Biography of Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397

1327 Abdication of Edward II

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1361 Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

1362 Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

1376 Death of the Black Prince

1377 Death of Edward III

1382 Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

1385 Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

1387 Battle of Radcot Bridge

1396 Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

1396 Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

1397 Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

1396 Battle of Nicopolis

1397 Lords Appellant

1397 Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

1397 Richard II Rewards his Supporters

Abdication of Edward II

On 25 Jan 1327 [his grandfather] King Edward II of England (42) abdicated II King England. His son King Edward III England (14) succeeded III King England.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

On 24 Jan 1328 [his father] King Edward III England (15) and Philippa of Hainault (13) were married at York Minster. They were second cousins. He a son of King Edward II of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. She by marriage Queen Consort England.

In 1342 [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (1) was created 1st Earl Richmond 5C 1342. It isn't clear whether his older brothers Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (11) and Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (3) had been created Earls before this time.

On 12 May 1343 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (12) was created Prince of Wales.

In 1352 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) and Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (19) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) by marriage 4th Earl Ulster. She was the sole heir of her father and brought the de Burgh inheritance of the lands of Ulster to the marriage. As a consequence of their earlier betrothal he had been called Earl Ulster since 1347.

On 07 Jan 1355 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 was born to [his father] King Edward III England (42) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (40) at Woodstock Palace.

Double Royal Wedding

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey whereby two children of [his father] King Edward III England (46) were married:

[his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Richmond.

John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) and [his sister] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a daughter of King Edward III England. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) was a ward of [his father] King Edward III England (55) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later on 12 Sep 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague.

Read More ...

Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

On 10 Oct 1361 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (31) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (33) were married at Windsor Castle. They were half first cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Princess of Wales. His first wife, her second (or third depending on how you count them) husband. She had four children already. They had known each other since childhood. Thirty-one and thirty-three respectively. A curious choice for the heir to the throne; foreign princesses were usual. They were married nearly fifteen years and had two children.

In 1362 [his brother] Edmund of Langley (20) was created 1st Earl Cambridge 2C 1362.

Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

On 13 Nov 1362, his fiftieth birthday, [his father] King Edward III England (50) created two sons as Dukes ...

[his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (23) was created 1st Duke Clarence 1C 1362. Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (30) by marriage Duchess Clarence.

[his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (22) was created 1st Duke Lancaster 2C 1362. Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (17) by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

On 27 Jul 1365 Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons 1340-1397 (25) and [his sister] Isabella Plantagenet Countess Bedford and Soissons 1332-1382 (33) were married at Windsor Castle. She a daughter of King Edward III England.

In Jun 1368 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) and Violante Visconti 1354-1386 (14) were married in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore Milan. He a son of King Edward III England. The wedding festivities were lavish and ostentatious. The banquet, held outside, included 30 courses of meat and fish presented fully gilded. Between the courses the guests were given gifts such as suits of armor, bolts of cloth, war horses, arms, and hunting dogs. Among the guests were Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400 (25), Petrarch, Jean Froissart and John Hawkwood.

On 07 Oct 1368 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) died from poisoning at Alba. Duke Clarence 1C 1362 extinct. There was strong speculation he had been poisoned by his wife's (14) father (48). He was buried at Clare Priory. His daughter Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (13) succeeded 5th Earl Ulster.

On 15 Aug 1369 [his mother] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (55) died at Windsor Castle. She was given a state funeral six months later on 09 Jan 1370 at which she was interred at on the northeast side of the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey. Her alabaster effigy was executed by sculptor Jean de Liège.

On 24 Aug 1369 Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl Dunbar aka March 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 (17) and [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (14) were married at Reading Abbey. They were fourth cousins. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess March. Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl Dunbar aka March 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 (17) by marriage 5th Earl Ulster.

On 21 Sep 1371 [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (31) and Constance of Castile (17) were married at Roquefort, Landes He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster. His younger brother Edmund of Langley (30) married Constance's sister in July 1372.

On 11 Jul 1372 [his brother] Edmund of Langley (31) and Isabella of Castile (17) were married at Wallingford. He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Cambridge. She being the younger sister of Constance of Castile (18) who had married Edmund's older brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (32) a year before.

