On 07 Feb 1301 [his father] King Edward II of England (16) was created Prince of Wales by his father Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (61); the first English heir to receive the title. He was created Earl Chester 5C 1301 the same day.
On 07 Jul 1307 [his grandfather] Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (68) died at Burgh by Sands whilst on his way north to Scotland. His son King Edward II of England (23) succeeded II King England.
[his grandfather] Edward (68) had gathered around him Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (29), Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315 (35), Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 (32) and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (33) and charged them with looking after his son in particular ensuring Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (23) didn't return from exile.
On 25 Jan 1308 [his father] King Edward II of England (23) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (13) were married at Boulogne sur Mer. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 3 Here the matter speaketh of some of the predecessors of king Edward of England. FIRST, the better to enter into the matter of this honourable and pleasant history of the noble Edward king of England (1), who was crowned at London the year of our Lord God MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday, living the king his father and the queen his mother, it is certain that the opinion of Englishmen most commonly was as then, and oftentimes it was seen in England after the time of king Arthur, how that between two valiant kings of England there was most commonly one between them of less sufficiency both of wit and of prowess: and this was right well apparent by the same icing Edward the third (1); for his [his grandfather] grandfather (75), called the good king Edward the first, was right valiant, sage, wise and hardy, adventurous and fortunate jn all feats of war, and had much ado against the Scots, and conquered them three or four times; for the Scots could never have victory nor endure against him: and after his decease his son of his first wife, who was father to the said good king Edward the third, was crowned king and called Edward the second (30), who resembled nothing to his father in wit nor in prowess, but governed and kept his realm right wildly, and ruled himself by sinister counsel of certain persons, whereby at length he had no profit nor land, as ye shall hear after; for anon after he was crowned, Robert Bruce king of Scotland, who had often before given much ado to the said good king Edward the first, conquered again all Scotland, and brent and wasted a great part of the realm of England, a four or five days' journey within the realm at two times, and discomfited the king and all the barons of England at a place in Scotland called Stirling, by battle arranged the day of Saint John Baptist, in the seventh year of the reign of the same king Edward, in the year of our Lord MCCCXIV. The chase of this discomfiture endured two days and two nights, and the king of England (30) went with a small company to London and on mid-lent Sunday in the year of our Lord MCCCXVI. The Scots won again the city of Berwick by treason; but because this is no part of our matter, I will leave speaking thereof.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 6 Of the earl Thomas of Lancaster and twenty two other of the great lords and knights of England that were beheaded. 1322. THE foresaid [his father] king Edward the second (37), father to the noble king Edward the third (9), on whom our matter is founded, this said king governed right diversely his realm by the exhortation of sir Hugh Spencer (36), who had been nourished with him sith the beginning of his yongth; the which sir Hugh (36) had so enticed the [his father] king (37), that his father and he were the greatest masters in all the realm, and by envy thought to surmount all other barons of England; whereby after the great discomfiture that the Scots had made at Stirling great murmuring there arose in England between. The noble barons and the king's council, and namely against sir Hugh Spencer (36). They put on him that by his counsel they were discomfited, and that he was favourable to the king of Scots. And on this point the barons had divers times communication together, to be advised what they might do, whereof Thomas earl of Lancaster (44), who was uncle to the king, was chief. And anon when sir Hugh Spencer (36) had espied this, he purveyed for remedy, for he was so great with the [his father] king (37) and so near him, that he was more beloved with the [his father] king (37) than all the world after. So on a day he came to the [his father] king (37) and said, `Sir, certain lords of your realm have made alliance together against you, and without ye take heed thereto betimes, they purpose to put you out of your realm': and so by his malicious means he caused that the king made all the said lords to be taken, and their heads to be stricken off without delay, and without knowledge or answer to any cause. First of all sir Thomas earl of Lancaster (44), who was a noble and a wise, holy knight, and hath done sith many fair miracles in Pomfret, where he was beheaded, for the which deed the said sir Hugh Spencer (36) achieved great hate in all the realm, and specially of the queen (27) and of the earl of Kent (20), brother to the [his father] king (37). And when he perceived the displeasure of the queen (27), by his subtle wit he set great discord between the king and the queen (27), so that the [his father] king (37) would not see the queen nor come in her company, the which discord endured a long space. Then was it skewed to the queen (27) secretly and to the earl of Kent (20), that without they took good heed to themselves, they were likely to be destroyage to Saint Thomas of Canterbury, and so to Winchelsea, and in the night went into a ship that was ready for her, and her young son Edward (9) with her, and the earl of Kent (20) and sir Roger Mortimer (34), and in another ship they had put all their purveyance, and had wind at will, and the next morning they arrived in the haven of Boulogne.
In 1324 Louis Wittelsbach IV Holy Roman Emperor 1282-1347 (41) and [his future sister-in-law] Margaret Hainault Holy Roman Empress 1312-1369 (12) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Holy Roman Empress.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 7 How the queen of England went and complained her to the king of France her brother of sir Hugh Spencer. 1324. WHEN [his mother] queen Isabel (29) was arrived at Boulogne, and her son (11) with her and the earl of Kent (22), the captains and abbot of the town came against her and joyously received her and her company into the abbey, and there she abode two days: then she departed and rode so long by her journeys that she arrived at Paris. Then king Charles (29) her brother, who was informed of her coming, sent to meet her divers of the greatest lords of his realm, as the lord sir Robert de Artois (37), the lord of Coucy, the lord of Sully, the lord of Roye and divers other, who honourably did receive her and brought her into the city of Paris to the king her brother (29). And when the king (29) saw his [his mother] sister (29), whom he had not seen long before, as she should have entered into his chamber he met her and took her in his arms and kissed her, and said, ` Ye be welcome, fair sister, with my fair nephew your son,' and took them by the hands and led them forth. The queen, who had no great joy at her heart but that she was so near to the king her brother, she would have kneeled down two or three times at the feet of the king, but the king would not suffer her, but held her still by the right hand, demanding right sweetly of her estate and business. And she answered him right sagely, and lamentably recounted to him all the felonies and injuries done to her by sir Hugh Spencer (38), and required him of his aid and comfort. When the noble King Charles of France (29) had heard his sister's lamentation, who weepingly had shewed him all her need and business, be said to her: ` Fair sister, appease yourself, for by the faith I owe to God and to Saint Denis I shall right well purvey for you some remedy.' The queen then kneeled down, whether the king would or not, and said: 'My right dear lord and fair brother, I pray God reward you.' The king then took her in his arms and led her into another chamber, the which was apparelled for her and for the young Edward her son, and so departed from her, and caused at his costs and charges all things to be delivered that was behoveful for her and for her son. After it was not long, but that for this occasion Charles king of France (29) assembled together many great lords and barons of the realm of France, to have their counsel and good advice how they should ordain for the need and besynes of his sister queen of England. Then it was counselled to the king that he should let the queen his sister to purchase for herself friends, whereas she would, in the realm of France or in any other place, and himself to feign and be not known thereof; for they said, to move war with the king of England (39), and to bring his own realm into hatred, it were nothing appertinent nor profitable to him nor to his realm. But they concluded that conveniently he might aid her with gold and silver, for that is the metal whereby love is attained both of gentlemen and of poor soldiers. And to this counsel and advice accorded the king, and caused this to be shewed to the queen privily by sir Robert d'Artois (37), who as then was one of the greatest lords of all France.
On 26 Feb 1324 William Jülich V Duke Jülich 1299-1361 (25) and [his future sister-in-law] Joanna Hainault Duchess Guelders 1315-1374 (9) were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Duchess Guelders.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 10 How that the queen Isabel arrived in England with sir John of Hainault in her company. 1326. THUS was sir John of Hainault (38) moved in his courage and made his assembly, and prayed the Hainowes to be ready at Hal, and the Brabances at Breda, and the Hollanders to be at Dordrecht at a day limited. Then the [his mother] queen of England (31) took leave of the earl of Hainault (40) and of the countess (32), and thanked them greatly of their honour, feast and good cheer that they had made her, kissing them at her departing. Thus this [his mother] lady (31) departed and her son (13) and all her company with Sir John of Hainault (38), who with great pain gat leave of his brother, saying to him: 'My lord and brother, I am young and think that God hath purveyed for me this enterprise for mine advancement. I believe and think verily that wrongfully and sinfully this lady hath been chased out of England, and also her son. It is alms and glory to God and to the world to comfort and help them that be comfortless, and specially so high and so noble a lady as this is, who is daughter to a king and descended of a royal king; we be of her blood and she of ours. I had rather renounce and forsake all that I have and go serve God over the sea and never to return into this country, rather than this good lady should have departed from us without comfort and help. Therefore, dear brother, suffer me to go with your good-will, wherein ye shall do nobly, and I shall humbly thank you thereof, and the better thereby I shall accomplish all the voyage.' And when the good earl of Hainault had well heard his brother (38), and perceived the great desire that he had to his enterprise, and saw well it might turn him and his heirs to great honour hereafter, said to him: 'My fair brother, God forbid that your good purpose should be broken or let: therefore in the name of God I give you leave'; and kissed him, straining him by the hand in sign of great love. Thus he departed and rode the same night to Mons in Hainault with the [his mother] queen of England (31). What should I make long process? They did so much by their journeys that they came to Dordrecht in Holland, whereas their special assembly was made. And there they purveyed for ships great and small, such as they could get, and shipped their horses and harness and purveyance, and so commended themselves into the keeping of God and took their passage by sea. In Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Vertaing, the lord of Potelle, the lord Villers, the' lord of Hennin, the lord of Sars, the lord of Bousies, the lord of Aubrecicourt, the lord of Estrumel, and sir Wulfart of Ghistelles, and divers other knights and squires, all in great desire to serve their master. And when they were all departed from the haven of Dordrecht, it was a fair fleet as for the quantity, and well ordered, the season was fair and clear and right temperate, and at their departing with the first flood they came before the dikes of Holland; and the next day they drew up their sails and took their way in coasting Zealand; and their intents were to have, taken land at Dongport;1 but they could not, for a tempest took them in the sea, that put them so far out of their course that they wist not of two days where they were: of the which God did them great grace, for if they had taken land at the port whereas they had thought, they had been all lost, for they had fallen in the hands of their enemies, who knew well of their coming, and abode them there to have put them all to death. So it was that about the end of two days the tempest ceased, and the mariners perceived land in England and drew to that part right joyously, and there took land on the sands without any right haven or port at Harwich, as the English chronicle saith, the 24th day of September, the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., and so abode on the sands three days with little purveyance of victual, and unshipped their horses and harness, nor they wist not in what part of England they were in, other in the power of their friends or in the power of their enemies. On the fourth day they took forth their way in the adventure of God and of Saint George, as such people as had suffered great disease of cold by night and hunger and great fear, whereof they were not as then clean rid. And so they rode forth by hills and dales on the one side and on the other, till at the last they found villages and a great abbey of black monks, the which is called SaintEdmund, whereas they three days refreshed themselves.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 9 How that queen Isabel departed from France and entered into the Empire. 1326. WHEN the [his mother] Queen (31) heard this tidings, she knew not what to say nor what advice to take; for as then the barons of the realm of France were withdrawn from her by the commandment of the king of France, and so she had no comfort nor succour, but all only of her dear cousin Sir Robert de Artois (39); for he secretly did counsel and comfort her as much as he might, for otherwise he durst not, for the king had defended him. But he knew well that the [his mother] Queen (31) was chased out of England and also out of France for evil will and by envy, which grieved him greatly. Thus was Sir Robert de Artois (39) at the queen's commandment; but be durst not speak nor be known thereof, for he had heard the king and the Earl of Kent (24) and Sir Roger Mortimer (38), and to put them all in the hands of the king and of Sir Hugh Spencer (40). Wherefore he came on a night and declared all this to the [his mother] queen (31), and advised her of the peril that she was in. Then the [his mother] queen (31) was greatly abashed, and required biro all weeping of his good counsel. Then he said: 'Madam, I counsel you that ye depart and go into the Empire, whereas there be many great lords, who may right well aid you, and specially the earl Guilliam of Hainault (40) and sir John of Hainault (38) his brother. These two are great lords and wise men, true, drad and redoubted of their enemies.' Then the [his mother] queen (31) caused to be made ready all her purveyance, and paid for everything as secretly as she might, and so she and her son (13), the Earl of Kent (24) and all her company departed from Paris and rode toward Hainault, and so long she rode that she came to Cambresis; and when she knew she was in the Empire, she was better assured than she was before, and so passed through Cambresis and entered into Ostrevant in Hainault, and lodged at Bugnicourt, in a knight's house who was called sir d'Aubrecicourt, who received her right joyously in the best manner to his power, insomuch that afterward the [his mother] queen of England (31) and her son (13) had with them into England for ever the knight and his wife and all his children, and advanced them in divers manners. The coming thus of the [his mother] queen of England (31) and of her son and heir into the country of Hainault was anon well known in the house of the good earl of Hainault, who as then was at Valenciennes; and sir John of Hainault (38) was certified of the time when the queen arrived at the place of sir d'Aubrecicourt, the which sir John (38) was brother to the said earl Guilliam (40), and as he that was young and lusty, desiring all honour, mounted on his horse and departed with a small company from Valenciennes, and came the same night to Bugnicourt, and did to the queen all honour and reverence that he could devise. The queen, who was right sorrowful, began to declare (complaining to him right piteously) her dolours; whereof the said sir John (38) had great pity, so that the water dashed in his eyen, and said, ' Certainly, fair lady, behold me here your own knight, who shall you into your estates in England, by the grace of God and with the help of your friends in that parts: and I and such other as I can desire shall put our lives and goods in adventure for your sake, and shall get men of war sufficient, if God be pleased, without the danger of the king of France your brother.' Then the queen would have kneeled down for great joy that she had, and for the good-will he offered her, but this noble knight took her up quickly in his arms and said: 'By the grace of God the noble queen of England shall not kneel to me; but, madam, recomfort yourself and all your company, for I shall keep you faithful promise; and ye shall go see the earl my brother (40) and the countess his wife (32) and all their fair children, who