History of Smithfield

1305 Execution of William Wallace

1381 Peasant's Revolt

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1555 Protestant Executions

1555 Protestant Executions of Cardmaker and Warne

1583 Somerville Plot

1666 Great Fire of London

Smithfield is in Farringdon Without.

Peasant's Revolt

On 15 Jun 1381 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (14) met with Wat Tyler -1381 at Smithfield. During the course of the meeting Wat Tyler -1381 was wounded by William Walworth Lord Mayor -1385. Wat Tyler -1381 was then killed by John Cavendish 1374-1417 (7).

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1416. Ande that same yere was brent in Smethefild John Claydon, schynner, and Rychard Turmyn, baker, for heresye that they were convycte a-pon.

Chronicle of Gregory 1438. 14 May 1438. And the same yere on Estyr day there was on John Gardyner take at Synt Mary at the Axe in London, for he was an herytyke; for whenne shulde have benne houselyd he wypyd hys mouthe whithe a foule clothe and layde the oste there yn ; and so he was takyn by the person of the chyrche, and the xiiij day of May he was i-breht in Smethefylde.

Chronicle of Gregory 1440. 1440. Ande that same yere werre the barrys in Smethefylde newe made, for Syr Rycharde Woodevyle (55), knyght, was chalengyd of a knyght of Spayne for to donne certayne poyntys of armys in the felde.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 27 Oct 1441. And on Syn Symon and Jude ys eve was the wycche (26) be syde Westemyster brent in Smethefylde, and on the day of Symon and Jude the person of Syn Stevynnys in Walbroke, whyche that was one of the same fore sayde traytours, deyde in the Toure for sorowe.

1. Necromancy.

Chronicle of Gregory 1442. 30 Jan 1442. Ande the xxx day of Janyver was certayne poyntys of armys done in Smethefylde by twyne a knyght of Catelan and a Engelysche squyer, i-callyde Syr John Ascheley ; of the whiche tyme the sone of the sayde knyght, in presens of alle the pepylle there, was made knyght opynly by the kyngys (20) owne hondys. And the sayde John Ayschelay also was made knyght att the same tyme.

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 04 Oct 1445. Ande that same yere there was a pechyng i-made uppon the Erle of Ormounde (52) by the pryour of Kylmayn (24)1 for certayne poyntys of treson, the whyche was takyn in to the kyngys grace, where uppon hyt lykyd oure soverayne lorde (23) to graunte a generalle pardon unto the sayde Erle (52). But nevyrtheles the sayde pryour (24) appayryde in Smethefylde the iiij day of the monythe of October, as hyt was apoyntyde, fulle clenly harnyssyd, redy whythe alle hys fetys and whythe alle hys wepyns, kepynge the fylde tylle hyghe none.

1. Thomas Fitzgerald (24) grandson of Thomas Earl of Kildare, was at this time Prior of the Knights of St. John at Kilmainham in Ireland.

Chronicle of Gregory 1446. 1446. And in that same yere was a nothyre chalenge i-made in Smethefylde by on Arblastre and a-nothyr man of London, but hyt was putte of by trete, and the same Arblastre ranne yn to the contente.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 31 Jan 1447. Ande in that same yere there was an armyrer and hys owne man fought whythe yn the lystys in Smethefylde the laste day of Januer, ande there the mayster was slayne and dyspoylyde owte of hys harnys, and lay stylle in the fylde alle that day and that nyght next folowynge. And thenne afty[r]ward, by the kyngys (25) commaundement, he was d[r]awyn, hanggyde, and be-heddyde, and hys hedde sette on London Brygge, and the body hynggyng a-bove erthe be-syde the towre.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 25 May 1537 Margaret Stafford 1511-1537 (26) was burned at the stake at Smithfield.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 12 Feb 1544. The xij day of February was mad at evere gate in Lundun a newe payre of galaus and set up, ij payre in Chepesyde, ij payr in Fletstrett, one in Smythfyld, one payre in Holborne, on at Ledyn-hall, one at sant Magnus London [-bridge], on at Peper allay gatt, one at sant Gorgeus, on in Barunsay [Bermondsay] strett, on on Towr hylle, one payre at Charyngcrosse, on payre besyd Hyd parke corner.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 14 Feb 1554. 14 Feb 1544. The 14 of February divers of the rebells were putt to death, that is to saye, Bothe, one of the Queenes footemen, one Vicars, a Yeoman of the Garde, great John Norton, and one Kinge, were hanged at Charinge Crosse. And three of the rebells, one called Pollarde, were hanged at the parke pale by Hide Parke; three allso in Fleet street, one at Ludgate, one at Bishopsgate, one at Newgate, one at Aldgate, three at the Crosse in Cheape, three at Soper Lane ende in Chepe, and three in Smithfield, which persons hanged still all that daye and night tyll the next morninge, and then cutt downe.a And the bodies of them that were hanged at the gates were quartered at Newgate, and the heades and bodies hanged over the gates where they suffred.

a. The Grey Friares Chronicle (p. 88) adds "the whych ware of London that fled from the Dnke of Norfoke."

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 1st Year 1547-1548. The eight daie of October my Lord Protectors Grace (47) came from North home, and in Finsburie Fields my lord major, with the aldermen in their skarlett gownes, with certaine of the comens in their liveries with their hoodes, mett his Grace, the major and aldermen on horsebacke, and he ever tooke one of them by the handea, and after my lord major rode with him to the pounde in Smythfield, where my Lord Protector tooke his leve of them, and so rode that night to his place at Shene, and the morrowe after to the King (9) at Hampton Court.

Note a. Probably a clerical error for " he tooke every one of them by the hand."

