History of Tower of London

Tower of London is in London.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1100. 1100. And after this the Bishop of London, Maurice, consecrated him king (32); and all in this land submitted to him, and swore oaths, and became his men. And the king (32), soon after this, by the advice of those that were about him, allowed men to take the Bishop Ranulf of Durham (40), and bring him into the Tower of London, and hold him there.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1101. 1101. This year also the Bishop Ranulf (41) at Candlemas burst out of the Tower of London by night, where he was in confinement, and went into Normandy; through whose contrivance and instigation mostly the Earl Robert (50) this year sought this land with hostility.

Around 1106 William Mortain Count Mortain 2nd Earl Cornwall 1083-1140 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1220 Stephen Segrave 1171-1241 (49) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1241 Gruffydd ap Llewellyn Aberffraw 1198-1244 (43) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 01 Mar 1244 Gruffydd ap Llewellyn Aberffraw 1198-1244 (46) died at Tower of London.

After 27 Apr 1296 John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland 1249-1314 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 27 Apr 1296 John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl 1266-1306 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 12 Oct 1297 William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (57) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1298 William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (58) died at Tower of London.

In 1321 Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley 1308-1363 (13) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1321 Maud Badlesmere Countess Oxford 1310-1366 (11) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1321 Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 1313-1356 (8) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 05 Jul 1321 Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 was born to King Edward II of England (37) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (26) at the Tower of London.

In Oct 1321 Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (26) was returning from Canterbury to London. She sought accommodation at Leeds Castle which was under the protection of Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34) the wife of Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46). Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34) refused entry to the Queen killing around six of her retinue when they tried to force entry. King Edward II of England (37) commenced the Siege of Leeds Castle. Once King Edward II of England (37) gained possession of the castle, he had the garrison hanged from the battlements. His wife Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34), her five children (Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley 1308-1363 (13), Maud Badlesmere Countess Oxford 1310-1366 (11), Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 1313-1356 (8), Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere 1314-1338 (6) and Margaret Badlesmere Baroness Tibetot 1315- (6)), and Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh 1287-1355 (34), her nephew, were imprisoned in the Tower of London.

After Oct 1321 Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1322 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 03 Nov 1322 Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (35) was released at Tower of London.

In Aug 1323 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330 (36) escaped to France and to Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (28) at Tower of London.

In 1326 Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer Chirk 1256-1326 (70) died at Tower of London.

After 19 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 19 Dec 1333 Joan Plantagenet 1333-1348 was born to King Edward III England (21) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (19) at Tower of London.

In 1342 Blanche of the Tower 1342-1342 was born to King Edward III England (29) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (27) at the Tower of London. In 1342 she died. She was buried at the east side of the door to the Chapel of St Edmund.

In 1345 John Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Knayth 1280-1347 (65) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

On 17 Oct 1346 at the Battle of Neville's Cross near Durham the English inflicted a heavy defeat on the Scottish army that had invaded England in compliance with their treaty with the French for mutual support against England.

The English army included: William Deincourt 1st Baron Deincourt 1301-1364 (45), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham 1312-1392 (34), Ralph Hastings 1291-1346 (55), Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville Raby 1291-1367 (55), William Zouche Archbishop of York -1352, Henry Percy 2nd Baron Percy 1301-1352 (45) and John Mowbray 3rd Baron Mowbray 1310-1361 (35).

Of the Scottish army David II King Scotland 1324-1371 (22), John Graham Earl Menteith -1347 and William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl 1300-1353 (46) were captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

Neil Bruce -1346, John Randolph 3rd Earl Moray 1306-1346 (40), David Hay 6th Baron Erroll 1318-1346 (28) and Edward Keith of Sinton 1280-1346 (66) were killed.

John Graham Earl Menteith -1347 was present.

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After 17 Oct 1346 William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl 1300-1353 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 17 Oct 1346 David II King Scotland 1324-1371 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Around 30 Jun 1360 John "The Good" II King France 1319-1364 (41) left the Tower of London and proceeded to Eltham Palace where Queen Philippa (46) had prepared a great farewell entertainment. Passing the night at Dartford, he continued towards Dover, stopping at the Maison Dieu of St Mary at Ospringe, and paying homage at the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury on 04 Jul 1360. He dined with the Black Prince (30) at Dover Castle, and reached English-held Calais on 08 Jul 1360.

In 1361 Richard Vache -1366 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

On 11 Jun 1381 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (14) held council with his mother Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (52), Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 1338-1401 (43), William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury 1328-1397 (52), Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (35), Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (65) and Robert Hales 1325-1381 (56) at the Tower of London.

On 20 Jan 1382 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (15) and Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (15) were married at Westminster Abbey by Robert Braybrooke Bishop of London -1404. They were fourth cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort England.

It was the first royal wedding that including a Royal Procession from the Tower of London to Westminster Abbey.

Arranged by Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (52) the marriage not popular since it brought no dowry and little prospect of increased trade since Bohemia not a primary English trade partner.

In 1387 Richard Mitford Bishop -1407 was arrested by Lords Appellant and imprisoned in Bristol Castle. He was then imprisoned in the Tower of London. Thereafter he was released without charge.

On 28 Jan 1388 Nicholas Brembre Lord Mayor of London -1388 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. You have before seen, in the course of this history, that king Richard of England (29) would not longer conceal the great hatred he bore his uncle of Gloucester (41), but had determined to have him cut off, according to the advice given him, setting it forth to be more advisable to destroy than be destroyed. You have likewise heard how the king (29) had rode to the castle of Pleshy, thirty miles from London, and with fair words had cajoled the duke (41) out of his castle, and was accompanied by him to a lane that led to the Thames, where they arrived between ten and eleven o'clock at night; and how the earl-marshal (28), who there lay in ambush, had arrested him in the king's name, and forced him towards the Thames, in spite of his cries to the king (29) to deliver him. He was conscious, that from the moment of his beinor thus arrested, his end was resolved on, and it was confirmed to him by the king (29) turning a deaf ear to his complaints, and ridmg on full gallop to London, where he lodged that night in the Tower. The duke of Gloucester (41) had other lodgings; for, whether he would or not, he was forced into a boat that carried him to a vessel at anchor on the Thames, into which he was obliged to enter. The earl-marshal (28) embarked also with his men, and, having a favourable wind and tide, they fell down the river, and arrived, late on the morrow evening, at Calais, without any one knowing of it except the king's officers. [The earl-marshal (28), as governor, could enter Calais at all hours, without any one thinking it extraordinary: he carried the duke (41) to the castle, wherein he confined him.]

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The earl of Derby (31) resided in London, for he had his house there, and kept up his state. The duke of Lancaster (58), the duke of York (57), the earl of Northumberland (56), and many other great lords, for he was much beloved, were his securities to appear and answer the challenge. The earl marshal (30) was sent to the Tower of London, where he lived with his household. These two lords made ample provision of all things necessary for the combat; and the earl of Derby (31) sent off messengers to Lombardy to have armour from sir Galeas, duke of Alilan. The duke complied with joy, and gave the knight, called sir Francis, who had brought the message, the choice of all his armour for the earl of Derby (31). When he had selected what he wished for in plated and mail armour, the lord of Milan, out of his abundant love to the earl, ordered four of the best armourers in Milan to accompany the knight to England, that the earl of Derby (31) might be more completely armed. The earl marshal (30), on the other hand, sent into Germany, whence he thought he should be ably assisted by his friends. Each provided himself most magnificently, to outshine the other; but the greater splendour was shown by the earl of Derby, for I must say that, when the earl marshal undertook this business, he expected to have been better supported than he was by the king. It was hinted to the king, by those near his person, — "Sire, you have no occasion to interfere further in this matter: dissemble your thoughts, and leave them to themselves: they are fully capable of managing it. The earl of Derby is wondrous popular in the kingdom, but more especially in London; and, should the citizens perceive that you take part with the earl marshal against the earl of Derby, you will irrecoverably lose their affection."

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On 29 Sep 1399 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) abdicated II King England at the Tower of London. William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414 (29), Thomas Grey 1359-1400 (40), William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1370-1409 (29), Hugh Burnell 2nd Baron Burnell 1347-1420 (52) and Thomas Rempston -1406 were present.

On 07 Oct 1399 Thomas Rempston -1406 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1400 Thomas Merke Bishop of Carlisle -1409 was imprisoned in the Tower of London and deprived of his Bishopric.

On 04 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was tried, and condemned to death, by Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (18) at Tower of London for his role in the Epiphany Rising having been captured in Cirencester.

On 05 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was beheaded at Tyburn. He was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund.

In 1402 Philip Courtenay 1355-1406 (47) was imprisoned for clerical abuses at Tower of London.

In 1409 Catrin Mathrafal was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 24 Oct 1411 John Cockayne 1370-1438 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Around 1412 Gruffudd ab Owain Glyndŵr Mathrafal 1375-1412 (37) died at Tower of London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1413. And that same yere Syr John Olde Castelle was a restyde [arrested] at Wynsore and sende to the Toure of London for poyntys of heresy that he was accusyd of; and at the Frere Prechourys he was examnyd by fore alle the clargy of thys realme, spyritualle and temporalle and relygyous, and he was sent unto the Toure a-yenne; and sone aftyr he brake owt of the Towre and wentte in to Walys; and aftyr he was take ayen by the Lorde Powes (43) in the tyme of Rychard Merlowe, as ye shalle hyre aftyr.

In 1413 John Abrichecourt -1415 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

On 14 May 1414 Roger Cheney 1362-1414 (51) died at Tower of London.

In 1420 John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter 1395-1447 (24) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 17 Jul 1431. Ande the same yere, in the monythe of Juylle, the xvij day, the posterne be-syde the Towre sanke downe into the erthe vij [7] fote and more.

In 1433 Richard Woodville 1385-1441 (48) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 27 Oct 1441. And on Syn Symon and Jude ys eve was the wycche (26) be syde Westemyster brent in Smethefylde, and on the day of Symon and Jude the person of Syn Stevynnys in Walbroke, whyche that was one of the same fore sayde traytours, deyde in the Toure for sorowe.

1. Necromancy.

On 28 Oct 1441 Thomas Southwell Astrologer -1441 died whilst in the Tower of London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 26 May 1445. And uppon Thorsday, the xxvj day of May, the kyng (23) made xlvj [46] Knyghtys of the Bathe yn the Towre of London. And uppon the morowe, that was the Fry day, lordys of the realme, whythe nobylle and grete and costelowe araye, the Mayre of London and the aldyrmen in scharlet, whythe alle the craftys of London in blewe, wythe dyvers dyvysyngys, every crafte to be knowe from othyr, rydyng agayne Quene Margarete (15) and brought hyr unto the Toure of London, the quene (15) havynge whythe hyr xvij [17] charys with ladys.