In 1374 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (18) and [his wife] Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (8) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

In 1376 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (20) was created 1st Earl Essex 4C 1376. [his wife] Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (10) by marriage Countess Essex.

Death of the Black Prince

On 08 Jun 1376 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (45) died of dysentery at Westminster Palace. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. His son Richard (9) succeeded King England. His niece Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (20) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England.

On 05 Oct 1376 Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (14) and [his niece] Philippa Guines Duchess Ireland 1367-1411 (9) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Oxford.

In 1377 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (21) was created 1st Earl Buckingham 3C 1377. [his wife] Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (11) by marriage Countess Buckingham.

Death of Edward III

On 21 Jun 1377 [his father] King Edward III England (64) died of a stroke at Sheen Palace. He was buried in the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor. His grandson King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (10) succeeded II King England.

Before 07 Nov 1379 Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester 1373-1400 and [his niece] Constance York Countess Gloucester 1374-1416 were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Gloucester.

On 24 Jun 1380 John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke 1372-1389 (7) and [his niece] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (17) were married at Kenilworth Castle. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

Around 1381 [his son] Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham 1381-1399 was born to Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (25) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (15). He a grandson of King Edward III England.

In 1381 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (8) and Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (8) were married. They were half first cousins once removed. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

In 1381 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (25) was appointed 66th Knight of the Garter by [his nephew] King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (13).

On 05 Feb 1381 [his nephew] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (13) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (13) were married at Arundel Castle. They were second cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

On 05 Jan 1382 [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (26) died at Cork. She was buried at Wigmore. Her son Roger Mortimer 4th Earl Dunbar aka March 6th Earl Ulster 1374-1398 (7) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England, 6th Earl Ulster

Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

On 20 Jan 1382 [his nephew] King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (15) and Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (15) were married at Westminster Abbey by Robert Braybrooke Bishop of London -1404. They were fourth cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort England.

It was the first royal wedding that including a Royal Procession from the Tower of London to Westminster Abbey.

Arranged by Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (52) the marriage not popular since it brought no dowry and little prospect of increased trade since Bohemia not a primary English trade partner.

On 05 Oct 1382 [his sister] Isabella Plantagenet Countess Bedford and Soissons 1332-1382 (50) died.

Around 1383 [his daughter] Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford 1383-1438 was born to Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (27) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (17). She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In 1384 [his daughter] Joan Plantagenet Baroness Strange Blackmere Baroness Talbot 1384-1400 was born to Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (28) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (18). She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In Nov 1384 Henry of Bar 1362-1397 (22) and [his niece] Marie de Coucy Countess Soissons 1366-1405 (18) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 12 Mar 1385 [his daughter] Isabel Plantagenet 1385-1402 was born to Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (30) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (19). She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

On 06 Aug 1385 [his brother] Edmund of Langley (44) was created 1st Duke York 1C 1385 by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (18). Isabella of Castile (30) by marriage Duchess York.In 1385 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (29) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1C 1385, and around the same time 1st Duke Gloucester 1C 1385.Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (19) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale and Duke Gloucester 1C 1385.

On 24 Jun 1386 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (34) and [his niece] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (23) were married at Plymouth. They were half second cousins once removed. He a great grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 02 Feb 1387 John "Good Great" I King Portugal 1357-1433 (29) and [his niece] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 (26) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Portugal.

Battle of Radcot Bridge

On 22 Dec 1387 the forces of the Lords Appellant led by the future [his nephew] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (20) prevented the forces of King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (20) commanded by Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (25) from crossing the bridge over the River Thames at Radcot in Oxfordshire. When Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (32) arrived with further Lord Appellant forces the King's men were encircled. The King's men attempted to force the crossing of the bridge at which time the only casualties occurred including Thomas Molyneux Constable Chester Castle 1338-1387 (49) who was killed by Thomas Mortimer 1350-1399 (37). Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (25) narrowly escaped to France. Around 800 of his men drowned in the marshes whilst trying to escape.

