Modern. Alice's paternal grandparents.

2 De La Pole impaled Stafford. Her third husbands parents Michael Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk 1361-1415 and Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk 1376-1419 (99).

3 Montacute and Monthermer impaled Francis? Possibly Alice's second husband's parents John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 and Maud Francis Countess Salisbury 1364-1424.

4 De La Pole quartered Chaucer Modern.

5 Roet impaled Chaucer Modern.

6 Chaucer Modern.

7 De La Pole.

8 De La Pole impaled England Henry IV signifying Alice's son John's (32) marriage to Elizabeth of York (31) sister of King Edward IV (33).

Detail of the North Side of the monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71). Arms from left to right ...

1 De La Pole quartered Chaucer Modern impaled Unknown.

2 De La Pole. Her third husband William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (78).

3 De La Pole quarted Chaucer Modern. Alice's son John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (32) by her second husband William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (78).

4 Chaucer. Alice's father Thomas Chaucer 1367-1434.

5 Montacute and Monthermer quartering impaled Chaucer. Alice's second husband Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (86).

6 Roet. Alice's paternal grandmother [his former sister-in-law] Philippa Roet 1346-1387.

7 Roet impaling England Henry IV probably signifying John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 and [his former wife] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403, Katherine being the sister of Alice's paternal grandmother [his former sister-in-law] Philippa Roet 1346-1387 who married Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400.

8 Roet impaling Chaucer Modern. Her paternal grandparents Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400 and [his former sister-in-law] Philippa Roet 1346-1387.

Birth of Catherine of Aragon

On 16 Dec 1485 Catherine of Aragon was born to Ferdinand II King Aragon 1452-1516 (33) and Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (34). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She was possibly named after her Great Grandmother [his daughter] Catherine of Lancaster daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 and Constance of Castile.

Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon. Around 1490. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504. Around 1502. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1552. 28 Feb 1552. The xxviij day of Feybruarii was bered the nobull [lady the] contes of Penbroke (36), and syster to the late qwyne (39) and wyffe [to the] nobull Kyng Henry the viij. late kyng, and the good lade [the] contes of Penbroke the wyche she ded at Benard Castle, and so cared unto Powlls. Ther was a C. [Note. 100] powre men and women had mantylle fryse gownes, then cam the haroldes, [then] the corse, and a-bowt her viij baners rolls of armes, and then cam the mornars boyth lordes and knyghts and gentyll men, and then cam the lades mornars and gentyll women mornars ij C. [then the] gentyll men and gentyll women, and after cam in cotts ij C. servandes and odur servandes, and she was bered by the tombe of [the duke] of Lankaster [Note. At St Paul's Cathedral], and after her banars wher sett up over her [and her] armes sett on dyvers pelers,—the vj King Edward vjth.

Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of [possibly] Anne Parr Countess Pembroke 1515-1552. In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548. Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 October 1641. 08 Oct 1641. Being the morning I came away, I went to see the Prince's Court, an ancient, confused building, not much unlike the Hofft, at the Hague: there is here likewise a very large Hall, where they vend all sorts of wares. Through this we passed by the chapel, which is indeed rarely arched, and in the middle of it was the hearse, or catafalco, of the late Archduchess, the wise and pious Clara Eugenia. Out of this we were conducted to the lodgings, tapestried with incomparable arras, and adorned with many excellent pieces of Rubens (64), old and young Breugel, Titian, and Stenwick, with stories of most of the late actions in the Netherlands.

By an accident, we could not see the library. There is a fair terrace which looks to the vineyard, in which, on Pedestals, are fixed the statues of all the Spanish kings of the house of Austria. The opposite walls are painted by Rubens (64), being an history of the late tumults in Belgia: in the last piece, the Archduchess shuts a great pair of gates upon Mars, who is coming out of hell, armed, and in a menacing posture; which, with that other of the Infanta taking leave of Don Philip the Fourth, is a most incomparable table.

