History of Guildhall

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1502 Trial of James Tyrrell

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1613 Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

1644 Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

Guildhall is in Moorgate.

Chronicle of Gregory 1443. 1443 [possibly 1442]. Ande that same yere there was founde in a walle in the Gylhalle a certayne sum of mony, and alle in pense, and every peny weyde j d. ob., and sum a goode dele more, and sum more; and hyt was of many dyvers cunys [coins], for sum were made yn London and sum in Cheschyre, and sum in Lancaster, and in many othyr dyvers placys of the londe, but alle was the kyngys owne kune [coin].

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 04 Jul 1450. Ande in the morne he come yn a-gayne, that sory and sympylle and rebellyus captayne why the hys mayny ; that was Satyrday, and hyt was also a Synt Martyn ys day1, the dedycacyon of Synt Martynys in the Vyntry, the iiij day of Juylle. And thenne dyvers questys were i-sompnyd at the Gylhalle; and ther Robert Home beynge alderman was a-restydeand brought in to Newegate. And that same day Wylliam Crowemere (34), squyer, and Scheryffe of Kentt, was be-heddyde in the fylde whythe owte Algate at the mylys ende be-syde Clopton ys Place. And a nothyr man that was namyde John Bayle was be-heddyd at the Whytte Chapylle. And the same day aftyr-non was be-heddyd in Cheppe a-fore the Standard, Syr Jamys Fynes (55), beyng that tyme the Lorde Saye and Grrette Treserer of Ingelonde, the whyche was brought oute of the Toure of London unto the Gylde Halle, and there of dyvers tresons he was exampnyd, of whyche he knowlachyd of the dethe of that notabylle and famos prynce the Duke of Glouceter (59). And thenne they brought hym unto the Standard in Cheppe, and there he ressayvyd hys jewys and hys dethe. And so forthe alle the iij [3] heddys that day smetyn of were sette uppon the Brygge of London, and the ij othyr heddys takyn downe that stode a-pon the London Brygge by-fore. And at the comyng of the camptayne yn to Sowtheworke, he lete smyte of the hedde of a strong theff that was namyd Haywardyn.

1. The Translation of St. Martin of Tours.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1492. This yeare the Kinge (34) went to Calis with a great armie againste France, but the peace was made without battell. The Queenes mother (55) deceased, and the Lowers [sic:Towers] set upon Guylde Hall.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Trial of James Tyrrell

On 02 May 1502 James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (47) confessd to the murder of the Princes in the Tower at Guildhall during the Trial of James Tyrrell attended by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (45) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36).

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1505. This yeare was a great strife for th' election of the sheriffs in the Guylde Hall. One parte woulde have William Fitz-Williams (45) marchante taylor, and another Roger Grove, grocer, who at length was admitted for one of the eheriffes.

On 09 May 1546 George Blagge 1512-1551 (34) was induced to deny the efficacy of the Mass, by trickery he alleged, while walking home after church. He was immediately summoned by Thomas Wriothesley (40), the Lord Chancellor, and sent to Newgate Prison. At his trial at the Guildhall, the main witnesses for the prosecution were Littleton (41) and Sir Hugh Calverley (42), MP for Cheshire. On their evidence, Blagge (34) was sentenced to be burned for heresy the following Wednesday. Fortunately for him, the Lord Privy Seal, John Russell (61), appealed on his behalf to the king (54), who had not heard of the proceedings to that point. Henry (54) immediately pardoned Blagge and ordered Wriothesley to release him.

Around 1535 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1551. 14 Mar 1551. The xiiij day of Marche wa(s) raynyd at the yeld-halle a C [100] mareners for robyng on the see, and the captayne, behyng a Skott, was cared to Nugate the sam day, and serten cast.

The sam day was cared in-to Norfoke on Wyth, a grett ryche man, and he was condemnyth to be drane and hangyd, for the besenes that was done in Norffoke, at ys owne dore.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 30 Nov 1551. The 30 of November, beinge St. Andrewes day the Apostle, at night my Lord Mayor (20) received a letter from the Kinges Maiesties Counsell, Mr. Recorder then being present with the mayor in his house; wherupon my Lord Mayor sent ymmediately to warne the Aldermen and theyr deputyes to be afore him at the Guylde hall the morowe after, beinge the first daye of December, at vii of the of clocke in the morninge; at which court, on theyr appearance, the sayd letter was read, which was that the Mayor and Aldermen should see to the safegard of the city for that day and night for feare of suspected and lewde persons; that done by the assent of the Court, euery alderman in his ward should ymmediately by himselfe or his deputy cause euery constable in his warde to wame euery householder within his precinct to see to his familie and to keepe his house, and to haue in a readines a man in hames in his owne house, and not goo abroade till they should be called, if need were. And further that that night they should cause a good and substantiall double watche to be kept widi householders in euery warde, which ymmedyately was done.

Diary of Edward VI 1552. 08 Jun 1552. The lordes of the counsel sat at Gildhaul in London, where in the presence of a thousand peple they declared to the maire and bretherne their slouthfulnes in suffering unreasonable prices of thinges, and to craftesmen their wilfulnes etc, telling them that if apon this admonition they did not amende, I was holly determined to call in their liberties as confiscat, and to appoint officers that shold loke to them.

On 13 Nov 1553 Lady Jane Grey (17) was tried at Guildhall.

Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Jane

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 22 Jan 1554. The xxij day of January was reynyd at yeld hall the lord Robart Dudlay (21) for tresun, the duke of Northumberland('s) (50) sune, and cast the sam day.

In 1587 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 wearing his Garter Collar.

Wyatt's Rebellion

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 01 Feb 1554. The furst day of Feybruary cam nuw tydyngs that all craftes shuld fynd the dobull [number of men]; non butt hossholders unto the bryge and the gattes, and the drae-bryge, and ther lay grett gones; and the bryge was broken done after; and that evere man to make whyt cotes for evere howsse.

The sam day at after-non was a proclamasyon in Chepesyde, Ledyn-hall, and at sant Magnus corner, with harold of armes and on of the quen['s] trumpeters blohyng, and my lord mare, and my lord admerall (44) Haward, and the ij shreyffs, that ser Thomas Wyatt (33) was proclamyd traytur and rebellyous, and all ys fellowes, agaynst the Quen('s) mageste and her consell, and that he wold have the Quen in costody, and the Towre of London in kepyng; and thay convayd unto evere gatt gonnes and the bryge; and so evere gatt with men in harnes nyght and days. And a-bowt iij of the cloke at after-non the Quen('s) (37) grace cam rydyng from Westmynster unto yeld-hall with mony lordes, knyghts and lades, and bysshopes and haroldes of armes, and trompeturs blohynge and all the gard in harnes. [Then she declared, in an oration to the mayor and the city, and to her council, her mind concerning her marriage, that she never intended to marry out of her realm but by her council's consent and advice; and that she would never marry but all her true] sogettes [subjects] shall be content, [or else she would live] as her grace has don hederto. [But that her gr]ace wyll call a parlement [as] shortely as [may be, and] as thay shall fynd, and that [the earl of] Penbroke (53) shall be cheyffe capten and generall agaynst ser Thomas Wyatt (33) and ys felous in the [field,] that my lord admerall (44) for to be sosyatt with the [lord mayor] to kepe the cete from all commars therto. [After this] the Quen('s) grace came from yeld-hall and rod to the iij cranes in the vyntre, and toke her barge [to] Westmynster to her own place the sam day.

Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554. Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1560 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570.

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Diary of Henry Machyn April 1554. 17 Apr 1554. The xvij day of Aprell was had to Yeld-hall ser Necolaus Frogmortun (39), ser James a Croft (36), master Wynter, master Vaghan; and ther Waghan gaff evedens agaynst ser Necolas Frogmortun (39) of tresun, but the qwest dyd qwytt hym.

Around 1562 Unknown Painter. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Nicholas Throckmorton 1515-1571.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 29 Apr 1554. 29 Apr 1554. The 29 of Aprill Sir James Croft (36), knight, was arrayned in the Guildhall of treason, and there by a jurie of the citizens of London condemned and had judgment of death.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1554. 29 Apr 1554. The xxix day of Aprell was raynyd at Yeldhall ser James a Croft (36), late depute of Yrland, and cast; and master Wynter whent ther too.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. Before 08 May 1554. The day of May was raynyd at Yeld-hall master Wylliam Thomas, clarke to the consell, and cast to suffer deth, to be dran and quartered.

The (blank) day of May was a proclamasyon that no man shuld not talke of no thynges of the qwen.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1555. 27 May 1555. The xxvij day of May was the Clarkes' prossessyon from Yerdhall college, and ther was a goodly masse be hard, and evere clarke havyng a cope and garland, with C. stremers borne, and the whettes playng round Chepe, and so to Ledynhall unto sant Albro chyrche, [and ther] thay putt off ther gayre, and ther was the blessyd sacrament borne with torche-lyght a-bowt, and from thens unto the Barbur-hall to dener.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1555. 30 Aug 1555. The xxx day of August was cast at yeld-hall, for robyng of the quen('s) warderobe, one John Boneard, a servantt of hers, dwellyng be-syd the Warderobe at the Blake Frers, and cast. The sam day were cast, for robyng of ther masturs, ij. wher prentes, and the thurd was a servyngman, the prentes dwellyng in Boke larbere, for kepyng of herers, and after send unto the bysshop('s) presun at Startford in Essex.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1556. 12 May 1556. The xij day of May was raynyd at Yeld-hall Wylliam Stantun, sum-tyme captayn, and cast to be drane from the Towre unto Tyburne, and hangyd and quartered, for a consperacy against the kyng and the quen and odur maters.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1556. 15 Jun 1556. The xv day of June was raynyd at Yeld-hall [master] Lecknolle, grome porter unto kyng Edward the vj and quen Mare, the iij yere of quen Mare, and cast to suffer deth.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1556. 31 Jul 1556. The xxxj day of July was raynyd at the Yeld-halle .... robars of the see a vj, and the morow after thay wher hangyd at Wapyng at the low-water marke.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1557. 31 Oct 1557. The xxix day of October dyd my nuw lorde mayre [take] ys owth at Westmynster; and all the craftes of London [in their] bargys, and the althermen; and after-ward landyd at Powlles warf; and at the Powlles cheyrche-yerd ther the pagantt stod; and the bachelers with ther saten hodes and a lx pore men in gownes, and targets and gayffelyns in ther handes, and the trumpetes and the whettes playhyng, unto Yeld-halle; and ther dynyd, and after to Powlles, and after to my lord mayre('s) howse, and ther the althermen, and the craftes, and the bachelers, and the pagantt browth hym home.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1558. 16 Mar 1558. The xvj day of Marche my lord mare and the althermen wher commondyd unto Yeld-halle, for thay had a commondement by the qwyen (42) that thay shuld lend the quen a (blank) of H.; for ther sat my lord stresorer (75), my lord preve-saylle (52), and the bysshope of Elly (52) as commyssyonars, and my lord chanseler (57), with odur of the conselle.... with ij whyt branchys and xij torchys .... great tapurs, and after a grett dener within the ....

Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 wearing his Garter Collar and Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. In 1549 Unknown Painter. Flemish. Portrait of William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert 1506-1563.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1558. 19 Mar 1558. The xix day of Marche my lord mayre and the althermen whent unto Yeld-halle, and ther all the craftes in London browth in the bylles what ther compene wold lend unto the quen('s) (42) grace for to helpe her in her fa ... toward the wars.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1558. 22 Mar 1558. The xxij day of Marche my lord mayre and the althermen whent unto Yeld-Halle, and ther the quen('s) consell cam theder, furst my lord chanseler (57), my lord treysorer (75), my lord of preve-selle (52), the bysshope of Ele (52), and ser John Baker, secretore Peter, and mony more, and after whent to my lord mare to dener.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1558. 01 Aug 1558. The furst day of August was chossen shreyff [for the] kyng at Yeld-halle master Hawes clothworker, [and] after was chosen shreyff of London master Cha[mpion] draper by the come(n)s [commons] of the cete.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1559. 07 Apr 1559. The vij day was chosen at Yeld-halle a-for my lord mayre (50) and the masters the althermen, and all the comm(on)ers of the cete, and the craftes of London, the masters of the bryghows, master Wylliam Draper, yrmonger, and master Assyngton, lether-seller.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1559. 01 Dec 1559. The furst day of Desember was raynyd at the Yeld-hall master Grymston (51) captayn.

The sam day was ij [2] men of the contre was sett on the pelere for pergure [perjury], a-for non.

The sam day was a woman ryd a-bowt London on horse-bake a-bowt London with a paper on her hed for (blank)

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1559. 20 Dec 1559. The sam day was raynyd at the Yeld-hall master Hodylston and master Chamburlayn, captayn of the castyll in Calles, and cast boyth to suffer deth.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1561. 10 Jun 1561. The x day of June was grantyd at Yeld-halle by my lord mare (52) and my masters the althermen and the commen consell iij xv toward the beldyng of Powlles chyrche and the stepulle, with as grett sped as they may gett tymbur rede [ready], and odur thynges, and worke-men.

Diary of Henry Machyn Aprile 1562. 20 Apr 1562. The xx day of Aprell was reynyd at Yeld-hall a grett compene of marenars for robyng on the see, and a (blank) wher cast to be hangyd at a low-water mark.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1562. 09 May 1562. The ix day of May was a lade and here ij systers browth to Yeld-hall, for ther was a quest that shuld .... of them for ther nostylevyng [naughty living] of baldre done.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1562. 07 Jul 1562. The vij day of July, Symon Smyth browth to the gyld-halle Kynlure Machen for to have lyssens [license] to have here to have a hosband Edward Gardener cowper, and they wher browth in-to the consell chamber a-for my lord mayre and the althermen and master recorder and master Surcott and master Marche, and they wher examynyd whether they where sure or not, but at the last yee sayd .... dowther [daughter] of Cristofer Machyn [Note. the author of the diary].