In 1388 [his daughter] Philippa Plantagenet 1388-1388 was born to Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (32) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (22). She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Before 17 Sep 1388 Henry III King Castile 1379-1406 and [his niece] Catherine of Lancaster were married at Palencia Cathedral. They were half second cousins. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

Around 1390 Thomas Stafford 3rd Earl Stafford 1368-1392 (22) and Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford 1383-1438 (7) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Stafford.

On 25 Feb 1390 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (17) was created 1st Earl Rutland 1C 1390. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (17) by marriage Countess Rutland.

In 1391 Robert Ferrers 2nd Baron Ferrers Wem 1373-1393 (18) and [his niece] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (12) were married at Beaufort en Vallée. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Baroness Ferrers Wem.

On 04 Nov 1393 [his brother] Edmund of Langley (52) and Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 (13) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Duchess York.

In 1394 [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (21) was created 1st Earl Cork. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (21) by marriage Countess Cork.

Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

On 13 Jan 1396 [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (55) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (45) were married at Lincoln Cathedral. He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

On 31 Oct 1396 [his nephew] King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (29) and Isabella Valois Queen Consort England 1389-1409 (6) were married. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. The marriage being one of the terms of a twenty-eight year peace treaty with France. He twenty-nine, she six. The marriage sowed the seeds subsequent rebellion since there was no prospect of an heir to secure the Crown.

William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414 (26) attended.

Before 29 Nov 1396 Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 and [his niece] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Baroness Neville Raby.

Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The duke's (41) body was honourably embalmed at Calais, and put into a leaden coffin, with an outward one of wood, and transported in this state by sea to England. The vessel that carried the body landed at Hadleigh Castle on the Thames, and thence it was conveyed on a car, unattended, to his castle of Pleshy, and placed in the church which the duke had founded in honour of the Holy Trinity, with twelve canons to perform devoutly the divine service. In this church was the duke (41) buried. The [his wife] duchess of Gloucester (31), her son Humphrey (16), and her two daughters, were sorely grieved when the body of the duke arrived. The [his wife] duchess (31) had double cause of affliction, for the earl of Arundel (51), her uncle, had been publicly beheaded in Cheapside by orders of the king. No baron nor knight dared to interpose, nor advise the king to do otherwise, for he was himself present at the execution, which was performed by the earl's son-in-law, the earl-marshal (28), who bandaged his eyes.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The late duke of Gloucester (41) was by inheritance constable of England; but the [his nephew] king (29) deprived his heir (16) of it, and gave it to his cousin the earl of Rutland (24). The [his nephew] king (29) now assumed a greater state than ever king of England had done before, nor had there been any one who had expended such large sums by one hundred thousand nobles. He also took the wardship of the heir (15) of Arundel (51), son to the late earl whom he had beheaded in London, as has been related, and forced him to live with him. And because one of the knights of the late duke of Gloucester, named Cerbec, had spoken too freely of the king and council, he was arrested and instantly beheaded. Sir John Lacquingay was likewise in some peril; but, when he saw the turn aflfairs had taken, he quitted the service of the duchess of Gloucester (31), and fixed his abode elsewhere. At this period there was no one, however great, in England, that dared speak his sentiments of what the king did or intended doing. He had formed a council of his own from the knights of his chamber, who encouraged him to act as they advised. The king had in his pay full two thousand archers, who were on guard day and night, for he did not think himself perfectly safe from his uncles or the Arundel family.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The earl of Warwick (58) ran great risk of suffering the same death, but the earl of Salisbury (47), who was in favour with the king, interceded for him, as did many other barons and prelates. The [his nephew] king (29) listened to their solicitations, on condition he were sent to a place he could not leave, for he would never absolutely pardon him, as he was deserving death, for having joined the duke of Gloucester (41) and the earl of Arundel (51) in their attempts to annul the truce which had been signed and sealed by the kings of France and England, for themselves and allies. This alone was a crime to be punished by an ignominious death: for the conditions of the treaties were, that whoever should break or infringe them was to be so punished.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The resentments of the citizens began to cool, and they offered to mediate between the [his nephew] king (29) and the duke of Lancaster (56), who was mightily angered by the murder of his brother (41). He bethought himself, however, that as his [his nephew] nephew (29) was married to the daughter (7) of the king of France (28), should he wage war against [his nephew] king Richard (29), his two daughters married in Castille and Portugal might suffer for it, from the French carrying a war into those countries. The duke (56) was beside forced to change his mind, whether he would or not, froii; the solicitations of the citizens of London and some of the English prelates, who had been the mediators between the king and his uncles. The king obtained peace, on promising from that day forward to be solely guided by the advice of the duke of Lancaster (56), engaging never to do anything without first consulting him. The promise, however, he paid not any regard to, but followed the counsels of the rash and evil-minded, for which hereafter he severely suffered, as shall be related in this history. Thus did the [his nephew] king of England (29) gain peace from his uncles for the murder of the duke of Gloucester (41), and now governed more fiercely than before. He went with his state to Pleshy in Essex, which had belonged to his uncle of Gloucester (41), and should have descended to his son Humphrey (16) as heir to his father; but the king took possession of it, for it is the rule in England for the king to have the wardship of all children who have lost their fathers, and are under twenty-one years of age at which period their estates are restored to them. [his nephew] King Richard (29) took his cousin Humphrey of Gloucester (16) in ward, appropriating all his possessions to his own profit. He made him live with him, and the duchess (31) and her two daughters with the queen (7).