From hence, we walked into the park, which for being entirely within the walls of the city is particularly remarkable; nor is it less pleasant than if in the most solitary Recesses; so naturally is it furnished with whatever may render it agreeable, melancholy, and country-like. Here is a stately heronry, divers springs of water, artificial cascades, rocks, grots, one whereof is composed of the extravagant roots of trees cunningly built and hung together with wires. In this park are both fallow and red deer.

From hence, we were led into the Menage, and out of that into a most sweet and dehcious garden, where was another grot of more neat and costly materials, full of noble statues, and entertaining us with artificial music; but the hedge of water, in form of lattice-work, which the fountaineer caused to ascend out of the earth by degrees, exceedingly pleased and surprised me; for thus with a pervious wall, or rather a palisade hedge of water, was the whole parterre environed.

There is likewise a fair aviary; and in the court next it are kept divers sorts of animals, rare and exotic fowl, as eagles, cranes, storks, bustards, pheasants of several kinds, and a duck having four wings. In another division of the same close are rabbits of an almost perfect yellow colour.

There was no Court now in the palace, the Infante Cardinal (32), who was the Governor of Flanders, being dead but newly, and every one in deep mourning.

At near eleven o'clock, I repaired to his Majesty's (40) agent. Sir Henry De Vic (42), who very courteously received me, and accommodated me with a coach and six horses, which carried me from Brussels to Ghent, where it was to meet my Lord of Arundel (56), Earl Marshal of England, who had requested me when I was at Antwerp to send it for him, if I went not thither myself.

Thus taking leave of Brussels and a sad Court, yet full of gallant persons, (for in this small city, the acquaintance being universal, ladies and gentlemen, I perceived, had great diversions and frequent meetings,) I hasted towards Ghent. On the way, 1 met with divers little waggons, prettily contrived and full of peddling merchandises, dravm by mastiff-dogs, harnessed completely like so many coachhorses; in some four, in others six, as in Brussels itself I had observed. In Antwerp I saw, as I remember, four dogs draw five lusty children in a chariot: the master commands them whither he pleases, crying his wares about the streets. After passing through Ouse, by six in the evening, I arrived at Ghent. This is a city of so great a circumference, that it is reported to be seven leagues round; but there is not half of it now built, much of it remaining in fields and desolate pastures even within the walls, which have strong gates towards the west, and two fair churches.

Here I beheld the Palace wherein John of Gaunt and Charles V were born; whose statue stands in the market-place, upon a high pillar, with his sword drawn, to which (as I was told) the magistrates and burghers were wont to repair upon a certain day every year with ropes about their necks, in token of submission and penance for an old rebellion of theirs; but now the hemp is changed into a blue ribbon. Here is planted the basilisco, or great gun, so much talked of. The Lys and the Scheldt meeting in this vast city, divide it into twenty-six islands, which are united by many bridges, somewhat resembling Venice. This night I supped with the Abbot of Andoyne, a pleasant and courteous priest.

In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. In 1630 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 and wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1629 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. 1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Opening of Parliament. 5. The following are assigned to be triers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales, and Scotland:

The archbishop of Canterbury.

The duke of Guyenne and duke of Lancaster.

[his brother] The duke of Gloucester.

The bishop of London.

The bishop of Winchester.

The abbot of Westminster.

[his son] The earl of Derby.

The earl of Arundel.

The earl of Warwick.

Lord Neville.

Sir Richard le Scrope.

Sir Philip Spenser.

Sir Walter Clopton.

William Thirning.

William Rickhill.

John Wadham.