Around 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 Around 1546 Unknown Painter. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. Around 1547. Workshop of Master John Painter. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1551. 14 Mar 1551. The xiiij day of Marche was hangyd, in Smyth-feld, on John Mosbe and ys syster, for the death of a gentyll man of Feyversham, one M. Arden the custemer, and ys owne wyff was decaul.... and she was burnyd at Canturbery and her sarvand hangyd ther, and ij at Feyversham and on at Hospryng, and nodur in the he way to Canturbery, for the death of M. Arden of Feyversham. [and at Flusshyng was bernyd Blake Tome for the sam deth of M. Arden. [Note. This last line was added to the entry some time after it was written.]

1555 Protestant Executions

On 20 Jan 1555 the statutes for burning heretics, originally enacted to repress Lollardism, De heretico comburendo was re-enacted to allow the burning of Protestants.

In early Feb 1555 the first of the Protestant executions took place:

On 04 Feb 1555 John Rogers 1505-1555 (50) was burned at the stake at Smithfield.

On 08 Feb 1555 Laurence Saunders Martyr 1519-1555 (36) was burned at the stake at Coventry.

On 09 Feb 1555 John Hooper Bishop Martyr 1495-1555 (60) was burned at the stake at Gloucester.

On 09 Feb 1555 Rowland Taylor Martyr 1510-1555 was burned at the stake at Aldham Common. His wife and child were, reportedly, present.

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Diary of Henry Machyn January 1556. 22 Jan 1555. The xxij day of January whent in-to Smythfeld to berne betwyn vij and viij in the mornyng v men and ij women; on of the men was a gentyllman of the ender tempull, ys nam master Gren; and they wer all bornyd by ix at iij postes; and ther wher a commonment thrughe London over nyght that no yong folke shuld come ther, for ther the grettest [number] was as has byne sene at shyche a tyme.

1555 Protestant Executions

Foxe's Book of Martyrs Volume 9 264 John Rogers. 04 Feb 1555. Now when the time came, that he, being delivered to the sheriffs, should be brought out of Newgate to Smithfield, the place of his execution, first came to him Master Woodroofe, one of the aforesaid sheriffs, and calling Master Rogers (50) unto him, asked him if he would revoke his abominable doctrine, and his evil opinion of the sacrament of the altar. Master Rogers (50) answered and said, "That which I have preached I will seal with my blood." "Then," quoth Master Woodroofe, "thou art a heretic." "That shall be known," quoth Rogers, "at the day of judgment." "Well," quoth Master Woodroofe, "I will never pray for thee." "But I will pray for you," quoth Master Rogers: and so was brought the same day, which was Monday the fourth of February, by the sheriffs towards Smithfield, saying the psalm Miserere by the way, all the people wonderfully rejoicing at his constancy, with great praises and thanks to God for the same. And there, in the presence of Master Rochester, comptroller of the queen's household, Sir Richard Southwell (52), both the sheriffs, and a wonderful number of people, the fire was put unto him; and when it had taken hold both upon his legs and shoulders, he, as one feeling no smart, washed his hands in the flame, as though it had been in cold water. And, after lifting up his hands unto heaven, not removing the same until such time as the devouring fire had consumed them - most mildly this happy martyr yielded up his spirit into the hands of his heavenly Father. A little before his burning at the stake, his pardon was brought, if he would have recanted, but he utterly refused. He was the first protomartyr of all the blessed company that suffered in Queen Mary's time, that gave the first adventure upon the fire. His wife and children, being eleven in number, and ten able to go, and one sucking on her breast, met him by the way as he went towards Smithfield. This sorrowful sight of his own flesh and blood could nothing move him; but that he constantly and cheerfully took his death, with wonderful patience, in the defence and quarrel of Christ's gospel.

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Diary of Henry Machyn February 1555. 04 Feb 1555. The sam day was Rogers (50) cared be-twyn x and xj of the cloke in-to Smyth-feld, and bornyd, for aronyus [erroneous] apinions, with a grett compene of the gard.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1555. 16 Mar 1555. The xvj day of Marche was a veyver [weaver] bornyd in Smyth-feld, dwellyng in Sordyche, for herese, by viij of the cloke in the mornyng, ys nam was (Tomkins).

1555 Protestant Executions of Cardmaker and Warne

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1555. 30 May 1555. The xxx day of May was burnt in Smythfeld master Cardmaker sum-tyme veker of sant Bryd and master Varren (29) clothworker dwellyng aganst sant Johns in Walbroke, an hupholster, and ys wyff behyng in [Newgate].

On 30 May 1555 two Protestants were burned at the stake at Smithfield:

John Cardmaker -1555

John Warne Upholsterer 1526-1555 (29)