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The [his nephew] king (29) at this time resided at Eltham, whither he had summoned all his vassals and dependants. He had collected round London, in the counties of Kent and Essex, upwards of ten thousand archers, and had with him his [Note. maternal half-brother] brother sir John Holland (45), the earl marshal (28), the earl of Salisbury (47), with many other great barons and knights. The [his nephew] king (29) sent orders to the citizens of London not to admit the duke of Lancaster (56) within their walls; but they replied, they knew of no reason why they should refuse him admittance, and the duke resided there with his son the earl of Derby (29), as did the duke of York (55) with his son the earl of Rutland (24). The king loved the earl of Rutland (24) and the earl marshal (28) beyond measure: the first dissembled his opinions concerning the death of the duke of Gloucester (41), and would willingly have seen peace restored on both sides. He said, that his late uncle (41) had on several occasions treated the [his nephew] king (29) very unbecomingly. The Londoners considered, also, that great mischiefs might befal England from these dissensions between the king, his uncles, and their supporters; that, since the duke of Gloucester (41) was now dead, it could not be helped; and that he, in some measure, had been the cause of it, by his too great freedom of speech, and from his attempts to excite the people of England to break the truces that had been signed between France and England. The citizens, therefore, prudently dissembled their thoughts; and, as what was done could not now be undone, they feared, should matters be pushed to extremities, they might suffer very considerably in their commerce from th king of France.