- to act all together, or at least six of the aforesaid prelates and lords; consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward, and chamberlain, and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the chamberlain's room near the Painted Chamber.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. You may suppose, that when news was carried to Pleshy of the [his brother] duke of Gloucester's arrest, the duchess and her children were greatly dismayed, and, since such a bold measure had been taken, were much afraid of the consequences. Suspecting the [his brother] duke's life was in great danger, they consulted sir John Laquingay what would be best for them now to do. The knight advised them to send instantly to the dukes of Lancaster and York, the duke's brothers; for by their mediation, perhaps, the king's choler would be appeased. He saw no other means, as the king would not choose to make them his enemies. The duchess of Gloucester followed this advice of the knight, and instantly despatched messengers to both, for they resided at a distance from each other. They were much enraged at hearing their [his brother] brother was arrested, and returned answers to the duchess, not to be too much distressed at what had happened, for the king would not dare to treat him otherwise than by fair and legal measures, for it would not be suffered. This answer comforted the duchess and her children.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: On behalf of the archbishop prior and chapter of Canterbury. 27. Be it remembered that the venerable father Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, earnestly prayed to the lord king in the present parliament that whereas his church of Canterbury, by the gift and grant of his noble and holy progenitors, which the same king graciously confirmed, had such prerogative over the other churches of England that whatsoever archbishop of Canterbury for the time being had custody of all lordships, manors, tenements, and rents with appurtenances which were held of the same church in chief during the minority of the heirs of their tenants, even though the same tenants elsewhere held in chief of the lord king; and now concerning the castle and manor of Tonbridge, which by virtue of this prerogative were in the custody of William de Courtenay, late archbishop of Canterbury now deceased, predecessor of the present archbishop, on the day on which he died, by reason of the minority of the heir of the earl of Stafford deceased, who held the aforesaid castle and manor from the aforesaid former archbishop in chief, dispute and controversy between the present archbishop and the executors of the will of the aforesaid late archbishop are pending at present. And whereas a certain composition was drawn up a short while ago between the archbishop of Canterbury and the prior and chapter of the church of Canterbury on the matter, it pleased the lord king, having inspected and examined that composition, to order a view and settlement of the matter for the peace and right of his said church of Canterbury, as should seem best to his royal majesty, to whose ordinance and decree on the foregoing the same archbishop proclaimed himself to be firmly obedient in all things, whereupon the same lord king immediately appointed the venerable fathers Robert archbishop of York, Robert bishop of London and John bishop of Ely, and John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and John earl of Huntingdon, and Thomas the earl marshal, to inspect and examine that composition, and further to discuss and settle the matter at their discretion, and fully to inform the lord king of what their deed and action should be. And later on Monday, the last day of the aforesaid parliament [10 February 1397], the archbishop of York, and the bishops, and the aforesaid duke and earls thus appointed by order of the lord king in the same parliament returned their decree and ordinance on the aforesaid matter by Walter Clopton, the lord king's justice, in this form - namely, that the third part of all manors, lands, and tenements of the inheritance of the aforesaid heir, and the issues, profits, and revenues of the same from the time of the death of the aforesaid late archbishop, should, according to the form of the aforesaid composition, remain and be in the hands of the aforesaid prior and chapter, to be used for their own purposes; and that two parts of the aforesaid lands and tenements, with the issues, profits, and revenues of the same two parts, should remain likewise in the hands of that prior and chapter, safely and securely to keep until the lord king shall have ordained to whom those said two parts of the issues, profits, and revenues shall be delivered and has declared his will thereon. And the castle of Tonbridge will be delivered to the aforesaid present archbishop of Canterbury without delay, to remain in his hands and keeping until the the coming of age of the aforesaid heir. The which ordinance and decree thus rendered by the archbishop of York, bishops, duke and earls, the aforesaid lord king, approving thereof, ordered to be placed on record on the roll of parliament at the request of the aforesaid present archbishop of Canterbury.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Protestation of the Commons. 7. Also, the following Tuesday [23 January 1397], the commons presented Sir John Bushy as their common speaker, with whom the [his nephew] king was well pleased. And then the said Sir John prayed of the king that he might make a protestation that if he should say anything through ignorance or otherwise which had not been agreed by his companions, etc., that he might be corrected by his said companions; to which the king agreed, as he should by right and reason. And on the same day the duke of Lancaster asked the king to do justice to Sir Thomas Talbot, etc.. And then the chancellor explained to the commons that although he had explained in general the reason for summoning the parliament, on the morrow following, at eight o'clock [24 January 1397], the officers would explain it more particularly, that the commons might be better informed; and they were ordered to make haste in the business of parliament. And later the chancellor, at the king's command, charged all the lords spiritual and temporal to be at parliament each day at nine o'clock at the latest, and that no lord should absent himself in any way without the special permission of the king himself.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The reason for the said promise expounded by the king himself. 11. And further, on the other hand, the [his nephew] king, recalling that on the second day of parliament [23 January 1397], his uncle of Lancaster made him a request regarding certain grievances inflicted on him by Sir Thomas Talbot, whereof it was his wish that justice be done as an example to such lawlessness, and saying that had he been greater or lesser, of whatever condition he had been within his realm, who committed wrong, excess, or oppression against any of his lieges contrary to the law, of which he had knowledge of the truth, that he would deliver full justice and punishment thereon according to the law, whether he be of his blood of otherwise, showing no favour to anyone.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The king's will thereon announced to the lords. 15. Also, as to the fourth article, touching the expenses of the [his nephew] king's household and the presence of bishops and ladies in his company, the [his nephew] king took great offence and affront in that the commons who were his lieges should wrongly take upon themselves or presume any ordinance or governance of the king[his nephew] king's person, or his household, or other persons of standing whom it should please him to have in his company. And it seemed to the [his nephew] king that the commons committed a great offence therein against his regality and his royal majesty, and the liberty of himself and his honourable progenitors, which he was bound and willed to maintain and sustain by the aid of God. Wherefor the [his nephew] king ordered the said lords spiritual and temporal that on the following Saturday morning [3 February 1397] they should explain and declare in full to the said commons the [his nephew] king's will in the matter. And further, the [his nephew] king understanding that the said commons had been influenced and informed by a bill delivered to them to present and explain the said last article, so he ordered the duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster to charge Sir John Bushy, speaker for the commons, on his allegiance to recount and tell him the name of whomsoever submitted the said bill to the said commons.