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1562. 01 Aug 1562. The sam day my lord mare (66) and the althermen and all craftes of London whent to Yeld-hall to chuse a nuw shreyff, and thay dyd chuse master Chamburlayn altherman, yrmonger, shreyff for the nex(t) yere.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1562. 06 Aug 1562. The vj day of August was reynyd at Yeld-hall vij, vj for qwynnyng [coining]; iiij was cast for deth, Thomas Wylford, Thomas Borow, ... Maltby, Phelipe Furney gold-smyth, and ij fr[eely] qwytt; and ther satt a-pone them my lord [justice] Chamley, ser Recherd Sakefeld, the master of the rolles, sir Martin Bowes (65), ser Wylliam Garett, ser William Huett, master re[corder], master Surcott, and master Chydley and master Eldertun.

Around 1561. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Alderman Martin Bowes 1497-1566.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1562. 29 Oct 1562. The xxix day of October the nuw mare (53) [went by] water unto Westmynster, and all the althermen and the craftes of London in barges deckyd with stremars, [and there] was a goodly fuste [feast] decked with stremars and banars, with drumes, trumpetes, and gones to Westmynster playce [palace], [where] he toke ys oythe, and so home to Beynard castylle, [and] with all the artheralthmen; and in Powlles chyrcheyerd ther mett (him) all the bachelars in cremesun damaske hodes, with drumes and flutes and trumpettes blohyng, and a lx powre men in bluw gownes and red capes [caps], and with targettes and jaffelyns [and] grett standardes, and iiij grett banars of armes and ... and after a goodly pagantt with goodly musyke plahyng; and to Yeld-halle to dener, for ther dynyd mony of the consell and all the juges and mony nobull men and women; and after dener the mare and all the althermen yede to Powlles with all musyke.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1563. 16 Jun 1563. The xvj day of June dyd ryd in a care [to the] yeld-hall docthur Langton the phesyssyon in a g[own] of damaske lynyd with velvett and a cott of velvett .... and a cape [cap] of velvett, and he had pynd a bluw ho[od on] ys cape, and so cam thrugh Chepe-syd on the market [day,] and so a-bowtt London, for was taken with ij wenchys yonge a-tones.

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

After 01 Oct 1615 Gervase Helwys 1561-1615, Thomas Monson 1st Baronet 1565-1641, the gaoler Richard Weston, widow of a London doctor Mrs Anne Turner, and an apothecary James Franklin were tried for the murder of Thomas Overbury 1581-1613 at the Guildhall by Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634 and Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626. It was ruled that "poisons" had been "administered" in the form of "jellies" and "tarts" by Weston, Turner and Franklin at the direction of Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632. Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 admitted her guilt. Her husband Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 maintained his innocence despite King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 urging him to admit his guilt to avoid James being implicated. Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 and Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 were found guilty and sentenced to death. King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 commuted their sentence to life imprisonment. They, along with Monson, were subsequently pardoned.

The evidence for Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (54) appeared to indicated he had attempted to undermine the plot to poison Thomas Overbury 1581-1613 (34).

Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634. 1593. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634. In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619, whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 who was attached to the English Embassy at the time. In 1731 (Copy of 1618 original).John Vanderbank Painter 1694-1739. Portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626. Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632. Around 1628 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645. Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

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Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

On 19 Nov 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (35) was tried for treason, for attempting to betray the Parliamentary cause, by court-martial and convicted at Guildhall.

On 23 Dec 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (35) was beheaded at Tower Hill. His son John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692 (9) succeeded 3rd Baronet Carew of Antony in Cornwall.

After 1648. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of John Carew 3rd Baronet Carew 1635-1692.

John Evelyn's Diary 05 July 1660. 05 Jul 1660. I saw his Majesty (30) go with as much pomp and splendor as any earthly prince could do to the great city feast, the first they had invited him to since his return; but the exceeding rain which fell all that day much eclipsed its lustres. This was at Guildhall, and there was also all the Parliament men, both Lords and Commons. The streets were adorned with pageants, at immense cost.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 February 1661. 25 Feb 1661. Sir Wm. Pen (39) and I to my Lord Sandwich's (35) by coach in the morning to see him, but he takes physic to-day and so we could not see him. So he went away, and I with Luellin to Mr. Mount's chamber at the Cockpit, where he did lie of old, and there we drank, and from thence to W. Symons where we found him abroad, but she, like a good lady, within, and there we did eat some nettle porrige, which was made on purpose to-day for some of their coming, and was very good. With her we sat a good while, merry in discourse, and so away, Luellin and I to my Lord's, and there dined. He told me one of the prettiest stories, how Mr. Blurton, his friend that was with him at my house three or four days ago, did go with him the same day from my house to the Fleet tavern by Guildhall, and there (by some pretence) got the mistress of the house into their company, and by and by Luellin calling him Doctor she thought that he really was so, and did privately discover her disease to him, which was only some ordinary infirmity belonging to women, and he proffering her physic, she desired him to come some day and bring it, which he did.

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 February 1661. 27 Feb 1661. Then came into the garden to me young Mr. Powell and Mr. Hooke that I once knew at Cambridge, and I took them in and gave them a bottle of wine, and so parted. Then I called for a dish of fish, which we had for dinner, this being the first day of Lent; and I do intend to try whether I can keep it or no. My father dined with me and did show me a letter from my brother John (20), wherein he tells us that he is chosen Schollar of the house,' which do please me much, because I do perceive now it must chiefly come from his merit and not the power of his Tutor, Dr. Widdrington, who is now quite out of interest there and hath put over his pupils to Mr. Pepper, a young Fellow of the College. With my father to Mr. Rawlinson's (47), where we met my uncle Wight, and after a pint or two away. I walked with my father (who gave me an account of the great falling out between my uncle Fenner and his son Will) as far as Paul's Churchyard, and so left him, and I home. This day the Commissioners of Parliament begin to pay off the Fleet, beginning with the Hampshire, and do it at Guildhall, for fear of going out of town into the power of the seamen, who are highly incensed against them.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 March 1661. 07 Mar 1661. This morning Sir Williams both went to Woolwich to sell some old provisions there. I to Whitehall, and up and down about many businesses. Dined at my Lord's, then to Mr. Crew (63) to Mr. Moore, and he and I to London to Guildhall to see the seamen paid off, but could not without trouble, and so I took him to the Fleece Tavern, where the pretty woman that Luellin lately told me the story of dwells, but I could not see her. Then towards home and met Spicer, D. Vines, Ruddiard, and a company more of my old acquaintance, and went into a place to drink some ale, and there we staid playing the fool till late, and so I home.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 March 1661. 12 Mar 1661. At the office about business all the morning, so to the Exchange, and there met with Nick Osborne lately married, and with him to the Fleece, where we drank a glass of wine. So home, where I found Mrs. Hunt in great trouble about her husband's losing of his place in the Excise. From thence to Guildhall, and there set my hand to the book before Colonel King for my sea pay, and blessed be God! they have cast me at midshipman's pay, which do make my heart very glad. So, home, and there had Sir W. Batten (60) and my Lady and all their company and Capt. Browne and his wife to a collation at my house till it was late, and then to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 March 1661. 16 Mar 1661. Early at Sir Wm. Pen's (39), and there before Mr. Turner did reconcile the business of the purveyance between us two. Then to Whitehall to my Lord's, and dined with him, and so to Whitefriars and saw "The Spanish Curate", in which I had no great content. So home, and was very much troubled that Will. staid out late, and went to bed early, intending not to let him come in, but by and by he comes and I did let him in, and he did tell me that he was at Guildhall helping to pay off the seamen, and cast the books late. Which since I found to be true. So to sleep, being in bed when he came.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 October 1661. 23 Oct 1661. And thence home, calling by the way to see Sir Robert Slingsby (50), who continues ill, and so home. This day all our office is invited against Tuesday next, my Lord Mayor's day, to dinner with him at Guildhall. This evening Mr. Holliard (52) came and sat with us, and gave us both directions to observe.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 October 1661. 29 Oct 1661. This day I put on my half cloth black stockings and my new coat of the fashion, which pleases me well, and with my beaver I was (after office was done) ready to go to my Lord Mayor's feast, as we are all invited; but the Sir Williams were both loth to go, because of the crowd, and so none of us went, and I staid and dined with them, and so home, and in evening, by consent, we met at the Dolphin, where other company came to us, and should have been merry, but their wine was so naught, and all other things out of order, that we were not so, but staid long at night, and so home and to bed. My mind not pleased with the spending of this day, because I had proposed a great deal of pleasure to myself this day at Guildhall. This Lord Mayor, it seems, brings up again the Custom of Lord Mayors going the day of their installment to Paul's, and walking round about the Cross, and offering something at the altar.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 June 1662. 24 Jun 1662. Midsummer Day. Up early and to my office, putting things in order against we sit. There came to me my cozen Harry Alcocke, whom I much respect, to desire (by a letter from my father to me, where he had been some days) my help for him to some place. I proposed the sea to him, and I think he will take it, and I hope do well.