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. Thus were affairs carried on in England, and daily going from bad to worse, as you will find it related. When the dukes of [his brother] Lancaster (56) and York (55) heard of their brother's (41) death at Calais, they instantly suspected the king (29) their nephew was guilty of it. At the time, they were not together, but each at his country-seat, according to the custom in England. They wrote to each other to consult how they should act on the occasion, and hastened to London because they knew the citizens were very angry at the event. On their arrival, they had several meetings, and declared that the putting the duke of Gloucester (41) to death for some foolish words ought not to be passed over in silence, nor borne; for, although he had warmly opposed the treaty with France, he had not acted upon it; that there was an essential difference between talking and acting, and that words alone did not deserve the severe punishment he had suffered, and that this matter must be inquired into and amended. The two brothers were in a situation to have thrown England into confusion, for there were enow who would have supported them, more especially all the kindred of the late earl of Arundel (51), which is a powerful family in England, and the family of the earl of Stafford.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. News of this event was sooner known in France and Flanders than in England. The French rejoiced much at it; for it was commonly reported that there would never be any solid peace between France and England as long as the duke of Gloucester (41) lived; and it was well remembered, that in the negotiations for peace he was more obstinate in his opinions than either of his brothers; and, for this reason, his death was no loss to France. In like manner, many knights and squires of the king of England's household, who were afraid of him, for his severe and rough manners, were pleased at his death. They recounted how he had driven the duke of Ireland (34) to banishment, and had ignominiously beheaded that prudent and gallant knight sir Simon Burley (57), who had been so much beloved by the [his brother] prince of Wales (66), and had done essential services to his country. The deaths of sir Robert Trevilian, sir Nicholas Bramber, sir John Standwich, and others, were not forgotten, so that the duke of Gloucester (41) was but little lamented in England, except by those who were of his party and manner of thinking.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. You have before seen, in the course of this history, that [his nephew] king Richard of England (29) would not longer conceal the great hatred he bore his uncle of Gloucester (41), but had determined to have him cut off, according to the advice given him, setting it forth to be more advisable to destroy than be destroyed. You have likewise heard how the [his nephew] king (29) had rode to the castle of Pleshy, thirty miles from London, and with fair words had cajoled the duke (41) out of his castle, and was accompanied by him to a lane that led to the Thames, where they arrived between ten and eleven o'clock at night; and how the earl-marshal (28), who there lay in ambush, had arrested him in the king's name, and forced him towards the Thames, in spite of his cries to the [his nephew] king (29) to deliver him. He was conscious, that from the moment of his beinor thus arrested, his end was resolved on, and it was confirmed to him by the [his nephew] king (29) turning a deaf ear to his complaints, and ridmg on full gallop to London, where he lodged that night in the Tower. The duke of Gloucester (41) had other lodgings; for, whether he would or not, he was forced into a boat that carried him to a vessel at anchor on the Thames, into which he was obliged to enter. The earl-marshal (28) embarked also with his men, and, having a favourable wind and tide, they fell down the river, and arrived, late on the morrow evening, at Calais, without any one knowing of it except the king's officers. [The earl-marshal (28), as governor, could enter Calais at all hours, without any one thinking it extraordinary: he carried the duke (41) to the castle, wherein he confined him.]

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The earl of Salisbury (47) was very earnest in his supplications for the earl of Warwick (58). They had been brothers in arms ever since their youth; and he excused him on account of his great age, and of his being deceived by the fair speeches of the duke of Gloucester (41) and the earl of Arundel (51): that what had been done was not from his instigation, but solely by that of others; and the house of Beauchamp, of which the earl of Warwick was the head, never imagined treason against the crown of England. The earl of Warwick (58) was, therefore, through pity, respited from death, but banished to the Isle of Wight, which is a dependency on England. He was told, — "Earl of Warwick (58), this sentence is very favourable, for you have deserved to die as much as the earl of Arundel (51), but the handsome services you have done in times past, to king Edward of happy memory, and the prince of Wales his son, as well on this as on the other side of the sea, have secured your life; but it is ordered that you banish yourself to the Isle of Wight, taking with you a sufficiency of wealth to support your state as long as you shall live, and that you never quit the island." The earl of Warwick (58) was not displeased with this sentence, since his life was spared, and, having thanked the king and council for their lenity, made no delay in his preparations to surrender himself in the Isle of Wight on the appointed day, which he did with part of his household. The Isle of Wight is situated opposite the coast of Normandy, and has space enough for the residence of a great lord, but he must provide himself with all that he may want from the circumjacent countries, or he will be badly supplied with provision and other things.

Read More ...

Battle of Nicopolis

On 18 Feb 1397 Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons 1340-1397 (57) died whilst a prisoner following the Battle of Nicopolis without male issue. Earl Bedford 2C 1366 extinct. Count Soissons 1367. His daughter [his niece] Marie de Coucy Countess Soissons 1366-1405 (30) succeeded Count Soissons 1367.

Lords Appellant

Before 08 Sep 1397 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 was imprisoned in Calais to await trial for treason for being the leader of the Lords Appellant.

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

Around 08 Sep 1397 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42) was murdered in Calais for his role as leader of the Lords Appellant. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1C 1385 extinct. His son [his son] Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham 1381-1399 (16) succeeded 2nd Earl Buckingham 3C 1377.

Walter Clopton Chief Justice -1400 was part of the inquiry into his death the outcome of which is not known. A John Hall was executed for the murder.

Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 [his nephew] King Richard II (30) rewarded his relations with Dukedoms possibly for their part in the arrest, trial and execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) ...

His older half-brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (45) was created 1st Duke Exeter 1C 1397. [his niece] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (34) by marriage Duchess Exeter.

His nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (23) was created 1st Duke Surrey.

His second cousin once removed Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 1C 1397 probably for arranging the murder of Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42). Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 1366-1425 (31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His first cousin [his nephew] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2C 1397. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale.

His illegitimate first cousin [his nephew] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset 2C 1397, 1st Marquess Dorset 1C 1397. Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (33) was created 1st Earl Westmoreland 1C 1397. [his niece] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (18) by marriage Countess Westmoreland.

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 16 Sep 1398. [his nephew] King Richard of England (31) was of a temper that, when he took a liking to any one, he instantly raised him to high honours, and had such confidence in him that no-one dared to say anything to his prejudice. At the same time, there had not been a king of England in the memory of man who so easily believed all that was told him. His favourites, however paid no attention to the miserable fate of many of their predecessors; how the duke of Ireland had been banished, sir Simon Burley (58), sir Robert Tresilian, sir Nicholas Bramber and others had lost their lives, for counsels they had given the king, and for which the duke of Gloucester (43) had taken great pains in their destruction. The duke (43) was now dead, and the favourites of the moment, who continually counselled the king as they pleased, were not sorry, for they imagined no one would now pretend to oppose them. Some about the king's person could not disguise their pride and presumption, especially the earl marshal (30), who was in the highest degree of favour. To flatter and please the king, and to show how true and loyal a servant he was, whenever he heard any reports he told them to the king, expecting from such means to rise still higher in favour; but many, thinking to advance, are repulsed. Thus it happened to the earl marshal.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. You must know that the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) and the late duke of Gloucester (43) had married two sisters [Note. Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (30) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (32)], daughters to the earl of Hereford and Northampton (57), constable of England: the children, therefore, of the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) and duke of Gloucester were cousins-german by their mother's side, and one degree removed by their father's. To say the truth, the death of the duke of Gloucester had displeased many of the great barons of England, who frequently murmured at it when together; but the king had now so greatly extended his power, none dared to speak of it openly, nor act upon the current rumours of the mode of his death. The king had caused it to be proclaimed, that whoever should say anything respecting the duke of Gloucester or the earl of Arundel (52), should be reckoned a false and wicked traitor and incur his indignation. This threat had caused many to be silent, afraid of what might befal them, who were, nevertheless, much dissatisfied.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. [his nephew] King Richard (31), notwithstanding he had suffered this challenge and appeal to arms to be made in his presence, was imcertain how to act, and whether to allow the combat to take place or not. And although he was the king of England the most feared of any who had worn the crown, he was guarded day and night by two thousand archers, who were regularly paid weekly, and had confidence only in his brother the earl of Huntingdon (46), and the earls of Salisbury (48) and Rutland (25), his cousin, who were highly in his favour. He paid no regard to others, except a few of the knights of his chamber, who were his advisers. When the day for the combat was approaching, and the two lords had made their preparations, waiting only for the king's commands, king Richard's secret advisers asked, " Sire, what is your intention respecting this combat between your two cousins, the earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30)? Will you permit them to proceed?" " Yes," replied the king: "why not? I intend to be present myself and to see their prowess. We may perhaps learn, from the issue of this combat, what we are now ignorant of, although it may be very important for ns to know, that we may provide accordingly: for there is no one so great in England, but, if he anger me, he shall dearly pay for it. Should I allow myself to be any way governed by my subjects, they would soon overpower me; I know for certain that some of my kinsmen have held secret meetings respecting my government; but the most dangerous among them was the duke of Gloucester (43), for in all England there was none more wrong-headed. lie is now at peace, and henceforward we shall manage the rest well enough. But tell me, I pray you, why you ask the question?" " Sire," replied they, " we are bound to advise you to the best of our knowledge and abilities. We sometimes hear and observe what you cannot, for you are in your apartments, and we abroad in the fields, or in London, where many conversations are held that nearly touch you, as well as us. There is yet time to provide a remedy, and we earnestly advise you not to delay it." " What do you mean?" said the king: " speak out, and do not spare me; for I wish to act rightly, and to maintain justice in my kingdom." "Sire, the common report throughout England, but especially in London, is, that you are the cause of this combat, and that you have induced the earl marshal (30) to challenge the earl of Derby (31). The Londoners in general, and many of the prelates and nobles, say, that you are in the direct road to destroy all your kindred and kingdom, but that they will not suffer it to be done. Now, were the citizens to rise and be joined by the nobility, who could oppose them? You have no power but from your vassals; and they are now more suspicious of you than ever, from your marriage with a princess of France; and you are less beloved by your subjects on this account. Know, that if you allow these two earls to meet in arms, you will not be lord of the field, but the Londoners, united with the earl of Derby's (31) great connexions by blood, who are all much attached to him. The earl marshal (30) is become very unpopular, particularly with the citizens of London, who would willingly put him to death. Three parts of the people of England say, that when you heard the charge of the earl marshal (30), you should have acted otherwise than yon did, and checked the quarrel by telling them, "You are both my cousins and liege men, and I command that peace be henceforward between you;" and that you should have taken the earl of Derby (31) by the hand, and led him to your chamber with every token of affection. Because you did not this, the common report is, that you warmly take the part of the earl marshal (30) against the earl of Derby (31). Weigh well what we have said, for we have told you the truth, and you never had more occasion for good advice than at this moment."