[his illegitimate daughter] Blanche Beaufort was born illegitimately to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 and Marie St Hilaire Hainault. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Legitimation of the Beauforts

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 29. Which charter was read in full parliament, and delivered to the said duke, father of the said John, and his said brothers and sister; the tenor of which charter follows:

[his nephew] Richard, by the grace of God, king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to our most beloved kinsmen the noble John, knight, Henry, cleric, Thomas, donzel, and our beloved noblewoman Joan Beaufort, lady-in-waiting, our most beloved cousins born of our uncle that noble man John duke of Lancaster, our lieges, greeting and the goodwill of our royal majesty. While inwardly considering how endlessly and with how many honours of parental and sincere affection of our aforementioned uncle and of his mature counsel we are on all sides blessed, we have judged it appropriate and worthy that in consideration of his merits, and in contemplation of the grace of persons, we should endow you, who are resplendent with probity and virtuous life and conduct, and are born of royal stock and divinely marked with many virtues and gifts, with the protection of grace and favour by special prerogative. Thus it is that, yielding to the prayers of our said uncle, your father, we grant to you who, so it is claimed, have suffered such defect of birth, that, notwithstanding this defect, which, together with its various consequences, we wish to be fully included in these presents, you may nevertheless receive all honours, dignities, preferments, estates, degrees, and public and private offices, both perpetual and temporal, and feudal and noble rights, by whatsoever name they are called, such as duchies, lordships, earldoms, baronies, or whatsoever other fiefs they be, whether they be dependent upon or held of us mediately or intermediately, which may be preferred, promoted, elected, taken up and allowed, and received, retained, performed and exercised prudently, freely and lawfully, as if you were born in wedlock, notwithstanding any statutes or customs of our kingdom of England decreed or observed to the contrary; and we dispense you [from this defect] by the tenor of these presents, by the plenitude of our royal power and with the assent of our parliament; and we restore you and each of you to legitimacy.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. The [his nephew] king of England left the Tower of London at a very early hour, and rode to Eltham, where he remained. The same day, towards evening, the earls of Arundel and Warwick were brought to the Tower by the king's officers, and there confined, to the great surprise of the citizens. Their imprisonment caused many to murmur, but they were afraid to act, or do anything against the king's pleasure, lest they might suffer for it. It was the common conversation of the knights, squires, and citizens of London, and in other towns, — "It is useless for us to say more on this matter, for the dukes of Lancaster and of York, brothers to the duke of Gloucester, can provide a remedy for all this whenever they please: they assuredly would have prevented it from happening, if they had suspected the [his nephew] king had so much courage, or that he would have arrested their brother; but they will repent of their indolence: and, if they are not instantly active, it will end badly."