On 28 Jan 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 04 Jul 1450. Ande in the morne he come yn a-gayne, that sory and sympylle and rebellyus captayne why the hys mayny ; that was Satyrday, and hyt was also a Synt Martyn ys day1, the dedycacyon of Synt Martynys in the Vyntry, the iiij day of Juylle. And thenne dyvers questys were i-sompnyd at the Gylhalle; and ther Robert Home beynge alderman was a-restydeand brought in to Newegate. And that same day Wylliam Crowemere (34), squyer, and Scheryffe of Kentt, was be-heddyde in the fylde whythe owte Algate at the mylys ende be-syde Clopton ys Place. And a nothyr man that was namyde John Bayle was be-heddyd at the Whytte Chapylle. And the same day aftyr-non was be-heddyd in Cheppe a-fore the Standard, Syr Jamys Fynes (55), beyng that tyme the Lorde Saye and Grrette Treserer of Ingelonde, the whyche was brought oute of the Toure of London unto the Gylde Halle, and there of dyvers tresons he was exampnyd, of whyche he knowlachyd of the dethe of that notabylle and famos prynce the Duke of Glouceter (59). And thenne they brought hym unto the Standard in Cheppe, and there he ressayvyd hys jewys and hys dethe. And so forthe alle the iij [3] heddys that day smetyn of were sette uppon the Brygge of London, and the ij othyr heddys takyn downe that stode a-pon the London Brygge by-fore. And at the comyng of the camptayne yn to Sowtheworke, he lete smyte of the hedde of a strong theff that was namyd Haywardyn.

1. The Translation of St. Martin of Tours.

Around 1453 Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (39) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In Oct 1453 Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) was imprisoned by Richard 3rd Duke York (42) at Tower of London.

Before Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales 1397-1460 and Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns 1431-1464 were commissioned to hold London for the Lancastrians. In Jul 1460 they retreated to the Tower of London eventually surrendering on 02 Jul 1460 for lack of food. He was sent to Sanctuary Westminster Abbey.

On 25 Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales 1397-1460 (63) was murdered by boatmen whilst travelling from the Tower of London to Sanctuary Westminster Abbey. Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers -1473 succeeded 8th Baron Scales.

In Nov 1461 Humphrey Neville 1439-1469 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 02 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman John, earl of Worcester (34), of the office of the constable of the Tower of London, with the accustomed fees.

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. And thys same yere the Erle of Oxforde (53), the Lord Abbry, the Lorde of Oxforde ys sone, Syr Thomas Todenham (60) knyght, John Mongomery, and William Terelle (54) squyer, were takyn in Esex, and brought unto Lundon to the Towre. Ande thenne they were ledde to Westemyster to the Kynges palys, and there they were attaynte of hyghe and myghthy treson that they ymagenyd agayne [t]e Kynge. And thenn they were drawe to the Towre from Westemyster. And at the Towre hylle was made a schaffolde for them, and there hyr heddys were smetyn on, and hyr bodys beryd, as hyt plesyd them to be qwethe hyr bodys. See Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV.

In 1468 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (48) was imprisoned for having taken part in the plots of John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (25) at Tower of London.

After 14 Apr 1471 Margaret of Anjou was imprisoned at Wallingford Castle then the Tower of London.

New Chronicles of England and France by Robert Fabyan 1478. THis yere, that is to meane ye xviii. daye of February, the duke of Clarence (28) and .... 2brother to the kynge, thanne beyng prysoner in ye Tower, was secretely put to deth & drowned in a barell of maluesye within the sayd Tower. And this mayer this yere pursued also the reparacyon of the wallys, but nat so dylygently as his predccessour dyd, wherfore it was nat spedde as it myght haue been, and also he was a syke and a feble man, and hadde not so sharpe and quycke mynde as that other hadde. And one other cause was, whiche ensuythe of a generaltie, that for the more partie one mayer wyll nat fynesshe that thynge whiche that other begynneth, for then they thynke, be the dede neuer so good and profitable, that the honoure therof shalbe ascribed to y begynner, and nat to the fynyssher, whiche lacke of charytie and desyre of veyngiory causeth many good actes and dedys to dye and growe out of minde, to the great decaye of the cōmon weale of the cytie.

Note 2. second brother. edit. 1542. 1559.

Stonor Letters 06 Mar 1478. 06 Mar 1478. Elizabeth Croke 1440-1479 (38) to William Stonor 1450-1494 (28).

Ryght reverent and worschypffull and interely best belovyde husbonde, I recomaunde me unto you in the most harteyste wyse hever more desyryng to here off your goode wellfare, the wyche I pray God longe to contune unto your hartys desyr. Syr, I resayved a tokyn ffrom you by Tawbose, my lorde Lovellys (22) sarvant. And Syr, I have sent my lorde Lovell a tokyn and my ladys, as ye comaunde me to do, schuche as schalle plese them. Syr, ye schalle understonde that þe beschope off Bathe (58) ys browthe in to the Towre syne you departyd. Allso Syr, ye schalle understonde that þe wolle hooys departe, as to morw is, ffor as I understonde: I pray Jhesu by thayr goode spede: and Goodard. [Goddard Oxbryge.] departys allso: and I pray you that ye wylle sende me som off your sarvantys and myne to wayte upone me, ffor now I ame ryght bare off sarvantys, and þat ye know well. Syr, I sent you halffe a honder welkys by Gardenar, and I wollde have sent you som hoder desys, but truly I cowde not get none: but and I cane get hony to morow, syr Wylliam salle bryng hyt with hym. Syr, I pray you that I may be recomaundehyde unto my masterys your moder, and unto all goode ffrendys. No more unto you at thys tym, but þe blesyde Trenyte have you in hys kepyng now and hever. Amen. At London þe vj day off Marche.

Cossen, I was crasyd þat the makyng off thys letter, but I thanke God I am ryght well amendyd, blesyd by Jhesu.

By your owen wyff Elysabeth Stonore.

To my ryght reverent and worschypffull Cosyn, syr Wyllm. Stonor, knyght.

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In 1483 Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (19) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. 01 May 1483. And as soon as they came in his presence, they alighted down with all their company about them. To whom the Duke of Buckingham said, "Go before, gentlemen and yeomen, keep your rooms." And thus in a goodly array, they came to the King (12) and, on their knees in very humble fashion, assuaged his Grace, who received them in very joyous and amiable manner, nothing earthly knowing nor mistrusting as yet. But even by and by, in his presence, they picked a quarrel with the Lord Richard Grey (26), the King's other brother by his mother, saying that he, with the Lord Marquis (28) his brother and the Lord Rivers (43) his uncle, had planned to rule the King and the realm, and to set variance among the lords, and to subdue and destroy the noble blood of the realm. Toward the accomplishing whereof, they said that the Lord Marquis (28) had entered into the Tower of London, and thence taken out the King's treasure, and sent men to the sea. All of which things, these dukes knew well, were done for good purposes and necessary ones by the whole council at London, except that they must say something.

Unto which words, the King (12) answered, "What my brother marquis (28) has done I cannot say. But in good faith I dare well answer for mine uncle Rivers (43) and my brother (26) here, that they be innocent of any such matters.".

"Yea, my Liege," said the Duke of Buckingham, "they have kept their dealing in these matters far from the knowledge of your good Grace.".

And forthwith they arrested the Lord Richard (26) and Sir Thomas Vaughan (73), knight, in the King's (12) presence, and brought the King (12) and all back unto Northampton, where they took again further counsel. And there they sent away from the King (12) whomever it pleased them, and set new servants about him, such as liked them better than him. At which dealing he wept and was nothing content, but it remedied not. And at dinner the Duke of Gloucester (30) sent a dish from his own table to the Lord Rivers (43), praying him to be of good cheer, all should be well enough. And he thanked the Duke (30), and prayed the messenger to bear it to his nephew, the Lord Richard (26), with the same message for his comfort, who he thought had more need of comfort, as one to whom such adversity was foreign. But for himself, he had been all his days used to a life therewith, and therefore could bear it the better. But for all this comfortable courtesy of the Duke of Gloucester (30), he sent the Lord Rivers (43) and the Lord Richard (26) with Sir Thomas Vaughan (73) into the north country to different places to prison and, afterwards, all to Pomfrait, where they were, in conclusion, beheaded.

Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. 1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

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Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. 20 May 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's servant William Hastings (52), knight, of the office of master and worker of the king's moneys and keeper of the exchange within the Tower of London, the realm of England and the town of Calais according to the form of certain indentures, receiving the accustomed fees. By p.s.

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle St George's Chapel Windsor Castle next to King Edward IV (41). Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings 2C 1430.

Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

On 16 Jun 1483 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65) removed Edward IV's (41) youngest son Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (9) from Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey to the Tower of London so that he could join his brother in preparation for his Coronation. Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28) was present.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

On 17 Jul 1483 Robert Brackenbury -1485 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London for life meaning he was in direct care of The Princes in the Tower: Edward V King England 1470- (12) and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (9).

Around Aug 1483 Edward V King England 1470- (12) and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (9) disappeared, presumably killed, from the Tower of London. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (5) reports, sometime after the event, that Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) requested Robert Brackenbury -1485 undertake the murder of the children. Upon Brackenbury's refusal Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) instructed Robert Brackenbury -1485 give the keys to the Tower to James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (28) who would then undertake the task.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant.

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476 1485. On 09 Mar 1484 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31). Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's servant Robert Brackenbury -1485 of the office of Constable of the Tower of London and 100l. yearly for his wages from the issues of the manors or lordships of Wrottell, Haveryng, Boyton, Hadlegh, Raylegh and Rocheford, co Essex, and Tunbrich, Penshurste, Middleton and Merdon and the hundred of Middleton, co Kent, with arrears from 17 July last, in lieu of a grant to him by letters patent of that date surrendered. By p.s.

Patent Rolls Richard II 1381 1385. 26 Sep 1484. Grant, for the peace and tranquillity of the city, to the mayor and commonalty of London and their successors, that if the king should hereafter deal in mercy with the lives of John Norhampton, draper, late mayor of London, John More, mercer, and Richard Norbury, who with others lately made insurrection against the king's peace and Nicholas Brembre, the mayor, and the governors of the city and its government, for which they were indicted and, after acknowledging their misdeeds before the king and council in his presence and being separately arraigned before John de Monte Acuto, steward of the household and the other justices assigned to deliver the prison of the Tower of London of them, were condemned to be drawn and quartered, but execution, so far as their lives were concerned, was respited by the king's grace,—that they shall be sent to prisons in different counties 100 leagues distant from the city for ten years, and not then be released until they have found security that no evil or prejudice shall befall the city or any of the king's lieges thereby. If they should be released they are inhibited, under pain of losing their lives, from coming within 100 leagues of the city, and any one guilty of making suit or maintenance on their behalf is to be imprisoned and forfeit his goods. For the strengthening of good government in the city and for the punishinent of rioters and those who are guilty of such assemblies, congregations, covins or insurrections, this grant is to remain in force without revocation. By signet letter.

After 22 Aug 1485 Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 16 Oct 1485 Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486 was created 1st Earl Bath 1C 1486 at Tower of London by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) for having supported Henry' claim to the throne.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 29 Oct 1485 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) processed from Tower of London to Westminster Abbey. Ahead of him marched the heralds and serjeants-at-arms, the Esquire of the Body, the King's Secretary Richard Fox (37), almoner Christopher Urswick (37), the mayor of London and the Garter King of Arms. Also ahead of him were Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50), John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (43) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59). Following behind were the only two Dukes: Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53), created the day before, and John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (43).

On 17 Jun 1497 James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley Heighley 1463-1497 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 04 Oct 1497 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1499. This yeare, in June, deceased the third sonne of the Kinge named Duke of Somersett and was buried at Westminster. Perkin Werbeck (25) putt to death at Tybume Note. 22 Nov 1499; and the Earle of Warwyke (23), Sonne to the Duke of Clarence (49), who had bene kept in the Tower from the age of 11 years unto the end of 14 yeares, was beheaded at the Tower Hill Note. See Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick. A great pestilence throughout all England.