shall receive you with great joy, for so I heard them report they would do.' Then the queen said: 'Sir, I find in you more love and comfort than in all the world, and for this that ye say and affirm me I thank you a thousand times; and if ye will do this ye have promised in all courtesy and honour, I and my son shall be to you for ever bound, and will put all the realm of England in your abandon; for it is right that it so should be.' And after these words, when they were thus accorded, sir John of Hainault (38) took leave of the [his mother] queen (31) for that night, and went to Denaing and lay in the abbey; and in the morning after mass he leapt on his horse and came again to the [his mother] queen (31), who received him with great joy. By that time she had dined and was ready to mount on her horse to, depart with him; and so the queen departed from the castle of Bugnicourt, and took leave of the knight and of the lady, and thanked them for their good cheer that they bad made her, and said that she trusted once to see the time that she or her son should well remember their courtesy. Thus departed the queen in the company of the said sir John to the countess his wife, and feasted her right nobly. And as then this earl (40) had four fair daughters, Margaret (14), Philippa (11), Jane (11) and Isabel (3), among whom the young Edward (13) yet most his love and company on Philippa (11), and also the young lady in all honour was more conversant with him than any of her sisters. Thus the [his mother] queen Isabel (31) abode at Valenciennes by the space of eight days with the good earl (40) and with the countess Jane de Valois. In the meantime the queen apparelled for her needs and business, and the said sir John wrote letters right affectuously unto knights and such companions as he trusted best in all Hainault, in Brabant and in Bohemia, and prayed them for all amities that was between them, that they would go with him in this enterprise into England; and so there were great plenty, what of one country and other, that were content to go with him for his love. But this said sir John of Hainault (38) was greatly reproved and counselled the contrary both of the earl his brother (40) and of the chief of the council of the country, because it seemed to them that the enterprise was right high and perilous, seeing the great discords and great hates that as then was between the barons of England among themselves, and also considering that these Englishmen most commonly have ever great envy at strangers. Therefore they doubted that the said sir John of Hainault and his company should not return again' with honour. But howsoever they blamed or counselled him, the gentle knight would never change his purpose, but said he had but one death to die, the which was in the will of God; and also said that all knights ought to aid to their powers all ladies and damosels chased out of their own countries, being without counsel or comfort.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 11 How the queen of England besieged the king her husband in the town of Bristow. Oct 1326. AND then this tiding spread about the realm so much, that at the last it came to the knowledge of the lords by whom the [his mother] queen (31) was called again into England. And they apparelled them in all haste to come to Edward (13) her son, whom they would have to their sovereign lord. And the first that came and gave them most comfort was Henry earl of Lancaster (45) with the wry neck, called Tort Col, who was brother to Thomas earl of Lancaster (48), beheaded as ye have heard herebefore, who was a good knight and greatly recommended, as ye shall hear after in this history. This earl Henry (45) came to the [his mother] queen (31) with great company of men of war, and after him came from one part and other earls, barons, knights and squires, with so much people that they thought them clean out of perils, and always increased their power as they went forward. Then they took counsel among them that they should ride straight to the town of Bristow, whereas the king (42) was, and with him the Spencers. The which was a good town and a strong, and well closed, standing on a good port of the sea, and a strong castle, the sea beating round about it. And therein was the king (42) and Sir Hugh Spencer the elder (65), who was about ninety of age, and Sir Hugh Spencer (40) his son, who was chief governour of the king (42) and counselled him in all his evil deeds. Also there was the earl of Arundel (20), who had wedded the daughter (14) of sir Hugh Spencer (40), and di at Bristow, and besieged the town round about as near as they might: and the king (42) and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (40) held them in the castle, and the old sir Hugh Spencer (65) and the earl of Arundel (20) held them in the town. And when the people of the town saw the great power that the [his mother] queen (31) was of (for almost all England was of her accord), and perceived what peril and danger evidently they were in, they took counsel among themselves and determined that they would yield up the town to the [his mother] queen (31), so that their lives and goods might be saved. And so they sent to treat with the queen and her council in this matter; but the queen nor her council would not agree thereto without she might do with sir Hugh Spencer (65) and with the earl of Arundel (20) what it pleased her. When the people of the town saw they could have no peace otherwise, nor save the town nor their goods nor their lives, in that distress they accorded to the [his mother] queen (31) and opened the gates, so that the [his mother] queen (31) and sir John of Hainault (38), and all her barons, knights and squires, entered into the town and took their lodgings within, as many as might, and the residue without. Then sir Hugh Spencer (65) and the earl of Arundel (20) were taken and brought before the [his mother] queen (31), to do her pleasure with them. Then there was brought to the queen her own children, John her son (10) and her two daughters [Note. Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet 1318-1355 (8) and Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 (5)], the which were found there in the keeping of the said sir Hugh Spencer (65), whereof the queen had great joy, for she had not seen them long 'before. Then the king (42) might have great sorrow and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (40), who were fast enclosed in the strong castle, and the most part of all the realm turned to the queen's part and to Edwar (13) her eldest son.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 12 How that sir Hugh Spencer the elder and the earl of Arundel were judged to death. WHEN the [his mother] queen (31) and her barons and all her company were lodged at their ease, then they besieged the castle as near as they might. The [his mother] queen (31) caused sir Hugh Spencer (65) the elder and the earl of Arundel (20) to be brought forth before Edward her son (13) and all the barons that were there present, and said how that [his mother] she and her son (13) should take right and law on them according to their deserts. Then sir Hugh Spencer (65) said, `Madam, God be to you a good judge and give you good judgment,1 and if we cannot have it in this world, I pray God we may have it in another.' Then stept forth Sir Thomas Wake (29), a good knight and marshal of the host, and there openly he recounted their deeds in writing, and then turned him to another ancient knight to the intent that he should bring him on that case fauty, and to declare what should be done with such persons, and what judgment they should have for such causes. Then the said knight counselled with other barons and knights, and so reported their opinions, the which was, how they had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds, the which they have commised, for all the trespass rehearsed before to justify to be of truth; wherefore they have deserved for the diversities of their trespasses to have judgment in three divers manners-first, to be drawn, and after to be headed, and then to be hanged on the gibbet. This in likewise as they were judged so it was done and executed before the castle of Bristow in the sight of the king and of sir Hugh Spencer the younger (65). This judgment was done in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Saint Denis' day in October [Note. Saint Denis' day is 09 Oct not 27 Oct?]. And after this execution the king (42) and the young Spencer (40), seeing themselves thus besieged in this mischief, and knew no comfort that might come to them, in a morning betimes they two with a small company entered into a little vessel behind the castle, thinking to have fled to the country of Wales. But they were eleven days in the ship, and enforced it to sail as much as they might; but whatsoever they did, the wind was every day so contrary to them by the will of God, that every day once or twice they were ever brought again within a quarter of a mile to the same castle. At the last it fortuned, sir Henry Beaumont (47), son to the viscount Beaumont (99) in England, entered into a barge and certain company with him, and spied this vessel and rowed after him so long that the ship wherein the kin (42) was could not flee fast before them, but finally they were overtaken, and so brought again to the town of Bristow and delivered to the [his mother] queen (31) and her son (13) as prisoners. Thus it befell of this high and hardy enterprise of sir John of Hainault (38) and his company. For when they departed and entered into their ships at Dordrecht, they were but three hundred men of arms; and thus by their help and the lords in England, the queen Isabel conquered again all her estate and dignity, and put unto execution all her enemies, whereof all the most part of the realm were right joyous, without it were a few persons such as were favourable to sir Hugh Spencer (40) and of his part. And when the king (42) and sir Hugh Spencer (40) were brought to Bristow by the said sir Henry Beaumont, the king (42) was then sent by the counsel of all the barons and knights to the strong castle of Berkeley, and put under good keeping and honest, and there were ordained people of estate about him, such as knew right well what they ought to do; but they were straitly commanded that they should in no wise suffer him to pass out of the castle. And sir Hugh Spencer (40) was delivered to sir Thomas Wake (29), marshal of the host. And after that the [his mother] queen (31) departed and all her host toward London, which was the chief city of England, and so rid forth on their journeys, and sir Thomas Wake (29) caused sir Hugh Spencer (40) to be fast bound on the least and leanest 2 horse of all the host, and caused him to wear on a tabard such as traitors and thieves were wont to wear.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 13 How sir Hugh Spencer was put to his judgment. 24 Nov 1326. WHEN this feast was done, then sir Hugh Spencer (40), who was nothing beloved, was brought forth before the [his mother] queen (31) and all the lords and knights, and there before him in writing was rehearsed all his deeds, against the which he could give no manner of answer. And so he was then judged by plain sentence, first to be drawn on an hurdle with trumps and trumpets through all the city of Hereford, and after to be brought into the market-place, whereas all the people were assembled, and there to be tied on high upon a ladder that every man might see him; and in the same place there to be made a great fire, and there his privy members cut from him, because they reputed him as an heretic and so deemed, and so to be burnt in the fire before his face; and then his heart to be drawn out of his body and cast into the fire, because he was a false traitor of heart, and that by his traitor's counsel and exhortation the king (42) had shamed his realm and brought it to great mischief, for he had caused to be beheaded the greatest lords of his realm, by whom the realm ought to have been sustained and defended; and he had so induced the king (42) that he would not see the queen his wife nor Edward his eldest son (14), and caused him to chase them out of the realm for fear of their lives; and then his head to be stricken off and sent to London. And according to his judgment he was executed. Then the [his mother] queen (31) and all her lords took their way toward London, and did so much by their journeys that they arrived at the city of London, and they of the city with great company met them and did to the queen and to her son great reverence, and to all their company, as they thought it best bestowed. And when they had been thus received and feasted the space of fifteen days, the knights strangers, and namely sir John of Hainault (38), had great desire to return again into their own countries, for they thought they had well done their devoir and achieved great honour, and so took their leave of the queen and of the lords of the realm: and the queen and the lords required them to tarry longer a little space, to see what should be done with the king (42), who was in prison; but the strangers had so great desire to return into their own countries that to pray them the contrary availed not. And when the queen and her council saw that, they yet desired sir John of Hainault (38) to tarry till it was past Christmas, and to retain with him such of his company as pleased him best. The gentle knight would not leave to perform his service, but courteously granted the queen to tarry as long as it pleased her, and caused to tarry such of his company as he could get that was but a few, for the remnant would in no wise tarry, whereof he was displeased. When the queen and her council saw that they would not abide for no prayers, then they made them great cheer and feasts. And the queen made to be given to them plenty of gold and silver for their costs and services, and did give great jewels to each of them according to their degrees, so as they all held themselves right well content. And over that they had silver for their horses, such as they would leave behind them, at their own estimation without any grudging. And thus sir John of Hainault (38) abode still with a small company among the Englishmen, who always did him as much honour as they could imagine, and to all his company. And in likewise so did the ladies and damosels of the country; for there were great plenty of countesses and great ladies [and] gentle pucelles, who were come thither to accompany the queen. For it seemed well to them that the knight sir John of Hainault (38) had well deserved the cheer and feast that they made him.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 14 The coronation of king Edward the third. 01 Feb 1327. AFTER that the most part of the company of Hainault were departed and sir John Hainault (39) lord of Beaumont tarried, the [his mother] queen (32) gave leave to her people to depart, saving a certain noble knights, the which she kept still about her and her son to counsel them, and commanded all then that departed to be at London the next Christmas, for as then she was determined to keep open court, and all they promised her so to do. And when Christmas was come, she held a great court. And thither came dukes,' earls, barons, knights, and all the nobles of the realm, with prelates and burgesses of good towns; and at this assembly it was advised that the realm could not long endure without a head and a chief lord. Then they put in writing all the deeds of the king (42) who was in prison, and all that he had done by evil counsel, and all his usages and evil behavings, and how evil he had governed his realm, the which was read openly in plain audience, to the intent that the noble sages of the realm might take thereof good advice, and to fall at accord how the realm should be governed from thenceforth. And when all the cases and deeds that the king had done and consented to, and all his behaving and usages were read and well understanded, the barons and knights and all the counsels of the realm drew them apart to counsel; and the most part of them accorded, and namely the great lords and nobles with the burgesses of the good towns, according as they had heard say and knew themselves the most part of his deeds. Wherefore they concluded that such a man (42) was not worthy to be a king, nor to bear a crown royal, nor to have the name of a king. But they all accorded that Edward (14) his eldest son, who was there present and was rightful heir, should be crowned king instead of his father, so that he would take good counsel, sage and true, about him, so than it was before, and that the old king his father (42) should be well and honestly kept as long as he lived, according to his estate. And thus as it was agreed by all the nobles, so it was accomplished; and then was crowned with a crown royal at the palace of Westminster beside London the young king Edward the third (14), who in his, days after was right fortunate and happy in arms. This coronation was in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday [Note. Other sources day 01 Feb 1327], and as then the young king was about the age of sixteen; and they held the feast till the Conversion of Saint Paul following, and in the meantime greatly was feasted sir John of Hainault (39) and all the princes and nobles of his country, and was given to him and to his company many rich jewels. And so he and his company in great feast and solace both with lords and ladies tarried till the Twelfth day. And then sir John of Hainault (39) heard tidings how that the king of Bohemia (30) and the earl of Hainault (41) his brother and other great plenty of lords of France had ordained to be at Conde at a great feast and tourney that was there cried. Then would sir John of Hainault no longer abide for no prayer, so great desire he had to be at the said tourney, and to see the earl his brother and other lords of his country, and specially the right noble king in largess the gentle Charles king of Bohemia. When the young king Edward (14) and the [his mother] queen (32) his mother and the barons saw that he would no longer tarry, and that their request could not avail, they gave him leave sore against their wills, and the king (14) by the counsel of the [his mother] queen (32) his mother did give him four hundred marks sterlings of rent heritable to hold of him in fee, to be paid every year in the town of Bruges, and also did give to Philip of Chateaux, his chief esquire and his sovereign counsellor, a hundred mark of rent yearly, to be paid at the said place, and also delivered him much money to pay therewith the costs of him and of his company, till he come into his own country, and caused him to be conducted with many noble knights to Dover, and there delivered hint all his passage free. And to the ladies that were come into England with the [his mother] queen (32), and namely to the countess of Garennes, who was sister to the earl of Bar, and to divers other ladies and damosels, there were given many fair and rich jewels at their departing. And when sir John of Hainault was departed from the young king Edward, and all his company, and were come to Dover, they entered incontinent into their ships to pass the sea, to the intent to come betimes to the said tourney; and there went with him fifteen young lusty knights of England, to go to this tourney with him and to acquaint them with the strange lords and knights that should be there, and they had great honour of all the company that tourneyed at that time at Conde.