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: By the king in parliament. 33. Also, on the same Saturday [10 February 1397], a charter of the [his nephew] king made to the earl marshal touching his office of marshal of England, and the gold staff adorned with the emblem of the king's arms which he will carry in his office, was read and delivered to the said earl. The tenor of which charter follows:

The king to the same, greeting. Know that whereas recently by our letters patent of our special grace we granted to our beloved kinsman Thomas, earl of Nottingham, the office of marshal of England, together with the name and honour of earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, with all the fees, profits, and appurtenances whatsoever pertaining in any way to the said office, in perpetuity; as is fully contained in the same letters. We, mindful of the gracious and laudable services often performed by the aforementioned earl, on either side of the sea, for the benefit and honour of us and our kingdom, at no small effort, cost, and charge to him; and wishing therefore to provide for the estate and honour of that earl, of our special grace have granted in our present parliament for us and our heirs to the same earl the said office, and the name, title, and honour of earl marshal of England, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, together with all offices, commodities, profits and other appurtenances whatsoever, both in our courts and elsewhere, relating or pertaining in any way to the same office, in the same manner and as fully, freely, wholly, and peacefully as Thomas Brotherton, lately earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, father of our beloved kinswoman Margaret countess of Norfolk, [widow] of the aforesaid late earl, or Roger Bigod sometime earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, or any other after the death of the same former earl, or the same present earl, had or held the said office of marshal of England in their time.

Willing further and granting for us and our heirs, that the office of marshal of our Bench before us, which John Wicks holds for the term of his life by our grant, and the office of marshal in our treasury which Richard Gascoigne holds for his life by grant of our beloved brother Thomas earl of Kent, lately marshal of England, by our confirmation; and also the office of herald of the marshal before the steward and marshal of our household, which Guy Allesley holds for his life by grant of the lord Edward [III], late king of England, our grandfather, and by our confirmation; which offices after the death of the aforesaid John, Richard and Guy should revert to us and our heirs, after the death of the same John, Richard, and Guy shall remain to the aforementioned earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs in perpetuity. And that the same offices, and all other offices in any of our courts and elsewhere, which pertained, and used to pertain to the said office of marshal of England in times past, shall be fully restored, annexed, and reunited to the said office of marshal of England in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his male heirs may give, grant, or confer those offices on any suitable persons freely and without hindrance as soon as they shall have fallen vacant by death, demise, resignation, surrender, or in any other way, notwithstanding any of our letters patent made to the contrary.

Considering also the vigour and nobility of that earl, and that he may in future the more fittingly and honourably perform and exercise the aforesaid office, we have granted for us and our heirs to the same present earl that he and his said male heirs, marshals of England, by virtue of their aforesaid office should have, carry, and bear, as well in the presence as in the absence of us and our heirs, a certain gold staff, with both ends enamelled in black, and with the emblem of our arms decorating the top of the said staff, and with the emblem of the arms of that earl decorating the bottom of the said staff; notwithstanding that the same present earl in his time, or the aforementioned former earls, or any other who had the said office of marshal of England before this time, used to carry or bear a wooden staff. Witnessed by these, the venerable fathers Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert of London, William of Winchester, John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor, bishops; John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, [his brother] Edmund of York, dukes, our beloved uncles; Henry of Derby, Edward of Rutland, Henry of Northumberland, earls; Reginald Grey of Ruthin, Ralph Neville, John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden, dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy, steward of our household, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February 1397.

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Matthew Redman 1328-1389 served in France and Spain under John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399.