Sat all the morning, and I bless God I find that by my diligence of late and still, I do get ground in the office every day.

At noon to the Change, where I begin to be known also, and so home to dinner, and then to the office all the afternoon dispatching business. At night news is brought me that Field the rogue hath this day cast me at Guildhall in £30 for his imprisonment, to which I signed his commitment with the rest of the officers; but they having been parliament-men, that he hath begun the law with me; and threatens more, but I hope the Duke of York (28) will bear me out.

At night home, and Mr. Spong came to me, and so he and I sat singing upon the leads till almost ten at night and so he went away (a pretty, harmless, and ingenious man), and I to bed, in a very great content of mind, which I hope by my care still in my business will continue to me.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 December 1662. 05 Dec 1662. Up, it being a snow and hard frost, and being up I did call up Sarah, who do go away to-day or to-morrow. I paid her her wages, and gave her 10s. myself, and my wife 5s. to give her. For my part I think never servant and mistress parted upon such foolish terms in the world as they do, only for an opinion in my wife that she is ill-natured, in all other things being a good servant. The wench cried, and I was ready to cry too, but to keep peace I am content she should go, and the rather, though I say nothing of that, that Jane may come into her place.

This being done, I walked towards Guildhall, thither being summoned by the Commissioners for the Lieutenancy; but they sat not this morning. So meeting in my way W. Swan, I took him to a house thereabouts, and gave him a morning draft of buttered ale1; he telling me still much of his Fanatique stories, as if he were a great zealot, when I know him to be a very rogue. But I do it for discourse, and to see how things stand with him and his party; who I perceive have great expectation that God will not bless the Court nor Church, as it is now settled, but they must be purified. The worst news he tells me, is that Mr. Chetwind is dead, my old and most ingenious acquaintance. He is dead, worth £3,000, which I did not expect, he living so high as he did always and neatly. He hath given W. Symons his wife £300, and made Will one of his executors.

Thence to the Temple to my counsel, and thence to Gray's Inn to meet with Mr. Cole but could not, and so took a turn or two in the garden, being very pleasant with the snow and frost.

Thence to my brother's, and there I eat something at dinner and transcribed a copy or two of the state of my uncle's estate, which I prepared last night, and so to the Temple Church, and there walked alone till 4 or 5 o'clock, and then to my cozen Turner's chamber and staid there, up and down from his to Calthrop's (38) and Bernard's chambers, till so late, that Mr. Cole not coming, we broke up for meeting this night, and so taking my uncle Thomas homewards with me by coach, talking of our desire to have a peace, and set him down at Gracious-street end, and so home, and there I find Gosnell come, who, my wife tells me, is like to prove a pretty companion, of which I am glad.

So to my office for a little business and then home, my mind having been all this day in most extraordinary trouble and care for my father, there being so great an appearance of my uncle's going away with the greatest part of the estate, but in the evening by Gosnell's coming I do put off these thoughts to entertain myself with my wife and her, who sings exceeding well, and I shall take great delight in her, and so merrily to bed.

1. Buttered ale must have been a horrible concoction, as it is described as ale boiled with lump sugar and spice.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 May 1663. 23 May 1663. Waked this morning between four and five by my blackbird, which whistles as well as ever I heard any; only it is the beginning of many tunes very well, but there leaves them, and goes no further.

So up and to my office, where we sat, and among other things I had a fray with Sir J. Minnes (64) in defence of my Will in a business where the old coxcomb would have put a foot upon him, which was only in Jack Davis and in him a downright piece of knavery in procuring a double ticket and getting the wrong one paid as well as the second was to the true party. But it appeared clear enough to the board that Will was true in it.

Home to dinner, and after dinner by water to the Temple, and there took my Lyra Viall book bound up with blank paper for new lessons.

Thence to Greatorex's (38), and there seeing Sir J. Minnes (64) and Sir W. Pen (42) go by coach I went in to them and to White Hall; where, in the Matted Gallery, Mr. Coventry (35) was, who told us how the Parliament have required of Sir G. Carteret (53) and him an account what money shall be necessary to be settled upon the Navy for the ordinary charge, which they intend to report £200,000 per annum. And how to allott this we met this afternoon, and took their papers for our perusal, and so we parted. Only there was walking in the gallery some of the Barbary company, and there we saw a draught of the arms of the company, which the King (32) is of, and so is called the Royall Company, which is, in a field argent an elephant proper, with a canton on which England and France is quartered, supported by two Moors. The crest an anchor winged, I think it is, and the motto too tedious: "Regio floret, patrocinio commercium, commercioque Regnum1".

Thence back by water to Greatorex's (38), and there he showed me his varnish which he had invented, which appears every whit as good, upon a stick which he hath done, as the Indian, though it did not do very well upon my paper ruled with musique lines, for it sunk and did not shine.

Thence home by water, and after a dance with Pembleton to my office and wrote by the post to Sir W. Batten (62) at Portsmouth to send for him up against next Wednesday, being our triall day against Field at Guildhall, in which God give us good end.

So home: to supper and to bed.