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 15 How that king Robert de Bruce of Scotland defied king Edward. AFTER that sir John of Hainault (39) was departed from king Edward (14), he and the [his mother] queen (32) his mother governed the realm by the counsel of the earl of Kent (25), uncle to the king, and by the counsel of sir Roger Mortimer (39), who had great lands in England to the sum of seven hundred pounds of rent yearly. And they both were banished and chased out of England with the [his mother] queen (32), as ye have heard before. Also they used much after the counsel of sir Thomas Wake (30), and by the advice of other who were reputed for the most sagest of the realm. Howbeit there were some had envy thereat, the which never died in England, and also it reigneth and will reign in divers other countries. Thus passed forth the winter and the Lent season till Easter, and then the king (14) and the [his mother] queen (32) and all the realm was in good peace all this season. Then so it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (52), who had been right hardy and had suffered much travail against Englishmen, and oftentimes he had been chased and discomfited in the time of king Edward the first, grandfather to this young king Edward the third (14), he was as then become very old and ancient, and sick (as it was said) of the great evil and malady. When he knew the adventures that was fallen in England, how that the old king Edward the second (42) was taken and deposed down from his regaly and his crown, and certain of his counsellors beheaded and put to destruction, as ye have heard herebefore, then he bethought him that he would defy the young king Edward the third (14), because he was young and that the barons of the realm were not all of one accord, as it was said: therefore he [thought] the better to speed in his purpose to conquer part of England. And so about Easter in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. he sent his defiance to the young king Edward the third and to all the realm, sending them word how that he would enter into the realm of England and bren before him as he had done beforetime at such season as the discomfiture was at the castle of Stirling, whereas the Englishmen received great damage. When the king of England (14) and his council perceived that they were defied, they caused it to be known over all the realm, and commanded that all the nobles and all other should be ready apparelled every man after his estate, and that they should be by Ascension-day next after at the town of York, standing northward. The king sent much people before to keep the frontiers against Scotland, and sent a great ambassade to sir John of Hainault (39), praying him right affectuously that he would help to succour and to keep company with him in his voyage against the Scots, and that he world be with him at the Ascensionday next after at York, with such company as he might get of men of war in those parts. When sir John of Hainault lord of Beaumont (39) heard the king's (14) desire, he sent straight his letters and his messengers in every place whereas he thought to recover or attain to have any company of men of war, in Flanders, in Hainault, in Brabant, and in other places, desiring them that in their best apparel for the war they would meet him at Wissant, for to go over the sea with him into England. And all such as he sent unto came to him with a glad cheer, and divers other that heard thereof, in trust to attain to as much honour as they had that were with him in England before at the other voyage. So that by that time the said lord Beaumont (39) was come to Wissant, there was ready ships for him and his company, brought out of England. And so they took shipping and passed over the sea and arrived at Dover, and so then ceased not to ride till: they came within three days of Pentecost to the town of York, whereas the king (14) and the [his mother] queen (32) his mother and all his lords were with great host tarrying the coming of sir John of Hainault (39), and had sent many before of their men of arms, archers and common people of the good towns and villages; and as people resorted, they were caused to be lodged two or three leagues off, all about in the country. And on a day thither came sir John of Hainault (39) and his company, who were right welcome and well received both of the king (14), of the queen his mother, and of all other barons, and to them was delivered the suburbs of the city to lodge in. And to sir John of Hainault was delivered an abbey of white monks for him and his household. There came with him out of Hainault the lord of Enghien, who was called sir Gaultier, and sir Henry lord d'Antoing, and the lord of Fagnolle, and sir Fastres du Roeulx, sir Robert de Bailleul, and sir Guilliam de Bailleul his brother, and the lord of Havreth, chatelain of Mons, sir Allard de Briffeuil, sir Michael de Ligne, sir John de Montigny the younger and his brother, sir Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval de Semeries, the lord of Beaurieu and the lord of Floyon. Also of the country of Flanders there was sir Hector of Vilain, sir John de Rhodes, sir Wu there was sir John le Belt and sir Henry his brother, sir Godfrey de la Chapelle, sir Hugh d'Ohey, sir John de Libyne, sir Lambert d'Oupey, and sir Gilbert de Herck: and out of Cambresis and Artois there were come certain knights of their own good wills to advance their bodies: so that sir John of Hainault had well in his company five hundred men of arms, well apparelled and richly mounted. And after the feast of Pentecost came thither sir Guilliam de Juliers (28), who was after duke of Juliers after the decease of his father, and sir Thierry of Heinsberg, who was after earl of Loos, and with them a right fair rout, and all to keep company with the gentle knight sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 16 The dissension that was between the archers of England and them of Hainault. Around Jun 1327. THE gentle king of England (14), the better to feast these strange lords and all their company, held a great court on Trinity Sunday in the Friars, whereas he and the queen his mother were lodged, keeping their house each of them apart. At his feast the king had well five hundred knignts, and fifteen were new made. And the queen had well in her court sixty ladies and damosels,. who were there ready to make feast and cheer to sir John of Hainault (39) and to his company. There might have been seen great nobless [in serving] plenty of all manner of strange victuals. There were ladies and damosels freshly apparelled, ready to have danced if they might have leave. But incontinent after dinner there began great fray between some of the grooms and pages of the strangers and of the archers of England, who were lodged among them in the said suburbs; and anon all the archers assembled them together with their bows, and drove the strangers home to their lodging. And the most part of the knights and masters of them were as then in the king's court; but as soon as they heard tidings of the fray, each of them drew to their own lodging in great haste, such as might enter. And such as could not get in were in great peril, for the archers, who were to the number of three thousand, shot fast their arrows, not sparing masters nor varlets. And it was thought and supposed that this fray was begun by some of the friends of the Spencers and of the earl of Arundel's, who were put to death before by the aid and counsel of sir John of Hainault (39), as ye have heard before, [who] as then peradventure thought to be somewhat revenged and' to set discord in the host. And so the Englishmen, that were hosts to these strangers, shut fast their doors and windows and would not suffer them to enter into their lodgings: howbeit some gat in on the back side and quickly armed them, but they durst not issue out into the street for fear of the arrows. Then the strangers brake out on the back side, and brake down pales aid hedges of gardens, and drew them into a certain plain place and abode their company, till at the last they were a hundred and above of men of arms and as many unharnessed, such as could not get to their lodgings. And when they were assembled together, they hasted them to go and succour their companions, who defended their lodgings in the great street. And as they went forth, they passed by the lodging of the lord d'Enghien, whereas there were great gates both before and behind, open ing into the great street. And the archers of England shot fiercely at the house, and there were many o such strokes that men durst not approach to them. They three beat down that day, with such few company as they had, more than sixty; for they were great and mighty knights. Finally the archers that were at the fray were discomfited and put to chase, and there was dead in the place well to the number of three hundred. And it was said they were all of the bishopric of Lincoln. I trow God did never give more grace and fortune to any people than he did as then to this gentle knight sir John of Hainault and to his company. For these English archers intended to none other thing but to murder and to rob them, for all that they were come to serve the king in his business. These strangers were never in so great peril all the season that they lay, nor they were never after in surety till they were again at Wissant in their own country. For they were fallen in so great hate with all the archers of the host, that some of the barons and knights of England shewed unto the lords of Hainault, giving them warning that the archers and other of the common people were allied together to the number of six thousand to the intent to bren or to kill them in their lodgings either by night or by day. And so they lived at a hard adventure; but each of them promised to help and aid other, and to sell dearly their lives or they were slain. So they made many fair ordinances among themselves by good and great advice, whereby they were fain oftentimes to lie in their harness by night, and in the day to keep their lodgings and to have all their harness ready and their horses saddled. Thus continually they were fain to make watch by their constables in the fields and highways about the court, and to send out scout-watches a mile off to see ever if any such people were coming to themward, as they were informed of, to the intent that if their scoutwatch heard any noise or moving of people drawing to the city-ward, then incontinent they should give them knowledge, whereby they might the sooner gather together, each of them under their own banner in a certain place, the which they had advised for the same intent. And in this tribulation they abode in the said suburbs by the space of four weeks, and in all that season they durst not go far from their harness nor from their lodgings, saving a certain of the chief lords among them, who went to the court to see the king and his council, who made them right good cheer. For if the said evil adventure had not been, they had sojourned there in great ease, for the city and the country about them was right plentiful. For all the time of six weeks that the king and the lords of England and more than sixty thousand men of war lay there, the victuals were never the dearer; for ever they had a pennyworth for a penny, as well as other had before they came there, and there was good wine of Gascoyne and of Alsace, and of the Rhine, and plenty thereof, with right good cheap as well of pullen as of other victuals; and there was daily brought before their lodgings hay, oats and litter, whereof they were well served for their horses and at a meetly price.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 18 How the king of England made his first journey against the Scots. Aug 1327. WHEN the king of England (14) and his host had seen and heard of the fires that the Scots had made in England, incontinent was cried alarm, and every man commanded to dislodge and follow after the marshals' banners. Then every man drew to the field ready apparelled to fight. There was ordained three great battles afoot, and to every battle two wings of five hundred men of arms, knights and squires, and thirty thousand other, armed and well apparelled, the one half on little hackneys and the other were men of the country afoot, sent out of good towns at their wages; and twenty-four thousand archers afoot, beside all the other rascal and followers of the host. And as these battles were thus ordered, so they advanced forward, well ranged and in good order, and followed the Scots by the sithe of the smoke that they made with burning; and thus they followed all that day till it was near night. Then the host lodged them in a wood by a little river side, there to rest and to abide for their carriage and purveyances. And at that day the Scots had brent and wasted and pilled the country about within five miles of the English host; but the Englishmen could not overtake them. And the next day in the morning all the host armed them and displayed their banners on the field, every man ready apparelled in his own battle, and so advanced without disordering all the day through mountains and valleys; but for all that they could never approach near to the Scots, who vent wasting the country before them. There were such marishes and savage deserts, mountains and dales, that it was commanded on pain of death that none of the host should pass before the banners of the marshals. And when it drew toward the night, the people, horse and carriage, and namely the men afoot, were so sore travailed, that they could not endure to labour any further that day. And when the lords saw that their labour in following the Scots was in vain, and also they perceived well, though the Scots would abide them, yet they might take their field in such a place or on such a hill that they could not fight with them, without it were to their great damage and jeopardy, then was it commanded in the king's name by the marshals that the host should take their lodging for that night, and so to take counsel and advice what should be best to do the next day. So the host was lodged in a wood by a river side, and the king was lodged in a little poor abbey: his men of war, horse and carriage were marvellously fortravailed. And when every man had taken his place to lodge there all night, then the lords drew them apart to take counsel how they might fight with the Scots, considering the country that they were in: for as far as they could understand, the Scots went ever forwards, all about burning and wasting the country, and perceived well how they could not in any wise fight with them among these mountains without great peril or danger, and they saw well also they could not overtake them: but it was thought that the Scots must needs pass again the river Tyne homeward; therefore it was deter ruined by great advice and counsel that all the host should remove at midnight, and to make haste in the morning to the intent to stop the passage of the river from the Scots, whereby they should be advised' by force either to fight with them, or else to abide still in England to their great danger and loss. And to this conclusion all the host was accorded, and so supped and lodged as well as they might that night, and every man was warned to be ready at the first sounding of the trumpet, and at the second blast every man to arm him without delay, and at the third every man quickly to mount on their horses and to draw under their own standard and banner; and every man to take with him but one loaf of bread, and to truss it behind him on his horse. It was also determined that they should leave behind them all their loose harness and all manner of carriages and purveyances, for they thought surely to fight with the Scots the next day, whatsoever danger they were in, thinking to jeopard, either to win or to lose all. And thus it was ordained and so it was accomplished: for about midnight every man was ready apparelled; few had slept but little, and yet they had sore travailed the day before. As great haste as they made, or they were well ranged in battle the day began to appear. Then they advanced forward in all haste through mountains, valleys and rocks, and through many evil passages without any plain country. And on the highest of these hills and on the plain of these valleys there were marvellous great marshes and dangerous passages, that it was great marvel that much people had not been lost, for they rode ever still forward and never tarried one for another; for whosoever fell in any of these marshes with much pain could get any aid to help them out again, so that in divers places there were many lost, and specially horse and carriages; and oftentimes in the day there was cried alarum, for it was said ever that the foremost company of their host were fighting with their enemies, so that the hindermost weened it had been true; wherefore they hasted them over rocks and stones and mountains with helm and shield ready apparelled to fight, with spear and sword ready in hand, without tarrying for father, brother or companion. And when they had thus run forth oftentimes in the day the space of half a mile together toward the cry, weening it had been their enemies, they were deceived; for the cry ever arose by the raising of harts, hinds and other savage beasts that were seen by them in the forward, after the which beasts they made such shouting and crying, that they that came after weened they had been a-fighting with their enemies.