History of Hertfordshire

1066 Battle of Hastings

1290 Eleanor Crosses

1315 Funeral of Piers Gaveston

1400 Death of Richard II

1430 Birth of Edmund Tudor

1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1667 Raid on the Medway

1683 Rye House Plot

Hertfordshire is in Home Counties.

Aldenham, Hertfordshire

Around 1500 William Carey 1500-1528 was born to Thomas Carey 1455-1500 (45) and Margaret Spencer 1472-1536 (28) at Aldenham.

On 13 Jun 1631 Philip Carey 1580-1631 (51) died in Aldenham.

Before Sep 1633 Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 broke his leg which subsequently had to be amputated; he died as a consequence. He was buried on 25 Sep 1633 at Aldenham. His son Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643 succeeded 2nd Viscount Falkland.

Around 1600. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633. Around 1630 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. In 1633 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. In 1635 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. Before 1643 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. Montacute House.

Ashridge, Hertfordshire

On 25 Sep 1300 Edmund "Almain" Cornwall 2nd Earl Cornwall 1249-1300 (50) died. He was buried, heart and flesh, at Ashridge. His bones were interred at Hailes Abbey during a service attended by Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (61).

Ashwell, Hertfordshire

The River Cam rises at Ashwell from where it flows past Guilden Morden, Wendy, Barrington and Harston after which it is joined by the River Granta aka Cam.

Thereafter it flows past Grantchester, through Cambridge, past Fen Ditton, Horningsea, Clayhithe, Upware after which it joins the River Great Ouse.

Aspenden, Hertfordshire

Around 1496 Edward Capell 1496-1577 was born to Giles Capell of Rayne Hall 1480-1556 (16) at Aspenden and Isabel Newton 1485-1512 (11).

Barnet, Hertfordshire

Greenhill, Barnet, Hertfordshire

On 19 Jun 1858 Major Sutherland George Gordon Orr 1816-1858 (42) died. The Newspapers reported On Saturday, the 19th inst., at midnight, at the residence of his brother-in-law, Greenhill, near Barnet, Herts, Major Sutherland G. G. Orr, late commanding the 3rd Regiment of Hyderabad Cavalry, aged 42. This gallant and distinguished officer succumbed, after several months of severe suffering, to the results of anxiety, fatigue, and exposure of the last Mhow and Central India Campaign.

Bayford, Hertfordshire

On 04 May 1634 Catherine "Wicked Lady" Ferrers 1634-1660 was born to Knighton Ferrers 1607-1640 (27) in Bayford some two-weeks after he had died. Her grandfather died soon after leaving Catherine, less than one years old, as one of the greatest landholders in Herfordshire.

Around 1660 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Catherine

Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire

Around 1252 Richard Cornwall 1252-1296 was born illegitimately to Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (42) and Joan Valletort 1175-1271 (77) at Berkhamsted. He a grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.

On 06 Jun 1768 Admiral Joseph Sydney Yorke 1768-1831 was born to Charles Yorke 1722-1770 (45) and Agneta Johnson 1740-1820 (27) at Berkhamsted.

In 1756 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779. Portrait of Charles Yorke 1722-1770.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1050-1065. Meantime Earl William came up from Normandy into Pevensey on the eve of St. Michael's mass; and soon after his landing was effected, they constructed a castle at the port of Hastings. This was then told to King Harold; and he gathered a large force, and came to meet him at the estuary of Appledore. William, however, came against him unawares, ere his army was collected; but the king, nevertheless, very hardly encountered him with the men that would support him: and there was a great slaughter made on either side. There was slain King Harold, and Leofwin his brother, and Earl Girth his brother, with many good men: and the Frenchmen gained the field of battle, as God granted them for the sins of the nation. Archbishop Aldred and the corporation of London were then desirous of having child Edgar to king, as he was quite natural to them; and Edwin and Morkar promised them that they would fight with them. But the more prompt the business should ever be, so was it from day to day the later and worse; as in the end it all fared. This battle was fought on the day of Pope Calixtus: and Earl William returned to Hastings, and waited there to know whether the people would submit to him. But when he found that they would not come to him, he went up with all his force that was left and that came since to him from over sea, and ravaged all the country that he overran, until he came to Berkhampstead; where Archbishop Aldred came to meet him, with child Edgar, and Earls Edwin and Morkar, and all the best men from London; who submitted then for need, when the most harm was done. It was very ill-advised that they did not so before, seeing that God would not better things for our sins. And they gave him hostages and took oaths: and he promised them that he would be a faithful lord to them; though in the midst of this they plundered wherever they went.

Berkhamsted Castle, Hertfordshire

On 17 Jan 1240 Nicholas Cornwall 1240-1240 was born to Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (31) and Isabel Marshal Countess Cornwall, Gloucester and Hertford 1200-1240 (39) at Berkhamsted Castle. He a grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.

On 17 Jan 1240 Nicholas Cornwall 1240-1240 died at Berkhamsted Castle. He was buried with his mother at Beaulieu Abbey.

On 09 Nov 1261 Sanchia Provence Queen Consort Germany 1228-1261 (33) died at Berkhamsted Castle.

On 02 Apr 1272 Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 (63) died at Berkhamsted Castle. He was buried at Hailes Abbey. His son Edmund "Almain" Cornwall 2nd Earl Cornwall 1249-1300 (22) succeeded 2nd Earl Cornwall 4C 1225.

On 01 Apr 1495 Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.

Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.

IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince Richard late Duke of Yorke (83), fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son King Edward the iiij th (52), the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.

Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in his tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay, a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the King (38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the Kinges (38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.

Also I geve and bequeith to the Quene (29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.

Also I bequeith to my lady the Kinges moder (51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.

Also I geve to my lord Prince (8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras and a tappett of arres with the pope.

Also I geve to my lord Henry Duke of Yorke (3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.

And if my body be buried at Fodringhay in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond (83), than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damaske browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.

Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.

Also I geve to the house of Sion two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.

Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.

Also I geve to my doughter Brigitte (14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.

Also I geve to my doughter Cecill (26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.

Also I geve to my doughter Anne (19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter Kateryn (15) a traves of blewe satten.

Also I geve to my doughter of Suffolke (50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.

Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (50).

Also I geve to my son of Suffolke (24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.

Also I geve to my son Humfrey (21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.

Also I geve to my son William (17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter Anne priores of Sion (19), a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.

Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede unto the colege of Fodringhey. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.

Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.

Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.

Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.

Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.

Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.

Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.

Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.

Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.

Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.

Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.

Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.

Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.

Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.

Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.

Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.

Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.

Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond (83) and me.

Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.

Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.

Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.

Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.

Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.

Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.

Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.

Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.

Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.

Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.

Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.

Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.

Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.

Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.

Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.

Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.

Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.

Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.

Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.

Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.

Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.

And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (63), Sir Reignolde Bray (55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.

And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.

And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.

IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck. Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Benington, Hertfordshire

On 28 Jan 1571 Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier 1517-1571 (54) died from a fall from his horse at Benington. Her second cousin once removed Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex 1541-1576 (29) succeeded 8th Baron Bourchier. Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634 (27) by marriage Baroness Bourchier.

Around 1575 based on a work of 1572.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex 1541-1576. Before 1596 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. Portrait of Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634 with the Knollys Arms with Elephant Crest on her right. Around 1592 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Lettice Knollys Countess Essex 1543-1634.

Bishop's Hatfield, Hertfordshire

Around Nov 1431 Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 was born to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (31) and Catherine of Valois (30) at Bishop's Hatfield.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1556. 03 Dec 1556. The iij day of Desember cam rydyng from her plasse my lade Elizabeth('s) (23) grace, from Somersett place downe Fletstreet, and thrugh Old Bayle, and thrugh Smyth-field, with a grett compene; and her servandes alle in red gardyd with velvett; and so her grace toke her way toward Bysshope Atfeld plasse.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

St Elthreda's Church Bishop's Hatfield, Hertfordshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 August 1667. 11 Aug 1667. Lord's Day. Up by four o'clock, and ready with Mrs. Turner (44) to take coach before five; which we did, and set on our journey, and got to the Wells at Barnett by seven o'clock, and there found many people a-drinking; but the morning is a very cold morning, so as we were very cold all the way in the coach. Here we met Joseph Batelier, and I talked with him, and here was W. Hewer (25) also, and his uncle Steventon: so, after drinking three glasses and the women nothing, we back by coach to Barnett, where to the Red Lyon, where we 'light, and went up into the great Room, and there drank, and eat some of the best cheese-cakes that ever I eat in my life, and so took coach again, and W. Hewer (25) on horseback with us, and so to Hatfield, to the inn, next my Lord Salisbury's house, and there rested ourselves, and drank, and bespoke dinner; and so to church, it being just church-time, and there we find my Lord and my Lady Sands and several fine ladies of the family, and a great many handsome faces and genteel persons more in the church, and did hear a most excellent good sermon, which pleased me mightily, and very devout; it being upon, the signs of saving grace, where it is in a man, and one sign, which held him all this day, was, that where that grace was, there is also the grace of prayer, which he did handle very finely. In this church lies the former Lord of Salisbury, Cecil, buried in a noble tomb.