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1555. 18 Dec 1555. The xviij day of Dessember be-twyn [8 and 9] of the cloke in the mornyng, was cared in-to Smythfeld to be bornyd on master (Philpot, archdeacon of Winchester ) gentyllman, for herese.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1557. 06 Apr 1557. The vj day of Aprell was bornyd in Smythfeld v, iij men and ij women, for herese; on was a barber dwellyng in Lym-strett; and on woman was the wyff of the Crane at the Crussyd-frers be-syd the Towre-hylle, kepyng of a in [inn] ther.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1557. 12 Nov 1557. The xij day of November ther was a post sett up in Smythfeld for iij that shuld have beyn bornyd, butt boyth wod and colles; and my lord abbott of Westminster (42) cam to Newgatt and talked with them, and so they wher stayd for that day of bornyng.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1557. 13 Nov 1557. The xiij day of November was sant Erkenwald eve, the iiij and v yere of king and quen, whent owt of Newgatt unto Smyth-feld to be bornyd iij men; on was [blank] Gybsun, the sun of sergantt Gybsun, sergantt of armes, and of the reywelles [revels], and of the kynges tenstes [tents]; and ij more, the whyche here be ther names—Gybsun, Hali[day,] and Sparow, thes iij men.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1557. 22 Dec 1557. [The xxij day of December were burned in] Smyth feld ij, one ser John Ruffe [the] frere and a Skott, and a woman, for herese.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1559. 24 Aug 1559. [The xxiiij day of August, the lord] mare (50) and the althermen and the [sheriffs? w]her at the wrastelyng at Clarke-in-well, and it was the fayre day of thynges kept in Smyth-feld, [being] sant Bathellmuw (day), and the same day my lord [mayor] came home thrugh Chepe, and a-gaynst Yrmonger [lane] and a-gaynst sant Thomas of Acurs ij [2] gret [bonfires] of rodes and of Mares and Johns [sculptures of Saint Marys and Saint Johns] and odur emages [images], ther thay wher bornyd [burned] with gret wondur.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1561. 14 Jul 1561. The xiiij day of July was nuw graveled with sand from the Charterhowse through Smyth feld, and under Nuwgate, and through sant Nycolas shambull, Chepe-syd, and Cornhyll, unto Algatt and to Whyt-chapell, and all thes plases where hangyd with cloth of arres and carpetes and with sylke, and Chepe-syd hangyd with cloth of gold and cloth of sylver and velvett of all colurs and taffatas in all plases, and all the craftes of Londun standyng in ther leverey from sant Myghell unto Algatt, and then cam mony servyng-men rydyng, and then the pensyonars and gentyll men, and then knyghtes, and after lordes, and then the althermen in skarlett, and the serjant(s) of armes, and then the haroldes of armes in ther cottes armurs, and then my lord mare (52) bayryng here septer; [then the lord Hunsdon (35) bearing the sword; and then came the Queen's (27) grace, and her footmen richly habited; and ladies and gentlemen; then] all lordes' men and knyghtes' [men in their masters' liveries; and at] Whytt-chapell my lord mare and the althermen [took their leave of] here grace, and so she toke her way to-ward [her pro]gresse.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

1583 Somerville Plot

On 20 Dec 1583 Edward Arden 1533-1583 (50) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Smithfield for having plotted against Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (50) with his son-in-law John Somerville 1560-1583 (23) who had implicated him during torture. He was tried by Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592 (59).

In 1582 Seventtenth Century copy.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Christopher Wray Chief Justice 1524-1592.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 May 1652. 10 May 1652. Passing by Smithfield, I saw a miserable creature burning, who had murdered her husband. I went to see some workmanship of that admirable artist, Reeves, famous for perspective, and turning curiosities in ivory.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 May 1661. 12 May 1661. From thence homewards, but met with Mr. Creed, with whom I went and walked in Grayes-Inn-walks, and from thence to Islington, and there eat and drank at the house my father and we were wont of old to go to; and after that walked homeward, and parted in Smithfield: and so I home, much wondering to see how things are altered with Mr. Creed, who, twelve months ago, might have been got to hang himself almost as soon as go to a drinking-house on a Sunday.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 July 1661. 22 Jul 1661. Back to the inn, and drank with him, and so to horse again, and with much ado got to London, and set him up at Smithfield; so called at my uncle Fenner's, my mother's, my Lady's, and so home, in all which I found all things as well as I could expect. So weary and to bed.

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 06 Sep 1666. 06 Sep 1666. Whitehall. Proclamation ordering that as the markets are burned down, markets be held at Bishopsgate Street, Tower Hill, Smithfield, and Leadenhall Street, which shall be well protected, and ordering the magistrates in counties whence provisions are sent to London to forward supplies; also forbidding men to disquiet themselves with rumours of tumults, but attend to the business of quenching the fire, troops being provided to keep the peace; also ordering Gresham College, Bishopsgate Street, to be used instead of the Royal Exchange, which is burnt. [Printed. Proc. Coll., Charles IT, p. 229.]

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 September 1666. 07 Sep 1666. Up by five o'clock; and, blessed be God! find all well, and by water to Paul's Wharfe. Walked thence, and saw, all the towne burned, and a miserable sight of Paul's church; with all the roofs fallen, and the body of the quire fallen into St. Fayth's; Paul's school also, Ludgate, and Fleet-street, my father's house, and the church, and a good part of the Temple the like.

So to Creed's lodging, near the New Exchange, and there find him laid down upon a bed; the house all unfurnished, there being fears of the fire's coming to them. There borrowed a shirt of him, and washed. To Sir W. Coventry (38), at St. James's, who lay without curtains, having removed all his goods; as the King (36) at White Hall, and every body had done, and was doing. He hopes we shall have no publique distractions upon this fire, which is what every body fears, because of the talke of the French having a hand in it. And it is a proper time for discontents; but all men's minds are full of care to protect themselves, and save their goods: the militia is in armes every where. Our fleetes, he tells me, have been in sight one of another, and most unhappily by fowle weather were parted, to our great losse, as in reason they do conclude; the Dutch being come out only to make a shew, and please their people; but in very bad condition as to stores; victuals, and men. They are at Bullen; and our fleete come to St. Ellen's. We have got nothing, but have lost one ship, but he knows not what.

Thence to the Swan, and there drank: and so home, and find all well. My Lord Bruncker (46), at Sir W. Batten's (65), and tells us the Generall is sent for up, to come to advise with the King (36) about business at this juncture, and to keep all quiet; which is great honour to him, but I am sure is but a piece of dissimulation.