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 18 How the king of England made his first journey against the Scots. 03 Aug 1327. Battle of Stanhope Park. And when they had well rested them and taken repast, then the trumpet sounded to horse, and every man mounted, and the banners and standards followed this new-made knight, every battle by itself in good order, through mountains and dales, ranged as well as they might, ever ready apparelled to fight; and they rode and made such haste that about noon they were so near the Scots that each of them might clearly see other. And as soon as the Scots saw them, they issued out of their lodges afoot, and ordained three great battles in the availing of the hill, and at the foot of this mountain there ran a great river full of great rocks and stones, so that none might pass over without great danger or jeopardy; and though the Englishmen had passed over the river, yet was there no place nor room between the hill and the river to set the battle in good order. The Scots had stablished their two first battles at the two corners of the mountain, joining to the rocks, so that none might well mount upon the hill to assail them, but the Scots were ever ready to beat with stones the assailants, if they passed the river. And when the lords of England saw the behaving and the manner of the Scots, they made all their people to alight afoot and to put off their spurs, and arranged three great battles, as they had done before, and there were made many new knights. And when their battles were set in good order, then some of the lords of England brought their young king a-horseback before all the battles of the host, to the intent to give thereby the more courage to all his people, the which king in full goodly manner prayed and required them right graciously that every man would pain them to do their best to save his honour and common weal of his realm. And it was commanded upon pain of death that were so near together that they might know each other's arms. Then the host stood still to take other counsel. And some of the host mounted on good horses and rode forth to skirmish with them and to behold the passage of the river and to see the countenance of their enemies more nearer. And there were heralds of arms sent to the Scots, giving them knowledge, if that they would come and pass the river to fight with them in the plain field, they would draw back from the river and give them sufficient place to arrange their battles either the same day or else the next, as they would choose themselves, or else to let them do likewise and they would come over to them. And when the Scots heard this, they took counsel among themselves, and anon they answered the heralds, how they would do neither the one nor the other, and said, `Sirs, your king and his lords see well how we be here in this realm and have brent and wasted the country as we have passed through, and if they be displeased therewith, let them amend it when they will, for here we will abide as long as it shall please us.' And as soon as the king of England (14) heard that answer, it was incontinent cried that all the host should lodge there that night without reculing back. And so the host lodged there that night with much pain on the hard ground and stones, always still armed. They had no stakes nor rods to tie withal their horses, nor forage, nor bush to make withal any fire. And when they were thus lodged, then the Scots caused some of their people to keep still the field, whereas they had ordained their battles; and the remnant went to their lodgings, and they made such fires that it was marvel to behold. And between the day and the night they made a marvellous great bruit, with blowing of horns all at once, that it seemed properly that all the devils of hell had been there. Thus these two hosts were lodged that night, the which was Saint Peter's night in the beginning of August the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. And the next morning the lords of England heard mass and ranged again their battles as they had done the day before; and the Scots in like wise ordered their battles. Thus both the hosts stood still in battle till it was noon. The Scots made never semblant to come to the English host to fight with them, nor in like wise the Englishmen to them; for they could not approach together without great damage. There were divers companions a-horseback that passed the river, and some afoot, to scrimmish with the Scots, and in likewise some of the Scots brake out and scrimmished with them; so that there were divers on both parties slain, wounded and taken prisoners. And after that noon was past, the lords of England commanded every man to draw to their lodging, for they saw well the Scots would not fight with them. And in like manner thus they did three days together, and the Scots in like case kept still their mountains. Howbeit there was scrimmishing on both parties, and divers slain and prisoners taken. And every night the Scots made great fires and great bruit with shouting and blowing of horns. The intention of the Englishmen was to hold the Scots there in manner as besieged (for they could not fight with them thereas they were), thinking to have famished them. And the Englishmen knew well by such prisoners as they had taken that the Scots had neither bread, wine nor salt, nor other purveyance, save of beasts they had great plenty, the which they had taken in the country and might eat at their pleasure without bread, which was an evil diet, for they lacked oaten meal to make cakes withal, as is said before;' the which diet some of the Englishmen used when they had need, specially borderers when they make roads into Scotland. And in the morning the fourth day the Englishmen looked' on the mountain whereas the Scots were, and they could see no creature, for the Scots were departed at midnight. Then was there sent men a-horseback and afoot over the river to know where they were become; and about noon lodged, and drew to that part, embattled in good order, and lodged them on another hill against the Scots, and ranged their battles and made semblant to have come to them. Then the Scots issued out of their lodges and set their battles along the river side against them; but they would never come toward the English host, and the Englishmen could not go to them, without they would have been slain or taken at advantage. Thus they lodged each against other the space of eighteen days; and oftentimes the king of England sent to them his heralds of arms, offering them that if they would come and fight with him, he would give them place sufficient on the plain ground to pitch their field; or else let them give him room and place, and he assured them that he would come over the river and fight with them but the Scots would never agree thereto. Thus both the hosts suffered much pain and travail the space that they lay so near together: and the first night that the English host was thus lodged on the second mountain the lord William Douglas took with him about two hundred men of arms and passed the river far off from the host, so that he was not perceived, and suddenly he brake into the English host about midnight crying, 'Douglas! Douglas! Ye shall all die, thieves of England!' and he slew, or he ceased, three hundred men, some in their beds and some scant ready; and he strake his horse with the spurs and came to the king's (14) own tent, always crying,Douglas!' and strake asunder two or three cords of the king's tent and so departed, and in that retreat he lost some of his men. Then he returned again to the Scots, so that there was no more done but every night the English host made good and sure watch, for they doubted making of skryes; and ever the most part of-the host lay in their harness; and every day there were scrimmisbes made, and men slain on both parties: and in conclusion, the last day of~twenty-four, there was a Scottish knight taken, who against his will shewed to the lords of England what state and condition the Scots were in: he was so sore examined that for fear of his life he shewed how the lords of Scotland were accorded among themselves that the same night every man should be ready armed, and to follow the banners of the lord William Douglas, and every man to keep him secret. But the knight could not shew them what they intended to do. Then the lords of England drew them to council, and there it was thought among them that the Scots. might in the night time come and assail their host on both sides, to adventure themselves either to live or die, for they could endure no longer the famine that was among them. Then the English lords ordained three great battles, and so stood in three parties without their lodgings, and made great fires, thereby to see the better, and caused all their pages to keep their lodgings and horses. Thus they stood still all that night armed, every man under his own standard and banner; and in the breaking of the day two trumpets of Scotland met with the English scout-watch, who took the trumpets and brought them before the king of England and his council, and then they said openly, 'Sirs, what do ye watch here? Ye lose but your time, for on the jeopardy of our heads the Scots are gone and departed before midnight, and they are at the least by this time three or four mile on their way; and they left us two behind to the intent that we should shew this to you.' Then the English lords said that it were but a folly to follow the Scots, for they saw well they could not overtake them: yet for doubt of deceiving they kept still the two trumpets privily, and caused their battles to stand still arranged till it was near prime. And when they saw for truth that the Scots were departed, then every man had leave to retray to their lodging, and the lords took counsel to determine what should be hest to do. And in the meantime divers of the English host mounted on their horses and passed. over the river, and came to the mountain whereas the Scots bad been; and there they found more than five hundred greatbeasts ready slain, because the Scots could not drive them before their host and because that the Englishmen should have but small profit of them. Also there they found three hundred cauldrons made of beasts' skins with the hair still on them, strained on stakes over the fire, full of water and full of flesh to be sodden, and more than a thousand spits full of flesh to be roasted, and more than ten thousand old shoes made of raw leather with the hair still on them, the which the Scots had left behind them; also there they found five poor Englishmen prisoners, bound fast to certain trees, and some of their legs broken.' Then they were loosed and let go: and then they returned again, and by that time all the host was dislodged: and it was ordained by the king and by the advice of his council that the whole host should follow the marshals' banners and draw homeward into England. And so they did, and at the last came into a fair meadow, whereas they found forage sufficient for their horses and carriages,2 whereof they had great need, for they were nigh so feeble that it should have been great pain for them to have gone any further. The English chronicle saith that the Scots had been fought withal, an sir Roger Mortimer, a lord of England, had not betrayed the king; for he took meed and money of the Scots, to the intent they might depart privily by night unfought withal, as it may be seen more plainly in the English chronicle, and divers other matters, the which I pass over at this time and follow mine author. 3 And so then the next day the host dislodged again and went forth, and about noon they came to a great abbey two mile from the city of Durham; and there the king lodged, and the host there about in the fields, whereas they found forage sufficient for themselves and for their horses. And the next day the host lay there still, and the king went to the city of Durham to see the church, and there he offered.4 And in this city every man found their own carriages, the which they had left thirty-two days before in a wood at mid-night, when they followed the Scots first, as it bath been skewed before; for the burgesses and people of Durham had found and brought them into their town at their own costs and charges. And all these carriages were set in void granges and barns in safe-guard, and on every man's carriage his own cognisance or arms, whereby every man might know his own. And the lords and gentlemen were glad when they had thus found their carriages. Thus they abode two days in the city of Durham, and the host round about, for they could not all lodge within the city; and there their horses were new shod. And then they took their way to the city of York, and so within three days they came thither; and there the king found the queen his mother, who received him with great joy, and so did all other ladies, damosels, burgesses and commons of the city. The king gave licence to all manner of people, every man to draw homeward to their own countries. And the king thanked greatly the earls, barons and knights of their good counsel and aid that they had done to him in his journey; and he retained still with him sir John of Hainault and all his company, who were greatly feasted by the queen and all other ladies. Then the knights and other strangers of his company made a bill of their horses and such other stuff as they had lost in that journey, and delivered it to the king's council, every man by itself; and in trust of the king's promise, sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont bound himself to all his company that they should be content for everything comprised in their own bills within a short space them, the which ships with their stuff arrived at Sluys in Flanders. And sir John of Hainault and his company took their leave of the king, of the old queen, of the earl of Kent, of the earl of Lancaster and of all the other barons, who greatly did honour them. And the king caused twelve knights and two hundred men of arms to company them, for doubt of the archers of England, of whom they were not well assured, for they must needs pass through the bishopric of Lincoln. Thus departed sir John of Hainault (39) and his rout in the conduct of these knights. and rode so long in their journey that they came to Dover, and there entered into the sea in ships and vessels that they found ready there apparelled for them. Then the English knights departed from thence, and returned to their own houses; And the Hainowes arrived at Wissant, and there they sojourned two days in making ready their horses and harness. And in the meantime sir John of Hainault (39) and some of his company rode a pilgrimage to our Lady of Boulogne; and after they returned into Hainault, and departed each from other to their own houses and countries. Sir John of Hainault (39) rode to the [his future father-in-law] earl his brother (41), who was at Valenciennes, who received him joyously, for greatly he loved him, to whom he recounted all his tidings, that ye have heard herebefore.
On 04 Aug 1327, during the night, James "Black" Douglas 1286-1330 (41) ambushed Edward III's (14) camp at Stanhope Park Weardale. Douglas (41) reached Edward III's (14) collapsed tent nearly capturing the English King.
On 21 Sep 1327 [his father] King Edward II of England (43) was murdered at Berkeley Castle. There is speculation as to the manner of his death, and as to whether he died at all. Some believe he may have lived the rest of his life in Europe.
On 24 Jan 1328 King Edward III England (15) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault (13) were married at York Minster. They were second cousins. He a son of King Edward II of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. [his wife] She by marriage Queen Consort England.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 21 How Philip of Valois was crowned king of France. [his uncle] King Charles of France (33), son to the fair king Philip (59), was three times married, and yet died without issue male. The first of his wives (31) was one of the most fairest ladies in all the world, and she was daughter to the earl of Artois (80). Howbeit she kept but evil the sacrament of matrimony, but brake her wedlock; wherefore she was kept a long space in prison in the castle Gaillard, before that her husband was made king. And when the realm of France was fallen to him, he was crowned by the assent of the twelve douze-peers1 of France, and then because they would not that the realm of France should be long without an heir male, they advised by their counsel that the king should be remarried again; and so he was, to the daughter (24) of the emperor Henry of Luxembourg (53), sister to the gentle king of Bohemia (31); whereby the first marriage of the king was fordone, between him and his wife (31) that was in prison, by the licence and declaration of the pope that was then. And by his second wife, who was right humble, and a noble wise lady, the king had a son (3), who died in his young age, and the queen also at Issoudun in Berry. And they both died suspiciously, wherefore divers persons were put to blame after privily. And after this, the same king Charles was married again the third time to the daughter (18) of his uncle, the lord Louis earl of Evreux (51), and she was sister to the king of Navarre (21), and was named queen Joan. And so in time and space this lady was with child, and in the mean-time the king Charles her husband fell sick and lay down on his death-bed. And when he saw there was no way with him but death, he devised that if it fortuned the queen to be delivered of a son, then he would that the lord Philip of Valois should be his governour, and regent of all his realm, till his son come to such age as he might be crowned king; and if it fortuned the queen to have a daughter, then he would that all the twelve peers of France should take advice and counsel for the further ordering of the realm, and that they should give the realm and regaly to him that had most right thereto. And so within a while after the king Charles died, about Easter in the year of our Lord Mcccxxviii., and within a short space after the queen was delivered of a daughter.
Note 1. Froissart says simply 'les douze pers.'