Around Mar 1499 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 (25) escaped at Tower of London.

Around Mar 1499 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 (25) recaptured at Tower of London.

In 1502 William Pole 1478-1539 (24) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 26 Dec 1502 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 was imprisoned at Tower of London with his brother William Pole 1478-1539. he remained there for eleven years.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1503. This yeare, in Februarie, died Queene Elizabeth (36) at the Towre of London, lyeinge in childebedd of a daughter named Katherine (the 8th day after her birth), and was buried at Westminster; and on Passion Sundaye a peace made betwene the Emperoure (43) and the Kinge (45) duringe their lyves, solemnized upon a great oathe at the highe aulter in Paules queere.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

On 02 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (46) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) at the Tower of London. She died eight days later on 10 Feb 1503.

On 11 Feb 1503 (her birthday) Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) died from childbirth.

In Feb 1504 William Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1475-1511 (29) was attainted and imprisoned at Tower of London for supposedly having supported Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 (33), a Yorkist claimant, in his claim to the throne; William's wife was Catherine York Countess Devon 1479-1527 (24).

Around Feb 1506 Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile 1478-1506 (27) was blown off course whilst travelling to Castile to claim his inheritance. He landed in England where he became the guest of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (49) who negociated the Malus Intercursus Treaty as part of the conditions of his release. The Treaty include favourable commercial terms by removing all duties on English exports, and the marriage of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (49) with Philip's sister Margaret Habsburg Princess Asturias 1480-1533 (26) (which didn't take place). Most importantly it secured the return of Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 (35) who was Philip's (27) prisoner. Edmund Pole was immediately imprisoned in the Tower of London and executed seven years later.

Around 1515. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Margaret Habsburg Princess Asturias 1480-1533.

On 09 Nov 1506 Thomas Green 1461-1506 (45) died at the Tower of London. His daughters Anne Green Baroness Vaux of Harrowden 1489-1523 (17) and Maud Green Lady in Waiting 1492-1531 (14) inherited his estate.

Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of an unknown lady. Possibly Maud Green Lady in Waiting 1492-1531.

In 1516 Robert Sheffield 1461-1518 (55) was imprisoned after complaining against Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (42) at Tower of London.

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530.

On 10 Aug 1518 Robert Sheffield 1461-1518 (57) died at Tower of London.

In Apr 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was arrested and imprisoned at Tower of London. He was accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (48) presided at his trial. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (43) and Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (32) acted as judges. Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham 1470-1529 (51), Anthony Poyntz 1480-1533 (41) and Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (41) as jurors.

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry Guildford 1489-1532 wearing the Garter and Inter twined Knots Collar with St George Pendant. Standing three-quarter length, richly dressed in velvet, fur and cloth-of-gold. Holbein has meticulously shown the varied texture of his cloth-of-gold double which is woven into a pomegranate pattern with a variety of different weaves including loops of gold thread. Similarly, he has carefully articulated the band of black satin running down Guildford's arm against the richer black of the velvet of his sleeve. A lavish use of both shell-gold paint and gold leaf (which has been used to emulate the highlights of the gold thread in the material) emphasises the luxuriousness of the sitter's dress and his high status. In his right-hand he holds the Comptroller of the Household Staff of Office. In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Mary Wotton 1499-1535 when she was twenty-seven commissioned with that of her husband Henry Guildford 1489-1532 possibly to celebrate their marriage. Hung with gold chains and embellished with pearls, Baroness Guildford embodies worldly prosperity, and with her prayer book she is also the very image of propriety.

On 28 May 1524 William Kingston KG 1476-1540 (48) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

On 13 Apr 1534 Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (56) was asked to appear before a commission and swear his allegiance First Act of Succession. He refused to take the oath and was duly imprisoned in the Tower of London. Whilst there Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (49) made several visits in an attempt to persuade More to comply.

Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540.

In Oct 1535 Thomas "Silken" Fitzgerald 10th Earl Kildare 1513-1537 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In May 1536 Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542 (33) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for allegedly committing adultery with Anne Boleyn 1475-1556 (60).

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542. Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. And the secondo dale of Maie, Mr. Noris (54) and my Lorde of Rochforde (33) were brought to the Towre of London as prisonners; Queen Anne (35) and the same dale, about five of the clocke at night, Anne Bolleine was brought to the Towre of London by my Lord Chauncelor (48), the Duke of Norfolke (63), Mr. Secretarie (51), and Sir William Kingston (60), Constable of the Tower; and when she came to the court gate, entring in, she fell downe on her knees before the said lordes, beseeching God to helpe her as she was not giltie of her aocusement, and also desired the said lordes to beseech the Kinges grace to be good unto her, and so they left her their prisoner. See Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England. In 1569 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544.

On 02 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) was charged with treason and accused of 'despising her marriage and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust' !She was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Five ladies were appointed to serve Anne whilst in prison including her aunt by marriage Elizabeth Wood aka Wode, wife of her uncle James Boleyn 1463-1561 (73) and her aunt Anne Boleyn 1475-1556 (60), and Elizabeth Chamber Baroness St John Bletso -1602.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. 15 May 1536. After this, immediatliei the Lord of Rocheforde (33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my Lord of Northfolke (63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume, and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent [burned] before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. Item, on Munday, the 15th of May, 1536, there was arreigned within the Tower of London Queene Anne (35), for treason againste the Kinges owne person, and there was a great scaffold made in the Kinges Hall within the Tower of London, and there were made benches and seates for the lordes, my Lord of Northfolke (63) sittinge under the clothe of estate, representinge there the Kinges person as Highe Steward of Englande and uncle to the Queene, he holdinge a longe white staffe in his hande, and the Earle of Surrey (20) his sonne and heire, sittinge at his feete before him holdinge the golden staffe for the Earle Marshall of Englande, which sayde office the saide duke had in his handes; the Lord Awdley Chauncellour of England (48), sittinge on his right hande, and the Duke of Suffolke on his lefl hande, with other marqueses, earles, and lordes, everie one after their degrees. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Based on a work of 1546. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. In 1546 Unknown Painter. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300 1338 Arms, his left Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355 1397 Arms. 1541 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry Brandon 2nd Duke Suffolk 1535-1551.

In 1538 Ingelram Percy 1506-1538 (32) died at Tower of London.

In Nov 1538 Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (65), her son Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (46), his son Henry Pole 1520-1542 (18), and other Pole family members, and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (42), his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (35), their son Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (11) and Edward Neville 1471-1538 (67) wre arrested and imprisoned on charges of treason. Cromwell had previously written that they had "little offended save that he [Reginald Pole] is of their kin". They were committed to the Tower of London.

Around 1535 Unknown Painter. Portrait of unknown woman thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541. She holding a wine butt on a thread between her fingers which may refer to her father's death. Around 1555. Attributed Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564 of the English School. Portrait of Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556.

In 1540 John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (60) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1540 Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 (75) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 10 Jun 1540 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (55) attended Meeting of the Privy Council where he was arrested. It isn't entirely clear why he was arrested but his role in the King's recent failed marriage to Anne of Cleves (24) is likely to have played a part William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (50) removed Cromwell's (55) St George of the Order of the Garter. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London.

Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Anne of Cleves. Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 16 1540 1541. 29 May 1541. 868. Marillac to Francis I.

What has here happened since he wrote last, on the 22nd, gives matter to write. To begin with, a case more worthy of compassion than of long letters, the countess of Saalberi (67), mother of Cardinal Pol (41) and the late lord Montaigue (49), was yesterday morning, about 7 o'clock, beheaded in a corner of the Tower, in presence of so few people that until evening the truth was still doubted. It was the more difficult to believe as she had been long prisoner, was of noble lineage, above 80 years old, and had been punished by the loss of one son and banishment of the other, and the total ruin of her house. Further reflections upon this. The manner of proceeding in her case and that of a lord who was executed at the same time (who is not yet named, but is presumed to be lord Leonard de Clidas (62), formerly the King's lieutenant in Ireland) seems to argue that those here are afraid to put to death publicly those whom they execute in secret. It may be added that yesterday all the heads which were fixed upon the bridge of the river which passes by this town were taken down; in order that the people may forget those whose heads kept their memory fresh, if it were not that this will people the place with new, for Marillac hears from a good place that, before St. John's tide, they reckon to empty the Tower of the prisoners now there for treason.

The talk of going to the North continues, and provisions are already being sent; which are the greater as the company will be 4,000 or 5,000 horse, as well because the King (49) wishes to go with more magnificence (as he has not yet been there) as to be secure against any seditious designs. They will be gentlemen of these quarters of King (Kent), whom he trusts most. The 50 gentlemen of the house will each have tent and war equipment, as also will several other young lords; so that it will be rather like following a camp than going to the chase.

As instructed in last packet of the 20th, will write to no one of affairs here. Would not have done it in the past had he known Francis's pleasure, but was only written to to address all he wrote to Francis, not that he should not write to others. Will write affairs concerning war or peace to Mons. de Vendosme, as long as he is in Picardy, and in his absence a word to M. du Bies, to prevent them thinking better or worse in the absence of news. Is not spoken to about the Cauchoide nor about the conversation he wrote last in cipher.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

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Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 16 1540 1541. 10 Jun 1541. 897. Chapuys (51) to the Queen of Hungary.

If the affair is mentioned, will follow her instructions in her letter of the 28th ult. Expects to be summoned before the King (49) two days hence. Is vexed at not having received the copy of her answer to the King, referred to in his despatch of 26 May. The news since that date is that on the 27th three of the chief conspirators in the North — an abbot and two gentlemen — were hung and quartered. About the same time took place the lamentable execution of the countess of Salisbury (67) at the Tower in presence of the Lord Mayor and about 150 persons. When informed of her sentence she found it very strange, not knowing her crime; but she walked to the space in front of the Tower, where there was no scaffold but only a small block. She there commended her soul to God, and desired those present to pray for the King, Queen, Prince, and Princess. The ordinary executioner being absent, a blundering "garçonneau" was chosen, who hacked her head and shoulders to pieces. A most virtuous lady nearly 90 years of age. When her death was resolved on her nephew (grandson) (21), the son of lord Montague (49), who had been allowed occasionally to go about within the Tower, was more strictly guarded. It is to be supposed he will soon follow his father and grandmother. London, 10 June 1541. Original at Vienna.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 16 1540 1541. 02 Jul 1541. 954. Chapuys (51) to the Queen of Hungary.

Almost immediately after Chapuys's return the King (50) gave the people of Dunkirk permission to buy here a quantity of wood for their own use for curing herrings, and he has frequently reminded Chapuys of the favor, saying he was surprised that the town had not sent a deputation to say how much wood they required. The deputation has arrived, and now, after being kept 13 days without an answer, they have been told that it is mere loss of time to solicit such things till the Queen has promised to release the harness, copper, and war ammunition purchased by the King some time ago at Antwerp.

On St. Peter's eve lord Leonard (62), uncle of the Marquis of Osceter (24) (Dorset) and of the Chancellor's (53) wife, was beheaded in front of the Tower. Hears he was accused of letting his nephew (16), the young earl of Kildare, escape to France and thence to Liege.