1. TT. By royal patronage commerce flourishes, by commerce the realm".

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 June 1663. 03 Jun 1663. Up betimes, and studying of my double horizontal diall against Dean Honiwood comes to me, who dotes mightily upon it, and I think I must give it him. So after talking with Sir W. Batten (62), who is this morning gone to Guildhall to his trial with Field, I to my office, and there read all the morning in my statute-book, consulting among others the statute against selling of offices, wherein Mr. Coventry (35) is so much concerned; and though he tells me that the statute do not reach him, yet I much fear that it will.

At noon, hearing that the trial is done, and Sir W. Batten (62) come to the Sun behind the Exchange I went thither, where he tells me that he had much ado to carry it on his side, but that at last he did, but the jury, by the judge's favour, did give us but; £10 damages and the charges of the suit, which troubles me; but it is well it went not against us, which would have been much worse.

So to the Exchange, and thence home to dinner, taking Deane (29) of Woolwich along with me, and he dined alone with my wife being undressed, and he and I spent all the afternoon finely, learning of him the method of drawing the lines of a ship, to my great satisfaction, and which is well worth my spending some time in, as I shall do when my wife is gone into the country.

In the evening to the office and did some business, then home, and, God forgive me, did from my wife's unwillingness to tell me whither she had sent the boy, presently suspect that he was gone to Pembleton's, and from that occasion grew so discontented that I could hardly speak or sleep all night.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 October 1663. 29 Oct 1663. Up, it being my Lord Mayor's day, Sir Anthony Bateman (47). This morning was brought home my new velvet cloake, that is, lined with velvet, a good cloth the outside, the first that ever I had in my life, and I pray God it may not be too soon now that I begin to wear it. I had it this day brought, thinking to have worn it to dinner, but I thought it would be better to go without it because of the crowde, and so I did not wear it.

We met a little at the office, and then home again and got me ready to go forth, my wife being gone forth by my consent before to see her father and mother, and taken her cooke mayde and little girle to Westminster with her for them to see their friends. This morning in dressing myself and wanting a band1, I found all my bands that were newly made clean so ill smoothed that I crumpled them, and flung them all on the ground, and was angry with Jane, which made the poor girle mighty sad, so that I were troubled for it afterwards.

At noon I went forth, and by coach to Guild Hall (by the way calling at Mr. Rawlinson's (49)), and there was admitted, and meeting with Mr. Proby (Sir R. Ford's (49) son), and Lieutenant-Colonel Baron, a City commander, we went up and down to see the tables; where under every salt there was a bill of fare, and at the end of the table the persons proper for the table. Many were the tables, but none in the Hall but the Mayor's and the Lords of the Privy Council that had napkins2 or knives, which was very strange. We went into the Buttry, and there stayed and talked, and then into the Hall again: and there wine was offered and they drunk, I only drinking some hypocras, which do not break my vowe, it being, to the best of my present judgement, only a mixed compound drink, and not any wine3. If I am mistaken, God forgive me! but I hope and do think I am not.

By and by met with Creed; and we, with the others, went within the several Courts, and there saw the tables prepared for the Ladies and Judges and Bishopps: all great sign of a great dinner to come.

By and by about one o'clock, before the Lord Mayor (47) came, come into the Hall, from the room where they were first led into, the Chancellor (54) (Archbishopp before him), with the Lords of the Council, and other Bishopps, and they to dinner. Anon comes the Lord Mayor (47), who went up to the lords, and then to the other tables to bid wellcome; and so all to dinner. I sat near Proby, Baron, and Creed at the Merchant Strangers' table; where ten good dishes to a messe, with plenty of wine of all sorts, of which I drunk none; but it was very unpleasing that we had no napkins nor change of trenchers, and drunk out of earthen pitchers and wooden dishes4. It happened that after the lords had half dined, came the French Embassador, up to the lords' table, where he was to have sat; but finding the table set, he would not sit down nor dine with the Lord Mayor (47), who was not yet come, nor have a table to himself, which was offered; but in a discontent went away again. After I had dined, I and Creed rose and went up and down the house, and up to the lady's room, and there stayed gazing upon them. But though there were many and fine, both young and old, yet I could not discern one handsome face there; which was very strange, nor did I find the lady that young Dawes married so pretty as I took her for, I having here an opportunity of looking much upon her very near. I expected musique, but there was none but only trumpets and drums, which displeased me. The dinner, it seems, is made by the Mayor and two Sheriffs for the time being, the Lord Mayor (47) paying one half, and they the other. And the whole, Proby says, is reckoned to come to about 7 or £800 at most.

Being wearied with looking upon a company of ugly women, Creed and I went away, and took coach and through Cheapside, and there saw the pageants, which were very silly, and thence to the Temple, where meeting Greatorex (38), he and we to Hercules Pillars, there to show me the manner of his going about of draining of fenns, which I desired much to know, but it did not appear very satisfactory to me, as he discoursed it, and I doubt he will faile in it.

Thence I by coach home, and there found my wife come home, and by and by came my brother Tom (29), with whom I was very angry for not sending me a bill with my things, so as that I think never to have more work done by him if ever he serves me so again, and so I told him. The consideration of laying out £32 12s. this very month in his very work troubles me also, and one thing more, that is to say, that Will having been at home all the day, I doubt is the occasion that Jane has spoken to her mistress tonight that she sees she cannot please us and will look out to provide herself elsewhere, which do trouble both of us, and we wonder also at her, but yet when the rogue is gone I do not fear but the wench will do well.

To the office a little, to set down my Journall, and so home late to supper and to bed.

The Queen (24) mends apace, they say; but yet talks idle still.

1. The band succeeded the ruff as the ordinary civil costume. The lawyers, who now retain bands, and the clergy, who have only lately left them off, formerly wore ruffs.

2. As the practice of eating with forks gradually was introduced from Italy into England, napkins were not so generally used, but considered more as an ornament than a necessary. "The laudable use of forks, Brought into custom here, as they are in Italy, To the sparing of napkins". Ben Jonson, The Devil is an Ass, act v., sc. 3. The guests probably brought their own knife and fork with them in a case.—M.B.

3. A drink, composed usually of red wine, but sometimes of white, with the addition of sugar and spices. Sir Walter Scott ("Quarterly Review", vol. xxxiii.) says, after quoting this passage of Pepys, "Assuredly his pieces of bacchanalian casuistry can only be matched by that of Fielding's chaplain of Newgate, who preferred punch to wine, because the former was a liquor nowhere spoken against in Scripture"..

4. The City plate was probably melted during the Civil War.-M.B.

Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 November 1663. 30 Nov 1663. Was called up by a messenger from Sir W. Pen (42) to go with him by coach to White Hall. So I got up and went with him, and by the way he began to observe to me some unkind dealing of mine to him a weeke or two since at the table, like a coxcomb, when I answered him pretty freely that I would not think myself to owe any man the service to do this or that because they would have it so (it was about taking of a mulct upon a purser for not keeping guard at Chatham when I was there), so he talked and I talked and let fall the discourse without giving or receiving any great satisfaction, and so to other discourse, but I shall know him still for a false knave.

At White Hall we met the Duke (30) in the Matted Gallery, and there he discoursed with us; and by and by my Lord Sandwich (38) came and stood by, and talked; but it being St. Andrew's, and a collar-day, he went to the Chappell, and we parted.