So home, and did give orders for my house to be made clean; and then down to Woolwich, and there find all well: Dined, and Mrs. Markham come to see my wife. So I up again, and calling at Deptford for some things of W. Hewer's (24), he being with me, and then home and spent the evening with Sir R. Ford (52), Mr. Knightly, and Sir W. Pen (45) at Sir W. Batten's (65): This day our Merchants first met at Gresham College, which, by proclamation, is to be their Exchange. Strange to hear what is bid for houses all up and down here; a friend of Sir W. Rider's: having £150 for what he used to let for £40 per annum. Much dispute where the Custome-house shall be thereby the growth of the City again to be foreseen. My Lord Treasurer (59), they say, and others; would have it at the other end of the towne. I home late to Sir W. Pen's (45), who did give me a bed; but without curtains or hangings, all being down. So here I went the first time into a naked bed, only my drawers on; and did sleep pretty well: but still hath sleeping and waking had a fear of fire in my heart, that I took little rest. People do all the world over cry out of the simplicity of my Lord Mayor in generall; and more particularly in this business of the fire, laying it all upon' him. A proclamation1 is come out for markets to be kept at Leadenhall and Mileendgreene, and several other places about the towne; and Tower-hill, and all churches to be set open to receive poor people.

1. On September 5th proclamation was made "ordering that for supply of the distressed people left destitute by the late dreadful and dismal fire.... great proportions of bread be brought daily, not only to the former markets, but to those lately ordained; that all churches, chapels, schools, and public buildings are to be open to receive the goods of those who know not how to dispose of them". On September 6th, proclamation ordered "that as the markets are burned down, markets be held in Bishopsgate Street, Tower Hill, Smithfield, and Leadenhall Street" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 100, 104).

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Around 1660 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 1607-1667 holding his Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 December 1666. 02 Dec 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and to church, and after church home to dinner, where I met Betty Michell and her husband, very merry at dinner, and after dinner, having borrowed Sir W. Pen's (45) coach, we to Westminster, they two and my wife and I to Mr. Martin's, where find the company almost all come to the christening of Mrs. Martin's child, a girl. A great deal of good plain company. After sitting long, till the church was done, the Parson comes, and then we to christen the child. I was Godfather, and Mrs. Holder (her husband, a good man, I know well), and a pretty lady, that waits, it seems, on my Lady Bath (53), at White Hall, her name, Mrs. Noble, were Godmothers. After the christening comes in the wine and the sweetmeats, and then to prate and tattle, and then very good company they were, and I among them. Here was old Mrs. Michell and Howlett, and several married women of the Hall, whom I knew mayds. Here was also Mrs. Burroughs and Mrs. Bales, the young widow, whom I led home, and having staid till the moon was up, I took my pretty gossip to White Hall with us, and I saw her in her lodging, and then my owne company again took coach, and no sooner in the coach but something broke, that we were fain there to stay till a smith could be fetched, which was above an hour, and then it costing me 6s. to mend.

Away round by the wall and Cow Lane1, for fear it should break again; and in pain about the coach all the way. But to ease myself therein Betty Michell did sit at the same end with me.... Being very much pleased with this, we at last come home, and so to supper, and then sent them by boat home, and we to bed. When I come home I went to Sir W. Batten's (65), and there I hear more ill newes still: that all our New England fleete, which went out lately, are put back a third time by foul weather, and dispersed, some to one port and some to another; and their convoys also to Plymouth; and whether any of them be lost or not, we do not know. This, added to all the rest, do lay us flat in our hopes and courages, every body prophesying destruction to the nation.

1. Cow Lane, West Smithfield (now named King Street), was famous for its coachmakers.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 January 1667. 08 Jan 1667. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning. At noon home to dinner, where my uncle Thomas (72) with me to receive his quarterage. He tells me his son Thomas is set up in Smithfield, where he hath a shop—I suppose, a booth.

Presently after dinner to the office, and there set close to my business and did a great deal before night, and am resolved to stand to it, having been a truant too long.

At night to Sir W. Batten's (66) to consider some things about our prizes, and then to other talk, and among other things he tells me that he hears for certain that Sir W. Coventry (39) hath resigned to the King (36) his place of Commissioner of the Navy, the thing he bath often told me that he had a mind to do, but I am surprised to think that he hath done it, and am full of thoughts all this evening after I heard it what may be the consequences of it to me.

So home and to supper, and then saw the catalogue of my books, which my brother had wrote out, now perfectly alphabeticall, and so to bed. Sir Richard Ford (53) did this evening at Sir W. Batten's (66) tell us that upon opening the body of my Lady Denham (27) it is said that they found a vessel about her matrix which had never been broke by her husband (52), that caused all pains in her body. Which if true is excellent invention to clear both the Duchesse (29) from poison or the Duke (33) from lying with her.

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 October 1667. 06 Oct 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and dressed myself, and so walked out with the boy to Smithfield to Cow Lane, to Lincolne's, and there spoke with him, and agreed upon the hour to-morrow, to set out towards Brampton; but vexed that he is not likely to go himself, but sends another for him. Here I took a Hackney coach, and to White Hall, and there met Sir W. Coventry (39), and discoursed with him, and then with my Lord Bruncker (47), and many others, to end my matters in order to my going into the country to-morrow for five or six days, which I have not done for above three years. Walked with Creed into the Park a little, and at last went into the Queen's (28) side, and there saw the King (37) and Queen (28), and saw the ladies, in order to my hearing any news stirring to carry into the country, but met with none, and so away home by coach, and there dined, and W. How come to see me, and after dinner parted, and I to my writing to my Lord Sandwich (42), which is the greatest business I have to do before my going into the country, and in the evening to my office to set matters to rights there, and being in the garden Sir W. Pen (46) did come to me, and fell to discourse about the business of "The Flying Greyhound", wherein I was plain to him and he to me, and at last concluded upon my writing a petition to the Duke of York (33) for a certain ship, The Maybolt Gallyott, and he offers to give me £300 for my success, which, however, I would not oblige him to, but will see the issue of it by fair play, and so I did presently draw a petition, which he undertakes to proffer to the Duke of York (33), and solicit for me, and will not seem to doubt of his success.