That afternoon two gentlemen were hung, one of whom had an income of over 12,000 ducats a year, and was the handsomest and best bred man in England, only 25 years old and married to a niece of the Duke of Norfolk (68). He was sentenced for having belonged to a set of eight rakish youths, one of whom had killed a poor old man in an unpremeditated fray. For the same cause lord Dacres (26) also, son1 of the Duke of Norfolk's (68) sister (71), and cousin of this Queen (18), 23 years old and possessing a property of about 5,000 ducats a year, was hung from the most ignominious gibbet, and for greater shame dragged through the streets to the place of execution, to the great pity of many people, and even of his very judges, who wept when they sentenced him, and in a body asked his pardon of the King. But the thing which astonished people most was, that, the same day lord Dacres was hung, another young man (28), son of the Treasurer of the Royal household (56), who was one of those present at the old man's death, was freely pardoned, though he had been already tried for some like misdemeanour.

At the same time in the North, Sir John Neville (53) and about 60 more, among whom at least 25 were ecclesiastics, were executed for the conspiracy of which Chapuys wrote some time ago. Has just heard of the arrival of a Polish gentleman with eight or ten servants. Will endeavour to discover who he is and what he comes for. London, 2 July 1541. Original at Vienna.

Note 1. Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (26), Lord Dacre, was the grandson of Anne Bourchier Baroness Dacre Gilsland 1470-1530 (71) who was the maternal half-sister of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (68); Anne and Thomas' mother was Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (97).

After 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Elizabeth Grey Baroness Audley Walden -1564 based on she having become Baroness Audley on 29 Nov 1538. Coloured chalks, silverpoint, pen and ink on pink-primed paper, 29.2 × 20.7 cm, Royal Collection, Windsor Castle. The drawing is inscribed, by a later hand than Holbein's, In 1569 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Elizabeth Grey Baroness Audley Walden -1564. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Neville Baroness Dacre Gilsland 1524-1576 with an inset portrait of husband Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541.

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On 28 Jul 1541 Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane 1479-1541 (62) was executed at the Tower of London for having allowed Gerald "Wizard Earl" Fitzgerald 11th Earl Kildare 1525-1585 (16), his sister Elizabeth's (44) son, to escape capture at Tower of London.

On 03 Mar 1542 Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 (77) died at Tower of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 07 Feb 1544. [The vij day of February, in the forenoon, Wyatt (23), with his army and ordnance, were at Hyde Park Corner. There the Queen's host met with, with a great number of men at arms on horseback, beside foot. By one of the clock the Quen['s men and Wyatt's had a skirmish;] ther wher mony slayn; butt master Wyatt toke the way don by Sant James with a grett company and so to Charyngcrosse, and so forth, crying 'God save quen Mare!' tyll he cam to Ludgatt and [knocked there; thinking to have entered; but the gate being kept fast against him, he retired,] and bake agayne unto Tempull Bare, and folouyd hym mony man, and ther he yelded unto master Norray the harold of armes in ys cote of armes, and ther he lycted be-hynd a gentleman unto the cowrte; but by the way mony of them wher slayne by the way or thay cam to Charyng-crosse, what with mores pykes and bylls; and mony of Wyatt('s) men, as they whent, wher the quens fryndes and Englys-men under a fallss pretens that he whent a-bowtt to .... way as thay whent, and cam for to make men beleyff that the quen('s) grace had gyffvyn them pardon; and dyvers of ys men toke the quen('s) men by the hand as thay whent toward Ludgatt. Thys was done on As-Wedynsday the furst yere of quen Mare of England; and the sam nyght to the Towre ser Thomas Wyatt (23), master Cobham (47), and master Vane, and ij Knewetes and odur captaynes.

Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 25 May 1554. 25 May 1544. Frydaye 25 Maii Sir Edward Courtney, Earle of Devonshire (17), was had out of the Tower at 3 of the clock in the morninge, Mr. Chamberlayne of Suffolke and Sir Tho. Tresham, knights, ridinge with him, with certeyne of the Queens garde and others, to Fodringay Castle in Northamptonshire, and he there to remayne under theyr custodie at the Queens pleasure.

This moneth allso divers persons both men and weomen were sett on the pillorie in Cheape for slaunderouse and seditiouse wordes speakinge against the Queene (28) and her Councell and had their eares nayled to the pillorie.

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

On 12 Dec 1546 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (73) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

John Stow's Annales of England Edward VI 1547. 28 Jan 1547. Edward (9) the first borne at Hampton court (by the decease of k. Henry (55) his father) began his raigne the 28 of January, and was proclaimed k. of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, and of the churches of England and also of Ireland the supreme head immedlatly in earth under God, & on the last day of January, in the yere of Christ after the Church of England 1546 but after the accompt of them that begin the yere at Chatfimas 1547 being then of the age of nine yéeres. And the same day in the afternoone the saide young king came to the tower of London from Hertford, and rode into the City at Aldgate, and so along the wall by the crossed Friars to the Tower hill, & entred at the red bulwarke, where be was received by sir John Gage (67) constable of the tower, and the lieutenant on horseback, the Earle of Hertford (47) riding before the king, and sir Anthony Browne (47) riding after him: and on the bridge next the warde gate, the archbishop of Canterbury (57), the lorde Chancellor (41), with other great lords of the Councell received him, and so brought him to his chamber of pretence, there they were sworne to his majesty.

Around 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 Around 1546 Unknown Painter. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. Around 1547. Workshop of Master John Painter. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. Around 1535 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550.

John Stow's Annales of England Edward VI 1547. The first daie of February the earle of Hertford (47) lord protector in the tower of London, endued King Edward (9) with the order of knighthod: and then immediatly the king standing up, under the cloth of estate, Henry Hoblethorne lord Major of London was called, who kneeling downe, the king toke the sword of the lord protector and made him knight, which was the first that ever he made. Then the lords called the judges and communed with them, and then every one of them came before the king, who put forth his hand,and every of them kissed it: then master William Porteman one of the judges of the kings bench was called forth, whom the king made knight, and then the king moving his cap departed to his privie chamber againe.

On 16 Jan 1549 Thomas Seymour (41), the King's (11) uncle, was caught trying to break in to the King's (11) apartments at Hampton Court Palace. He entered the privy garden and awoke one of the King's pet spaniels. In response to the dog's barking, he shot and killed it. He was arrested and taken to the Tower of London.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (49) was arrested on various charges, including embezzlement at the Bristol mint.

On 13 Oct 1549 John Thynne 1515-1580 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In Nov 1549 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (29) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 1585 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636 (attributed). Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. After 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His left-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

In 1551 Edward Seymour 1529-1593 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In Sep 1551 Edward Waldegrave 1517-1561 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London for refusing to carry out the Privy Council's ban on Princess Mary (35) her having mass said in her house.

John Stow's Annales of England 1551. 16 Oct 1551. The 16, of October, Edward Seimer Duke of Somerset (51), the Lord Gray of Wilton (42), Sir Ralph Vane, Sir Thomas Palmer, Sir Myles Partridge, Sir Michael Stanhope (44), Sir Thomas Arundell (49) knightes, and divers other Gentlemen, were brought to the Tower of London. The next morrowe, the Dutchesse of Somerset (54) was also brought to the Tower.

The liberties of the Stilpard were ceased into the kings hands for divers causes forfeited, contrarie to the enter-course.

On 16 Oct 1551 John Thynne 1515-1580 (36) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 06 Nov 1551. The 6 of November the sayd Scottishe Quene departed toward Scotland, and rode from Pawles through all the high streates London and out at Bishops-gate, accompanyed with diuers noble Scotland, men and women, to bringe her through the Citye to Shordich Church; the Duke of Northumberlande (47) havinge standinge of horsemen in Cheapsyde with jauelinges, iC [Note. One hundred] persons, wherof xl [Note. 40] gentlemen were apparayled in black velvet and white feathers, and chaines of gold about their neckes; next them stoode vixx [Note. 120 ie 6x20] horsmen of the Earle of Pembrookes (50), with blacke jauelinges and hattes with feathers; next them stoode ic. [Note. 100] of the Lord Treasurers gentlemen and yeomen with jauelinges allso, which 3 rankes of horsemen compassed from the Crosse in Cheape to Birchin Lane ende. And when the sayd nobles had brought hir to Shordich Church, there they tooke their leaue, and departed home againe. The Sheriffes of London had the conduction of her to Waltham townes ende, where the shires of Middlesex and Essex parteth; and harbingers [were] sent afore into euery shyre to the borders to Scotland, that every sheriffe in euery shyre, accompanyed with the gentlemen of the country, [should] receaue her, and make provision in euery shyre for hir meates, both for hirselfe, familie, and horses, till she come to the borders of Scotland, at the charges of the Kinges Maiestie the shyres that she should passe thorough till she be in Scotland, euery shire for theyr owne precinct; this first night she lodged in Waltham towne.

The Earle of Arundell and the Lord Pagett (45) sent to the Tower.

Around 1560 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570. In 1549 Unknown Painter. Flemish. Portrait of William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert 1506-1563.

Chronicle of Greyfriars King Edward VI. 01 Dec 1551. Item the furst day of day of December was browte the deuke of Somersett (51) owte of the towre by watter at v. a clocke in the mornynge, and j. or ij. drownyd by the waye in the Tems betweene the tower and Westmester; and there he (was) araynyd before the cowncell, and so pletyd for hym selfe that he was qwytt for the treson, and corny tted unto the tower of London agayne.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 01 Dec 1551. The first daye of December, beinge Tuesday, the Duke of Somersett (51) was had from the Tower of London by water and shott London bridge at v of the clocke in the morninge, and so went to Westminster, where was made ready a great scaffold in Westminster Hall, and there the sayd Duke appeared, afore the Lordes and Peeres of the Realme, the Lord William Pawlet (68), Marques of Winchester and Lord High Treasurer of England, that daye sittinge under the cloath of estate as High Stuard of England; the indytement of the sayd duke beinge read, he was imedyately arraigned on the same for felony and treason, and after tryed by his peeres the nobles there presenta, which did quitt him of the treason but found him guilty of the felonyb, whereupon after their verdite giuen he had iudgment giuen to be had [thence to] the place [he came from] and from thence to the place of execution, there to be hanged till he were dead; but the people in the hall, supposinge that he had bene clerely quitt, when they see the axe of the Tower put downe, made such a shryke and castinge up of caps, that it was hard into the Longe Acre beyonde Charinge Crosse, and allso made the Lordes astonyed, and word likewise sent to London, which the people reioysed at; and about v of the clocke at night the sayd Duke landed at the Crane in the Vintre, and so [was] had thorough Can[dle]wyke Streete to the Tower, the people cryinge God saue him all the way as he wentj thinkinge that he had clerely bene quitt, but they were deceyued, but hoopinge he should haue the Kinges pardon.

Note a. His judges were Northumberland (47), Northampton (39), Pembroke (50), and the other leading members of the government, — the very parties against whom he was said to have conspired, — and the witnesses against him were not produced, bnt only their written depositions read, as was frequently the custom in those days.

Note b. For having designed the killing of the Duke of Northumberland (47) and the others, although on consideration he had determined to abandon it; "yet," adds Edward VI. in his Journal, "he seemed to confess he went about their death."

Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 wearing his Garter Collar and Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571.

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Chronicle of Greyfriars King Edward VI. 02 Dec 1551. Item the nexte day was the lorde Gray with dyvers other that ware in the tower was browte unto Westmester unto the starre chamber, and sent home agayne.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 5th Year 1551-1552. 20 Dec 1551. The 20 of December, beinge Sonday, in the afternone Doctor Dunstall (77), Bishop of Durham, which had lyen longe at his place by Coldharber, in Thames Streete, was had to the Tower of London.

Chronicle of Greyfriars King Edward VI. 20 Dec 1551. Item the xxti day of December was sorne [Note. sworn] the byshoppe of Ely lorde [chancellor of Engla]nd.

Item that same day was the muster of the dewke of Somersettes servanttes before [the king at] Totylle also.

Item the same day was comytted unto the tower the byshopp [of Dur]hame Cudberte Tunstalle (77).

In Sep 1552 Anne Calthorpe 2nd Countess Sussex 1521-1578 (31) was imprisoned at the Tower of London for practising sorcery

On 19 Dec 1552 John Seymour 1527-1552 (25) died at Tower of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1553. 11 Apr 1553. [The xj day of April the King (15) removed from Westminster by water to Greenwich; and passed by the] Towre, and ther wher a [great shot of guns and] chamburs, and all the shypes shott of gonnes [all the way to] Ratclyff, and ther the iij shypes that was rygyng [there, appointed to go] to the Nuw-fouland, and the ij pennons shott gunnes and chamburs a grett nombur.

06 Jul 1553. KING EDWARD (15) died at Greenwich, on the 6th July 1553, "towards night."a The event was kept perfectly secret during the next day;b but measures were taken to occupy and fortify the Tower of London.c On "the 8. of July the lord maior of London was sent for to the court then at Greenwich, to bring with him sixe aldermen, as many merchants of the staple, and as many merchant adventurers, unto whom by the Councell was secretly declared the death of king Edward, and also how hee did ordaine for the succession of the Crowne by his letters pattents, to the which they were sworne, and charged to keep it secret."d

a. Letter of the council to sir Philip Hoby (48), ambassador with the emperor, printed in Strype's Memorials, 1721, ii. 430. It was not written until the 8th of the month, and is silent regarding the successor to the throne. Mary (37), in her letter to the lords of the council, dated from Kenynghall on the 9th of July (printed in Foxe's Actes and Monuments), also states that she had learned from some advertisement that the king her brother had died on Thursday (the 6th) at night last past.

b. Northumberland's (49) intention was to keep the death of the king (15) a secret, until he should have obtained possession of the person of the lady Mary (37), who had been summoned to visit her brother, and was at no further distance from London than the royal manor of Hunsdon in Hertfordshire. But there were not wanting about the court those who from attachment to Mary, or from self-interest, ventured to incur the hazard of conveying to her this momentous intelligence ; whereupon she immediately took alarm, and rode off towards the eastern coast, from which she might have escaped to the continent, had such a step become necessary. Many writers assert that it was the earl of Arundel (41) who made a private communication to her. I have not found any contemporary authority for this statement ; but sir Nicholas Throckmorton (38), in his poetical autobiography (MS. Cole, vol xl. p. 272, verses 111, 112, 113, 114), claims the credit of having been the officious person. He had been a favourite servant of king Edward ; and on his royal master's death,

" Mourning, from Greenwich I didd strayt departe

To London, to an house which bore our name.

My bretheren guessed by my heavie hearte

The King was dead, and I confess'd the same:

The hushing of his death I didd unfolde,

Their meaninge to proclaime queene Jane I tolde.

And, though I lik'd not the religion

Which all her life queene Marye hadd profest,

Yett in my mind that wicked motion

Right heires for to displace I did detest.

Causeless to proffer any injurie,

I meant it not, but sought for remedie.

Wherefore from four of us the newes was sent,

How that her brother hee was dead and gone;

In post her goldsmith then from London went,

By whome the message was dispatcht anon.

Shee asked, ' If wee knewe it certainlie ? '

Whoe said, ' Sir Nicholas knew it verilie.'

The author bred the errand's greate mistrust:

Shee fear'd a traine to leade her to a trapp.

Shee saide, ' If Robert had beene there shee durst

Have gag'd her life, and hazarded the happ.'

Her letters made, shee knewe not what to doe:

Shee sent them oute, butt nott subscrib'd thereto."

By "Robert" the lady Mary meant sir Robert Throckmorton, one of the four brothers.

c. See the Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 35. for 07 July 1553.

d. It appears most probable that this was the first intimation which the citizens had received of the existence of the letters patent : and that it was on this occasion that, being " sworn to them," they affixed their signatures, although the document had been previously executed on the 21st of June. No fewer than thirty-two signatures follow that of the lord mayor, but the parties were perhaps not all citizens, and from the arrangement of their names in the existing transcript (mentioned in the following note b ) it would be difficult to distinguish which were the aldermen, which the merchants of the staple, and which the merchant adventurers.

Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Ambassador Philip Hoby 1505-1558. In 1550 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 with the motto Invidia Torquet Autorem meaning Let envy torment its author. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580. Around 1562 Unknown Painter. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Nicholas Throckmorton 1515-1571.

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After 10 Jul 1553 Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1560 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

10 Jul 1553. The 10. of July, in the afternoone, about 3. of the clocke, lady Jane (17) was convayed by water to the Tower of London, and there received as queene.a After five of the clocke, the same afternoone, was proclamation made of the death of king Edward the sixt, and how hee had ordained by his letters pattents bearing date the 21. of June last pastb that the lady Jane should be heire to the Crowne of England, and the heire males of her body, &c.

a. Dr. Peter Heylyn, in his History of the Reformation, fol. 1674, p. 159, has described the interview supposed to have taken place between the dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk and their daughter the lady Jane, when they waited upon her on the morning of the 10th of July, and then first made known to her the fatal diadem to which she was destined. The scruples of the gentle heiress were overcome with much difficulty, and the whole course of argument, pro et contra, is stated at considerable length. I believe, however, that this is only one of those dramatic scenes in which historical writers formerly considered themselves justified in indulging, as I have not been able to trace it to any earlier authority. Its verisimilitude may indeed be justified by the passage of the duke of Northumberland's speech recorded by our present chronicler (p. 6), "Who, by your and our enticement, is rather of force placed therein, than by her own seeking and request." However, having been adopted by the writer of the Life of Lady Jane Grey in the Biographia Britannica, it is followed as authentic history by many subsequent writers. The more recent authors (including sir Harris Nicolas, Mr. P. F. Tytler, and Mr. Aungier the historian of Syon-house and Isleworth) have placed the scene of this interview at Syon ; but Heylyn himself fixed it at Durham-house in the Strand : which was the duke of Northumberland's town mansion, and where the lady Jane's marriage had been celebrated only a few weeks before. Here Heylyn might well suppose she would be lodged at this critical period of her father-in-law's conspiracy. The fact, however, seems to have been otherwise. In the chronicle of the Grey Friars (which will be found in the Appendix) she is stated to have come down the river from Richmond to Westminster, and so to the Tower of London. If, then, she was supposed to have come from Richmond, she may very well have come from Syon, which was also at this time in the hands of the duke of Northumberland.

b. Scarcely any of our historical writers show an acquaintance with these letters patent, though they have been conversant with the substance of them from the recital which is made in queen Jane's proclamation. A copy of the letters patent exists among Ralph Starkey's collections in the Harl. MS. 35, bearing this attestation : " This is a true coppie of Edward the Sixte his Will [this terme is misapplied], takene out of the original! undere the greate scale, which sir Robart Cottone delyvered to the King's Ma tie the xij th of Apprill 1611 at Roystorne to be canseled." From this source the document is printed, in connection with the lady Jane's trial, in Cobbett's State Trials ; and Mr. Howard, in his Lady Jane Grey and her Times, pp. 213-216, has described its contents.

It is set forth in these letters patent that the king intended to complete this settlement of the crown by making a will, and by act of Parliament : thus following the precedent of his father Henry the Eighth's settlement, which this was to supersede (see an essay by the present writer in the Archaeologia, vol. xxx. p. 464). But the rapid termination of king Edward's illness prevented these final acts of ratification ; and Northumberland, in consequence, could only rely upon the validity of the letters patent, which had passed the great seal upon the 21st of June.

There are, besides the letters patent, two other documents extant, marking the earlier stages of this bold attempt to divert the succession.

1. The king's " own devise touching the said succession." This was "first wholly written with his most gracious hand, and after copied owt in his Majesties presence, by his most high commandment, and confirmed with the subscription of his Majesties owne hand, and by his highnes delivered to certain judges and other learned men to be written in full order." It was written in six paragraphs, to each of which Edward attached his signature. Burnet has printed the whole in his History of the Reformation, Documents, book iv. no. 10, from the MSS. of Mr. William Petyt, now in the Inner Temple Library. Strype, in the Appendix to his Life of Cranmer, has printed the first four clauses only, from the same manuscript, the fifth and sixth having, as Burnet remarks, been erased with a pen, but not so as to render them illegible nor was it intended to cancel them, for they are followed in the letters patent.

2. An instrument of the Council, undated, but signed at the head by the King, and at its close by twenty-four councillors, &c. in which they " promise by their oaths and honors to observe, fully perform, and keep all and every article, branch, and matter contained in the said writing delivered to the judges and others." This also is printed both by Burnet and Strype.

Besides these documents, three very important papers in reference to this transaction are, 1. the narrative of chief justice Montagu, printed in Fuller's Church History ; 2. sir William Cecill's submission to queen Mary, printed in Howard's Lady Jane Grey and Tytler's Reigns of Edward VI. and Mary ; and 3. his servant Alford's statement as to Cecill's conduct at this crisis, written in 1573, and printed in Strype 's Annals, vol. iv. p. 347.

Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Jane

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12 Jul 1553. The 12. of July word was brought to the Councell, being then at the Tower with the lady Jane (17), that the lady Mary was at Keninghall castle in Norfolk, and with her the earle of Bath (54), sir Thomas Wharton (33) sonne to the lord Wharton (58), sir John Mordaunt (45) sonne to the lord Mordaunt (73), sir William Drury (3),a sir John Shelton (50), sir Henry Bedingfield (44), master Henry Jerningham (41), master John Sulierde, master Richard Freston, master sergeant Morgan, master Clement Higham of Lincolnes inne, and divers others ; and also that the earle of Sussex and master Henry Ratcliffe his sonne were comming towards her : whereupon by speedy councell it was there concluded, that the duke of Suffolk, with certaine other noblemen, should goe towards the lady Mary, to fetch her up to London. This was first determined ; but by night of the same day the said voyage of the duke of Suffolke was cleane dissolved by the speciall meanes of the lady Jane his daughter, who, taking the matter heavily, with weeping teares made request to the whole councell that her father might tarry at home in her company : whereupon the councell perswaded with the duke of Northumberland to take that voyage upon him, saying that no man was so fit therefor, because that he had atchieved the victory in Norfolke once already,b and was therefore so feared, that none durst once lift up their weapon against him : besides that, he was the best man of warre in the realme ; as well for the ordering of his campes and souldiers both in battell and in their tents, as also by experience, knowledge, and wisedome, he could animate his army with witty perswasions, and also pacific and alay his enemies pride with his stout courage, or else to disswade them if nede were from their enterprise. " Well (quoth the duke then) since ye thinke it good, I and mine will goe, not doubting of your fidelity to the quenes majestie, which I leave in your custodie." So that night hee sent for both lords, knights, and other that should goe with him, and caused all things to be prepared accordingly. Then went the councell in to the lady Jane and told her of their conclusion, who humbly thanked the duke for reserving her father at home, and beseeched him to use his diligence, whereto he answered that hee would doe what in him lay.

a. Sir William Drury, for his services " at Framlingham," received, by patent dated the 1st Nov. following, an annuity of 100 marks : see it printed in Rymer's Foedera, xv. 352. A like annuity of 200 marks was granted on the 14th Nov. to Thomas West lord la Warre for his services against the duke (ibid. p. 352) ; one of 100. on the 4th Dec. to sir Richard Southwell (ibid. p. 355) ; and one of 501. on the 10th Feb. to Francis Purefay for his services at Framlingham (ibid. p. 365). Probably many others, unnoticed by Rymer, are recorded on the Patent Rolls.

b. In the suppression of Kett's rebellion.