From him and Sir W. Pen (42) and I back again and 'light at the 'Change, and to the Coffee-house, where I heard the best story of a cheate intended by a Master of a ship, who had borrowed twice his money upon the bottomary, and as much more insured upon his ship and goods as they were worth, and then would have cast her away upon the coast of France, and there left her, refusing any pilott which was offered him; and so the Governor of the place took her and sent her over hither to find an owner, and so the ship is come safe, and goods and all; they all worth £500, and he had one way or other taken £3000. The cause is to be tried to-morrow at Guildhall, where I intend to be.

Thence home to dinner, and then with my wife to her arithmetique.

In the evening came W. Howe to see me, who tells me that my Lord hath been angry three or four days with him, would not speak to him; at last did, and charged him with having spoken to me about what he had observed concerning his Lordship, which W. Howe denying stoutly, he was well at ease; and continues very quiett, and is removing from Chelsy as fast as he can, but, methinks, both by my Lord's looks upon me to-day, or it may be it is only my doubtfulness, and by W. Howe's discourse, my Lord is not very well pleased, nor, it may be, will be a good while, which vexes me; but I hope all will over in time, or else I am but ill rewarded for my good service.

Anon he and I to the Temple and there parted, and I to my cozen Roger Pepys (46), whom I met going to his chamber; he was in haste, and to go out of town tomorrow. He tells me of a letter from my father which he will keep to read to me at his coming to town again. I perceive it is about my father's jealousys concerning my wife's doing ill offices with me against him only from the differences they had when she was there, which he very unwisely continues to have and troubles himself and friends about to speak to me in, as my Lord Sandwich (38), Mr. Moore, and my cozen Roger (46), which vexes me, but I must impute it to his age and care for my mother and Pall and so let it go.

After little discourse with him I took coach and home, calling upon my bookseller's for two books, Rushworth's and Scobell's Collections. I shall make the King (33) pay for them. The first I spent some time at the office to read and it is an excellent book.

So home and spent the evening with my wife in arithmetique, and so to supper and to bed. I end this month with my mind in good condition for any thing else, but my unhappy adventuring to disoblige my Lord by doing him service in representing to him the discourse of the world concerning him and his affairs.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 December 1663. 01 Dec 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning.

At noon I home to dinner with my poor wife, with whom now-a-days I enjoy great pleasure in her company and learning of Arithmetique.

After dinner I to Guild Hall to hear a tryall at King's Bench, before Lord Chief Justice Hide (68), about the insurance of a ship, the same I mention in my yesterday's journall, where everything was proved how money was so taken up upon bottomary and insurance, and the ship left by the master and seamen upon rocks, where, when the sea fell at the ebb, she must perish. The master was offered helpe, and he did give the pilotts 20 sols to drink to bid them go about their business, saying that the rocks were old, but his ship was new, and that she was repaired for £6 and less all the damage that she received, and is now brought by one, sent for on purpose by the insurers, into the Thames, with her cargo, vessels of tallow daubed over with butter, instead of all butter, the whole not worth above £500, ship and all, and they had took up, as appeared, above £2,400. He had given his men money to content them; and yet, for all this, he did bring some of them to swear that it was very stormy weather, and [they] did all they could to save her, and that she was seven feete deep water in hold, and were fain to cut her main and foremast, that the master was the last man that went out, and they were fain to force (him) out when she was ready to sink; and her rudder broke off, and she was drawn into the harbour after they were gone, as wrecke all broken, and goods lost: that she could not be carried out again without new building, and many other things so contrary as is not imaginable more. There was all the great counsel in the Kingdom in the cause; but after one witnesse or two for the plaintiff, it was cried down as a most notorious cheate; and so the jury, without going out, found it for the plaintiff. But it was pleasant to see what mad sort of testimonys the seamen did give, and could not be got to speak in order: and then their terms such as the judge could not understand; and to hear how sillily the Counsel and judge would speak as to the terms necessary in the matter, would make one laugh: and above all, a Frenchman that was forced to speak in French, and took an English oathe he did not understand, and had an interpreter sworn to tell us what he said, which was the best testimony of all.

So home well satisfied with this afternoon's work, purposing to spend an afternoon or two every term so, and so to my office a while and then home to supper, arithmetique with my wife, and to bed. I heard other causes, and saw the course of pleading by being at this trial, and heard and learnt two things: one is that every man has a right of passage in, but not a title to, any highway. The next, that the judge would not suffer Crow (46), who hath fined for Alderman, to be called so, but only Mister, and did eight or nine times fret at it, and stop every man that called him so.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 February 1664. 08 Feb 1664. Up, and by coach called upon Mr. Phillips, and after a little talk with him away to my Lord Sandwich's (38), but he being gone abroad, I staid a little and talked with Mr. Howe, and so to Westminster in term time, and there met Mr. Pierce, who told me largely how the King (33) still do doat upon his women, even beyond all shame; and that the good Queen (25) will of herself stop before she goes sometimes into her dressing-room, till she knows whether the King (33) be there, for fear he should be, as she hath sometimes taken him, with Mrs. Stewart (16); and that some of the best parts of the Queen's (25) joynture are, contrary to faith, and against the opinion of my Lord Treasurer (56) and his Council, bestowed or rented, I know not how, to my Lord Fitz-Harding (34) and Mrs. Stewart (16), and others of that crew that the King (33) do doat infinitely upon the Duke of Monmouth (14), apparently as one that he intends to have succeed him. God knows what will be the end of it!

After he was gone I went and talked with Mrs. Lane about persuading her to Hawly, and think she will come on, which I wish were done, and so to Mr. Howlett and his wife, and talked about the same, and they are mightily for it, and I bid them promote it, for I think it will be for both their goods and my content. But I was much pleased to look upon their pretty daughter, which is grown a pretty mayd, and will make a fine modest woman.

Thence to the 'Change by coach, and after some business done, home to dinner, and thence to Guildhall, thinking to have heard some pleading, but there were no Courts, and so to Cade's, the stationer, and there did look upon some pictures which he promised to give me the buying of, but I found he would have played the Jacke with me, but at last he did proffer me what I expected, and I have laid aside £10 or £12 worth, and will think of it, but I am loth to lay out so much money upon them.

So home a little vexed in my mind to think how to-day I was forced to compliment W. Howe and admit myself to an equality with Mr. Moore, which is come to challenge in his discourse with me, but I will admit it no more, but let me stand or fall, I will show myself as strange to them as my Lord do himself to me.

After at the office till 9 o'clock, I home in fear of some pain by taking cold, and so to supper and to bed.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Teresa Stewart Duchess Lennox and Richmond 1647-1702. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1660 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 1607-1667 holding his Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685.

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John Evelyn's Diary 29 October 1664. 29 Oct 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett (46), Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor (55) and the Duke of Buckingham (36), who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer (57), the Dukes of Ormond (54) and Albemarle (55), Earl of Manchester (62), Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's (34) health, then the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and came home late.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. In 1715 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1647 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1678 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 in his Garter Robes. Before 10 Sep 1687 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 March 1666. 14 Mar 1666. Up, and met by 6 o'clock in my chamber Mr. Povy (52) (from White Hall) about evening reckonings between him and me, on our Tangier business, and at it hard till toward eight o'clock, and he then carried me in his chariot to White Hall, where by and by my fellow officers met me, and we had a meeting before the Duke (32).