So I wrote, and did give it him, and left it with him, and so home to supper, where Pelling comes and sits with me, and there tells us how old Mr. Batelier is dead this last night in the night, going to bed well, which I am mightily troubled for, he being a good man. Supper done, and he gone, I to my chamber to write my journal to this night, and so to bed.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 December 1668. 04 Dec 1668. Up, and with W. Hewer (26) by water to White Hall, and there did wait as usual upon the Duke of York (35), where, upon discoursing something touching the Ticket-Office, which by letter the Board did give the Duke of York (35) their advice, to be put upon Lord Brouncker (48), Sir J. Minnes (69) did foolishly rise up and complain of the Office, and his being made nothing of; and this before Sir Thomas Littleton (47), who would be glad of this difference among us, which did trouble me mightily; and therefore I did forbear to say what I otherwise would have thought fit for me to say on this occasion, upon so impertinent a speech as this doting fool made-but, I say, I let it alone, and contented myself that it went as I advised, as to the Duke of York's (35) judgment, in the thing disputed. And so thence away, my coach meeting me there and carrying me to several places to do little jobs, which is a mighty convenience, and so home, where by invitation I find my aunt Wight (49), who looked over all our house, and is mighty pleased with it, and indeed it is now mighty handsome, and rich in furniture.

By and by comes my uncle, and then to dinner, where a venison pasty and very merry, and after dinner I carried my wife and her to Smithfield, where they sit in the coach, while Mr. Pickering (50), who meets me there, and I, and W. Hewer (26), and a friend of his, a jockey, did go about to see several pairs of horses, for my coach; but it was late, and we agreed on none, but left it to another time: but here I do see instances of a piece of craft and cunning that I never dreamed of, concerning the buying and choosing of horses. So Mr. Pickering (50), to whom I am much beholden for his kindness herein, and I parted; and I with my people home, where I left them, and I to the office, to meet about some business of Sir W. Warren's accounts, where I vexed to see how ill all the Comptroller's (57) business is likely to go on, so long as ever Sir J. Minnes (69) lives; and so troubled I was, that I thought it a good occasion for me to give my thoughts of it in writing, and therefore wrote a letter at the Board, by the help of a tube, to Lord Brouncker (48), and did give it him, which I kept a copy of, and it may be of use to me hereafter to shew, in this matter. This being done, I home to my aunt, who supped with us, and my uncle also: and a good-humoured woman she is, so that I think we shall keep her acquaintance; but mighty proud she is of her wedding-ring, being lately set with diamonds; cost her about £12: and I did commend it mightily to her, but do not think it very suitable for one of our quality. After supper they home, and we to bed.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 December 1668. 11 Dec 1668. Up, and with W. Hewer (26) by water to Somerset House; and there I to my Lord Brouncker (48), before he went forth to the Duke of York (35), and there told him my confidence that I should make Middleton appear a fool, and that it was, I thought, best for me to complain of the wrong he hath done; but brought it about, that my Lord desired me I would forbear, and promised that he would prevent Middleton till I had given in my answer to the Board, which I desired: and so away to White Hall, and there did our usual attendance and no word spoke before the Duke of York (35) by Middleton at all; at which I was glad to my heart, because by this means I have time to draw up my answer to my mind. So with W. Hewer (26) by coach to Smithfield, but met not Mr. Dickering (50), he being not come, and so he [Will] and I to a cook's shop, in Aldersgate Street; and dined well for 19 1/2 d., upon roast beef, pleasing ourselves with the infinite strength we have to prove Middleton a coxcomb; and so, having dined, we back to Smithfield, and there met Pickering, and up and down all the afternoon about horses, and did see the knaveries and tricks of jockeys. Here I met W. Joyce, who troubled me with his impertinencies a great while, and the like Mr. Knepp who, it seems, is a kind of a jockey, and would fain have been doing something for me, but I avoided him, and the more for fear of being troubled thereby with his wife, whom I desire but dare not see, for my vow to my wife. At last went away and did nothing, only concluded upon giving £50 for a fine pair of black horses we saw this day se'nnight; and so set Mr. Dickering (50) down near his house, whom I am much beholden to, for his care herein, and he hath admirable skill, I perceive, in this business, and so home, and spent the evening talking and merry, my mind at good ease, and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 April 1669. 08 Apr 1669. Up, and to White Hall, to the King's side, to find Sir T. Clifford (38), where the Duke of York (35) come and found me, which I was sorry for, for fear he should think I was making friends on that side. But I did put it off the best I could, my being there: and so, by and by, had opportunity alone to shew Sir T. Clifford (38) the fair account I had drawn up of the Customes, which he liked, and seemed mightily pleased with me; and so away to the Excise-Office, to do a little business there, and so to the Office, where all the morning.

At noon home to dinner, and then to the office again till the evening, and then with my wife by coach to Islington, to pay what we owe there, for the late dinner at Jane's wedding; and so round by Kingsland and Hogsden home, pleased with my wife's singing with me, by the way, and so to the office again a little, and then home to supper and to bed. Going this afternoon through Smithfield, I did see a coach run over the coachman's neck, and stand upon it, and yet the man rose up, and was well after it, which I thought a wonder.

Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Clifford 1st Baron Clifford Chudleigh 1630-1673.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 April 1669. 15 Apr 1669. Up, and to the office, and thence before the office sat to the Excise Office with W. Hewer (27), but found some occasion to go another way to the Temple upon business, and I by Deb.'s direction did know whither in Jewen Street to direct my Hackney coachman, while I staid in the coach in Aldgate Street, to go thither just to enquire whether Mrs. Hunt, her aunt, was in town, who brought me word she was not; thought this was as much as I could do at once, and therefore went away troubled through that I could do no more but to the office I must go and did, and there all the morning, but coming thither I find Bagwell's wife, who did give me a little note into my hand, wherein I find her para invite me para meet her in Moorfields this noon, where I might speak with her, and so after the office was up, my wife being gone before by invitation to my cozen Turner's to dine, I to the place, and there, after walking up and down by the windmills, I did find her and talk with her, but it being holiday and the place full of people, we parted, leaving further discourse and doing to another time.