Then all the peers of France assembled a council together at Paris, as shortly as they might conveniently, and there they gave the realm by common accord to sir Philip of Valois (34), and put clean out the [his mother] queen Isabel (33) of England and king Edward (15) her son. For she was sister-german to king Charles last dead, but the opinion of the nobles of France was, and said and maintained that the realm of France was of so great nobless, that it ought not by succession to fall into a woman's hand. And so thus they crowned king of France Philip Valois at Rheims on Trinity Sunday next after.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 20 How king Robert of Scotland died. Mar 1328. Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton. AND when that the Scots were departed by night from the mountain, whereas the king of England (15) had besieged them, as ye have heard herebefore, they went twentytwo mile through that savage country without resting, and passed the river of Tyne right near to Carlisle1; and the next day they went into their own land, and so departed every man to his own mansion. And within a space after there was a peace purchased between the kings of England and Scotland; and as the English chronicle saith,' it was done by the special counsel of the [his mother] old queen (33) and sir Roger Mortimer (40); for by their means there was a parliament holden at Northampton, at the which the king (15) being within age granted to the Scots to release all the fealties and homages that they ought to have done to the crown of England, by his charter ensealed, and also there was delivered to the Scots an indenture, the which was called the Ragman, wherein was contained all the homages and fealties that the king of Scots and all the prelates, earls and barons of Scotland ought to have done to the crown of England, sealed with all their seals, with all other rights that sundry barons and knights ought to have had in the realm of Scotland.
1. This may be a mistake since the River Tyne doesn't flows near Carlisle. The River Eden flows through Carlisle.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 20 How king Robert of Scotland died. Mar 1328. Then the [his uncle] earl marshal (27) and the earl of Kent (26), the king's uncle, made a peace between the king (15) and the earl of Lancaster (47), on whose part was sir Henry lord Beaumont (49), sir Fulke Fitz-Warin (43), sir Thomas Rocelin, sir William Trussel (48), sir Thomas Wither and about a hundred knights, who were all expelled out of England by the counsel of queen Isabel and the earl Mortimer: for he was so covetous, that he thought to have the most part of all their lands into his own hands, as it is more plainly shewed in the English chronicle, the which I pass over and follow mine author.
On 17 Mar 1328 Robert the Bruce (53) signed the Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton bringing to an end the First Scottish War of Independence. The English Parliament signed at Northampton on 03 May 1328. The terms of the Treaty included:
Scotland to pay England £100,000 sterling,
The Kingdom of Scotland as fully independent,
Robert the Bruce (53), and his heirs and successors, as the rightful rulers of Scotland, and.
The border between Scotland and England as that recognised under the reign of Alexander III (1249–1286).
The Treaty lasted four years only being regarded by the English nobility as humiliating; the work of Edward's (15) mother [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330 (40) rather than King Edward (15). Two years after King Edward (15) commenced his personal reign he commenced the Second War of Scottish Independence in Aug 1332.
On 31 May 1328 the Mortimer family leveraged their new status at a lavish ceremony that celebrated the marriages of two of Roger Mortimer's (41) daughters at Hereford.
Edward Plantagenet 1320-1334 (8) and Beatrice Mortimer 1322-1383 (6) were married. They were half third cousins once removed. He a grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 4 granddaughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.
Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke 1319-1348 (9) and Agnes Mortimer 1317-1368 (11) were married. They were third cousins once removed. She a great x 4 granddaughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 19 How king Edward was married to my lady Philippa of Hainault. Jun 1328.It was not long after but that the king (15) and the [his mother] queen (33) his mother, the earl of Kent (26) his uncle, the earl of Lancaster (47), sir Roger Mortimer (41) and all the barons of England, and by the advice of the king's council, they sent a bishop1 and two knights bannerets, with two notable clerks, to sir John of Hainault (40), praying him to be a mean that their lord the young king of England might have in marriage one of the earl's (42) daughters of Hainault, his brother (42), named Philippa (13); for the king and all the nobles of the realm had rather have her than any other lady, for the love of him. Sir John of Hainault (40) lord Beaumont feasted and honoured greatly these ambassadors, and brought them to Valenciennes to the earl his brother, who honourably received them and made them such cheer, that it were over long here to rehearse. And when they had skewed the content of their message, the earl (42) said, 'Sirs, I thank greatly the king (15) your prince and the [his mother] queen (33) his mother and all other lords of England, sith they have sent such sufficient personages as ye be to do me such honour as to treat for the marriage; to the which request I am well agreed, if our holy father the pope (84) will consent thereto'-. with the which answer these ambassadors were right well content. Then they sent two knights and two clerks incontinent to the pope, to Avignon, to purchase a dispensation for this marriage to be had; for without the pope's licence they might not marry, for [by] the lineage of France they were so near of kin as at the third degree, for the two mothers [Note. [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (33) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 1294-1342 (34)] were cousin-germans issued of two brethren2. And when these ambassadors were come to the pope (84), and their requests and considerations well heard, our holy father the pope (84) with all the whole college consented to this marriage, and so feasted them. And then they departed and came again to Valenciennes with their bulls. Then this marriage was concluded and affirmed on both parties. Then was there devised and purveyed for their apparel and for all things honourable that belonged to such a lady, who should be queen of England: and there this princess was married by a sufficient procuration brought from the king of England; and after all feasts and triumphs done, then this young queen entered into the sea at Wissant, and arrived with all her company at Dover. And sir John of Hainault (40) lord Beaumont, her uncle, did conduct her to the city of London, where there was made great feast, and many nobles of England, ... queen was crowned. And there was also great jousts, tourneys, dancing, carolling and great feasts every day, the which endured the, space of three weeks. The English chronicle saith this marriage and coronation of the queen was done at York with much honour, the Sunday in the even of the Conversion of Saint Paul, in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. In the which chronicle is shewed many other things of the ruling of the realm, and of the death of king Edward of Caernarvon (44), and divers other debates that were within the realm, as in the same chronicle more plainly it appeareth: the which the author of this book speaketh no word of, because peradventure he knew it not; for it was hard for a stranger to know all things. But according to his writing this young queen Philippa (13) abode still in England with a small company of any persons of her own country, saving one who was named Watelet of Manny (18), who abode still with the queen and was, her carver, and after did so many great prowesses in divers places, that it were hard to make mention of them all.
Note 1. This should be: 'And the other barons of England who had continued to be of the council of the king sent a bishop,' etc. Or according to a better text, ' took advice to marry him. So they sent a bishop,' etc.
Note 2. The meaning is that the kinship came by the relationship of both to the house of France. The mother of Edward was daughter of Philip the Fair and the mother of Philippa was daughter of Charles I of Valois [who were brothers; Edward and Philippa were second cousins].
On 17 Jul 1328 David II King Scotland 1324-1371 (4) and [his sister] Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 (7) were married at Berwick on Tweed. She a daughter of King Edward II of England.
In 1329 Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh 1287-1355 (42) was sent to King Philip IV of France (35) to explain the reasons for the delay in King Edward III (16) rendering of his homage.
On 19 Mar 1330 the King's uncle [his uncle] Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent 1301-1330 (28) was beheaded at Winchester Castle. His son Edmund Plantagenet 2nd Earl Kent 1326-1331 (4) succeeded 2nd Earl Kent 5C 1321. The executioner was a convicted latrine cleaner who was also facing the death penalty; no-one else would undertake the task. Edmund had been convicted of plotting against the court believing his brother Edward II was still alive. It later emerged the plot had been created by Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330 (42) to entrap [his uncle] Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent 1301-1330 (28). King Edward III England (17) was unable to show leniency risking complicity in the plot.
On 15 Jun 1330 [his son] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 was born to King Edward III England (17) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (15) at Woodstock Palace.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 20 How king Robert of Scotland died. 25 Aug 1330. Battle of Teba. And within a while after that this knight sir William Douglas (44) was come to the king of Spain (19), on a day the king issued out into the field to approach near to his enemies. And the king of Granade issued out in like wise on his part, so that each king might see other with all their banners displayed. Then they arranged their battles each against other. Then sir William Douglas (44) drew out on the one side with all his company, to the intent to shew his prowess the better. And when he saw these battles thus ranged on both parties, and saw that the battle of the king of Spain (19) began somewhat to advance toward their enemies, he thought then verily that they should soon assemble together to fight at hand strokes; and then he thought rather to be with the foremost than with the hindermost, and strake his horse with the spurs, and all his company also, and dashed into the battle of the king of Granade, crying, 'Douglas! Douglas !' weening to him the king of Spain (19) and his host had followed, but they did not; wherefore he was deceived, for the Spanish host stood still. And so this gentle knight (44) was enclosed, and all his company, with the Saracens, whereas he did marvels in arms, but finally he could not endure, so that he and all his company were slain. The which was great damage, that the Spaniards would not rescue them. Also in this season there were certain lords that treated for peace between England and Scotland. So that at the last there was a marriage made and solemnised between the young king of Scotland (4) and dame [his sister] Joan of the Tower (7), sister to king Edward of England (15), at Berwick, as the English chronicle saith, on Mary Maudlin day [Note. the Feast of Mary Magdalen is 22 Jul?], the year 'of our Lord MCCCXXVIII., against the assent of many of the nobles of the realm. But queen Isabel (35) the king's mother and the earl Mortimer (43) made that marriage; at the which, as mine author saith, there was great feast made on both parties.
On 19 Oct 1330 John Neville 1299-1335, William Eland, William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton 1309-1361 (20), William Clinton 1st Earl Huntingdon 1304-1354 (26) and William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury 1301-1349 (29), friends of King Edward III England (17) secretly entered Nottingham Castle through tunnels, met with King Edward III England (17), and arrested Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330 (43) and his son Geoffrey Mortimer 1309-1372 (21) in the presence of [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (35).
In May 1332 Reginald "Black" II Duke Guelders 1295-1343 (37) and [his sister] Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet 1318-1355 (13) were married at Nijmegen. They were second cousins once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. She a daughter of King Edward II of England. [his sister] She by marriage Duchess Guelders. His second marriage; he had four daughters from his first marriage. He subsequently sent her from court to Deventer Abbey in 1336 under the pretext that she had leprosy. He subsequently tried to annul the marriage but she contested the annulment by proving she wasn't a leper.
On 14 May 1332 King Edward III England (19) spent Easter at the House of the Friars Preachers Stamford, and paid fifty marks to the friars for damages done by the royal household.
On 16 Jun 1332 [his daughter] Isabella Plantagenet Countess Bedford and Soissons 1332-1382 was born to King Edward III England (19) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (17) at Woodstock Palace.
English archers, just as at the Battle of Dupplin Moor one year previously, had a significant impact on the massed ranks of Scottish schiltrons. Edward's army included: [his uncle] Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300-1338 (33), who commanded the right wing, Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon 1276-1340 (56), Robert Pierrepoint -1334, Hugh Courtenay 10th Earl Devon 1303-1377 (30), Henry Beaumont 4th Earl Buchan 1279-1340 (54) and John Sully 1283-1388 (50). One of the few English casualties was John Neville 1299-1333 (34) who was killed.
The Scottish army included David II King Scotland 1324-1371 (9). Alexander Bruce -1333, Alan Stewart 1272-1333 (61), James Stewart 1276-1333 (57), John Stewart -1333, William Douglas 1st Earl Atholl -1333, Archibald Douglas 1297-1333 (35) who were all killed.
Hugh 4th Earl Ross 1296-1333 (36) was killed. His son William 5th Earl Ross -1372 succeeded 5th Earl Ross.
Malcolm Lennox 2nd Earl Lennox -1333 was killed. His son Domhnall Lennox Earl Lennox -1365 succeeded Earl Lennox 1C 12th Century.
Kenneth de Moravia Sutherland 4th Earl Sutherland -1333 was killed. His son William de Moravia Sutherland 5th Earl Sutherland -1370 succeeded 5th Earl Sutherland. Johanna Menteith Countess Sutherland by marriage Countess Sutherland.
In 1334 [his brother-in-law] William Hainault II Count Hainault 1307-1345 (27) and Joanna Reginar Duchess Brabant 1322-1406 (12) were married. They were half second cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. She a great granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.
In 1335 King Edward III England (22) was at House of the Friars Preachers Stamford and on several occasions gave the friars pittances.
On 30 Nov 1335 David III Strathbogie 11th Earl Atholl 1309-1335 (26) was killed during the Battle of Culblean. His son David IV Strathbogie 12th Earl Atholl 1327-1369 (8) succeeded 12th Earl Atholl 1C . Whilst small the battle had a significant impact insofar as it brought an end to the campaign of King Edward III England (23) also ending the aspirations to the Scottish throne of Edward Balliol I King Scotland 1283-1364 (52).
Before 06 Jul 1336 Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford 1301-1372 abducted Margaret Audley Countess Stafford 1318-1349. She being the heir of the very wealthy Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester 1291-1347; considerably more wealthy than Ralph. King Edward III England was sympathetic despite the complaint of her father since Ralph had been one of King Edward III's key supporters during the plot to arrest Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330. Margaret's father was subsequently created Earl as a quid pro quo.
On 30 Sep 1336 [his brother] John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall 1316-1336 (20) died at Perth. He was buried at the east side of the doorway to the Chapel of St Edmund. His monument comprises a head of the statue encircled by a coronet of large and small leaves, remarkable for being the earliest specimen of the kind. The details of plate-armour, surcoat, gorget, coroneted helmet, with other accessories, give great antiquarian interest to this work. It was formerly surmounted by a canopy, of which, however, no traces are now visible.
Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester 1291-1347 (46) was created 1st Earl Gloucester 3C 1337 probably as compensation for his daughter Margaret Audley Countess Stafford 1318-1349 (19) having been abducted by Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford 1301-1372 (35).
On 16 Feb 1337 [his son] William of Hatfield 1337-1337 was born to King Edward III England (24) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (22) at Hatfield. He died shortly afterwards around 03 Mar 1337. He was buried at York Minster where there is a monument to him in the north aisle.