So the church being done, we to our inn, and there dined very well, and mighty merry; and as soon as we had dined we walked out into the Park through the fine walk of trees, and to the Vineyard, and there shewed them that, which is in good order, and indeed a place of great delight; which, together with our fine walk through the Park, was of as much pleasure as could be desired in the world for country pleasure and good ayre.

Being come back, and weary with the walk, for as I made it, it was pretty long, being come back to our inne, there the women had pleasure in putting on some straw hats, which are much worn in this country, and did become them mightily, but especially my wife.

So, after resting awhile, we took coach again, and back to Barnett, where W. Hewer (25) took us into his lodging, which is very handsome, and there did treat us very highly with cheesecakes, cream, tarts, and other good things; and then walked into the garden, which was pretty, and there filled my pockets full of filberts, and so with much pleasure. Among other things, I met in this house with a printed book of the Life of O. Cromwell, to his honour as a soldier and politician, though as a rebell, the first of that kind that ever I saw, and it is well done. Took coach again, and got home with great content, just at day shutting in, and so as soon as home eat a little and then to bed, with exceeding great content at our day's work.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Around 1602 John Critz 1551-1642. Portrait of Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612.

In 1798 Frances Mordaunt 1736-1798 (62) died. She was buried at St Elthreda's Church Bishop's Hatfield.

Bishop's Stortford

Braughing, Hertfordshire

Braughing was a small Roman Town at the junction of Ermine Street and Stane Street to Colchester. There was a planned street grid where thatched timber buildings, which lasted until about AD 60, were constructed. Not long afterwards substantial masonry structures were also constructed, including an L-shaped building with bath suite which was still in use in the 4th century. Coins of Tasciovanus (c. 20BC - AD10) are known from the site [2] identifying an associated with the Catuvellauni. The final Roman coin evidence from the site is associated with Arcadius (AD383 - 408).

Ermine Street 2a London to Braughing leaves the city of London at Bishopsgate Gate and thereafter travelled north through Shoreditch, Stoke Newington, Stamford Hill, Tottenham, Edmonton, Waltham Cross, Broxbourne, Puckeridge to Braughing.

Ermine Street 2b Braughing to Durobrivae. From Braughing Ermine Street continues north through Buntingford. 1.6km north of Buntingford the road make a change of alignment before heading to Royston where it again changes aligment before passing through Caxton Gibbet, Durovigutum, Huntingdon, Great Stukeley, Alconbury and Sawtry, Chesterton before reaching Durobrivae.

Brockley Hill, Hertfordshire

Watling Street 1d Marble Arch to St Albans. From Marble Arch Watling Street continues north-west along the Edgeware Road, Maida Vale, Cricklewood, Sulloniacis, Radlett, Park Street to Verulamium aka St Albans.

Broxbourne, Hertfordshire

Around 1468 John Saye 1380-1468 (88) died at Broxbourne.

On 25 Sep 1473 Elizabeth Cheney 1422-1473 (51) died and was buried in Broxbourne.

On 04 Dec 1529 William Saye 1452-1529 (77) died at Broxbourne.

Ermine Street 2a London to Braughing leaves the city of London at Bishopsgate Gate and thereafter travelled north through Shoreditch, Stoke Newington, Stamford Hill, Tottenham, Edmonton, Waltham Cross, Broxbourne, Puckeridge to Braughing.

The River Lea rises near Leagrave after which it travels through Wheathampstead, Hertford, Ware, Broxbourne, Waltham Cross, Tottenham before joining the River Thames at Leamouth.

Sawbridge Broxbourne, Hertfordshire

Around 1430 John Saye 1430-1478 was born to John Saye 1380-1468 (50) at Sawbridge Broxbourne.

On 12 Apr 1478 John Saye 1430-1478 (48) died at Sawbridge Broxbourne.

Buckland, Hertfordshire

On 22 Oct 1560 Thomas Becon 1512-1567 (48) was admitted to the rectory of Buckland.

Buntingford, Hertfordshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 September 1663. 14 Sep 1663. Up betimes, and my wife's mind and mine holding for her going, so she to get her ready, and I abroad to do the like for myself, and so home, and after setting every thing at my office and at home in order, by coach to Bishop's Gate, it being a very promising fair day. There at the Dolphin we met my uncle Thomas and his son-in-law, which seems a very sober man, and Mr. Moore. So Mr. Moore and my wife set out before, and my uncle and I staid for his son Thomas, who, by a sudden resolution, is preparing to go with us, which makes me fear something of mischief which they design to do us. He staying a great while, the old man and I before, and about eight miles off, his son comes after us, and about six miles further we overtake Mr. Moore and my wife, which makes me mightily consider what a great deal of ground is lost in a little time, when it is to be got up again by another, that is to go his own ground and the other's too; and so after a little bayte (I paying all the reckonings the whole journey) at Ware, to Buntingford, where my wife, by drinking some cold beer, being hot herself, presently after 'lighting, begins to be sick, and became so pale, and I alone with her in a great chamber there, that I thought she would have died, and so in great horror, and having a great tryall of my true love and passion for her, called the mayds and mistresse of the house, and so with some strong water, and after a little vomit, she came to be pretty well again; and so to bed, and I having put her to bed with great content, I called in my company, and supped in the chamber by her, and being very merry in talk, supped and then parted, and I to bed and lay very well. This day my cozen Thomas dropped his hanger, and it was lost.

Ermine Street 2b Braughing to Durobrivae. From Braughing Ermine Street continues north through Buntingford. 1.6km north of Buntingford the road make a change of alignment before heading to Royston where it again changes aligment before passing through Caxton Gibbet, Durovigutum, Huntingdon, Great Stukeley, Alconbury and Sawtry, Chesterton before reaching Durobrivae.

Cheshunt

Essendon, Hertfordshire

In 1479 Elizabeth Saye Baroness Mountjoy 1479-1506 was born to William Saye 1452-1529 (27) and Elizabeth Fray 1441-1495 (38) at Essendon.

On 21 Jul 1506 Elizabeth Saye Baroness Mountjoy 1479-1506 (27) died at Essendon.

Flamstead

Friars Wash, Hertfordshire

Gorhambury House, Hertfordshire

From 1563 Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper 1510-1579 (52) had Gorhambury House built in the Prodigy House style.

Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper 1510-1579.

On 08 Dec 1822 Francis Sylvester Grimston 1822-1865 was born to James Walter Grimston 1st Earl Verulam 1775-1845 (47) and Charlotte Jenkinson Countess Verulam -1863 at Gorhambury House.

Great Gaddeston, Hertfordshire

Around 1580 Philip Carey 1580-1631 was born at Great Gaddeston.

Great Munden, Hertfordshire

St Nicholas Church Great Munden, Hertfordshire

On 06 Oct 1871 Charlotte Elizabeth Myddleton-Biddulph 1807-1871 (63) died. She was buried at St Nicholas Church Great Munden.

Reverend Charles William Maude was appointed Rector of St Nicholas Church Great Munden.

Hatfield

Hertford

Hitchin, Hertfordshire

All Saints Church Hitchin, Hertfordshire

On 23 Sep 1900 Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Queen Consort England 1900-2002 was christened at All Saints Church Hitchin. Her godmothers included Maud Bowes-Lyon 1870-1941 (30) and Mary Venetia Cavendish-Bentinck 1861-1948 (39).

1925. Philip de László Painter 1869-1937. Portrait of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Queen Consort England 1900-2002. 1895. Luke Fildes Painter 1843-1927. Portrait of Mary Venetia Cavendish-Bentinck 1861-1948.

Offley Hitchin, Hertfordshire

On 18 Sep 1380 Thomas Hoo 1319-1380 (61) died at Offley Hitchin.

Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire

Rye House Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire

Before 21 Mar 1683 the Rye House Plot was an attempt to assassinate King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 and his brother King James II as they passed Rye House Hoddesdon when were returning from the races at Newmarket on 01 Apr 1683. In the event a fire at Newmarket on the 22 Mar 1683 the races were cancelled.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

Hunsdon, Hertfordshire

In 1516 Henry Howard 1516-1547 was born to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (43) and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk 1497-1558 (19) at Hunsdon.

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Based on a work of 1546. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. In 1546 Unknown Painter. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300 1338 Arms, his left Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355 1397 Arms.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 20 Jun 1528. Love Letters III. 4403. Henry VIII (36). to Anne Boleyn (27).

The doubt I had of your health troubled me extremely, and I should scarcely have had any quiet without knowing the certainty; but since you have felt nothing, I hope it is with you as with us. When we were at Waltham, two ushers, two valets de chambre, your brother (25), master "Jesoncre" (Treasurer), fell ill, and are now quite well; and we have since removed to Hunsdon, where we are very well, without one sick person. I think if you would retire from Surrey, as we did, you would avoid all danger. Another thing may comfort you:—few women have this illness; and moreover, none of our court, and few elsewhere, have died of it. I beg you, therefore, not to distress yourself at our absence, for whoever strives against fortune is often the further from his end.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England.

On 09 Sep 1552 John Carey 1491-1552 (61) died at Hunsdon. He was buried at Hunsdon Church Hunsdon.

In 1590 Ferdinando Carey 1590-1638 was born to Edmund Carey 1558-1637 (32) and Mary Crocker at Hunsdon.