Thence I away, and through Jewen Street, my mind, God knows, running that way, but stopped not, but going down Holborne hill, by the Conduit, I did see Deb. on foot going up the hill. I saw her, and she me, but she made no stop, but seemed unwilling to speak to me; so I away on, but then stopped and 'light, and after her and overtook her at the end of Hosier lane in Smithfield, and without standing in the street desired her to follow me, and I led her into a little blind alehouse within the walls, and there she and I alone fell to talk and baiser la and toker su mammailles, but she mighty coy, and I hope modest.... [Missing text "but however, though with great force, did hazer ella par su hand para tocar mi thing, nut ella was in great pain para be brought para it."] I did give her in a paper 20s., and we did agree para meet again in the Hall at Westminster on Monday next; and so giving me great hopes by her carriage that she continues modest and honest, we did there part, she going home and I to Mrs. Turner's (46), but when I come back to the place where I left my coach it was gone, I having staid too long, which did trouble me to abuse the poor fellow, so that taking another coach I did direct him to find out the fellow and send him to me. At my cozen Turner's I find they are gone all to dinner to Povy's (55), and thither I, and there they were all, and W. Batelier and his sister, and had dined; but I had good things brought me, and then all up and down the house, and mightily pleased to see the fine rooms: but, the truth is, there are so many bad pictures, that to me make the good ones lose much of the pleasure in seeing them. The. (17) and Betty Turner (16) in new flowered tabby gowns, and so we were pretty merry, only my fear upon me for what I had newly done, do keep my content in. So, about five or six o'clock, away, and I took my wife and the two Bateliers, and carried them homeward, and W. Batelier 'lighting, I carried the women round by Islington, and so down Bishopsgate Street home, and there to talk and sup, and then to bed.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

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Charterhouse, Smithfield, Farringdon Without, City of London

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1559. 04 Jul 1559. The iiij day of July, the Thursday, the prests and nuns of Syon whent a-way, and the Charter-howsse.

The abbott of Westmynster and the monkes was reprevyd.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1559. 13 Jul 1559. The xiij [Note. Possibly 16 Jul 1559.] day of July whent the frers blake in Smythfeld went a-way.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1558. 23 Nov 1588. The xxiij day of November the quen Elsabeth('s) (55) grace toke here gorney from Hadley be-yond Barnett toward London, unto my lord North('s) plase, with a M. and mor of lordes, knyghtes, and gentyllmen, lades and gentyllwomen; and ther lay v days.... cote armur and pennon of armes and .... with ij whytt branchys and xij torchys and iiij gret tapurs.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

On 18 Mar 1589 Richard Sackville 3rd Earl Dorset 1589-1624 was born to Robert Sackville 2nd Earl Dorset 1561-1609 (28) and Margaret Howard 1562-1591 (27) at Charterhouse.

On 11 May 1603 Edward Tyrrell 1551-1606 (52) was knighted at Charterhouse.

On 11 May 1615 William Cope 2nd Baronet Hanwell -1637 was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (48) at Charterhouse.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

John Evelyn's Diary 21 April 1657. 21 Apr 1657. Came Sir Thomas Hanmer (45), of Hamner, in Wales, to see me. I then waited on my Lord Hatton (51), with whom I dined: at my return, I stepped into Bedlam, where I saw several poor, miserable creatures in chains; one of them was mad with making verses. I also visited the Charter House, formerly belonging to the Carthusians, now an old, neat, fresh, solitary college for decayed gentlemen. It has a grove, bowling green, garden, chapel, and a hall where they eat in common. I likewise saw Christ Church and Hospital, a very good Gothic building; the hall, school, and lodgings in great order for bringing up many hundreds of poor children of both sexes; it is an exemplary charity. There is a large picture at one end of the hall, representing the governors, founders, and the institution.

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Hanmer 2nd Baronet Hamner 1612-1678.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 March 1661. 23 Mar 1661. All the morning at home putting papers in order, dined at home, and then out to the Red Bull (where I had not been since plays come up again), but coming too soon I went out again and walked all up and down the Charterhouse yard and Aldersgate street. At last came back again and went in, where I was led by a seaman that knew me, but is here as a servant, up to the tireing-room, where strange the confusion and disorder that there is among them in fitting themselves, especially here, where the clothes are very poor, and the actors but common fellows.

Cock Lane, Smithfield, Farringdon Without, City of London

Cock Lane is a small street in Smithfield that was one of the few places in London where brothels were legal.

Pie Corner, Cock Lane, Smithfield, Farringdon Without, City of London

Pie Corner is the corner of Cock Lane and Giltspur Street that is traditionally the furthest extent of the Great Fire of London which is commemorated by the Golden Boy of Pye Corner.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1560. 04 Feb 1560. The iiij day of Feybruary was bered in sant Mare Wolnars in Lumbard-strett master (blank) with ij dosen skochyons of armes.

The sam tyme besyd Pye corner a man dyd hang ym-seylff.

Golden Boy of Pye Corner, Pie Corner, Cock Lane, Smithfield, Farringdon Without, City of London

The Golden Boy of Pye Corner is a small gold statue of a boy, or putti, made of wood, covered in gold, formerly winged. Below is an inscription "This Boy is in Memmory Put up for the late FIRE of LONDON Occasion'd by the Sin of Gluttony 1666." A lower inscription reads ...

The boy at Pye Corner was erected to commemorate the staying of the Great Fire, which, beginning at Pudding Lane, was ascribed to the sin of gluttony when not attributed to the papists as on the Monument, and the boy was made prodigiously fat to enforce the moral. He was originally built into the front of a public-house called "The Fortune of War" which used to occupy this site and was pulled down in 1910.