On 07 Jun 1337 [his father-in-law] William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 1286-1337 (51) died. His son William Hainault II Count Hainault 1307-1345 (30) succeeded II Count Hainault. Joanna Reginar Duchess Brabant 1322-1406 (15) by marriage Countess Hainault.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 34 How king Edward of England was made vicar-general of the Empire of Almaine. Nov 1337. When the king of England (24) and the other lords to him allied were departed from the parliament of Hal, the king went to Louvain and made ready the castle for his abiding, and sent for the [his wife] queen (23) to come thither, if it pleased her; for he sent her word he would not come thence of an whole year, and sent home certain of his knights to keep his land from the Scots. And the other lords and knights that were there still with the king rode about the realm of Flanders and Hainault, making great dispense, giving great rewards and jewels to the lords, ladies and damosels of the country, to get their good-wills. They did so much that they were greatly praised, and specially of the common people, because of the port and state that they kept.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 31 King Edward makes great alliances in the Empire. Nov 1337The news of the discomfiture at Cadsant was soon spread abroad; — the Flemings said, that they were not sorry for it, as the earl had placed that garrison there without their consent or advice; nor was Jacob von Artaveld displeased at the event. He instantly sent over ambassadors to king Edward recommending himself to his grace with his whole heart and faith. He signified to the king, that it was his opinion he should immediately cross the sea, and come to Antwerp, by which means he would acquit himself towards the Flemings, who were very anxious to see him; and he imagined, if he were on that side of the water, his affair would go on more prosperously, and to his greater advantage. The king of England (24), upon this, made very great preparations; and when the winter was over, he embarked, accompanied by many earls, barons, and knights, and came to the city of Antwerp, which at that time was held for the duke of Brabant (37): multitudes came thither to see him, and witness the great state and pomp in which he lived. He sent to the duke of Brabant (37), his cousin, to his brother-in-law, the duke of Gueldres (42), to the marquis of Juliers, the lord John of Hainault, and to all those from whom he expected support and assistance, that he should be happy to have some conversation with them. They all therefore came to Antwerp between Whitsuntide and St. Johns day; and when the king had sufficiently entertained them, he was eager to know from them when they could enter upon what they had promised, and entreated them to make dispatch: for this was his reason of coming to Antwerp; ud as he had all his preparations ready, it would be a great loss to him if they were tardy. These lords of Germany had a long consultation together, and finally made this their answer:—
"Dear sir, when we came hither, it was more for the pleasure of seeing you, than for any thing else; we are not yet in a situation to give a positive answer to your demand; but we will return home, and come again to you whenever you please, and give you so full an answer, that the matter shall not remain with us."
They fixed upon that day three weeks after St. John's day. The king of England remonstrated with them upon the great expenses and loss he should be at by their delays, for he thought they would all have been ready with their answers by the time he had come thither; and added, that he would never return to England, until he knew what their intentions were. Upon this the lords departed, and the king remained quietly in the monastery of St. Bernard: some of his lords staid at Antwerp, to keep him company; the rest went about the country amusing themselves in a magnificent style, and were well received and feasted wherever they came. The duke of Brabant went to Louvain, and made a long stay there; thence he sent (as he had done before) frequently to the king of France (43), to entreat that he would not pay attention to any reports that were injurious to him, for he should be very sorry to form any connexion or alliance contrary to his interests; but the king of England being his cousin-german, he could not forbid his passing through his country. The day came when the king expected the answers from the above-mentioned lords: they sent excuses, saying, they were not quite ready, neither themselves nor their men; that he must exert himself to make the duke of Brabant prepare to act with them, as he was much nearer to France, and seemed to them very indifferent in the matter; and that an soon as they should for a certainty he informed that the duke was ready, they would pat themselves in motion, and he as soon in action as he should he.
Upon this the king of England had a conference with the duke of Brabant, and showed him the answers he had received, and begged of him, hy his friendship and his kindred, that no delay might come from him, for he suspected that he was not warmly inclined to the cause, and added, that, if he were so cool and indifferent, he much feared he should lose the aid of these German lords. The duke replied, that he would summon his council. After long deliberations, he told the king, that he would he ready the moment the business required it — but that he must first see these lords; to whom he wrote, to desire they would meet him at whatever place was the most agreeable to them. The day for this conference was fixed for the middle of August, and it was unanimously agreed to be held at Halle, on account of the young earl of Hainault, who was to be there, as well as the lord John, his uncle.
When all these lords of the empire were assembled in the city of Halle, they had long deliberations together, and said to the king of England, "Dear sir, we do not see any cause for us to challenge the king of France, all things considered, unless you can procure the consent of the emperor, and that he will command us so to do on his account, which may easily be done; for there is an ordinance of a very old date, sealed, that no king of France should take and keep possession of any thing that belongs to tho empire. Now king Philip has gotten possession of the castles of Crevecoaur, in Cambresis, and of Arleux, in Artois, as well as the city of Cambray, for which the emperor has good grounds to challenge him through us, if you will have the goodness to obtain it from him, in order to save our honour." The king of England replied, that he would very cheerfully conform himself to their advice.
It was then determined, that the marquis of Juliers should go to the emperor, and with him knights and counsellors from the king, and some from the duke of Gueldres: but the duke of Brabant would not send any; he lent, however, his castle of Louvain to the king for his residence. The marquis of Juliers and his company found the emperor at Nuremberg: they obtained by their solicitations the object of their mission; for the [his sister-in-law] lady Margaret of Hainault (25), whom the lord Lewis of Bavaria (55), then emperor, had married, took great pains and trouble to bring it about. The marquis was then created an earl, and the duke of Gueldres (42), who was but an earl, was raised to the dignity of a duke. The emperor gave a commission to four knights and two counsellors in the law, who were members of his council, investing them with powers to make king Edward his vicar over all parts of the empire; and these lords took out sufficient instruments, publicly sealed and confirmed by the emperor.
On 23 Sep 1338 a French fleet attacked an English fleet unloading cargo at Walcheren. Five large and powerful English cogs, including Edward III's (25) flagships the Cog Edward and the Christopher were captured. The captured crews were executed and the ships added to the French fleet.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 37 The French, after the Challenges, invade England. 05 Oct 1338. Upon king Philip's (44) receiving the challenges from king Edward (25) and his allies, he collected men at arms and soldiers from all quarters; he sent the lord Gallois de la Bausme, a good knight from Savoy, to the city of Cambray, and made him governor thereof, in conjunction with sir Thibault de Marneil and the lord of Roye: they might be, including Spaniards and French, full two hundred lances. The king seized the county of Ponthieu, which the king of England had before held by right of his [his mother] mother (43); and he also sent and entreated some lords of the empire, such as the count of Hainault his nephew (31), the duke of Lorrain (18), the Count of Bar (23), the bishop of Metz, the bishop of Liege, not to commit any hostile acts against him or his kingdom. The greater part of them answered as he could have wished; but the count of Hainault, in a very civil reply, said that although he should be at all times ready to assist him or his realm against any one, yet as the king of England made war in behalf of the empire, as vicar and lieutenant of it, he could not refuse him aid and assistance in his country, as he held lands under the empire. The king of France appeared satisfied with this answer, not however laying much stress on it, as he felt himself in sufficient strength to oppose his enemies.
As soon as sir Hugh Quiriel, sir Peter Bahucet, and Barbenoire, were informed that hostilities had commenced, they landed one Sunday morning in the harbour at Southampton, whilst the inhabitants were at church: Normans, Picards, and Spaniards entered the town, pillaged it, killed many, deflowered maidens and forced wives; and having loaded their vessels with the booty, they fell down with the tide, and made sail for the coast of Normandy. They landed at Dieppe, and there divided the plunder.
On 29 Nov 1338 [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 was born to King Edward III England (26) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (24) at Antwerp.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 38 How King Edward besieged the city of Cambray. 1339. The king of England (26) departed from Mechlin and went to Brussels, and all his people passed on by the town. Then came to the king a twenty thousand Almains, and the king sent and demanded of the duke of Brabant what was his intention, to go to Cambray or else to leave it. The duke answered and said that as soon as he knew that he had besieged Cambray, he would come thither with twelve hundred spears, of good men of war. Then the king went to Nivelle and there lay one night, and the next day to Mons in Hainault; and there he found the young earl of Hainault, who received him joyously. And ever sir Robert of Artois was about the king, as one of his privy council, and a sixteen or twenty other great lords and knights of England, the which were ever about the king for his honour and estate, and to counsel him in all his deeds. Also with him was the bishop of Lincoln (47), who was greatly renowned in this journey both in wisdom and in prowess. Thus the Englishmen passed forth and lodged abroad in the country, and found provision enough before them for their money; howbeit some paid truly and some not.
On 06 Mar 1340 [his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 was born to King Edward III England (27) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (25) at the Prinsenhof Palace in Ghent.
On 24 Jun 1340 King Edward III England (27) attacked the French fleet at anchor during the Battle of Sluys capturing more than 200 ships, killing around 18000 French. The English force included John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Warwick 1316-1360 (24), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton 1309-1361 (30), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham 1312-1392 (27), William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer Corby 1330-1381 (10), John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle 1318-1355 (22), Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford 1301-1372 (38), Henry of Grosmont (30), Walter Manny 1st Baron Manny 1310-1372 (30) and Richard Pembridge 1320-1375 (20).
In 1342 [his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (1) was created 1st Earl Richmond 5C 1342. It isn't clear whether his older brothers Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (11) and Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (3) had been created Earls before this time.
In 1342 [his daughter] Blanche of the Tower 1342-1342 was born to King Edward III England (29) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (27) at the Tower of London. In 1342 [his daughter] she died. She was buried at the east side of the door to the Chapel of St Edmund.
On 12 May 1343 [his son] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (12) was created Prince of Wales.
On 12 Oct 1343 Reginald "Black" II Duke Guelders 1295-1343 (48) died from a fall from his horse at Arnhem. His son [his nephew] Reginald III Duke Guelders 1333-1371 (10) succeeded III Duke Guelders. His wife acted as Regent to her nine year old son for two years.
Before 23 Apr 1344 King Edward III England formed the Order of the Garter. The date is somewhat unclear. The first reliable record occurs in autumn of 1348 when the King's wardrobe account shows Garter habits being issued. The Order may have been formed before then with some traditions such as the mantle, and the garter and motto, possibly being introduced later. The Garter refers to an event at Wark Castle at which King Edward III England picked up the Countess of Salisbury's fallen garter and saying to the crowd "Honi soit qui mal y pense" ie Shame on him who thinks badly of it, or possibly, he brings shame on himself who thinks badly of it. The Countess of Salisbury could refer to his future daughter-in-law [his future daughter-in-law] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 or her former mother-in-law Catherine Grandison Countess Salisbury 1304-1349. The event has also been drescribed as taking place at Calias.
4 Jean Grailly 1331-1376.
15 Richard Fitzsimon -1349.
17 Thomas Wale 1303-1352.
19 Neil Loring 1320-1386.
20 John Chandos 1320-1369.
23 Henry Eam -1359.
24 Sanchet Abrichecourt 1330-1360.
25 Walter Paveley 4th Baron Burghesh 1319-1375.
On 10 Oct 1344 [his daughter] Mary Plantagenet Duchess Brittany 1344-1361 was born to King Edward III England (31) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (30) at Bishop Waltham's Palace.
After 22 Sep 1345 Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark, or possibly the Hospital Chapel, at a ceremony attended by King Edward III England and his wife [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369. His son Henry of Grosmont subsequently moved had his remains moved to St Mary de Castro Leicester.
On 26 Sep 1345 [his brother-in-law] William Hainault II Count Hainault 1307-1345 (38) died. His sister Margaret Hainault Holy Roman Empress 1312-1369 (33) succeeded II Count Hainault. Louis Wittelsbach IV Holy Roman Emperor 1282-1347 (63) by marriage Count Hainault.
On 20 Jul 1346 [his daughter] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 was born to King Edward III England (33) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (32) at Windsor Castle.
On 24 Aug 1346 the Battle of Blanchetaque was fought between the English and French. The English had become trapped in an area denuded of supplies and needed to cross the River Somme to access food. The French army had destroyed all the bridges across the River Somme. At the 1800m wide ford at Blanchetaque, ten miles inland from the sea, Edward III's (33) army crossed the river despite resistance from the French. Hugh Despencer 2nd Baron Despencer 1308-1349 (38) led a force of English longbowmen across the ford to engage the French crossbowmen. Following the archery battle a force of English mounted men-at-arms, probably led by William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton 1309-1361 (36), engaged with the French. Following the battle the whole English army crossed the river then marched to Crécy to prepare for the next battle.
On 26 Aug 1346 the army of King Edward III England (33) defeated the French army at the Battle of Crécy. The English army was commanded by King Edward III England (33), his son [his son] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (16), Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick 1313-1386 (33), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton 1309-1361 (36) and John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Warwick 1316-1360 (30).