On 17 Apr 1617 John Carey 3rd Baron Hunsdon 1550-1617 (67) died at Hunsdon. His son Henry Carey 1st Earl Dover 1580-1666 (37) succeeded 4th Baron Hunsdon 1C 1559. Judith Pelham Countess Dover 1590-1629 (26) by marriage Baroness Hunsdon.

On 13 Apr 1666 Henry Carey 1st Earl Dover 1580-1666 (86) died at Hunsdon. His son John Carey 2nd Earl Dover 1608-1677 (58) succeeded 2nd Earl Dover. Abigail Cockayne Countess Dover 1610-1687 (56) by marriage Countess Dover.

Hunsdon Church Hunsdon, Hertfordshire

On 09 Sep 1552 John Carey 1491-1552 (61) died at Hunsdon. He was buried at Hunsdon Church Hunsdon.

King's Langley, Hertfordshire

On 05 Jun 1341 Edmund of Langley was born to King Edward III England (28) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (26) at King's Langley.

Around 1373 Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 was born to Edmund of Langley (31) and Isabella of Castile (18) at King's Langley. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

On 01 Aug 1402 Edmund of Langley (61) died at King's Langley. His son Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (29) succeeded 2nd Duke York 1C 1385, 2nd Earl Cambridge 2C 1362. Philippa Mohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess York 1367-1431 (35) by marriage Duchess York.

In 1802 Captain John Platt Painter 1802- was born in King's Langley.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 245. Thus when king Richard had lain two hours in the chare in Cheapside, then they drave the chare forward: and when the four knights that followed the chare afoot were without London, they leapt then on their horses, which were there ready for them, and so they rode till they came to a village called Langley, a thirty mile from London, and there this king Richard was buried. God have mercy on his soul !

King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire

On 02 Jan 1315 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (31) was buried at King's Langley Priory in a lavish ceremony some two and a half years after his murder. The ceremony was attended by King Edward II of England (30) and his wife Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (20) as well as Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex 1276-1322 (39), Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 (40), Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300-1338 (14), Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (39), Hugh Despencer 2nd Baron Despencer 1308-1349 (7) and his son Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1286-1326 (29).

In May 1385 Ralph Stafford 1367-1385 (18) was murdered by John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (33). He was buried at King's Langley Priory.

On 13 Jan 1393 Isabella of Castile (38) was buried at King's Langley Priory.

On 14 Feb 1400 (exact date not known) King Richard II (33) died at Pontefract Castle, possibly murdered, possibly starved to death, as a consequence of the Epiphany Rising. His first cousin Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (44) de jure Heir to the Throne of England.

On 17 Feb 1400 Richard's (33) corpse was displayed at St Paul's Cathedral.

On 06 Mar 1400 Richard's (33) remains were buried at King's Langley Priory.

Little Gaddesden, Hertfordshire

On 26 Oct 1686 John Egerton 2nd Earl Bridgewater 1623-1686 (63) died. He was buried at Little Gaddesden. His son John Egerton 3rd Earl Bridgewater 1646-1701 (39) succeeded 3rd Earl Bridgewater 2C 1617. Jane Paulet Countess Bridgewater 1656-1716 (30) by marriage Countess Bridgewater.

Before 1716. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Jane Paulet Countess Bridgewater 1656-1716.

In Apr 1687 Thomas Egerton 1679-1687 (7) burned to death in the fire which destroyed Bridgewater House. He was buried at Little Gaddesden.

In Apr 1687 Charles Egerton 1675-1687 (11) burned to death in the fire which destroyed Bridgewater House at Bridgwater House Barbican. He was buried at Little Gaddesden.

On 19 Mar 1701 John Egerton 3rd Earl Bridgewater 1646-1701 (54) died. He was buried at Little Gaddesden. His son Scroop Egerton 1st Duke Bridgewater 1681-1744 (19) succeeded 4th Earl Bridgewater 2C 1617.

On 20 Oct 1758 Rebecca Herbert Baroness Bergavenny -1758 died at Little Gaddesden.

St. Peter and St. Paul Church Little Gaddesden, Hertfordshire

Bridgewater Chapel St. Peter and St Paul Church Little Gaddesden, St. Peter and St. Paul Church Little Gaddesden, Hertfordshire

On 11 Feb 1829 Francis Henry Egerton 8th Earl Bridgewater 1756-1829 (72) died. He was buried at Bridgewater Chapel St. Peter and St Paul Church Little Gaddesden. Earl Bridgewater 2C 1617 extinct.

Little Hadham, Hertfordshire

On 29 May 1556 Giles Capell of Rayne Hall 1480-1556 (76) died at Little Hadham.

In 1557 Arthur Capell 1557-1632 was born to Henry Capell 1526-1588 (31) and Catherine Manners 1539-1547 (17) at Little Hadham.

On 14 Aug 1604 Margaret Grey 1559-1604 (45) died at Little Hadham.

On or before 16 Sep 1630 Mary Capell Duchess Beaufort 1630-1715 was born to Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649 (22) and Elizabeth Morrison Baroness Capell Hadham 1611- (19) at Little Hadham.

Around 1647 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649.

On 11 Apr 1632 Arthur Capell 1557-1632 (75) died at Little Hadham.

Before 06 Mar 1638 Henry Capell 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury 1638-1696 was born to Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649 and Elizabeth Morrison Baroness Capell Hadham 1611- at Little Hadham.

Around 1655 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henry Capell 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury 1638-1696.

On 28 Jun 1648 Henry Seymour 1626-1654 (22) and Mary Capell Duchess Beaufort 1630-1715 (17) were married at Little Hadham. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Hadham Hall Little Hadham, Hertfordshire

On 20 Feb 1608 Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649 was born to Henry Capell 1579-1622 (29) and Theodosia Montagu at Hadham Hall Little Hadham.

Around 1647 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649.

Moor Park, Hertfordshire

On 03 May 1627 Edward Russell 3rd Earl Bedford 1572-1627 (54) died at Moor Park. His first cousin Francis Russell 4th Earl Bedford 1593-1641 (34) succeeded 4th Earl Bedford 3C 1551. Catherine Brydges Countess Bedford 1580-1657 (47) by marriage Countess Bedford.

On 06 Jun 1762 George Anson 1st Baron Anson 1697-1762 (65) died without issue at Moor Park. He was buried at St Michael and All Angels Church Colwich. Baron Anson of Soberton in Southampton extinct. His brother Thomas Anson 1695-1773 (67) inherited his estates.

1756. Joshua Reynolds 1723-1788. Portrait of George Anson 1st Baron Anson 1697-1762.

Much Hadham, Hertfordshire

On 06 Jan 1406 Roger Walden Archbishop of Canterbury -1406 died at Much Hadham.

In 1776 Anthony Hamilton Archdeacon 1739-1812 (37) became Rector of Much Hadham.

Much Hadham Palace Much Hadham, Hertfordshire

On 11 Jun 1430 Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 was born to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (30) and Catherine of Valois (28) at Much Hadham Palace Much Hadham (which belonged to the Bishops of London). There is speculation that the biological father was Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (24) with whom Catherine of Valois (28) was rumoured to have had an affair. Interesting, perhaps, that he was named Edmund rather than Owen. Interesting that he took the Royal Arms of England differenced. Also interesting that his younger brother was named Jasper; a Persian name meaning 'Keeper of the Treasure'.

Park Street, Hertfordshire

Watling Street 1d Marble Arch to St Albans. From Marble Arch Watling Street continues north-west along the Edgeware Road, Maida Vale, Cricklewood, Sulloniacis, Radlett, Park Street to Verulamium aka St Albans.

Pelham Furneux, Hertfordshire

Around 1517 Grace Newport 1517-1549 was born to John Newport at Pelham Furneux.

Potter's of Bar, Hertfordshire

Railway Station Potter's of Bar, Hertfordshire

On 16 May 1899 Henry Byng 4th Earl Strafford 1831-1899 (67) was hit by an express train (possible suicide but the coroner returned misadventure) at the Railway Station in Potter's Bar. He was buried at Byng Family Vault St John's Church Potter's of Bar. On 16 May 1899 His brother Francis Edmund Cecil Byng 5th Earl Strafford 1835-1918 (64) succeeded 5th Earl Strafford 3C 1847, 5th Viscount Enfield of Enfield in Middlesex, 5th Baron Strafford of Harmondsworth in Middlesex. Emily Georgina Kerr Countess Strafford 1847-1929 (52) by marriage Countess Strafford.

St John's Church Potter's of Bar, Hertfordshire

Byng Family Vault St John's Church Potter's of Bar, Hertfordshire

On 16 May 1899 Henry Byng 4th Earl Strafford 1831-1899 (67) was hit by an express train (possible suicide but the coroner returned misadventure) at the Railway Station in Potter's Bar. He was buried at Byng Family Vault St John's Church Potter's of Bar. On 16 May 1899 His brother Francis Edmund Cecil Byng 5th Earl Strafford 1835-1918 (64) succeeded 5th Earl Strafford 3C 1847, 5th Viscount Enfield of Enfield in Middlesex, 5th Baron Strafford of Harmondsworth in Middlesex. Emily Georgina Kerr Countess Strafford 1847-1929 (52) by marriage Countess Strafford.