"The Fortune of War" was the chief house of call north of the river for resurrectionists in body snatching days. Years ago the landlord used to show the room where on benches round the walls the bodies were placed labelled with the snatchers' names, waiting till the surgeons at Saint Bartholomew's could run round and appraise them.

Cow Lane, Smithfield, Farringdon Without, City of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 December 1666. 02 Dec 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and to church, and after church home to dinner, where I met Betty Michell and her husband, very merry at dinner, and after dinner, having borrowed Sir W. Pen's (45) coach, we to Westminster, they two and my wife and I to Mr. Martin's, where find the company almost all come to the christening of Mrs. Martin's child, a girl. A great deal of good plain company. After sitting long, till the church was done, the Parson comes, and then we to christen the child. I was Godfather, and Mrs. Holder (her husband, a good man, I know well), and a pretty lady, that waits, it seems, on my Lady Bath (53), at White Hall, her name, Mrs. Noble, were Godmothers. After the christening comes in the wine and the sweetmeats, and then to prate and tattle, and then very good company they were, and I among them. Here was old Mrs. Michell and Howlett, and several married women of the Hall, whom I knew mayds. Here was also Mrs. Burroughs and Mrs. Bales, the young widow, whom I led home, and having staid till the moon was up, I took my pretty gossip to White Hall with us, and I saw her in her lodging, and then my owne company again took coach, and no sooner in the coach but something broke, that we were fain there to stay till a smith could be fetched, which was above an hour, and then it costing me 6s. to mend.

Away round by the wall and Cow Lane1, for fear it should break again; and in pain about the coach all the way. But to ease myself therein Betty Michell did sit at the same end with me.... Being very much pleased with this, we at last come home, and so to supper, and then sent them by boat home, and we to bed. When I come home I went to Sir W. Batten's (65), and there I hear more ill newes still: that all our New England fleete, which went out lately, are put back a third time by foul weather, and dispersed, some to one port and some to another; and their convoys also to Plymouth; and whether any of them be lost or not, we do not know. This, added to all the rest, do lay us flat in our hopes and courages, every body prophesying destruction to the nation.

1. Cow Lane, West Smithfield (now named King Street), was famous for its coachmakers.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 October 1667. 06 Oct 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and dressed myself, and so walked out with the boy to Smithfield to Cow Lane, to Lincolne's, and there spoke with him, and agreed upon the hour to-morrow, to set out towards Brampton; but vexed that he is not likely to go himself, but sends another for him. Here I took a Hackney coach, and to White Hall, and there met Sir W. Coventry (39), and discoursed with him, and then with my Lord Bruncker (47), and many others, to end my matters in order to my going into the country to-morrow for five or six days, which I have not done for above three years. Walked with Creed into the Park a little, and at last went into the Queen's (28) side, and there saw the King (37) and Queen (28), and saw the ladies, in order to my hearing any news stirring to carry into the country, but met with none, and so away home by coach, and there dined, and W. How come to see me, and after dinner parted, and I to my writing to my Lord Sandwich (42), which is the greatest business I have to do before my going into the country, and in the evening to my office to set matters to rights there, and being in the garden Sir W. Pen (46) did come to me, and fell to discourse about the business of "The Flying Greyhound", wherein I was plain to him and he to me, and at last concluded upon my writing a petition to the Duke of York (33) for a certain ship, The Maybolt Gallyott, and he offers to give me £300 for my success, which, however, I would not oblige him to, but will see the issue of it by fair play, and so I did presently draw a petition, which he undertakes to proffer to the Duke of York (33), and solicit for me, and will not seem to doubt of his success.

So I wrote, and did give it him, and left it with him, and so home to supper, where Pelling comes and sits with me, and there tells us how old Mr. Batelier is dead this last night in the night, going to bed well, which I am mightily troubled for, he being a good man. Supper done, and he gone, I to my chamber to write my journal to this night, and so to bed.

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 October 1668. 21 Oct 1668. Lay pretty long talking with content with my wife about our coach and things, and so to the office, where Sir Prince was to do something in his accounts.