Thence with my Lord Bruncker (46) towards London, and in our way called in Covent Garden, and took in Sir John (formerly Dr.) Baber; who hath this humour that he will not enter into discourse while any stranger is in company, till he be told who he is that seems a stranger to him. This he did declare openly to me, and asked my Lord who I was, giving this reason, that he has been inconvenienced by being too free in discourse till he knew who all the company were.

Thence to Guildhall (in our way taking in Dr. Wilkins), and there my Lord and I had full and large discourse with Sir Thomas Player, the Chamberlain of the City (a man I have much heard of for his credit and punctuality in the City, and on that score I had a desire to be made known to him), about the credit of our tallys, which are lodged there for security to such as should lend money thereon to the use of the Navy. And I had great satisfaction therein: and the truth is, I find all our matters of credit to be in an ill condition.

Thence, I being in a little haste walked before and to the 'Change a little and then home, and presently to Trinity House to dinner, where Captain Cox made his Elder Brother's dinner. But it seemed to me a very poor sorry dinner. I having many things in my head rose, when my belly was full, though the dinner not half done, and home and there to do some business, and by and by out of doors and met Mr. Povy (52) coming to me by appointment, but it being a little too late, I took a little pride in the streete not to go back with him, but prayed him to come another time, and I away to Kate Joyce's, thinking to have spoke to her husband about Pall's business, but a stranger, the Welsh Dr. Powell, being there I forebore and went away and so to Hales's (66), to see my wife's picture, which I like mighty well, and there had the pleasure to see how suddenly he draws the Heavens, laying a darke ground and then lightening it when and where he will.

Thence to walk all alone in the fields behind Grayes Inne, making an end of reading over my dear "Faber fortunae", of my Lord Bacon's, and thence, it growing dark, took two or three wanton turns about the idle places and lanes about Drury Lane, but to no satisfaction, but a great fear of the plague among them, and so anon I walked by invitation to Mrs. Pierce's, where I find much good company, that is to say, Mrs. Pierce, my wife, Mrs. Worshipp and her daughter, and Harris (32) the player, and Knipp, and Mercer, and Mrs. Barbary Sheldon, who is come this day to spend a weeke with my wife; and here with musique we danced, and sung and supped, and then to sing and dance till past one in the morning; and much mirthe with Sir Anthony Apsley (50) and one Colonell Sidney (40), who lodge in the house; and above all, they are mightily taken with Mrs. Knipp. Hence weary and sleepy we broke up, and I and my company homeward by coach and to bed.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 April 1666. 02 Apr 1666. Up, and to the office and thence with Mr. Gawden to Guildhall to see the bills and tallys there in the chamber (and by the way in the streete his new coach broke and we fain to take an old Hackney).

Thence to the Exchequer again to inform myself of some other points in the new Act in order to my lending Sir W. Warren £2000 upon an order of his upon the Act, which they all encourage me to. There walking with Mr. Gawden in Westminster Hall, he and I to talke from one business to another and at last to the marriage of his daughter. He told me the story of Creed's pretences to his daughter, and how he would not believe but she loved him, while his daughter was in great passion on the other hand against him.

Thence to talke of his son Benjamin; and I propounded a match for him, and at last named my sister, which he embraces heartily, and speaking of the lowness of her portion, that it would be less than £1000, he tells me if every thing else agrees, he will out of what he means to give me yearly, make a portion for her shall cost me nothing more than I intend freely. This did mightily rejoice me and full of it did go with him to London to the 'Change; and there did much business and at the Coffee-house with Sir W. Warren, who very wisely did shew me that my matching my sister with Mr. Gawden would undo me in all my places, everybody suspecting me in all I do; and I shall neither be able to serve him, nor free myself from imputation of being of his faction, while I am placed for his severest check. I was convinced that it would be for neither of our interests to make this alliance, and so am quite off of it again, but with great satisfaction in the motion.

Thence to the Crowne tavern behind the Exchange to meet with Cocke (49) and Fenn and did so, and dined with them, and after dinner had the intent of our meeting, which was some private discourse with Fenn, telling him what I hear and think of his business, which he takes very kindly and says he will look about him. It was about his giving of ill language and answers to people that come to him about money and some other particulars. This morning Mrs. Barbary and little Mrs. Tooker went away homeward.

Thence my wife by coach calling me at White Hall to visit my Baroness Carteret (64), and she was not within.

So to Westminster Hall, where I purposely tooke my wife well dressed into the Hall to see and be seen; and, among others, [met] Howlet's daughter, who is newly married, and is she I call wife, and one I love mightily.

So to Broad Streete and there met my Lady and Sir G. Carteret (56), and sat and talked with them a good while and so home, and to my accounts which I cannot get through with. But at it till I grew drowsy, and so to bed mightily vexed that I can come to no better issue in my accounts.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 December 1666. 24 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where Lord Bruncker (46), Sir J. Mennes (67), Sir W. Penn (45), and myself met, and there I did use my notes I took on Saturday night about tickets, and did come to a good settlement in the business of that office, if it be kept to, this morning being a meeting on purpose.

At noon to prevent my Lord Bruncker's (46) dining here I walked as if upon business with him, it being frost and dry, as far as Paul's, and so back again through the City by Guildhall, observing the ruines thereabouts, till I did truly lose myself, and so home to dinner. I do truly find that I have overwrought my eyes, so that now they are become weak and apt to be tired, and all excess of light makes them sore, so that now to the candlelight I am forced to sit by, adding, the snow upon the ground all day, my eyes are very bad, and will be worse if not helped, so my Lord Bruncker (46) do advise as a certain cure to use greene spectacles, which I will do.

So to dinner, where Mercer with us, and very merry.

After dinner she goes and fetches a little son (4) of Mr. Backeworth's (44), the wittiest child and of the most spirit that ever I saw in my life for discourse of all kind, and so ready and to the purpose, not above four years old.

Thence to Sir Robert Viner's (35), and there paid for the plate I have bought to the value of £94, with the £100 Captain Cocke (49) did give me to that purpose, and received the rest in money. I this evening did buy me a pair of green spectacles, to see whether they will help my eyes or no.

So to the 'Change, and went to the Upper 'Change, which is almost as good as the old one; only shops are but on one side. Then home to the office, and did business till my eyes began to be bad, and so home to supper. My people busy making mince pies, and so to bed. No newes yet of our Gottenburgh fleete; which makes [us] have some fears, it being of mighty concernment to have our supply of masts safe. I met with Mr. Cade to-night, my stationer; and he tells me that he hears for certain that the Queene-Mother (57) is about and hath near finished a peace with France, which, as a Presbyterian, he do not like, but seems to fear it will be a means to introduce Popery.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Robert Vyner Banker 1st Baronet 1631-1688 and Mary Whitchurch Lady Vyner -1674 and their children. Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 December 1667. 19 Dec 1667. Up, and to the Office, where Commissioner Middleton first took place at the Board as Surveyor of the Navy; and indeed I think will be an excellent officer; I am sure much beyond what his predecessor was.