Around 1587. Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Drury 1550-1590.

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Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 12 Jul 1553. The xij day [of] July by nyght, was cared to the Towre iij carts [full of all] maner of ordenans, as gret gune and smalle, bowes, bylls, speres, mores-pykes, arnes, arowes, gunpowther, and wetelle, monay, tentes, and all maner of ordenans, gunstones a gret nombur, and a grett nombur of men of armes; and yt had been for a gret army toward Cambryge; and ij days after the duke, and dyvers lordes and knyghts whent with him, and mony gentylmen and gonnars, and mony men of the gard and men of armes toward my lade Mare grace, to destroye here grace, and so to Bury, and alle was agayns ym-seylff, for ys men forsok hym .... and of dyvers maters, and so in dyvers plases .... contres was her grace proclamyd quen of [England.]

13 Jul 1553. About this tyme or therabouts the vj. shippes that were sent to lie befor Yarmothe, that if she had fled to have taken hir, was by force of wether dreven into the haven, w(h)er about that quarters one maister Gerningham was ray sing power on quene Maryes (37) behalfe, and hering therof came thether. Wherupon the captaynes toke a bote and went to their shipes. Then the marynours axed maister Gernyngham what he wolde have, and wether he wolde have their captaynes or no ; and he said, " Yea, mary." Saide they, " Ye shall have theym, or els we shall throwe theym to the bottom of the sea." The captaynes, seing this perplexity, saide furthwith they wolde serve quene Mary gladlie ; and so cam fourthe with their men, and convayed certeyn great ordenaunce ; of the which comyng in of the shipes the lady Mary and hir company were wonderfull joyous, and then afterwarde doubted smaly the duke's puisance. And as the comyng of the shipes moche rejoyced quene Mary's party, even so was it as great a hart-sore to the duke (49), and all his campe, whose hartes wer all-redy bent agaynst him. But after once the submyssyon of the shipes was knowne in the Towera eche man then began to pluck in his homes ; and, over that, worde of a greater mischief was brought to the Tower the noblemen's tenauntes refused to serve their lordes agaynst quene Mary. The duke he thought long for his succours, and writ somewhat sharplie to the counsayll here in that behalfe, aswell for lacke of men as munytion : but a slender answer he had agayn.

a. This passage, together with those that follow, shows that the Chronicler was still writing in the Tower of London.

. By this tyme worde was broughte to the quene (17) at the Tower that sir Edmonde Peckham (58), sir Edward Hastings (32), and the lorde Windsore (54), with others, were upp proclayming quene Mary (37) in Buckinghamshire.a

a. See the commissions addressed to several commanders to suppress the rebellion in Buckinghamshire, in the Catalogue of State Papers of the reign of queen Jane in the Appendix.

16 Jul 1553. The xvj th daye of July the lorde highe treasurer (70)c was going to his howse in London at night, and about vij. of the clocke the gates of the Tower upon a sudden was shut, and the keyes caryed upp to the quene Jane (17) ; but what the cause was I knowe not. The noyes in the Tower was that ther was a seale lackinge ; but many men thought they surmysed that but the truthe was she feared some packinge in the lorde treasurer, and so they dyd fetch him at xij. of the clocke in the night from his house in London into the Tower.

c. The marquess of Winchester (70).

On 25 Jul 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (49), John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick 1527-1554 (26), Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 (21), Guildford Dudley 1535-1554 (18), Andrew Dudley 1507-1559 (46), Henry Dudley 1531-1557 (22) and Henry Manners 2nd Earl Rutland 1526-1563 (26) and Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1560 (39) were imprisoned at the Tower of London for supporting Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554 (17).

In 1587 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 wearing his Garter Collar.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 27 Jul 1553. The xxvij day of July the duke of Suffoke (36), maister [Cheke] (39) the kynges scolmaster, maister Coke, (and) ser John Yorke (43), to the Towre.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 31 Jul 1553. The xxxj day of July was delevered owt of the Towre the duke of Suffoke (36); and the sam day rod thrugh London my lade Elssabeth (19) to Algatt, and so to the qwens (37) grace her sester, with a M1. hors with a C. velvett cotes.

The sam tyme cam to the Flett the yerle of Ruttland (26) and my lord Russell (68), in hold. The qwen('s) (37) grace mad [sir Thomas] Jarnyngham [Note. Thomas a mistake for Henry] vyce-chamburlayn and captayne of the garde, and ser Edward Hastyngs (32) her grace mad ym the maister of the horsse the sam tym.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 03 Aug 1553. [The iij day of August the Queen (37) came riding to London, and so to the Tower; making her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged,] and a grett nombur of stremars ha[nging about the said gate;] and all the strett unto Ledynhalle and unto the [Tower were laid with] graffvell, and all the crafts of London stood [in a row, with] ther banars and stremars hangyd over ther heds. Her grace cam, and a-for her a M1. velvet cotes and [cloaks] in brodere, and the mar of London bare the mase [mace], and the erle of Arundell (41) bare the sworde, and all the trumpets [blowing]; and next her my lade Elssabeth (19), and next her the duches of Norffoke (56), and next her the marqwes of Exseter (50), [and other] lades; and after her the aldermen, and then the gard with bowes and gaffylens, and all the reseduw departyd [at Aldgate] in gren and whyt, and red and whyt, and bluw and gren, to the nombur of iij M1. horse and speres and gaffelyns.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 05 Aug 1553. The v day of August cam to the Towre doctur dene of Westmynster, master Cokes (60).

The sam day cam out of the Marsalsay the old bysshop of London, Bonar (53), and dyvers bysshopes bryng hym home unto ys plasse at Powlles; and doctur Cokes (60) whent to the sam plasse in the Marselsay that the bysshope was in.

In 1571 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Bishop Richard Cox 1493-1581. In 1577 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Bishop Richard Cox 1493-1581.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 06 Aug 1553. The vj day of August cam in-to the Towre, from [Calais, ser] Hare Dudley (36), that was gohyng in-to Franse.

On 30 Sep 1553 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) made her formal journey from the Tower of London to Westminster Abbey. She was accompanied by Mary Roper 1523-1572 (30).

Bishop George Day 1501-1556 (52) preached.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1553. 03 Oct 1553. The iiij day of October was cared to the Towre the archebysshope of Yorke (71), and dyvers odur to (blank)

In 1554 Edward Rogers Comptroller 1498-1568 (56) was imprisoned at the Tower of London for his Protestant beliefs. He was released in January 1555 and pardoned in July on payment of £1,000 to keep the peace.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 13 Jan 1554. The xiij day of January ther was a man drane from the Towre thrugh London a-pone a sled unto Tyborne, and ther hangyd, dran, and quartered, for conterffeytyng the quen('s) senett [signet].

The sam day was had to the Flett doctur Crom, persun of Aldermare, for [preaching on Christmas-day without licenced]

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 14 Jan 1554. The xiiij day of January was had to the Towre master Hadyntun, dwellyng in Bouge-rowe, and all ys goods seysenyd for the quen and in the contrey for proffessyng of serten [heretical doctrines.]

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 12 19 Feb 1554. 19 Feb 1554. Gaspard Schetz to the Queen Dowager.

Madam: Although I believe your Majesty to be informed of occurrences in England, I am unwilling not to send you the news that have reached us this morning in a letter of the 15th instant. It relates that the Queen has caused the rebels to be punished: the Lady Jane (18) and her husband (19), the Duke of Suffolk's (37) son, have been decapitated; the White Rose (27) has been sent back to the Tower, where are also the Duke of Suffolk (37) with two of his brothers [Note. Thomas Grey -1554 and John Grey 1524-1564 (30)] and guilty lords to the number of 27. They write that, of the soldiers who abandoned the Duke of Norfolk (81) on the field and joined the rebels, 40 have been hanged and 200 more condemned to the same penalty. They say that the said Duke has died in his own country. The Earl of Pembroke (53) has been sent down to Kent with 300 light horse to discover who took part in the rebellion and execute justice. This, Madam, is the substance of what I have heard, together with a report that it is being said in England that my Lord our Prince is to come with 8,000 Spanish soldiers, about which the English are not best pleased.

They say the Queen is sending hither an ambassador, the Viscount Fitzwalter (47) (Fewaters), who will be able to give your Majesty more trustworthy information.

Antwerp, 19 February, 1554.

Copy. French. Printed by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.

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Diary of Henry Machyn March 1554. 14 Mar 1554. The xiiij day of Marche was in Aldergat-stret a woy[ce heard] in a walle that dyd spyke unto serten pepull, the wyche .... was complenyd unto my lord mayre, and so after yt was [made] knowen by dyvers what ther wher, and after cared unto [prison,] as Nugatt contur and the Towre.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 15 Mar 1554. 15 Mar 1554. The xv of Marche Wyatt (33), capteyn of the rebells, was arregned at Westminster and there condemned of highe treason.