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The [his brother] duke of Lancaster (58) was much vexed and melancholy at seeing the king of England (31), his nephew, thus badly conduct himself, but knew not to whom to open his thoughts. He, like a wise man, considered the consequences that might ensue, and at times said to those he most confided in, " Our nephew will ruin everything before he have done: he too readily listens to evil counsellors, who will destroy him and his kingdom. Should he live long, he will lose by little and little all it has cost his predecessors and us so much pains to gain. He encourages discord between his nobles and great lords, bv whom he ought to be honoured and served, and the country guarded. He has put my brother (43) to death, for it is now notorious he ordered it, and likewise the earl of Arundel (52), because they told him the truth; but this he refuses to hear, and will not listen to any one who does not flatter his own imaginations. He cannot sooner ruin his country than by exciting hatreds among his nobility and principal towns. The French are too subtle a race, for one misfortune that befals us they would wish ten, as they can never obtain their ends, or recover their domains, but through ourselves; and everv day there are examples of the misery of kingdoms when divided. Such has been the unfortunate lot of France, Castille, Naples, and the Roman state; and the present schism is the ruin of the contending popes, as well as the church. Flanders is another example which we have seen of self-destraction. Friesland is at this moment in a similar state, oppressed by the war of the count of Hainault, and ruining themselves by domestic quarrels. We shall be in the same situation unless God prevent it, from the appearance of the present state of affairs. The king has consented that my son and heir, for I have none other by my first two marriages, should be challenged to mortal combat for a mere trifle; and I, his [his brother] father (58), dare not say a word against it, in regard to my own and my son's honour; for my son has the feelings of a knight, and is of sufficient strength to encounter the earl marshal (30). Howbeit, let the best be made of it, they will never again love each other as they did before." Such were the conversations of the [his brother] duke of Lancaster (58).

Read More ...

On 03 Oct 1399 [his wife] Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (33) died. She was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund. She has a monumental brass, representing the deceased in her conventual dress, as a nun of Barking Abbey.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1404. And that yere Serle, that was one of thoo that mortheryd the Duke of Glouceter (48) at Calys, was takyn in the Marche of Schotlond, and was brought unto London, and was hangyd at Tyburne.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Opening of Parliament. 5. The following are assigned to be triers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales, and Scotland:

The archbishop of Canterbury.

[his brother] The duke of Guyenne and duke of Lancaster.

The duke of Gloucester.

The bishop of London.

The bishop of Winchester.

The abbot of Westminster.

[his nephew] The earl of Derby.

The earl of Arundel.

The earl of Warwick.