Puckeridge, Hertfordshire

Radlett, Hertfordshire

Watling Street 1d Marble Arch to St Albans. From Marble Arch Watling Street continues north-west along the Edgeware Road, Maida Vale, Cricklewood, Sulloniacis, Radlett, Park Street to Verulamium aka St Albans.

Redbourn, Hertfordshire

On 21 Jul 1824 Claude Bowes-Lyon 13th Earl Strathmore and Kinghorne 1824-1904 was born to Thomas George Lyon Bowes 1801-1834 (23) and Charlotte Grimstead 1797-1881 (27) at Redbourn.

Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire

On 12 Jun 1661 Henry Carey 2nd Earl Monmouth 1596-1661 (65) died at Rickmansworth.

Royston, Hertfordshire

On 23 Oct 1613 Francis Seymour 1st Baron Seymour Trowbridge 1590-1664 (23) was knighted at Royston.

John Evelyn's Diary 31 August 1654. 31 Aug 1654. Through part of Huntingdonshire, we passed that town, fair and ancient, a river running by it. The country about it so abounds in wheat that, when any King of England passes through it, they have a custom to meet him with a hundred plows.

This evening, to Cambridge; and went first to St. John's College, well built of brick, and library, which I think is the fairest of that University. One Mr. Benlowes has given it all the ornaments of pietra commessa, whereof a table and one piece of perspective is very fine; other trifles there also be of no great value, besides a vast old song-book, or Service, and some fair manuscripts. There hangs in the library the picture of John Williams (72), Archbishop of York, sometime Lord Keeper, my kinsman, and their great benefactor.

Trinity College is said by some to be the fairest quadrangle of any university in Europe; but in truth is far inferior to that of Christ Church, in Oxford; the hall is ample and of stone, the fountain in the quadrangle is graceful, the chapel and library fair. There they showed us the prophetic manuscript of the famous Grebner, but the passage and emblem which they would apply to our late King, is manifestly relating to the Swedish; in truth, it seems to be a mere fantastic rhapsody, however the title may bespeak strange revelations. There is an office in manuscript with fine miniatures, and some other antiquities, given by the Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VIII, and the before-mentioned Archbishop Williams (72), when Bishop of Lincoln. The library is pretty well stored. The Greek Professor had me into another large quadrangle cloistered and well built, and gave us a handsome collation in his own chamber.

Thence to Caius, and afterward to King's College, where I found the chapel altogether answered expectation, especially the roof, all of stone, which for the flatness of its laying and carving may, I conceive, vie with any in Christendom. The contignation of the roof (which I went upon), weight, and artificial joining of the stones is admirable. The lights are also very fair. In one aisle lies the famous Dr. Collins, so celebrated for his fluency in the Latin tongue. From this roof we could descry Ely, and the encampment of Sturbridge fair now beginning to set up their tents and booths; also Royston, Newmarket, etc., houses belonging to the King. The library is too narrow.

Clare-Hall is of a new and noble design, but not finished.

Peter-House, formerly under the government of my worthy friend, Dr. Joseph Cosin (59) [Note. Joseph appears to be a mistake for John?], Dean of Peterborough; a pretty neat college, having a delicate chapel. Next to Sidney, a fine college.

Catherine-Hall, though a mean structure, is yet famous for the learned Bishop Andrews (99), once Master. Emanuel College, that zealous house, where to the hall they have a parlor for the Fellows. The chapel is reformed, ab origine, built north and south, and meanly erected, as is the library.

Jesus College, one of the best built, but in a melancholy situation. Next to Christ-College, a very noble erection, especially the modern part, built without the quadrangle toward the gardens, of exact architecture.

The Schools are very despicable, and Public Library but mean, though somewhat improved by the wainscoting and books lately added by the Bishop Bancroft's library and MSS. They showed us little of antiquity, only King James's Works, being his own gift, and kept very reverently.

The market place is very ample, and remarkable for old Hobson, the pleasant carrier's beneficence of a fountain. But the whole town is situate in a low, dirty, unpleasant place, the streets ill-paved, the air thick and infected by the fens, nor are its churches, (of which St. Mary's is the best) anything considerable in compare to Oxford.

From Cambridge, we went to Audley-End, and spent some time in seeing that goodly place built by Howard (93), Earl of Suffolk, once Lord Treasurer. It is a mixed fabric, between antique and modern, but observable for its being completely finished, and without comparison is one of the stateliest palaces in the kingdom. It consists of two courts, the first very large, winged with cloisters. The front had a double entrance; the hall is fair, but somewhat too small for so august a pile. The kitchen is very large, as are the cellars, arched with stone, very neat and well disposed; these offices are joined by a wing out of the way very handsomely. The gallery is the most cheerful and I think one of the best in England; a fair dining-room, and the rest of the lodgings answerable, with a pretty chapel. The gardens are not in order, though well inclosed. It has also a bowling-alley, a noble well-walled, wooded and watered park, full of fine collines and ponds: the river glides before the palace, to which is an avenue of lime trees, but all this is much diminished by its being placed in an obscure bottom. For the rest, is a perfectly uniform structure, and shows without like a diadem, by the decorations of the cupolas and other ornaments on the pavilions; instead of rails and balusters, there is a border of capital letters, as was lately also on Suffolk House, near Charing-Cross, built by the same Lord Treasurer (93).

This house stands in the parish of Saffron Walden, famous for the abundance of saffron there cultivated, and esteemed the best of any foreign country.

Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck. In 1598 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 June 1667. 14 Jun 1667. Up, and to the office; where Mr. fryer comes and tells me that there are several Frenchmen and Flemish ships in the River, with passes from the Duke of York (33) for carrying of prisoners, that ought to be parted from the rest of the ships, and their powder taken, lest they do fire themselves when the enemy comes, and so spoil us; which is good advice, and I think I will give notice of it; and did so. But it is pretty odd to see how every body, even at this high time of danger, puts business off of their own hands! He says that he told this to the Lieutenant of the Tower (52), to whom I, for the same reason, was directing him to go; and the Lieutenant of the Tower bade him come to us, for he had nothing to do with it; and yesterday comes Captain Crew, of one of the fireships, and told me that the officers of the Ordnance would deliver his gunner's materials, but not compound them1, 2 but that we must do it; whereupon I was forced to write to them about it; and one that like a great many come to me this morning by and by comes—Mr. Wilson, and by direction of his, a man of Mr. Gawden's; who come from Chatham last night, and saw the three ships burnt, they lying all dry, and boats going from the men-of-war and fire them. But that, that he tells me of worst consequence is, that he himself, I think he said, did hear many Englishmen on board the Dutch ships speaking to one another in English; and that they did cry and say, "We did heretofore fight for tickets; now we fight for dollars!" and did ask how such and such a one did, and would commend themselves to them: which is a sad consideration.

And Mr. Lewes, who was present at this fellow's discourse to me, did tell me, that he is told that when they took "The Royall Charles", they said that they had their tickets signed, and showed some, and that now they come to have them paid, and would have them paid before they parted. And several seamen come this morning to me, to tell me that, if I would get their tickets paid, they would go and do all they could against the Dutch; but otherwise they would not venture being killed, and lose all they have already fought for: so that I was forced to try what I could do to get them paid.

This man tells me that the ships burnt last night did lie above Upnor Castle, over against the Docke; and the boats come from the ships of war and burnt them all which is very sad. And masters of ships, that we are now taking up, do keep from their ships all their stores, or as much as they can, so that we can despatch them, having not time to appraise them nor secure their payment; only some little money we have, which we are fain to pay the men we have with, every night, or they will not work. And indeed the hearts as well as affections of the seamen are turned away; and in the open streets in Wapping, and up and down, the wives have cried publickly, "This comes of your not paying our husbands; and now your work is undone, or done by hands that understand it not". And Sir W. Batten (66) told me that he was himself affronted with a woman, in language of this kind, on Tower Hill publickly yesterday; and we are fain to bear it, and to keep one at the office door to let no idle people in, for fear of firing of the office and doing us mischief.

The City is troubled at their being put upon duty: summoned one hour, and discharged two hours after; and then again summoned two hours after that; to their great charge as well as trouble. And Pelling, the Potticary, tells me the world says all over, that less charge than what the Kingdom is put to, of one kind or other, by this business, would have set out all our great ships. It is said they did in open streets yesterday, at Westminster, cry, "A Parliament! a Parliament!" and I do believe it will cost blood to answer for these miscarriages. We do not hear that the Dutch are come to Gravesend; which is a wonder. But a wonderful thing it is that to this day we have not one word yet from Bruncker (47), or Peter Pett (56), or J. Minnes (68), of any thing at Chatham. The people that come hither to hear how things go, make me ashamed to be found unable to answer them: for I am left alone here at the office; and the truth is, I am glad my station is to be here, near my own home and out of danger, yet in a place of doing the King (37) good service.