The English army was included: Bernard Brocas 1330-1395 (16), Thomas Felton 1330-1381 (16), James Audley 1318-1369 (28), Robert Bourchier 1st Baron Bourchier -1349, Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh 1287-1355 (59), Bartholomew "The Younger" Burghesh 2nd Baron Burghesh 1328-1369 (18), Reginald Cobham 1st Baron Cobham Sternborough 1295-1361 (51), John Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Knayth 1280-1347 (66), Robert Ferrers 3rd Baron Ferrers Chartley 1309-1350 (37), Richard Scrope 1st Baron Scrope of Bolton 1327-1403 (19), William Scrope 1325-1367 (21), Stephen Scrope 1325- (21), William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer Corby 1330-1381 (16), John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle 1318-1355 (28), Gerard Lisle 1st Baron Lisle 1304-1360 (42), Nicholas Longford 1285-1356 (61), Edward Montagu 1st Baron Montagu -1361, Walter Paveley 4th Baron Burghesh 1319-1375 (27), Michael Poynings 1st Baron Poynings 1318-1369 (28), Robert Ufford 1st Earl Suffolk 1298-1369 (48), John Vere 7th Earl Oxford 1312-1360 (34), Thomas West 1312-1386 (34), John Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1303-1349 (43), John Wingfield 1320-1361 (26), Henry Percy 3rd Baron Percy 1321-1368 (25), Hugh Courtenay 10th Earl Devon 1303-1377 (43) (possibly), Walter "Elder" Devereux 1309-1376 (37), John Devereux 1302-1346 (44), Enion Sais Brecon, John Chandos 1320-1369 (26), Richard Pembridge 1320-1375 (26) and John Sully 1283-1388 (63).
The French army suffered significant casualties. Philip "Fortunate" VI King France 1293-1350 (52) was wounded. William de Coucy 1286-1335 (60) and his son Enguerrand 6th Lord de Coucy 1313-1346 (33) and were killed.
Charles Valois Count Alençon 1297-1346 (49) was killed. His son Charles Valois Archbishop Lyons 1337-1375 (9) succeeded Count Alençon.
Louis Chatillon II Count Blois I Count Chatillon -1346 was killed. His son Louis Chatillon III Count Blois Count Soissons -1372 succeeded III Count Blois.
Rudolph "Valiant" Metz I Duke Lorraine 1320-1346 (26) was killed. His son John Metz I Duke Lorraine 1346-1390 succeeded I Duke Lorraine.
On 03 Sep 1346 King Edward III England (33) commenced the Siege of Calais. It lasted eleven months with Calais eventually surrendering on 03 Aug 1347.
On 01 Jul 1347 [his nephew] Reginald III Duke Guelders 1333-1371 (14) and Marie of Brabant Duchess of Guelders 1325-1399 (22) were married. They were second cousins. He a grandson of King Edward II of England. She a great granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.
In 1348 [his son] William of Windsor 1348-1348 was born to King Edward III England (35) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (33). In 1348 [his son] he died. He was buried at the east side of the door to the Chapel of St Edmund.
In 1349 King Edward III England (36) created new Garter Knights:
26th William Fitzwarin 1310-1361 (39). The date may be earlier.
On 29 Aug 1350 the English fleet defeated a Castilian fleet at Winchelsea during the Battle of Winchelsea. Around twenty Castilian ships were captured; several were sunk. For the English King Edward III England (37) and his son [his son] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (20), James Audley 1318-1369 (32), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham 1312-1392 (37), Henry of Grosmont (40) and John Sully 1283-1388 (67) fought.
In 1352 [his brother-in-law] John "sans Terre" Artois 1st Count Eu 1321-1387 (30) was created 1st Count Eu.
In 1352 [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) and Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (19) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) by marriage 4th Earl Ulster. She was the sole heir of her father and brought the de Burgh inheritance of the lands of Ulster to the marriage. As a consequence of their earlier betrothal he had been called Earl Ulster since 1347.
On 11 Jul 1352 [his brother-in-law] John "sans Terre" Artois 1st Count Eu 1321-1387 (30) and Isabeau Melun Countess Eu 1328-1352 (24) were married. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Eu.
In 1353 King Edward III England (40) granted the income from the rents and profits of the lands of the Forest of Dean to Flaxby Abbey.
In 1353 Reginald Cobham 1st Baron Cobham Sternborough 1295-1361 (58) was appointed 29th Knight of the Garter by King Edward III England (40).
On 07 Jan 1355 [his son] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 was born to King Edward III England (42) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (40) at Woodstock Palace.
On 22 Apr 1355 [his sister] Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet 1318-1355 (36) died. She was buried at Deventer Abbey.
In 1356 Richard Vache -1366 was appointed 30th Knight of the Garter by King Edward III England (43).
On 20 Jan 1356 Edward Balliol I King Scotland 1283-1364 (73) surrendered his claim to the Scottish throne to King Edward III England (43) in the presence of William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer Corby 1330-1381 (25) in exchange for an English pension.
The funeral was performed by Simon Islip Archbishop of Canterbury -1366. She was buried in the mantle she had worn at her wedding and at her request, [his father] Edward's (74) heart, placed into a casket thirty years before, was interred with her.
In May 1359 King Edward III England (46) and his son [his son] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (28) took part in a tournament in London. For the amusement of the citizens both Edwards and their friends dressed as the mayor and aldermen of London. The tournament possibly in celebration of the two Royal marriages of his children John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) on 19 May 1359.
On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey whereby two children of King Edward III England (46) were married:
[his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Richmond.
[his son-in-law] John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) and Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a daughter of King Edward III England. At the time [his son-in-law] John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) was a ward of King Edward III England (55) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later on 12 Sep 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague.
In 1360 King Edward III England (47) created new Garter Knights:
32nd Walter Manny 1st Baron Manny 1310-1372 (50).
33rd Frank Hale.
On 13 Apr 1360 a freak weather event known as Black Monday Hailstorm occurred as the army of King Edward III England (47) were camped outside Chartres. Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick 1313-1386 (47), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton 1309-1361 (50), Henry of Grosmont (50), [his son] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (29) and Walter Mauny were present. Around one thousand English were killed, with up to six thousand horses. King Edward III England (47) believed the event to be an Act of God and proceeded to negotiate with the French resulting in the Treaty of Brétigny.
On 28 Apr 1360 Guy Beauchamp -1360 died from injuries received during the Black Monday Hailstorm.
On 24 Oct 1360, three weeks after the Black Monday Hailstorm, King Edward III England (47) and John "The Good" II King France 1319-1364 (41), and their eldest sons [his son] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (30) and the future Charles V King France 1338-1380 (22), ratified the Treaty of Brétigny at Calais. Louis Valois Anjou I Duke Anjou 1339-1384 (21) and John Valois 1st Duke Berry 1340-1416 (19) were given as hostages.
William of Wykeham Chancellor Bishop Winchester 1320-1404 (40) was present.
35th [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (22).
36th [his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (20).
37th [his son] Edmund of Langley (19).
In 1361 [his nephew] Edward Duke Guelders 1336-1371 (24) succeeded Duke Guelders when he captured and imprisoned his brother Reginald III Duke Guelders 1333-1371 (27).
In 1361 William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer Corby 1330-1381 (30) was appointed 40th Knight of the Garter by King Edward III England (48).
In Jan 1361 Edward III (48) and John II of France (41) jointly to petitioned Pope Innocent VI, to make William of Wykeham Chancellor Bishop Winchester 1320-1404 (41) a canon at Lincoln Cathedral.
Around 03 Jul 1361 [his son-in-law] John Montfort V Duke Brittany 1339-1399 (22) and Mary Plantagenet Duchess Brittany 1344-1361 (16) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a daughter of King Edward III England.
On 10 Oct 1361 [his son] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (31) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (33) were married at Windsor Castle. They were half first cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Princess of Wales. His first wife, her second (or third depending on how you count them) husband. She had four children already. They had known each other since childhood. Thirty-one and thirty-three respectively. A curious choice for the heir to the throne; foreign princesses were usual. They were married nearly fifteen years and had two children.
On 23 Apr 1362 John Sully 1283-1388 (79) was appointed 39th Knight of the Garter by King Edward III England (49).
On 07 Sep 1362 [his sister] Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 (41) died of plague at Hertford Castle. She was buried at Greyfriars Church Farringdon Within.
On 28 May 1363 John Harrington 2nd Baron Harington 1328-1363 (35) died at Gleaston Castle. His son Robert Harrington 3rd Baron Harington 1356-1406 (7) succeeded 3rd Baron Harington. Given his young age Robert Harrington 3rd Baron Harington 1356-1406 (7) became a ward of King Edward III England (50) who granted his wardship to his daughter [his daughter] Isabella Plantagenet Countess Bedford and Soissons 1332-1382 (30) and her husband Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons 1340-1397 (23).
On 23 Apr 1365 Humphrey Bohun 7th Earl Hereford 6th Earl Essex 2nd Earl of Northampton 1341-1373 (24) was appointed 41st Knight of the Garter by King Edward III England (52).
On 27 Jul 1365 [his son-in-law] Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons 1340-1397 (25) and Isabella Plantagenet Countess Bedford and Soissons 1332-1382 (33) were married at Windsor Castle. She a daughter of King Edward III England.
On 23 Apr 1366 King Edward III England (53) created new Garter Knights:
42nd [his son-in-law] Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons 1340-1397 (26).
In 1368 King Edward III England (55) created new Garter Knights:
45th Richard Pembridge 1320-1375 (48).
In Jun 1368 [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) and Violante Visconti 1354-1386 (14) were married in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore Milan. He a son of King Edward III England. The wedding festivities were lavish and ostentatious. The banquet, held outside, included 30 courses of meat and fish presented fully gilded. Between the courses the guests were given gifts such as suits of armor, bolts of cloth, war horses, arms, and hunting dogs. Among the guests were Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400 (25), Petrarch, Jean Froissart and John Hawkwood.
On 07 Oct 1368 [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) died from poisoning at Alba. Duke Clarence 1C 1362 extinct. There was strong speculation he had been poisoned by his wife's (14) father (48). He was buried at Clare Priory. His daughter Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (13) succeeded 5th Earl Ulster.
In 1369 [his sister-in-law] Margaret Hainault Holy Roman Empress 1312-1369 (57) died.
On 23 Apr 1369 King Edward III England (56) created new Garter Knights
49th Thomas Grandison 4th Baron Grandison 1339-1375 (30).
50th Guy de Bryan 1318-1390 (50). Possibly on 31 Dec 1369?.
From 27 Jun 1369 to 1371 Thomas de Brantingham Lord Treasurer Bishop Exeter -1394 was appointed Lord Treasurer to King Edward III England (56).
On 15 Aug 1369 [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (55) died at Windsor Castle. She was given a state funeral six months later on 09 Jan 1370 at which she was interred at on the northeast side of the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey. Her alabaster effigy was executed by sculptor Jean de Liège.
On 21 Sep 1371 [his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (31) and Constance of Castile (17) were married at Roquefort, Landes He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster. His younger brother Edmund of Langley (30) married Constance's sister in July 1372.
On 04 Dec 1371 [his nephew] Reginald III Duke Guelders 1333-1371 (38) died without issue. The Duke Guelders title passed to his sisters and their husband's resulting in a war of succession with William Jülich 3rd Duke Guelders 3rd Duke Jülich 1364-1402 (7), son of his sister Marie Guelders Duchess Jülich -1405 eventually succeeding.
In 1372 Guichard d'Angle 1st Earl Huntingdon -1380 was appointed 51st Knight of the Garter by King Edward III England (59).
On 11 Jul 1372 [his son] Edmund of Langley (31) and Isabella of Castile (17) were married at Wallingford. He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Cambridge. She being the younger sister of Constance of Castile (18) who had married Edmund's older brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (32) a year before.
In 1373 King Edward III England (60) created two new Garter Knights:
52nd Alan Buxhull 1323-1381 (50).
In 1374 [his son] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (18) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (8) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.
In 1374 [his former sister-in-law] Joanna Hainault Duchess Guelders 1315-1374 (59) died.
In 1376 [his son] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (20) was created 1st Earl Essex 4C 1376. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (10) by marriage Countess Essex.
On 23 Apr 1376 King Edward III England (63) created a number of new Garter Knights ...
55th Thomas Banastre 1334-1379 (42).
58th Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 (26). He the son of [his daughter-in-law] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (47) whose second husband was Edward III's son Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (45).
59th Thomas Percy 1st Earl Worcester 1343-1403 (33) was appointed 59th. He the son of Mary Plantagenet Baroness Percy 1320-1362 (56) daughter of Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 (95) who was the first cousin of Edward III's father [his father] King Edward II of England (91).
On 08 Jun 1376 [his son] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (45) died of dysentery at Westminster Palace. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. His son Richard (9) succeeded King England. His niece Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (20) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England.
In 1377 [his son] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (21) was created 1st Earl Buckingham 3C 1377. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (11) by marriage Countess Buckingham.
On 23 Apr 1377 King Edward III England (64) created three new Garter Knights:
61st Richard of Gloucester (10) (the future Richard III).
62nd Henry Bolingbroke (10) (the future Henry IV).
63rd John Burley 1325-1383 (52).
On 21 Jun 1377 King Edward III England (64) died of a stroke at Sheen Palace. He was buried in the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor. His grandson King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (10) succeeded II King England.
In May 1406 Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (20) and Anne Mortimer 1390-1411 (15) were married. They were first cousins twice removed. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. The marriage apparently took place in secret possibly because she was a descendant of King Edward III England (93) although she wasn't at the time Heir to the Throne of England although their issue would become so. She died five years later.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 4 Here mine author maketh mention of the parent of this good king Edward the third. THIS [his father] king Edward the second, father to the noble king Edward the third, had two brethren, the one called [the earl] marshal, who was right wild and diverse of conditions, the other called sir Edmund earl of Kent, right wise, amiable, gentle and well beloved with all people. This [his father] king Edward the second was married to Isabel, the daughter of Philip le Beau king of France, who was one of the fairest ladies of the world. The [his father] king had by her two sons and two daughters. The first son was the noble and hardy king Edward the third, of whom this history is begun. The second was named John, and died young. The first of the daughters was called Isabel, married to the young king David of Scotland, son to king Robert de Bruce, married in her tender youth by the accord of both realms of England and Scotland for to make perfect peace. The other daughter was married to the earl Raynold, who after was called duke of Gueldres, and he had by her two sons, Raynold and Edward, who after reigned in great puissance.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 40 How the king of England and the French king took day of journey to fight together.. The king of England departed from Fervaques and went to Montreuil, and there lodged a night, and the next day he went to the Flamengerie and made all his men to lodge near about him, whereof he had more than forty thousand: and there he was counselled to abide king Philip and to fight with him.