At noon, to avoid being forced to invite him to dinner, it being his first day, and nobody inviting him, I did go to the 'Change with Sir W. Pen (46) in his coach, who first went to Guildhall, whither I went with him, he to speak with Sheriff Gawden—I only for company; and did here look up and down this place, where I have not been before since the fire; and I see that the city are got a pace on in the rebuilding of Guildhall.

Thence to the 'Change, where I stayed very little, and so home to dinner, and there find my wife mightily out of order with her teeth. At the office all the afternoon, and at night by coach to Westminster, to the Hall, where I met nobody, and do find that this evening the King (37) by message (which he never did before) hath passed several bills, among others that for the Accounts, and for banishing my Chancellor (58), and hath adjourned the House to February; at which I am glad, hoping in this time to get leisure to state my Tangier Accounts, and to prepare better for the Parliament's enquiries. Here I hear how the House of Lords, with great severity, if not tyranny, have ordered poor Carr, who only erred in the manner of the presenting his petition against my Lord Gerard (49), it being first printed before it was presented; which was, it, seems, by Colonel Sands's going into the country, into whose hands he had put it: the poor man is ordered to stand in the pillory two or three times, and his eares cut, and be imprisoned I know not how long. But it is believed that the Commons, when they meet, will not be well pleased with it; and they have no reason, I think. Having only heard this from Mrs. Michell, I away again home, and there to supper and to bed, my wife exceeding ill in her face with the tooth ake, and now her face has become mightily swelled that I am mightily troubled for it.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 December 1668. 02 Dec 1668. Up, and at the office all the morning upon some accounts of Sir Prince, and at noon abroad with W. Hewer (26), thinking to have found Mr. Wren (39) at Captain Cox's, to have spoke something to him about doing a favour for Will's uncle Steventon, but missed him. And so back home and abroad with my wife, the first time that ever I rode in my own coach, which do make my heart rejoice, and praise God, and pray him to bless it to me and continue it. So she and I to the King's playhouse, and there sat to avoid seeing Knepp in a box above where Mrs. Williams happened to be, and there saw "The Usurper"; a pretty good play, in all but what is designed to resemble Cromwell and Hugh Peters, which is mighty silly. The play done, we to White Hall; where my wife staid while I up to the Duchesse's (31) and Queen's (30) side, to speak with the Duke of York (35): and here saw all the ladies, and heard the silly discourse of the King (38), with his people about him, telling a story of my Lord Rochester's (21) having of his clothes stole, while he was with a wench; and his gold all gone, but his clothes found afterwards stuffed into a feather bed by the wench that stole them. I spoke with the Duke of York (35), just as he was set down to supper with the King (38), about our sending of victuals to Sir Thomas Allen's (35) fleet hence to Cales [Cadiz] to meet him. And so back to my wife in my coach, and so with great content and joy home, where I made my boy to make an end of the Reall Character, which I begun a great while ago, and do please me infinitely, and indeed is a most worthy labour, and I think mighty easy, though my eyes make me unable to attempt any thing in it. To-day I hear that Mr. Ackworth's cause went for him at Guildhall, against his accusers, which I am well enough pleased with.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Wilmot 2nd Earl Rochester 1647-1680. Before 26 Jul 1680 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Wilmot 2nd Earl Rochester 1647-1680.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 May 1669. 07 May 1669. Up, and by coach to W. Coventry's (41); and there to talk with him a great deal with great content; and so to the Duke of York (35), having a great mind to speak to him about Tangier; but, when I come to it, his interest for my Lord_Middleton (61) is such that I dare not.

So to the Treasury chamber, and then walked home round by the Excise Office, having by private vows last night in prayer to God Almighty cleared my mind for the present of the thoughts of going to Deb. at Greenwich, which I did long after. I passed by Guildhall, which is almost finished, and saw a poor labourer carried by, I think, dead with a fall, as many there are, I hear.

So home to dinner, and then to the office a little, and so to see my Lord Brouncker (49), who is a little ill of the gout; and there Madam Williams told me that she heard that my wife was going into France this year, which I did not deny, if I can get time, and I pray God I may. But I wondering how she come to know it, she tells me a woman that my wife spoke to for a maid, did tell her so, and that a lady that desires to go thither would be glad to go in her company.

Thence with my wife abroad, with our coach, most pleasant weather; and to Hackney, and into the marshes, where I never was before, and thence round about to Old Ford and Bow; and coming through the latter home, there being some young gentlewomen at a door, and I seeming not to know who they were, my wife's jealousy told me presently that I knew well enough it was that damned place where Deb. dwelt, which made me swear very angrily that it was false, as it was, and I carried [her] back again to see the place, and it proved not so, so I continued out of humour a good while at it, she being willing to be friends, so I was by and by, saying no more of it.

So home, and there met with a letter from Captain Silas Taylor (44), and, with it, his written copy of a play that he hath wrote, and intends to have acted.-It is called "The Serenade, or Disappointment", which I will read, not believing he can make any good of that kind. He did once offer to show Harris (35) it, but Harris (35) told him that he would judge by one Act whether it were good or no, which is indeed a foolish saying, and we see them out themselves in the choice of a play after they have read the whole, it being sometimes found not fit to act above three times; nay, and some that have been refused at one house is found a good one at the other. This made Taylor say he would not shew it him, but is angry, and hath carried it to the other house, and he thinks it will be acted there, though he tells me they are not yet agreed upon it. But I will find time to get it read to me, and I did get my wife to begin a little to-night in the garden, but not so much as I could make any judgment of it.

So home to supper and to bed.

Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton 1608-1674.

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John Evelyn's Diary 31 July 1673. 31 Jul 1673. I went to see the pictures of all the judges and eminent men of the Long Robe, newly painted by Mr. Wright (56), and set up in Guildhall, costing the city £1,000. Most of them are very like the persons they represent, though I never took Wright to be any considerable artist.

John Evelyn's Diary 05 May 1695. 05 May 1695. I came to Deptford from Wotton, in order to the first meeting of the Commissioners for endowing an hospital for seamen at Greenwich; it was at the Guildhall, London. Present, the Archbishop of Canterbury (58), Lord Keeper, Lord Privy Seal, Lord Godolphin (49), Duke of Shrewsbury (34), Duke of Leeds (63), Earls of Dorset (52) and Monmouth (37), Commissioners of the Admiralty and Navy, Sir Robert Clayton, Sir Christopher Wren (71), and several more. The Commission was read by Mr. Lowndes, Secretary to the Lords of the Treasury, Surveyor-General.

Before 1718. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718. Around 1685 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Charles Mordaunt 3rd Earl Peterborough 1st Earl Monmouth 1658-1735. In 1711 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Christopher Wren 1632-1723.

John Evelyn's Diary 21 April 1696. 21 Apr 1696. We had a meeting at Guildhall of the grand committee about settling the draught of Greenwich Hospital.