And the same daye the Earle of Devonshire (27) was committed agayne to the Tower.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1554. 18 Mar 1554. The xviij day of Marche was kared to the Towre of London my lade Elsabeth('s) (20) grace, the quen('s) (38) syster, a-for none.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1554. 24 Mar 1554. The xxiiij day of Marche was delevered owt of the Towre and had the quen('s) (38) pardon the lord marques of Northamtun (42), my lord Cobham (57), and ij of ys sunes, and dyvers odur mo.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 25 Apr 1554. 25 Apr 1554. The 25 of Aprill the jurie that quitt Sir Nicholas Throckmorton appeared before the Lord Chauncellor and the Queens Councell in the Starre Chamber at Westminster and were committed to warde. Thomas Whetstone, haberdasher, which was the foreman of the jurie, and Emanuell Lucare, marchant taylor, were sent to the Tower of London, and all the rest of the jurie were sent to the Fleete.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 18 May 1554. 18 May 1554. Fridaye the xviiith of May William Thomas was drawne from the Tower of London to Tiburne, and there hanged, headed, and quartered, and after his head sett on London Bridge, and his quarters sett in 4 severall places, one myle out of the Cittie of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 18 May 1554. The xviij day of May was drane a-pone a sled a proper man namyd Wylliam Thomas from the Towre unto Tyborne; the .. he was clarke to the consell; and he was hangyd, and after ys hed stryken of, and then quartered; and the morow after ys hed was sett on London bryge, and iij quarters set over Crepullgate.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 19 May 1554. 19 May 1554. The xixth of May, beinge Saterday and the eeven of the feast of the Holie Trinitie, Ladye Elizabeth (20) was had out of the Tower and went thorowe London Bridge in her barge at 3 of the clock in the afternoone, lyeinge at Richmond that night; and from thence conveyed to Woodstock, Mr. Benyfield (45)b, Lorde Williams of Tame, and Sir Leonard Chamberlayne, waytinge on her, with iic horsemen, there to remayne at the Queenes pleasure.

b. Sir Henry Bedingfield (45), the recently appointed Constable of the Tower.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 25 May 1554. The xxv day of May, wyche was the sam day, whent owt of the Towre northwarde the yerle of Devonshyre (27), and cared into Northhamtunshyre to a castyll called Fotheringay with serten of the gard, and dyvers knyghtes, by iij and iiij of the cloke in the mornyng.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 27 May 1554. The xxvij day of May whent owt of the Towre unto Westmynster hall by land, and cam my lord John Gray (30), the duke of Suffoke['s] (37) brodur latt beheddyd.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1554. 02 Oct 1554. The ij day October whent from Westmynster xx carres with veges [wedges] of gold and sylver to the Towre to be quennyd [coined].

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1555. 18 Jan 1555. The sam day whent to the Towre my lord chansseler (72), and dyvers odur lordes and of the conselle, and delyvered a nomber presonars, as ther names folowes—ser James a Croft (37), ser Gorge Harper, ser Gawynn Carow, ser Necolas Frogmortun (40), master Vaghan, ser Edward Varner, Gybbs, the bysshope of Yorke, master Rogers (50), and dyvers odur presonars, and after ther was a gret shottyng of gones.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1555. 18 Mar 1555. The xviij day of Marche was browth to the Towre owt of Cambryge-shyre master Bowes, master Cutt, and master Hynd, and dyvers odur, for a nuw conspyrase, the wyche shuld have byne don in Suffoke and odur plases.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1555. 10 Dec 1555. The x day of Desember was had to the Towre ser Anthony Kyngston (47) knyght, and to the Flett, and cam owt a-gayn shortely aft

In 1557 Robert Oxenbridge 1508-1574 (49) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1557. 28 Jan 1557. The xxviij day of January was had to the Towre my lorde Sturton (37) for murder of ij gentyllmen, the father and the sune and ere [heir], master Argylles[Hartgill] and ys sune, the wyche was shamfully murdered in ys own plasse.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1557. 17 Feb 1557. The xvij day of Feybruary was my lord Sturton (37) cam from the Towre, and one of ys men, unto Westmynster a-for the consell and juges, and ther the evydens was declared a-for ys owne face that he cold nott deny ytt.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1557. 18 Feb 1557. The xviij day of Feybruary cam from the Towre unto my lord of Preve-selle a-for serten of the consell, iiij of my lord Sturtun('s) (37) servandes, and ther thay where examynyd of the deth of master Argyll and ys sune; and after they wher cared bake a-gayne by iiij of the gard unto the (Tower).

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1557. 26 Feb 1557. The xxvj day of Feybruary was rayned at Westmynster halle my lord Sturton (37), and for the juges and dyvers of the consell, as lord justes Broke, and the lord stuard, and my lord tresorer (74), and dyvers odur lordes and knyghtes; and longe yt wher or he wold answer, and so at last my lord justes stod up and declaryd to my lord and he wold nott answer to the artyculles that was led [laid] to hym, that he shuld be prast [pressed] to deth by the law of the rayme [realm]; and after he dyd answer, and so he was cast by ys owne wordes to be hangyd, and ys iiij men, and so to be cared to the Towre a-gayne tyll thay have a furder commondement from the consell.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1557. 02 Mar 1557. The ij day of Marche rod from the Towre my lord Sturtun (37) with ser Robart Oxinbryge (49) the leyff-tenantt, and iiij of my lordes servandes, and with serten of the gard, thrugh London, and so to Honsley, and ther thay lay alle nyght at the seyne of the Angell, and the morow after to Staynes, and so to Bassyng-stoke, and so to Sturtun (37), to sufer deth, and ys iiij men; and to more men for robyng of a ryche farmer in that contrey, to be hangyd, for ther was layd by the sam farmer a-for the consell that a knyght and ys men dyd rob him, and the knyght was layd in the Flett tylle yt plessyd God that the theyff was taken; the knyght ys nam ys callyd ser [blank] Wrothun knyght.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 03 May 1557. [The iij day of May came five persons to the Tower, the chief of those that had taken the] castylle of Skarborow in Yorke-shyre, [viz. Stafford (24), Saund]urs, Seywelle, and Prowtter, and a Frenche man.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 22 May 1557. The xxij day of May cam owt of the Towre .... vj presonars, on Thomas Stafford (24), and captayn Sanders, Seywell and Prowther, and a Frencheman, and one othur; wher cast v, and so cared to the Towre agayn [through] London by land, the wyche thay cam from ...

Before 28 May 1557 Thomas Stafford 1533-1557 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1558. 28 Nov 1558. [The xxviijth day of November the Queen (25) removed to the Tower from the lord North's] plasse, (which) was the Charter Howsse. [All] the stretes unto the towre of London was newe gravelled. Her grace rod thrugh Barbecan and Crepulgat, by [London-wall] unto Bysshope-gate, and up to Leden-halle and thrugh Gracyus strett and Fanchyrchestrett; and a-for rod gentyllmen and [many] knyghtes and lordes, and after cam all the trumpetes blohyng, and then cam all the haroldes in a-ray; and my lord of Penbroke (57) [bare the] the quen('s) sword; then cam here Grace (25) on horsbake, [apparelled] in purpull welvett with a skarpe [scarf] abowt her neke, and [the serg]anttes of armes abowt here grace; and next after rod [sir] Robart Dudley (26) the master of her horse; and so the gard with halbards. [And] ther was shyche shutyng of gunes as never was hard a-for; so to the towre, with all the nobulles. And so here Grace lay in the towre unto the v day of Dessember, that was sant Necolas evyn. And ther was in serten plasses chylderyn with speches and odur places, syngyng and playing with regalles.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1559. 14 Jan 1559. [The xiv day of January the Queen (25) came in a chariot from] the Towre, with all the lordes and ladies [in crimson] velvet, and and ther horses trapyd with the sam, and [trumpeters in] red gownes blohyng, and all the haroldes in ther cottes armur, and all the strettes stroyd with gravell; and at Grasyus strett a goodly pagantt of kyng [Henry] the viij (67) and quen Ane (58) ys wyff and of ther lenege, and in Cornelle a-nodur goodly pagantt of kyng Henry (67) and kyng Edward the vjth (21); and be-syd Soper lane in [Cheap a]nodur goodly pagantt, and the condyth pentyd; [and] at the lytylle condutt a-nodur goodly pagant of a qwyke tre and a ded, and the quen had a boke gyffyn her ther; and ther the recorder of London and the chamburlayn (38) delevered unto the quen a purse of gold fulle to the waluw of (blank); and so to the Flett strett to the condyt, and ther was a-nodur goodly pagantt of the ij chyrchys; and at Tempylle bare was ij grett gyanttes, the one name was Goott-magott [Gogmagog] a Albaon and the thodur Co(rineus.)

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1559. 03 Apr 1559. The iij day of Aprell the bysshopes and the nuw prychers mett at the abbay a-for my lord keper of the brod seylle, and dyvers of the consell, and ther to gyff a answer of the matter; the sam nyght, my lord bysshope of Wynchester (49) and my lord of Lynkolne (44) was send to the towre of London by the gard by water, to the Old Swane, and to Belynsgatt after.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1559. 26 Jun 1559. The sam day was deprevyd of ther bysshoprykes the bysshope of Wynchestur (49) and the bysshope of Lynckolne (44) at master Hawse the kyng('s) shreyff in Mynsyon lane, and the bysshope of Wynchester (49) to the Towre agayne, and the bysshope of Lynckolne (44) delevered a-way.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1559. 07 Jul 1559. The vij day of July, was sant Thomas of Cantebere day, my good lord of Wynchastur doctur Whytt (49) came owt of the Towre, with the leyftenantt ser Edward Warner (48), by vj [6] in mornyng, and so to my lord keper of the brod selle, and from thens unto master Whyt, John, [possibly Thomas] altherman, and ther he lys.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1559. 10 Aug 1559. The x day of August, the wyche was sant Laurans day, the Quen('s) (25) grace removyd from Non-shyche unto Hamtun cowrte.

The sam day was browth to the Towre Sthrangwys, the rover of the see, and serten odur.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1559. 02 Oct 1559. The ij day of October master Strangwys and v [of his men were] lad from the Towre unto the Masselsay.

In 1560 John de Feckenham aka Howman 1515-1585 (45) was imprisoned at the Tower of London for opposing religious change. He spent the rest of his life imprisoned.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1560. 13 May 1560. The sam day was serten qwynners [coiners] taken and browht a-for the consell, and from thens cared to the Towre.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1560. 20 May 1560. The xx day of May was send to the Towre master Fecknam (45), docthur Wattsun (45) latt byshope of Lynkolne, and docthur Colle (60) latt dene of Powlles, and docthur Chadsay; and at nyght abowtt viij of the cloke was send to the Flett docthur Score (50), and master Fecknam (45) the last abbot of Westmynster, to Towre.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1560. 03 Jun 1560. The iij day of June at nyght whent to the Towre my old lord the byshope of Ely, doctur Thurlbe (54).

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1560. 10 Jun 1560. The sam day was had to the Towre the (arch-)byshope of (York) docthur Heth (59), latt chanseler of Engeland by quen Mare('s) days, and part by quen Elesabeth('s) days.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1560. 18 Jun 1560. The xviij day of June was sent to the Towre secr[etary] Boxhalle unto quen Mare, and doctur Borne latt byshope of Bayth, and docthur Trobullfeld latt byshope of Excetur.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1560. 10 Aug 1560. The x day of August was bered within the Towre withowt a offeser of armes, and (with) master Alley (50) the nuw byshope of Excetur, and the chyrch hangyd with blake and armes, my lade Warner (57), the wyff of ser Edward Warner (49).

After 25 Dec 1560 Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 was imprisoned in the Tower of London for having married Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621.