I have this morning good news from Gibson; three letters from three several stages, that he was safe last night as far as Royston, at between nine and ten at night. The dismay that is upon us all, in the business of the Kingdom and Navy at this day, is not to be expressed otherwise than by the condition the citizens were in when the City was on fire, nobody knowing which way to turn themselves, while every thing concurred to greaten the fire; as here the easterly gale and spring-tides for coming up both rivers, and enabling them to break the chaine. D. Gauden did tell me yesterday, that the day before at the Council they were ready to fall together by the ears at the Council-table, arraigning one another of being guilty of the counsel that brought us into this misery, by laying up all the great ships. Mr. Hater tells me at noon that some rude people have been, as he hears, at my Chancellor's (58), where they have cut down the trees before his house and broke his windows; and a gibbet either set up before or painted upon his gate, and these three words writ: "Three sights to be seen; Dunkirke, Tangier, and a barren Queene (57)"3.

It gives great matter of talk that it is said there is at this hour, in the Exchequer, as much money as is ready to break down the floor. This arises, I believe, from Sir G. Downing's (42) late talk of the greatness of the sum lying there of people's money, that they would not fetch away, which he shewed me and a great many others. Most people that I speak with are in doubt how we shall do to secure our seamen from running over to the Dutch; which is a sad but very true consideration at this day.

At noon I am told that my Lord Duke of Albemarle (58) is made Lord High Constable; the meaning whereof at this time I know not, nor whether it, be true or no.

Dined, and Mr. Hater and W. Hewer (25) with me; where they do speak very sorrowfully of the posture of the times, and how people do cry out in the streets of their being bought and sold; and both they, and every body that come to me, do tell me that people make nothing of talking treason in the streets openly: as, that we are bought and sold, and governed by Papists, and that we are betrayed by people about the King (37), and shall be delivered up to the French, and I know not what.

At dinner we discoursed of Tom of the Wood, a fellow that lives like a hermit near Woolwich, who, as they say, and Mr. Bodham, they tell me, affirms that he was by at the justice's when some did accuse him there for it, did foretell the burning of the City, and now says that a greater desolation is at hand. Thence we read and laughed at Lilly's prophecies this month, in his Almanack this year! !So to the office after dinner; and thither comes Mr. Pierce, who tells me his condition, how he cannot get his money, about £500, which, he says, is a very great part of what he hath for his family and children, out of Viner's (36) hand: and indeed it is to be feared that this will wholly undo the bankers. He says he knows nothing of the late affronts to my Chancellor's (58) house, as is said, nor hears of the Duke of Albemarle's (58) being made High Constable; but says that they are in great distraction at White Hall, and that every where people do speak high against Sir W. Coventry (39): but he agrees with me, that he is the best Minister of State the King (37) hath, and so from my heart I believe.

At night come home Sir W. Batten (66) and W. Pen (46), who only can tell me that they have placed guns at Woolwich and Deptford, and sunk some ships below Woolwich and Blackewall, and are in hopes that they will stop the enemy's coming up. But strange our confusion! that among them that are sunk they have gone and sunk without consideration "The Franakin",' one of the King's ships, with stores to a very considerable value, that hath been long loaden for supply of the ships; and the new ship at Bristoll, and much wanted there; and nobody will own that they directed it, but do lay it on Sir W. Rider. They speak also of another ship, loaden to the value of £80,000, sunk with the goods in her, or at least was mightily contended for by him, and a foreign ship, that had the faith of the nation for her security: this Sir R. Ford (53) tells us: And it is too plain a truth, that both here and at Chatham the ships that we have sunk have many, and the first of them, been ships completely fitted for fire-ships at great charge. But most strange the backwardness and disorder of all people, especially the King's people in pay, to do any work, Sir W. Pen (46) tells me, all crying out for money; and it was so at Chatham, that this night comes an order from Sir W. Coventry (39) to stop the pay of the wages of that Yard; the Duke of Albemarle (58) having related, that not above three of 1100 in pay there did attend to do any work there.

This evening having sent a messenger to Chatham on purpose, we have received a dull letter from my Lord Bruncker (47) and Peter Pett (56), how matters have gone there this week; but not so much, or so particularly, as we knew it by common talk before, and as true. I doubt they will be found to have been but slow men in this business; and they say the Duke of Albemarle (58) did tell my Lord Bruncker (47) to his face that his discharging of the great ships there was the cause of all this; and I am told that it is become common talk against my Lord Bruncker (47). But in that he is to be justified, for he did it by verbal order from Sir W. Coventry (39), and with good intent; and it was to good purpose, whatever the success be, for the men would have but spent the King (37) so much the more in wages, and yet not attended on board to have done the King (37) any service; and as an evidence of that, just now, being the 15th day in the morning that I am writing yesterday's passages, one is with me, Jacob Bryan, Purser of "The Princesse", who confesses to me that he hath about 180 men borne at this day in victuals and wages on that ship lying at Chatham, being lately brought in thither; of which 180 there was not above five appeared to do the King (37) any service at this late business. And this morning also, some of the Cambridge's men come up from Portsmouth, by order from Sir Fretcheville Hollis (25), who boasted to us the other day that he had sent for 50, and would be hanged if 100 did not come up that would do as much as twice the number of other men: I say some of them, instead of being at work at Deptford, where they were intended, do come to the office this morning to demand the payment of their tickets; for otherwise they would, they said, do no more work; and are, as I understand from every body that has to do with them, the most debauched, damning, swearing rogues that ever were in the Navy, just like their prophane commander.

So to Sir W. Batten's (66) to sit and talk a little, and then home to my flageolet, my heart being at pretty good ease by a letter from my wife, brought by Saunders, that my father and wife got well last night to their Inne and out again this morning, and Gibson's being got safe to Caxton at twelve last night.

So to supper, and then to bed. No news to-day of any motion of the enemy either upwards towards Chatham or this way.

1. Meaning, apparently, that the Ordnance would deliver the charcoal, sulphur, and saltpetre separately, but not mix them as gunpowder.

2. The want of ammunition when the Dutch burnt the fleet, and the revenge of the deserter sailors, are well described by Marvell "Our Seamen, whom no danger's shape could fright, Unpaid, refuse to mount their ships, for spite Or to their fellows swim, on board the Dutch, Who show the tempting metal in their clutch.

3. "Pride, Lust, Ambition, and the People's Hate, the Kingdom's broker, ruin of the State, Dunkirk's sad loss, divider of the fleet, Tangier's compounder for a barren sheet This shrub of gentry, married to the crown, His daughter to the heir, is tumbled down". Poems on State Affairs, vol. i., p. 253. B.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Around 1662 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of John Robinson Lord Mayor of London 1st Baronet 1615-1680. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Robert Vyner Banker 1st Baronet 1631-1688 and Mary Whitchurch Lady Vyner -1674 and their children. Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692.

Ermine Street 2b Braughing to Durobrivae. From Braughing Ermine Street continues north through Buntingford. 1.6km north of Buntingford the road make a change of alignment before heading to Royston where it again changes aligment before passing through Caxton Gibbet, Durovigutum, Huntingdon, Great Stukeley, Alconbury and Sawtry, Chesterton before reaching Durobrivae.

Rushton, Hertfordshire

Cumberlow Rushton, Hertfordshire

In 1625 Thomas Stanley 1625-1678 was born to Thomas Stanley at Cumberlow Rushton.

In 1689 Catherine Killigrew 1618-1689 (71) died at Cumberlow Rushton.

St Albans

St Paul's Walden Bury, Hertfordshire

On 09 Apr 1626 Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (65) died of pneumonia. He was buried at St Paul's Walden Bury. Viscount St Alban and Baron Verulam extinct.

In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619, whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 who was attached to the English Embassy at the time. In 1731 (Copy of 1618 original).John Vanderbank Painter 1694-1739. Portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626.

On 22 Sep 1884 Patrick Bowes-Lyon 15th Earl Strathmore and Kinghorne 1884-1949 was born to Claude Bowes-Lyon 14th Earl Strathmore and Kinghorne 1855-1944 (29) and Cecilia Nina Cavendish-Bentinck 1862-1938 (22) at St Paul's Walden Bury.

Sandridge, Hertfordshire

Around 1647 Frances Jennings 1647-1670 was born to Richard Jennings 1619-1668 (28) and Frances Thornhurst at Sandridge.

Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire

Around 1309 Geoffrey Saye 2nd Baron Say 1309-1359 was born to Geoffrey Saye 1st Baron Say 1281-1322 (27) and Idonea Leybourne Baroness Say 1281-1322 (28) at Sawbridgeworth.

Around 1325 Joan Saye 1325-1378 was born to Geoffrey Saye 2nd Baron Say 1309-1359 (16) and Maud Beauchamp Baroness Say 1310-1366 (15) at Sawbridgeworth.

Around 1326 Elizabeth Saye 1326- was born to Geoffrey Saye 2nd Baron Say 1309-1359 (17) and Maud Beauchamp Baroness Say 1310-1366 (16) at Sawbridgeworth.

Around 1333 Thomas Saye 1333- was born to Geoffrey Saye 2nd Baron Say 1309-1359 (24) and Maud Beauchamp Baroness Say 1310-1366 (23) at Sawbridgeworth.