The French king departed from Saint-Quentin's, and daily men came to him from all parts, and so came to Buironfosse. There the king tarried, and said how he would not go thence till he had fought with the king of England and with his allies, seeing they were within two leagues together. And when the earl of Hainault, who was at Quesnoy ready purveyed of men of war, knew that the French king was at Buironfosse thinking there to give battle to the Englishmen, he rode forth till he came to the French host with five hundred spears, and presented himself to the king his uncle, who made him but small cheer, because he had been with his adversary before Cambray. Howbeit the earl excused himself so sagely, that the king and his council were well content. And it was ordained by the marshals, that is to say by the marshal Bertrand and by the marshal of Trie1, that the earl should be lodged next the English host.
Thus these two kings were lodged between Buironfosse and Flamengerie, in the plain fields without any advantage. I think there was never seen before so goodly an assembly of noblemen together as was there2. When the king of England, being in the Chapel of Thierache2, knew how that king Philip was within two leagues, then he called the lords of his host together and demanded of them what he should do, his honour saved, for he said that his intention was to give battle. Then the lords beheld each other, and they desired the duke of Brabant to shew first his intent. The duke said that he was of the accord that they should give battle, for otherwise, he said, they could not depart, saving their honours: wherefore he counselled that they should send heralds to the French king to demand a day of battle. Then an herald of the duke of Gueldres, who could well the language of French, was informed what he should say, and so he rode till he came into the French host. And then he drew him to king Philip and to his council and said, 'Sir, the king of England is in the field and desireth to have battle, power against power.' The which thing king Philip granted, and took the day, the Friday next after, and as then it was Wednesday. And so the herald returned, well rewarded with good furred gowns given him by the French king and other lords because of the tidings that he brought. So thus the journey was agreed, and knowledge was made thereof to all the lords of both the hosts, and so every man made him ready to the matter.
The Thursday in the morning there were two knights of the earl of Hainault's, the lord Fagnolle and the lord of Tupigny, they mounted on their horses and they two all only departed from the French host and rode to aview the English host. So they rode coasting the host, and it fortuned that the lord of Fagnolle's horse took the bridle in the teeth in such wise, that his master could not rule him; and so, whether he would or not, the horse brought him into the English host, and there he fell into the hands of the Almains, who perceived well that he was none of their company and set on him and took him and his horse. And so he was prisoner to a five or six gentlemen of Almaine, and anon they set him to his ransom. And when they understood that he was a Hainowe, they demanded of him if he knew sir John of Hainault, and he answered, 'Yes,' and desired them for the love of God to bring him to his presence, for he knew well that he would quit him his ransom. Thereof were the Almains joyous, and so brought him to the lord Beaumont, who incontinent did pledge him out from his master's hands; and the lord of Fagnolle returned again to the earl of Hainault, and he had his horse again delivered him at the request of the lord Beaumont. Thus passed that day, and none other thing done that ought to be remembered.
Note 1. The marshals of the French host were Robert Bertrand and Matthieu de Trie.
Note 2. In the fuller text it is observed that there were in the French army four kings, France, Bohemia, Navarre and Scotland.
Note 3. La Capelle-en-Thirache, a village in the department of Aisne.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 36 Sir Walter Manny, after the challenges had been sent, makes the first incursion into France. Sir Walter Manny, a week after these challenges had been sent, and when he imagined the king of France had received them, collected about forty lances, on whom he knew he could depend, and rode through Brabant night and day; so that he came into Hainault, and entered the wood of Blaton, before any of his followers knew where and why they were thus hastening: he then told some of his intimates, that he had made a promise in England, before the nobles and ladies, that he would be the first that would enter France, and take some castle or strong town, and perform some gallant deed of arms; and that his intention was to push forward as far as Mortaigne, to surprise the town, which was a part of the kingdom of France. Those to whom he thus opened himself cheerfully consented to follow him. They then regirthed their horses, tightened their armour, and rode in close order: having passed through the wood of Blaton, they came at one stretch, a little before sunrise, to Mortaigne, where luckily they found the wicket open. Sir Walter alighted with some of his companions, and having passed the wicket in silence, and placed there a guard, he then with his pennon marched down the street before the great tower, but the gate and the wicket were close shut. The watch of the castle heard their voice, and seeing them from his post, began to Mow his horn, and to cry out "Treason! treason!" This awakened the soldiers and inhabitants, bnt they did not make any sally from the fort. Sir Walter, upon this, retreated handsomely into the street, and ordered those houses to be set on fire that were near the castle: full fifty houses were burnt that morning, and the inhabitants much frightened, at they concluded they must all have been taken prisoners; but sir Walter and his company marched away, and came straight to Condé, where they passed by the pond and river Haynes, taking the' road to Valenciennes; leaving which on the right hand, they came to Avesnes, and took up their quarters in the abbey. They then pushed forward towards Douchain, and managed matters so well with the governor, that the gates of the castle were opened to them: they crossed a river which empties itself into the Scheld, and which rises near Arleux. Afterward they came to a very strong castle, called Thin l'Evêque, that belonged to the bishop of Cambray, which was so suddenly surprised, the governor and his wife were taken in it. Sir Walter placed a strong garrison there, and made his brother, sir Giles Manny, governor, who gave much disturbance to the Cambresians, as this castle was but a short league from the city of Cambray. When sir Walter had performed these enterprises, he returned into Brabant towards the king, his lord, whom he found at Mechlin, and related to him all that he had done.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 5 Hereafter beginneth the occasion whereby the war moved between the kings of France and England. Now sheweth the history that this [his grandfather] Philip le Beau king of France had three sons and a fair daughter named Isabel, married into England to king Edward the second; and these three sons, the eldest named Louis, who was king of Navarre in his father's days and was called king Louis Hutin, the second had to name Philip the Great or the Long, and the third was called Charles; and all three were kings of France after iheir father's decease by right succession each after other, without having any issue male of their bodies lawfully begotten. So that after the death of Charles, last king of the three, the twelve peers and all the barons of France would not give the realm to Isabel the sister, who was queen of England, because they said and maintained, and yet do, that the realm of France is so noble that it ought not to go to a woman, and so consequently to Isabel, nor to the king of England her eldest son for they determined the son of the woman to have no right nor succession by his mother, since they declared the mother to have no right: so that by these reasons the twelve peers and barons of France by their common accord did give the realm of France to the lord Philip of Valois, nephew sometime to [his grandfather] Philip le Beau king of France, and so put out the queen of England and her son, who was as the next heir male, as son to the sister of Charles, last king of France. Thus went the realm of France out of the right lineage, as it seemed to many folk, whereby great wars hath moved and fallen, and great destructions of people and countries in the realm of France and other places, as ye may hereafter [see]. This is the very right foundation of this history, to recount the great enterprises and great feats of arms that have fortuned and fallen. Sith the time of the good Charlemagne king of France there never fell so great adventures.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 17 Here the history speaketh of the manner of the Scots and how they can war. AND when they had sojourned three weeks after this said fray, then they had knowledge from the king by the marshals of the host, that the next week every man should provide for carts and charettes, tents and pavilions, to lie in the field, and for all other necessaries thereto belonging, to the intent to draw toward Scotland. And when every man was ready apparelled, the king and all his barons went out of the city, and the first night they lodged six mile forward. And sir John of Hainault and his company were lodged always as per the king as might be, to do him the more honour, and also to the intent that the archers should have no advantage of him nor of his company. And there the king abode two days and two nights, tarrying for all them that were behind, and to be well advised that they lacked nothing.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 18 How the king of England made his first journey against the Scots. Thus rode forth all that day the young king of England by mountains and deserts without finding any highway, town or village. And when it was against night they came to the river of Tyne, to the same place whereas the Scots had passed over into England, wtening to them that they must needs repass again the same way. Then the king of England and his host passed over the same river with such guides as he had, with much pain and travail, for the passage was full of great stones. And when they were over, they lodged them that night by the river side, and by that time the sun was gone to rest, and there was but few among them that had either axe or hook, or any instrument to cut down any wood to make their lodgings withal; and there were many that had lost their own company and wist not where they were. Some of the footmen were far behind and wist not well what way to take; but such as knew best the country said plainly they had ridden the same day twenty-four English miles, for they rode as fast as they might without any rest, but at such passages as they could not choose. All this night they lay by this river side, still in their harness, holding their horses by their reins in their hands, for they wist not whereunto to tie them. Thus their horses did eat no meat of all that night nor day before: they had neither oats for forage for them, nor the people of the host had no sustenance of all that day nor night, but every man his loaf that he had carried behind him, the which was sore wet with the sweat of the horses; nor they drank none other drink but the water of the river, without it were some of the lords that had carried bottles with them; nor they had no fire nor light, for they had nothing to make light withal, without it were some of the lords that had torches brought with them.
In this great trouble and danger they passed all that night, their armour still on their backs, their horses ready saddled. And when the day began to appear, the which was greatly desired of all the whole host, they trusted then to find some redress for themselves and for their horses, or else to fight with their enemies, the which they greatly desired to the intent to be delivered out of tantes; but so all that night they were fain to fast, nor their horses had nothing but leaves of trees and herbs: they cut down boughs of trees with their swords to tie withal their horses and to make themselves lodges. And about noon some poor folks of the country were found, and they said how they were as then fourteen mile from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and eleven mile from Carlisle, and that there was no town nearer to them wherein they might find anything to do them ease withal. And when this was shewed to the king and to the lords of his council, incontinent were sent thither horses and sumpters to fetch thence some purveyance; and there was a cry in the king's name made in the town of Newcastle, that whosoever would bring bread or wine or any other victual should be paid therefore incontinent at a good price, and that they should be conducted to the host in safe-guard; for it was published openly that the king nor his host would not depart from the place that they were in, till they had some tidings where their enemies were become. And the next day by noon such as had been sent for victual returned again to the host with such purveyances as they could get, and that was not over much, and with them came other folks of the country with little nags charged with bread evil baken in panniers, and small poor wine in barrels, and other victual to sell in the host, whereby great part of the host were well refreshed and eased.
The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 18 How the king of England made his first journey against the Scots. And thus they continued day by day the space of eight days, abiding every day the returning again of the Scots, who knew no more where the English host lay than they knew where they were; so each of them were ignorant of other. Thus three days and three nights they were in manner without bread, wine, candle or light, fodder or forage, or any manner of purveyance, either for horse or man: and after the space of four days a loaf of bread was sold for sixpence the which was worth but a penny, and a gallon of wine for six groats that was worth but sixpence. And yet for all that, there was such rage of famine that each took victuals out of other's hands, whereby there rose divers battles and strifes between sundry companions; and yet beside all these mischiefs it never ceased to rain all the whole week, whereby their saddles, panels and countersingles were all rotten and broken, and most part of their horses hurt on their backs: nor they had not wherewith to shoe them that were unshod, nor they had nothing to cover themselves withal from the rain and cold but green bushes and their armour, nor they had nothing to make fire withal but green boughs, the which would not burn because of the rain. In this great mischief they were all the week without hearing of any word of the Scots, upon trust they should repass again into their own countries the same way or near thereabout; whereby great noise and murmur began to rise in the host, for some said and laid it to others' charge that by their counsel the king and all they were brought into that danger, and that they had done it to betray the king and all his host. Wherefore it was ordained by the king and by his council that the next morning they should remove the host and repass again the river about seven mile thence, whereas they might pass more at their ease. Then it was cried throughout the host that every man should be ready apparelled to remove the next day betimes.: also there was a cry made that whosoever could bring to the king certain knowledge where the Scots were, he that brought first tidings thereof should have for his labour a hundred pounds [of] land to him and to his heirs for ever, and to be made a knight of the king's hand.
When this cry was made in the host, divers English knights and squires to the number of fifteen or sixteen, for covetise of winning of this promise, they passed the river in great peril and rode forth through the mountains, and departed each one from other, taking their adventure. The next morning the host dislodged and rode fair and easily all the day, for they were but evil apparelled, and did so much that they day till it was noon, and then they found some villages brent by the Scots, and thereabout was some champaign country with corn and meadows, and so that night the host lodged there. Again the third day they rode forth, so that the most part of the host wist not which way, for they knew not the country nor they could hear no tidings of the Scots. And again the fourth day they rode forth in like manner, till it was about the hour of three, [Note. Translation error. Should 9am] and there came a squire fast riding toward the king and said: 'An it like your grace, I have brought you perfect tidings of the Scots your enemies. Surely they be within three mile of you, lodged on a great mountain, abiding there for you; and there they have been all this eight days, nor they knew no more tidings of you than ye did of them. Sir, this that I skew you is of truth, for I approached so near to them that I was taken prisoner and brought before the lords of their host; and there I skewed them tidings of you, and how that ye seek for them to the intent to have battle. And the lords did quit me my ransom and prison, when I had skewed them how your grace had promised a hundred pounds sterling of rent to him that brought first tidings of them to you; and they made me to promise that I should not rest till I had skewed you this tidings, for they said they had as great desire to fight with you as ye had with them: and there shall ye find them without fault' And as soon as the king had heard this tidings, he assembled all his host in a fair meadow to pasture their horses; and beside there was a little abbey, the which was all brent, called in the days of king Arthur le Blanche Lande. There the king confessed him, and every man made him ready. The king caused many masses to be sung to housed all such as had devotion thereto; and incontinent he assigned a hundred pounds sterling of rent to the squire that had brought him tidings of the Scots, according to his promise, and made him knight [with] his own hands' before all the host.