Lord Neville.

Sir Richard le Scrope.

Sir Philip Spenser.

Sir Walter Clopton.

William Thirning.

William Rickhill.

John Wadham.

- to act all together, or at least six of the aforesaid prelates and lords; consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward, and chamberlain, and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the chamberlain's room near the Painted Chamber.

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. You may suppose, that when news was carried to Pleshy of the duke of Gloucester's arrest, the duchess and her children were greatly dismayed, and, since such a bold measure had been taken, were much afraid of the consequences. Suspecting the duke's life was in great danger, they consulted sir John Laquingay what would be best for them now to do. The knight advised them to send instantly to the dukes of Lancaster and York, the duke's brothers; for by their mediation, perhaps, the king's choler would be appeased. He saw no other means, as the king would not choose to make them his enemies. The duchess of Gloucester followed this advice of the knight, and instantly despatched messengers to both, for they resided at a distance from each other. They were much enraged at hearing their brother was arrested, and returned answers to the duchess, not to be too much distressed at what had happened, for the king would not dare to treat him otherwise than by fair and legal measures, for it would not be suffered. This answer comforted the duchess and her children.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. The [his nephew] king of England left the Tower of London at a very early hour, and rode to Eltham, where he remained. The same day, towards evening, the earls of Arundel and Warwick were brought to the Tower by the king's officers, and there confined, to the great surprise of the citizens. Their imprisonment caused many to murmur, but they were afraid to act, or do anything against the king's pleasure, lest they might suffer for it. It was the common conversation of the knights, squires, and citizens of London, and in other towns, — "It is useless for us to say more on this matter, for the dukes of Lancaster and of York, brothers to the duke of Gloucester, can provide a remedy for all this whenever they please: they assuredly would have prevented it from happening, if they had suspected the [his nephew] king had so much courage, or that he would have arrested their brother; but they will repent of their indolence: and, if they are not instantly active, it will end badly."

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. When the duke of Gloucester saw himself confined in the castle of Calais, abandoned by his brothers, and deprived of his attendants, he began to be much alarmed. He addressed himself to the earl-marshal: "For what reason am I thus carried from England and confined here? It seems that you mean to imprison me. Let me go and view the castle, its garrison, and the people of the town." " My lord," replied the earl, " I dare not comply with your demands, for you are consigned to my guard, under pain of death. The [his nephew] king our lord is at this moment somewhat wroth with you; and it is his orders that you abide here a while, in banishment with us, which you must have patience to do, until we have other news, and God grant that it may be soon ! for, as the Lord may help me, I am truly concerned for your disgrace, and would cheerfully aid you if I could, but you know the oath I have taken to the king, which I am bound in honour to obey." The duke of Gloucester could not obtain any other answer. He judged, from appearances of things around him, that he was in danger of his life, and asked a priest who had said mass, if he would confess him. This he did, with great calmness and resignation, and with a devout and contrite heart cried before the altar of God, the Creator of all things, for his mercy. He was repentant of all his sins, and lamented them greatly. He was in the right thus to exonerate his conscience, for his end was nearer than he imagined. I was informed, that on the point of his sitting down to dinner, when the tables were laid, and he was about to wash liis liands, four men rushed out from an adjoining chamber, and, throwing a towel round his neck, strangled him, by two drawing one end and two the other1. When he was quite dead, they carried him to his chamber, undressed him, and placed the body between two sheets, with his head on a pillow, and covered him with furred mantles. They then re-entered the hall, properly instructed what to say and how to act, and declared the duke of Gloucester had been seized with a fit of apoplexy as he was washing his hands before dinner, and that they had great difficulty to carry him to bed. This was spoken of in the castle and town, where some believed it, but others not. "Within two days after, it was published abroad that the duke of Gloucester had died in his bed at the castle of Calais; and, in consequence, the earl marshal put on mourning, for he was nearly related to him, as did all the knights and squires in Calais.

Note 1. He was smothered with pillows, not strangled. Hall, one of the accomplices, made a particular confession of all the circumstances. See Pari Plac viiL p. 452. — Ed.

Read More ...