On 26 Jun 1359 Geoffrey Saye 2nd Baron Say 1309-1359 (50) died at Sawbridgeworth. His son William Saye 3rd Baron Say 1340-1375 (19) succeeded 3rd Baron Say 1C 1313. Beatrice Brewes Baroness Say 1352-1383 (7) by marriage Baroness Say.

Geoffrey Saye 1155-1230 held land at Sawbridgeworth.

Standon, Hertfordshire

Church of St Mary the Virgin Standon, Hertfordshire

On 08 Dec 1538 William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (43) died at Ware. He was buried at Church of St Mary the Virgin Standon.

Stevenage, Hertfordshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 September 1661. 23 Sep 1661. And so away to Stevenage, and staid till a showre was over, and so rode easily to Welling, where we supped well, and had two beds in the room and so lay single, and still remember it that of all the nights that ever I slept in my life I never did pass a night with more epicurism of sleep; there being now and then a noise of people stirring that waked me, and then it was a very rainy night, and then I was a little weary, that what between waking and then sleeping again, one after another, I never had so much content in all my life, and so my wife says it was with her.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 August 1664. 05 Aug 1664. Up very betimes and set my plaisterer to work about whiting and colouring my musique roome, which having with great pleasure seen done, about ten o'clock I dressed myself, and so mounted upon a very pretty mare, sent me by Sir W. Warren, according to his promise yesterday. And so through the City, not a little proud, God knows, to be seen upon so pretty a beast, and to my cozen W. Joyce's, who presently mounted too, and he and I out of towne toward Highgate; in the way, at Kentish-towne, showing me the place and manner of Clun's being killed and laid in a ditch, and yet was not killed by any wounds, having only one in his arm, but bled to death through his struggling. He told me, also, the manner of it, of his going home so late [from] drinking with his whore, and manner of having it found out.

Thence forward to Barnett, and there drank, and so by night to Stevenage, it raining a little, but not much, and there to my great trouble, find that my wife was not come, nor any Stamford coach gone down this week, so that she cannot come. So vexed and weary, and not thoroughly out of pain neither in my old parts, I after supper to bed, and after a little sleep, W. Joyce comes in his shirt into my chamber, with a note and a messenger from my wife, that she was come by Yorke coach to Bigglesworth, and would be with us to-morrow morning. So, mightily pleased at her discreete action in this business, I with peace to sleep again till next morning. So up, and [continued tomorrow]

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 October 1664. 15 Oct 1664. My father and I up and walked alone to Hinchingbroke; and among the other late chargeable works that my Lord hath done there, we saw his water-works and the Oral which is very fine; and so is the house all over, but I am sorry to think of the money at this time spent therein.

Back to my father's (Mr. Sheply being out of town) and there breakfasted, after making an end with Barton about his businesses, and then my mother called me into the garden, and there but all to no purpose desiring me to be friends with John, but I told her I cannot, nor indeed easily shall, which afflicted the poor woman, but I cannot help it.

Then taking leave, W. Joyce and I set out, calling T. Trice at Bugden, and thence got by night to Stevenage, and there mighty merry, though I in bed more weary than the other two days, which, I think, proceeded from our galloping so much, my other weariness being almost all over; but I find that a coney skin in my breeches preserves me perfectly from galling, and that eating after I come to my Inne, without drinking, do keep me from being stomach sick, which drink do presently make me. We lay all in several beds in the same room, and W. Joyce full of his impertinent tricks and talk, which then made us merry, as any other fool would have done.

So to sleep.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 October 1667. 11 Oct 1667. And then rose and called W. Hewer (25), and he and I, with pails and a sieve, did lock ourselves into the garden, and there gather all the earth about the place into pails, and then sift those pails in one of the summer-houses, just as they do for dyamonds in other parts of the world; and there, to our great content, did with much trouble by nine o'clock (and by the time we emptied several pails and could not find one), we did make the last night's forty-five up seventy-nine: so that we are come to about twenty or thirty of what I think the true number should be; and perhaps within less; and of them I may reasonably think that Mr. Gibson might lose some: so that I am pretty well satisfied that my loss is not great, and do bless God that it is so well1, and do leave my father to make a second examination of the dirt, which he promises he will do, and, poor man, is mightily troubled for this accident, but I declared myself very well satisfied, and so indeed I am; and my mind at rest in it, being but an accident, which is unusual; and so gives me some kind of content to remember how painful it is sometimes to keep money, as well as to get it, and how doubtful I was how to keep it all night, and how to secure it to London: and so got all my gold put up in bags.

And so having the last night wrote to my Lady Sandwich (42) to lend me John Bowles to go along with me my journey, not telling her the reason, that it was only to secure my gold, we to breakfast, and then about ten o'clock took coach, my wife and I, and Willet, and W. Hewer (25), and Murford and Bowles (whom my Lady lent me), and my brother John (26) on horseback; and with these four I thought myself pretty safe. But, before we went out, the Huntingdon musick come to me and played, and it was better than that of Cambridge. Here I took leave of my father, and did give my sister 20s. She cried at my going; but whether it was at her unwillingness for my going, or any unkindness of my wife's, or no, I know not; but, God forgive me! I take her to be so cunning and ill-natured, that I have no great love for her; but only [she] is my sister, and must be provided for. My gold I put into a basket, and set under one of the seats; and so my work every quarter of an hour was to look to see whether all was well; and I did ride in great fear all the day, but it was a pleasant day, and good company, and I mightily contented. Mr. Shepley saw me beyond St. Neots, and there parted, and we straight to Stevenage, through Bald Lanes, which are already very bad; and at Stevenage we come well before night, and all sat, and there with great care I got the gold up to the chamber, my wife carrying one bag, and the girl another, and W. Hewer (25) the rest in the basket, and set it all under a bed in our chamber; and then sat down to talk, and were very pleasant, satisfying myself, among other things, from John Bowles, in some terms of hunting, and about deere, bucks, and does. And so anon to supper, and very merry we were, and a good supper, and after supper to bed. Brecocke alive still, and the best host I know almost.

1. About the year 1842, in removing the foundation of an old wall, adjoining a mansion at Brampton always considered the quondam residence of the Pepys family, an iron pot, full of silver coins, was discovered, and taken to the Earl of Sandwich, the owner of the house, in whose possession they still remain. The pot was so much corroded, that a small piece of it only could be preserved. The coins were chiefly half-crowns of Elizabeth and the two elder Stuarts, and all of a date anterior to the Restoration. Although Pepys states that the treasure which he caused to be buried was gold exclusively, it is very probable that, in the confusion, a pot full of silver money was packed up with the rest; but, at all events, the coincidence appeared too singular to pass over without notice. B.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. In or before 1674. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 June 1668. 05 Jun 1668. Friday. The rough notes for the journal from this time to the 17th of June are contained on five leaves, inserted in the book; and after them follow several pages left blank for the fair copy which was never made. At Barnet, for milk, 6d. On the highway, to menders of the highway, 6d. Dinner at Stevenage, 5s. 6d.

On 18 Mar 1813 William Calder Marshall Sculptor 1813-1894 was born to William Marshall Goldsmith and Annie Calder at either Gilmour Place in Edinburgh or Stevenage.

Around 1884. Joseph Parkin Mayall Photographer 1839-1906. Portrait of William Calder Marshall Sculptor 1813-1894. 1883. John Pettie Painter 1839-1893. Portrait of William Calder Marshall Sculptor 1813-1894.

Three Rivers, Hertfordshire

Merchant Taylors School Three Rivers, Hertfordshire

In 1571 Thomas Smythe 1558-1625 (13) was educated at the Merchant Taylors School Three Rivers.

Throckmorton, Hertfordshire

Hyde Hall Throckmorton, Hertfordshire

In 1528 Leonard Hyde 1528-1590 was born in Hyde Hall Throckmorton.

Around 1554 Mary Hyde Baroness Hunsdon 1554-1627 was born to Leonard Hyde 1528-1590 (26) in Hyde Hall Throckmorton.

Tring, Hertfordshire

The Ridgeway Path is an ancient footpath that extends from Knap Hill, on the south of the Avebury Plateau, or The Sanctuary, to Ivinghoe Beacon - a distance of more than eighty miles following the scarp slopes. From Knap Hill the Ridgeway Path passes The Sanctuary, Prehistoric Avebury, Barbury Castle, Liddington Castle, Wayland's Smithy Long Barrow, Uffington Castle and White Horse, Segsbury Camp, Scutchamer Knob, Goring, Swyncome, Chinnor, Princes Risborough, Boddington Hill Fort, Tring, Ivinghoe Beacon.

In Apr 1637 Anne Dickens 1582-1637 (55) died at Tring.

On 19 Jan 1654 Amphilis Twigden 1609-1654 (45) died at Tring.

Pendley Manor, Tring, Hertfordshire

In 1429 Robert Whittingham 1429-1471 was born to Robert Whittingham II 1400-1452 (29) at Pendley Manor.

Waltham Cross, Hertfordshire

On 13 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile (49) body rested at Waltham Cross.

Ermine Street 2a London to Braughing leaves the city of London at Bishopsgate Gate and thereafter travelled north through Shoreditch, Stoke Newington, Stamford Hill, Tottenham, Edmonton, Waltham Cross, Broxbourne, Puckeridge to Braughing.