At noon to dinner to Mr. Batelier's, his mother coming this day a-housewarming to him, and several friends of his, to which he invited us. Here mighty merry, and his mother the same; I heretofore took her for a gentlewoman, and understanding. I rose from table before the rest, because under an obligation to go to my Lord Brouncker's (48), where to meet several gentlemen of the Royal Society, to go and make a visit to the French Embassador Colbert (43), at Leicester House, he having endeavoured to make one or two to my Lord Brouncker (48), as our President, but he was not within, but I come too late, they being gone before: but I followed to Leicester House; but they are gore in and up before me; and so I away to the New Exchange, and there staid for my wife, and she come, we to Cow Lane, and there I shewed her the coach which I pitch on, and she is out of herself for joy almost. But the man not within, so did nothing more towards an agreement, but to Crow's (51) about a bed, to have his advice, and so home, and there had my wife to read to me, and so to supper and to bed. Memorandum: that from Crow's, we went back to Charing Cross, and there left my people at their tailor's, while I to my Lord Sandwich's (43) lodgings, who come to town the last night, and is come thither to lye: and met with him within: and among others my new cozen Creed, who looks mighty soberly; and he and I saluted one another with mighty gravity, till we come to a little more freedom of talk about it. But here I hear that Sir Gilbert Pickering is lately dead, about three days since, which makes some sorrow there, though not much, because of his being long expected to die, having been in a lethargy long. So waited on my Lord to Court, and there staid and saw the ladies awhile: and thence to my wife, and took them up; and so home, and to supper and bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 November 1668. 05 Nov 1668. Up, and Willet come home in the morning, and, God forgive me! I could not conceal my content thereat by smiling, and my wife observed it, but I said nothing, nor she, but away to the office. Presently up by water to White Hall, and there all of us to wait on the Duke of York (35), which we did, having little to do, and then I up and down the house, till by and by the Duke of York (35), who had bid me stay, did come to his closet again, and there did call in me and Mr. Wren; and there my paper, that I have lately taken pains to draw up, was read, and the Duke of York (35) pleased therewith; and we did all along conclude upon answers to my mind for the Board, and that that, if put in execution, will do the King's business. But I do now more and more perceive the Duke of York's (35) trouble, and that he do lie under great weight of mind from the Duke of Buckingham's (40) carrying things against him; and particularly when I advised that he would use his interest that a seaman might come into the room of W. Pen (47), who is now declared to be gone from us to that of the Victualling, and did shew how the Office would now be left without one seaman in it, but the Surveyour and the Controller, who is so old as to be able to do nothing, he told me plainly that I knew his mind well enough as to seamen, but that it must be as others will. And Wren did tell it me as a secret, that when the Duke of York (35) did first tell the King (38) about Sir W. Pen's (47) leaving of the place, and that when the Duke of York (35) did move the King (38) that either Captain Cox or Sir Jer. Smith might succeed him, the King (38) did tell him that that was a matter fit to be considered of, and would not agree to either presently; and so the Duke of York (35) could not prevail for either, nor knows who it shall be. The Duke of York (35) did tell me himself, that if he had not carried it privately when first he mentioned Pen's leaving his place to the King (38), it had not been done; for the Duke of Buckingham (40) and those of his party do cry out upon it, as a strange thing to trust such a thing into the hands of one that stands accused in Parliament: and that they have so far prevailed upon the King (38) that he would not have him named in Council, but only take his name to the Board; but I think he said that only D. Gawden's name shall go in the patent; at least, at the time when Sir Richard Browne (63) asked the King (38) the names of D. Gawden's security, the King (38) told him it was not yet necessary for him to declare them. And by and by, when the Duke of York (35) and we had done, and Wren brought into the closet Captain Cox and James Temple About business of the Guiney Company, and talking something of the Duke of Buckingham's (40) concernment therein, and says the Duke of York (35), "I will give the Devil his due, as they say the Duke of Buckingham (40) hath paid in his money to the Company", or something of that kind, wherein he would do right to him. The Duke of York (35) told me how these people do begin to cast dirt upon the business that passed the Council lately, touching Supernumeraries, as passed by virtue of his authority there, there being not liberty for any man to withstand what the Duke of York (35) advises there; which, he told me, they bring only as an argument to insinuate the putting of the Admiralty into Commission, which by all men's discourse is now designed, and I perceive the same by him. This being done, and going from him, I up and down the house to hear news: and there every body's mouth full of changes; and, among others, the Duke of York's (35) regiment of Guards, that was raised during the late war at sea, is to be disbanded: and also, that this day the King (38) do intend to declare that the Duke of Ormond (58) is no more Deputy of Ireland, but that he will put it into Commission. This day our new Treasurers did kiss the King's hand, who complimented them, as they say, very highly, that he had for a long time been abused in his Treasurer, and that he was now safe in their hands. I saw them walk up and down the Court together all this morning; the first time I ever saw Osborne, who is a comely gentleman. This day I was told that my Lord Anglesey (54) did deliver a petition on Wednesday in Council to the King (38), laying open, that whereas he had heard that his Majesty had made such a disposal of his place, which he had formerly granted him for life upon a valuable consideration, and that, without any thing laid to his charge, and during a Parliament's sessions, he prayed that his Majesty would be pleased to let his case be heard before the Council and the judges of the land, who were his proper counsel in all matters of right: to which, I am told, the King (38), after my Lord's being withdrawn, concluded upon his giving him an answer some few days hence; and so he was called in, and told so, and so it ended. Having heard all this I took coach and to Mr. Povy's (54), where I hear he is gone to the Swedes Resident in Covent Garden, where he is to dine. I went thither, but he is not come yet, so I to White Hall to look for him, and up and down walking there I met with Sir Robert Holmes (46), who asking news I told him of Sir W. Pen's (47) going from us, who ketched at it so as that my heart misgives me that he will have a mind to it, which made me heartily sorry for my words, but he invited me and would have me go to dine with him at the Treasurer's, Sir Thomas Clifford (38), where I did go and eat some oysters; which while we were at, in comes my Lord Keeper and much company; and so I thought it best to withdraw. And so away, and to the Swedes Agent's, and there met Mr. Povy (54); where the Agent would have me stay and dine, there being only them, and Joseph Williamson (35), and Sir Thomas Clayton; but what he is I know not. Here much extraordinary noble discourse of foreign Princes, and particularly the greatness of the King of France (30), and of his being fallen into the right way of making the Kingdom great, which [none] of his ancestors ever did before. I was mightily pleased with this company and their discourse, so as to have been seldom so much in all my life, and so after dinner up into his upper room, and there did see a piece of perspective, but much inferior to Mr. Povy's (54).

Thence with Mr. Povy (54) spent all the afternoon going up and down among the coachmakers in Cow Lane, and did see several, and at last did pitch upon a little chariott, whose body was framed, but not covered, at the widow's, that made Mr. Lowther's fine coach; and we are mightily pleased with it, it being light, and will be very genteel and sober: to be covered with leather, and yet will hold four. Being much satisfied with this, I carried him to White Hall; and so by coach home, where give my wife a good account of my day's work, and so to the office, and there late, and so to bed.

Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. In 1715 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1647 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1678 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 in his Garter Robes. Before 10 Sep 1687 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. In 1676 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Annesley 1614-1686. Around 1657 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705. Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Clifford 1st Baron Clifford Chudleigh 1630-1673.

Duck Lane Smithfield

Elms Smithfield, Farringdon Without, City of London

On 23 Aug 1305 William Wallace -1305 was hanged at Elms Smithfield. His head being displayed on London Bridge.

Victualling Office