The River Lea rises near Leagrave after which it travels through Wheathampstead, Hertford, Ware, Broxbourne, Waltham Cross, Tottenham before joining the River Thames at Leamouth.

Ware

Watford, Hertfordshire

In 1585 Richard Anderson 1585-1652 was born to Henry Anderson 1569-1605 (16) and Elizabeth Bowyer 1561-1599 (24) in Watford.

On 13 Feb 1585 William Russell 1st Baron Russel Thornhaugh 1560-1613 (25) and Elizabeth Long Baroness Russel Thornhaugh were married at Watford.

In 1598 Sarah Anderson 1598-1615 was born to Henry Anderson 1569-1605 (29) and Elizabeth Bowyer 1561-1599 (37) in Watford.

Cassiobury Watford, Hertfordshire

On 23 Mar 1631 John Cooper 1st Baronet Cooper 1597-1631 (33) died at Cassiobury Watford. He was buried in Wimborne St Giles Church.

Cassiobury House, Cassiobury Watford, Hertfordshire

John Evelyn's Diary 18 April 1680. 18 Apr 1680. On the earnest invitation of the Earl of Essex (48), I went with him to his house at Cashiobury, in Hertfordshire. It was on Sunday, but going early from his house in the square of St. James, we arrived by ten o'clock; this he thought too late to go to church, and we had prayers in his chapel. The house is new, a plain fabric, built by my friend, Mr. Hugh May (58). There are divers fair and good rooms, and excellent carving by Gibbons, especially the chimney-piece of the library. There is in the porch, or entrance, a painting by Verrio, of Apollo and the Liberal Arts. One room pargeted with yew, which I liked well. Some of the chimney mantels are of Irish marble, brought by my Lord from Ireland, when he was Lord-Lieutenant, and not much inferior to Italian. The tympanum, or gable, at the front is a bass-relievo of Diana hunting, cut in Portland stone, handsomely enough. I do not approve of the middle doors being round: but, when the hall is finished as designed, it being an oval with a cupola, together with the other wing, it will be a very noble palace. The library is large, and very nobly furnished, and all the books are richly bound and gilded; but there are no MSS., except the Parliament Rolls and Journals, the transcribing and binding of which cost him, as he assured me, £500.

No man has been more industrious than this noble Lord in planting about his seat, adorned with walks, ponds, and other rural elegancies; but the soil is stony, churlish, and uneven, nor is the water near enough to the house, though a very swift and clear stream runs within a flight-shot from it in the valley, which may fitly be called Coldbrook, it being indeed excessively cold, yet producing fair trouts. It is a pity the house was not situated to more advantage: but it seems it was built just where the old one was, which I believe he only meant to repair; this leads men into irremediable errors, and saves but a little.

The land about is exceedingly addicted to wood, but the coldness of the place hinders the growth. Black cherry trees prosper even to considerable timber, some being eighty feet long; they make also very handsome avenues. There is a pretty oval at the end of a fair walk, set about with treble rows of Spanish chestnut trees.

The gardens are very rare, and cannot be otherwise, having so skillful an artist to govern them as Mr. Cooke, who is, as to the mechanic part, not ignorant in mathematics, and pretends to astrology. There is an excellent collection of the choicest fruit.

As for my Lord, he is a sober, wise, judicious, and pondering person, not illiterate beyond the rate of most noblemen in this age, very well versed in English history and affairs, industrious, frugal, methodical, and every way accomplished. His Lady (44) (being sister of the late Earl of Northumberland (35)) is a wise, yet somewhat melancholy woman, setting her heart too much on the little lady, her daughter (6), of whom she is over fond. They have a hopeful son (9) at the Academy.

My Lord was not long since come from his Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland, where he showed his abilities in administration and government, as well as prudence in considerably augmenting his estate without reproach. He had been Ambassador-extraordinary in Denmark, and, in a word, such a person as became the son of that worthy hero his father (72) to be, the late Lord Capel, who lost his life for King Charles I.

We spent our time in the mornings in walking, or riding, and contriving [alterations], and the afternoons in the library, so as I passed my time for three or four days with much satisfaction. He was pleased in conversation to impart to me divers particulars of state, relating to the present times. He being no great friend to the D—— [Note. Probably Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (39)] was now laid aside, his integrity and abilities being not so suitable in this conjuncture. 21st. I returned to London.

Around 1658 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland 1644-1670. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland 1644-1670. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Capell Countess Carlisle 1674-1752. Around 1695. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Anne Capell Countess Carlisle 1674-1752. Petworth House. Before 1744 Enoch Around 1647 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham 1608-1649. Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.

My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915 Chapter V: Country House Visits. We spent many week-ends at Cassiobury with Lord (86) and Lady Essex (84) [Note. presumed to refer to before 1838 when Lady Essex died?], and as it is only seventeen miles from London, we found it most accessible, and used to go there in the winter as well as the summer.

Cassiobury was the scene of a practical joke which originated with Henry Blackwood (24), who was staying there one summer. Some very self-important young men had been invited for the week-end, and Henry Blackwood (24) thought it would be great fun to enact the part of highwaymen and stop their travelling-carriage as they were driving through the lonely park. He enlisted two other kindred spirits to help him, and, of course, the whole house-party was in the secret.

We were all full of conjectures as to how these young bloods would face the highway-men. They would naturally be startled, we thought, but as they were (according to themselves) such ultra-superior people, we could not imagine them behaving, even under such conditions, in any other than an ultra-superior way. The eventful evening was fine and dark, and we all went to the place destined for the scene of the robbery, and hid under cover, patiently waiting for the fun to begin. Henry Blackwood (24) and his friends were disguised beyond recognition, and did indeed look desperadoes of the road.

At last the faint noise of wheels in the distance was heard, and as they drew nearer we were breathless with expectation. The travelling-carriage was dimly discernible — it approached — Henry Blackwood (24) rushed forward to the horses' heads, while his friends told the trembling post-boys to drive on at their peril. Needless to say the carriage was at once brought to a standstill, one highwayman stood by the two horses, and Henry Blackwood (24) went to the carriage door and told the occupants to alight, and hand over their valuables.

We thought that the crucial momen had arrived for our superior friends to assert themselves, but we were speedily disillusioned, for the young men, who were giving vent to a series of frightened squeaks, were terrified out of their wits. " Spare our lives", they cried in an imploring chorus, " and you can take everything we have!" "Spare our lives", they kept on repeating as they handed over their money, watches and jewellery to the merciless Henry. At last, half dead with fear, they were allowed to enter the carriage, which was driven away as though pursued by the devil.

When we emerged from our hiding-place and saw the booty, we were highly amused, and, I may say, very disgusted at the cowardice shown by the superior young men. It was a difficult task to enact the part of sympathetic listeners later in the evening, and hear a very much embroidered account of the dozens of highwaymen who infested the Park, armed to the teeth and apparently villains of the deepest dye.

The feelings of the young cowards can be easily imagined when next morning, at breakfast, Henry Blackwood (24) returned them their belongings "with the compliments of the high-waymen", and the suppressed laughter which greeted the announcement made them feel very small indeed. They left later in the day, but the story got about, and they never felt so superior afterwards.

In 1768 Joshua Reynolds 1723-1788. Portrait of George Capell Coningsbury 5th Earl Essex 1757-1839 and Elizabeth Capell 1755-1834. 1816. Charles Turner Painter 1774-1857. Mezzotint. Portrait of Sarah Bazett Countess Essex 1759-1838.

My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915 Chapter V: Country House Visits. My last recollection of Cassiobury was in 1849, when I stayed there after the announcement of my engagement to the Count Montemolin (25). The great Lord Brougham (65) was included in the house-party, and one day when he was walking in the gardens, talking about my approaching marriage, he suddenly dropped on one knee, and taking my hand, kissed it, saying as he did so, " Let me be the first to kiss your hand as future Queen of Spain"..

This somewhat theatrical behaviour was exactly what Lord Brougham (65) delighted in. He was a very ugly man, and like most ugly people he was very vain. He was a wonderful speaker, and few cared to provoke his powers of sarcasm; Hazlitt describes him as "a man of inordinate ambition and little heart"; but he certainly possessed some heart, for he adored his daughter Eleanor (21), who died at Cannes when she was only nineteen. The poor girl (21) was an invalid all her short life, and her father resided at Cannes solely on her account. He built the Villa Eleanor for her, and until Lord Brougham's death her bedroom was always known as "Eleanor's room", and kept exactly as it had been when she occupied it.

The Villa is now an hotel, and Cannes is very different to what it was when Lord Brougham settled there. He told me that the town had only one hotel and one street when he first saw it.

Eleanor Brougham's body was brought to England, and she was buried in the small graveyard which belongs to Lincoln's Inn Chapel. I do not think any other woman has ever been interred there. The Marquis of Wellesley (83) wrote her epitaph, and I believe it is a very beautiful and touching one.

In 1825. Thomas Lawrence 1769-1830. Portrait of Henry Brougham 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux 1778-1868. Between 1813 and 1830. Studio of Thomas Lawrence 1769-1830. Portrait of Richard Wellesley 1st Marquess Wellesley 1760-1842.

The Grove Watford, Hertfordshire

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 16 Jan 1310 King Edward II of England (25). The Grove Watford. To the Treasurer and the Barons of the Exchequer. Order to discharge the Abbot of Hayles of 100l.yearly, the rent of the manor of Lychelad, as the King granted it to Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (26) and Margaret his wife.

To the same. Order to discharge the men of Wallingford of the ferm of that town from August 5 last, to Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (26) and Margaret his wife.

On 02 Oct 1914 Edward Villiers 5th Earl Clarendon 1846-1914 (68) died at The Grove Watford. His son George Herbert Hyde Villiers 6th Earl Clarendon 1877-1955 (37) succeeded 6th Earl Clarendon 2C 1776.

Welwyn, Hertfordshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 October 1664. 13 Oct 1664. After being at the office all the morning, I home and dined, and taking leave of my wife with my mind not a little troubled how she would look after herself or house in my absence, especially, too, leaving a considerable sum of money in the office, I by coach to the Red Lyon in Aldersgate Street, and there, by agreement, met W. Joyce and Tom Trice, and mounted, I upon a very fine mare that Sir W. Warren helps me to, and so very merrily rode till it was very darke, I leading the way through the darke to Welling, and there, not being very weary, to supper and to bed. But very bad accommodation at the Swan. In this day's journey I met with Mr. White, Cromwell's chaplin that was, and had a great deale of discourse with him. Among others, he tells me that Richard (38) is, and hath long been, in France, and is now going into Italy. He owns publiquely that he do correspond, and return him all his money. That Richard (38) hath been in some straits at the beginning; but relieved by his friends. That he goes by another name, but do not disguise himself, nor deny himself to any man that challenges him. He tells me, for certain, that offers had been made to the old man, of marriage between the King (34) and his daughter (26), to have obliged him, but he would not1. He thinks (with me) that it never was in his power to bring in the King (34) with the consent of any of his officers about him; and that he scorned to bring him in as Monk (55) did, to secure himself and deliver every body else. When I told him of what I found writ in a French book of one Monsieur Sorbiere, that gives an account of his observations herein England; among other things he says, that it is reported that Cromwell did, in his life-time, transpose many of the bodies of the Kings of England from one grave to another, and that by that means it is not known certainly whether the head that is now set up upon a post be that of Cromwell, or of one of the Kings. Mr. White tells me that he believes he never had so poor a low thought in him to trouble himself about it. He says the hand of God is much to be seen; that all his children are in good condition enough as to estate, and that their relations that betrayed their family are all now either hanged or very miserable.

1. The Protector wished the Duke of Buckingham (36) to marry his daughter Frances (26). She married, 1. Robert Rich (30), grandson and heir to Robert, Earl of Warwick (77), on November 11th, 1657, who died in the following February; 2. Sir John Russell, Bart (24). She died January 27th, 1721-22 [Note. Other sources day 1720], aged eighty-four. In T. Morrice's life of Roger, Earl of Orrery (43), prefixed to Orrery's "State Letters" (Dublin, 1743, vol. i., p. 40), there is a circumstantial account of an interview between Orrery (then Lord Broghill) and Cromwell, in which the former suggested to the latter that Charles II should marry Frances Cromwell (26). Cromwell gave great attention to the reasons urged, "but walking two or three turns, and pondering with himself, he told Lord Broghill (43) the King (34) would never forgive him the death of his father. His lordship desired him to employ somebody to sound the King (34) in this matter, to see how he would take it, and offered himself to mediate in it for him. But Cromwell would not consent, but again repeated, 'the King (34) cannot and will not forgive the death of his father;' and so he left his lordship, who durst not tell him he had already dealt with his majesty in that affair. Upon this my Lord withdrew, and meeting Cromwell's wife and daughter, they inquired how he had succeeded; of which having given them an account, he added they must try their interest in him, but none could prevail"..

In or before 1679. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Richard Cromwell Lord Protector 1626-1712. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Frances Cromwell Baroness Russell 1638-1720. Around 1658 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Frances Cromwell Baroness Russell 1638-1720. Around 1655 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Cromwell Baroness Russell 1638-1720. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. In 1631 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. Around 1632 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. In 1633 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. Around 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658.

Swan Tavern, Welwyn, Hertfordshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 October 1664. 13 Oct 1664. After being at the office all the morning, I home and dined, and taking leave of my wife with my mind not a little troubled how she would look after herself or house in my absence, especially, too, leaving a considerable sum of money in the office, I by coach to the Red Lyon in Aldersgate Street, and there, by agreement, met W. Joyce and Tom Trice, and mounted, I upon a very fine mare that Sir W. Warren helps me to, and so very merrily rode till it was very darke, I leading the way through the darke to Welling, and there, not being very weary, to supper and to bed. But very bad accommodation at the Swan. In this day's journey I met with Mr. White, Cromwell's chaplin that was, and had a great deale of discourse with him. Among others, he tells me that Richard (38) is, and hath long been, in France, and is now going into Italy. He owns publiquely that he do correspond, and return him all his money. That Richard (38) hath been in some straits at the beginning; but relieved by his friends. That he goes by another name, but do not disguise himself, nor deny himself to any man that challenges him. He tells me, for certain, that offers had been made to the old man, of marriage between the King (34) and his daughter (26), to have obliged him, but he would not1. He thinks (with me) that it never was in his power to bring in the King (34) with the consent of any of his officers about him; and that he scorned to bring him in as Monk (55) did, to secure himself and deliver every body else. When I told him of what I found writ in a French book of one Monsieur Sorbiere, that gives an account of his observations herein England; among other things he says, that it is reported that Cromwell did, in his life-time, transpose many of the bodies of the Kings of England from one grave to another, and that by that means it is not known certainly whether the head that is now set up upon a post be that of Cromwell, or of one of the Kings. Mr. White tells me that he believes he never had so poor a low thought in him to trouble himself about it. He says the hand of God is much to be seen; that all his children are in good condition enough as to estate, and that their relations that betrayed their family are all now either hanged or very miserable.

1. The Protector wished the Duke of Buckingham (36) to marry his daughter Frances (26). She married, 1. Robert Rich (30), grandson and heir to Robert, Earl of Warwick (77), on November 11th, 1657, who died in the following February; 2. Sir John Russell, Bart (24). She died January 27th, 1721-22 [Note. Other sources day 1720], aged eighty-four. In T. Morrice's life of Roger, Earl of Orrery (43), prefixed to Orrery's "State Letters" (Dublin, 1743, vol. i., p. 40), there is a circumstantial account of an interview between Orrery (then Lord Broghill) and Cromwell, in which the former suggested to the latter that Charles II should marry Frances Cromwell (26). Cromwell gave great attention to the reasons urged, "but walking two or three turns, and pondering with himself, he told Lord Broghill (43) the King (34) would never forgive him the death of his father. His lordship desired him to employ somebody to sound the King (34) in this matter, to see how he would take it, and offered himself to mediate in it for him. But Cromwell would not consent, but again repeated, 'the King (34) cannot and will not forgive the death of his father;' and so he left his lordship, who durst not tell him he had already dealt with his majesty in that affair. Upon this my Lord withdrew, and meeting Cromwell's wife and daughter, they inquired how he had succeeded; of which having given them an account, he added they must try their interest in him, but none could prevail"..

In or before 1679. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Richard Cromwell Lord Protector 1626-1712. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Frances Cromwell Baroness Russell 1638-1720. Around 1658 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Frances Cromwell Baroness Russell 1638-1720. Around 1655 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Cromwell Baroness Russell 1638-1720. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. In 1631 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. Around 1632 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. In 1633 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. Around 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658.

Whatton on Stone, Hertfordshire

In 1513 John Boteler 1513-1576 was born to Philip Boteler 1492-1545 (21) and Elizabeth Drury -1574 at Whatton on Stone.

Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire

In or before 1419 John Wheathampstead Abbot St Albans 1419-1465 was born to Hugh Bostock. in Wheathampstead.

The River Lea rises near Leagrave after which it travels through Wheathampstead, Hertford, Ware, Broxbourne, Waltham Cross, Tottenham before joining the River Thames at Leamouth.

St Helen's Church Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire

On 07 May 1625 John Garrard Lord Mayor 1546-1625 (79) died. He was buried in St Helen's Church Wheathampstead.

In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of John Garrard Lord Mayor 1546-1625.

On 13 Jan 1701 John Garrard 3rd Baronet 1638-1701 (63) died without male issue. He was buried at St Helen's Church Wheathampstead. His brother Samuel Garrard 4th Baronet 1650-1724 (51) succeeded 4th Baronet Garrard of Lamer.

On 10 Mar 1724 Samuel Garrard 4th Baronet 1650-1724 (74) died. He was buried at St Helen's Church Wheathampstead.

Wormley, Hertfordshire

On 21 Jan 1772 Amelia Hume Baroness Farnborough 1772-1837 was born to Abraham Hume 1749-1838 (22) and Amelia Egerton 1751-1809 (20) at Wormley.

Wymondley, Hertfordshire

In 1292 Lora Vere 1232-1292 (60) died at Wymondley.