In 1561 Thomas Wharton 2nd Baron Wharton 1520-1572 (41) was imprisoned for celebrating the Catholic mass at Tower of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1561. Feb 1561. [The day of February was excommunicated Hethe (60),] latt chanseler of England and [arch] byshope of Yorke, he lyung in the Towre.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1561. 22 Apr 1561. The xxij day of Aprell was had to the Towre ser Edward WalgrafF and my lade ys wyff, as good almes-foke as be in thes days, and odur cared thethur.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1561. 10 Jun 1561. [The x day of July the Queen (27) came by water] unto the Towre of London by x [of the clock, until] v at nyght, and whent and sa(w) all her my[nts; and they gave the] Quen serten pesses of gold, and gayff the [lord] of Hunsdon (35) had on, and my lord marques of [Northampton,] (49) and her grace whent owt of the yron gatt [over] Towre hyll unto Algatt chyrche, and so down Hondyche [to the] Spyttyll, and so downe Hoge lane, and so over the feldes to the Charter howse my lord North('s) (65) plase, with trumpetes and the penssyonars and the haroldes of armes and the servantes, and then cam gentyllmen rydyng, and after lordes, and then [the] lord of Hunsdon (35) and bare the sword a-for the quen, and then cam [ladies] rydyng; and the feldes full of pepull, gret nombur [as ever was] sene; and ther tared tylle Monday.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1561. 14 Jun 1561. The xiiij day of June was bered in Essex my lade Wartun, the wyff of ser Thomas Wartun (66), behyng presoner in the towre of London at here deth and berehyng, and master Somersett the harold of armes, a gret baner of armes, and iiij dosen of skochyons of armes, the wyche the good lade ded of a thowgh [cough], and she was as fayre a lade as be, and mony mornars in blake, and grett mone mad for her in the contrey.

On 01 Sep 1561 Edward Waldegrave 1517-1561 (44) died at the Tower of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1561. 01 Sep 1561. The furst day of September ded the good and gentylle knyght ser Edward Walgraff (44) whyle in the Towre, the wyche he was put for herryng of masse and kepyng a prest in ys howse that dyd say masse, and was putt to hys fyne.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1561. 03 Sep 1561. The sam day was bered with-in the Towre, with[-in] the quer be-syd the he [high] auter, by torche lyght, the wyche (confinement) kyld hym, for he was swone vere grett, ser Edward [Walgrave] (44).

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1561. 05 Sep 1561. The v day of September was browth to the Towre the yonge yerle of Harford (22) from the cowrte, a-bowtt ij of the cloke at afternone he cam in-to the Towre.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1561. 08 Sep 1561. The viij day of September cam owt of the Towre my good lade Walgraff (42), and in Red-cross stret she lys.

On 21 Sep 1561 Edward Seymour 1561-1612 was born to Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621 (22) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 (21) at Tower of London. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1561. 25 Sep 1561. The xxv day of September was cristened with-in the Towre my lorde Harford('s) (22) sune by my lade Katheryn Gray (21), late dowther of the duke of Suffoke (44)—Gray.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1561. 14 Nov 1561. The xiiij day of November ther was a procla[mation] of gold and sylver that none shuld be take[n be]twyn man and man butt the Frenche crowne and the Borgo[ndian] crowne and the Flemyche, and that phystelars and Spa[nish] ryalles shuld not goo, butt to cum to the Towre ther to have wheth for wheth [weight for weight], gold and sylver.

Before 18 Nov 1561 Eleanor Stapleton Baroness Wharton -1561 died at the Tower of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1562. 05 Jun 1562. The v day of June the Quen('s) (28) grace removyd from Westmynster unto Grenwyche by water, and ther was grett shutyng of gones at the Tower as her grace whentt, and in odur places.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1562. 28 Jun 1562. The xxviij day of June grett wache at the Towre and at Towrehylle and sant Katharyn's, a C [100] hagabuttes and a C [100] in cossellettes, vj drumes and iiij flages, on sant Peter's evyn last past, and a castylle and sqwybys.

In Oct 1562 or Oct 1563 Arthur Pole of Lordington in Sussex 1531-1570 (32) was imprisoned at the Tower of London with his brothers Edmund Pole of Lordington in Sussex 1541-1570 (21) and Geoffrey Pole of Lordington in Sussex 1546-1591 (16) for conspiring to advance his own or Mary Queen of Scots' (19) claims to the throne of England.

Around 1559 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. In 1576. After Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558.

On 10 Feb 1563 Thomas Seymour 1563-1600 was born to Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621 (23) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 (22) at Tower of London. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1563. 19 Jun 1563. The sam day was browth to the Towre serten .... for ther was capten callyd .... conveyed them away for they [were gone to] Grayff-ende and browth bake to the Towre agayne.

On 11 Aug 1564 Richard Blount of Mapledurham in Oxfordshire 1510-1564 (54) at the Tower of London.

Between Jan 1570 and 12 Aug 1570 Arthur Pole of Lordington in Sussex 1531-1570 (39) died whilst imprisoned at the Tower of London.

Between Jan 1570 and 12 Aug 1570 Edmund Pole of Lordington in Sussex 1541-1570 (29) died whilst imprisoned at the Tower of London.

On 07 Sep 1571 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (35) was imprisoned at Tower of London for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot.

Around Sep 1571 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (43) was implicated in the Ridolphi Plot and imprisoned at home for months.

In 1563 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572.

In Nov 1575 Egremont Radclyffe -1578 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 23 Mar 1581 Edward Vere 1581- was born illegitimately to Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (30) and Anne Vavasour 1560-1650 (21). Both parents were imprisoned in Tower of London the by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (47) as a consequence. Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (30) was released several months later but banished from court until 1583.

Around 1650 based on a work of 1575.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604. Before 1619 Robert Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Anne Vavasour 1560-1650.

On 13 Aug 1584 Edward Waldegrave 1514-1584 (70) died at the Tower of London..

In Dec 1584 Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585 (52) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for a third time.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585.

In Apr 1585 William Dix -1596 was imprisoned for a short time when Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (27) was sent to the Tower of London. Following his release William Dix -1596 continued to visit Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (27), sometimes in the presence of the lieutenant of the Tower, Owen Hopton 1519-1595 (66).

Around 1575 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. Portrait of Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595.

On 25 Apr 1585 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (27) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 21 Jun 1585 Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585 (53) committed suicide at Tower of London. He was found dead in his bed in his cell, having been shot through the heart. A jury was at once summoned, and returned a verdict of suicide. He was buried in St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London. Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl of Northumberland 1564-1632 (21) succeeded 9th Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 11th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 19th Baron Percy of Topcliffe, 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick 2C 1577, 12th Baron Poynings. Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619 (21) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619.

On 27 Feb 1587 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (39) was imprisoned for presenting the Speaker of the House of Commons with a Puritan revision of the Book of Common Prayer and a bill abrogating existing ecclesiastical law at Tower of London.

On 01 Mar 1587 John Puckering 1544-1596 (43) was asked by Peter Wentworth 1529-1596 (58) to answer some questions regarding the liberties of the House. Puckering refused, but showed one of the questions to Thomas Heneage 1532-1595 (55). Wentworth (58), and four other members of parliament who seconded his motion were imprisoned in the Tower of London.

In 1591 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (37) and Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647 (25) were married in secret she probably being pregnant with their first child. When Queen Eizabeth (57) found out they had married without permission she placed them underhouse arrest then sent them to Tower of London.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1598 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1588 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1595 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647.

On 02 Oct 1591 Thomas Fitzherbert 1514-1591 (77) died at Tower of London.

In Aug 1592 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (38) was released from the Tower of London.

On 03 Nov 1592 John Perrot 1528-1592 (63) died at Tower of London whilst awaiting execution.

In 1593 Peter Wentworth 1529-1596 (64) was imprisoned for presenting a petition on the subject of the royal succession at Tower of London.

In 1593 Edward Seymour 1529-1593 (64) died at Tower of London.

On 19 Oct 1595 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (38) died of dysentery at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London, reburied at Arundel Cathedral Arundel and then reburied in the Fitzalan Chapel Arundel Castle. Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 (10) succeeded 21st Earl Arundel Sussex, 4th Earl Surrey 3C 1483, 11th Baron Maltravers 1C 1330, 11th Baron Arundel 1C 1377.

In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. In 1630 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 and wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1629 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646.

On 10 Nov 1596 Peter Wentworth 1529-1596 (67) died at Tower of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1559. After 20 Apr 1599. The (blank) day of Aprell was browth from the Towre unto Westmynster Hall to be reynyd, my lord Wentworth (74), last depute of Calles, for the lossyng of Calles; and ther wher serten of ys a-cussars; but he quytt hym-seylff, thanke be God, and clen delevered, and whent in-to Wytyngtun colege, and ther he lys.

1568. Formerly attributed to Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 2nd Baron Wentworth 1525-1584.

Letters from Sir Robert Cecil to Sir George Carew Section 8 XVII. 05 Feb 1600. Court. To George Carew 1st Earl Totnes 1555-1629 (44).

We have no news but that there is a misfortune befallen Mistris Fitton (21) for she is proved with child, and the E. of Pembroke (19) being examyned confesseth a ffact, but utterly renounceth all marriage. I fear they will both dwell in the Tower awhyle, for the Queen (66) have vowed to send them thether.

When you thing fit you may send over 1076 [Desmond] but retain his patent with yourself. You shall not need to send to know her Ma'ties further pleasure. In many wayes lett not Cashell come over. The more excpectation which 1076 leaveth behynd him o returne the better construction wilbe made of his departure.

Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (36)

Around 1595. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Mary Fitton 1578-1647. 1592. Unknown Painter. Portrait of sisters Anne Fitton 1574-1587 aged eighteen and Mary Fitton 1578-1647 aged fifteen. Before 1630 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke 1580-1630. Around 1602 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612.

On 05 Aug 1600. The Gowrie Conspiracy was an attempt by John Ruthven 3rd Earl Gowrie 1577-1600 (23) and his brother Alexander Ruthven 1580-1600 (20) to kill King James I (34). He, King James, had had their father William Ruthven 1st Earl Gowrie 1541-1584 (57) executed for his part in the Raid of Ruthven eighteen years earlier.

The attempt was botched. John Ruthven 3rd Earl Gowrie 1577-1600 (23) and Alexander Ruthven 1580-1600 (20) were killed, the former by John Ramsay 1st Earl Holderness 1580-1626 (20).

William Ruthven -1622 fled to France.

Patrick Ruthven was imprisoned for nineteen years at the Tower of London.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

On 08 Feb 1601 Thomas Smythe 1558-1625 (43) was visited by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (35) at his house Gracechurch Street. Smythe was later accused of complicity in the Essex Rebellion, he was examined before the Privy Council. He was fired from his office of Sheriff of and committed to the Tower of London.

In 1590 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601. Around 1596 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601. Around 1597 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601.

In Jul 1603 the Main and Bye Plots led by Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham 1564-1618 (38) and Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) sought to replace King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (37) with Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (28).

Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) was sentenced to death, attainted, and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

In 1605 Robert

On 15 Mar 1604 John Acland 1552-1620 (52) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (37) at the Tower of London.

In 1605 Carew Raleigh 1605-1666 was born to Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (51) and Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647 (39) in the Tower of London.

In 1605 Anthony Maria Browne 2nd Viscount Montague 1574-1629 (30) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Around Oct 1605 Edward Stourton 10th Baron Stourton 1555-1633 (50) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for having received a letter from his cousin and brother-in-law Francis Tresham -1605 telling him not to attend Parliament. Nothing was proved against Edward and it emerged that several other Catholic peers had received similar warnings. He was released without charge.

On 22 Jun 1610 William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset 1588-1660 (22) and Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) were married in secret at Palace of Placentia. They were third cousins once removed. For having married without permission King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (44) had Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) imprisoned in Sir Thomas Perry's House Lambeth and he in the Tower of London.

In May 1613 Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683 (1) was caught talking to Thomas Overbury, a prisoner in the Tower of London, and sent to the Fleet Prison for a short time. He was later accused of involvement in Overbury's murder, because he had supplied white powder to his patron, the Earl of Somerset (26), but exonerated.

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683. In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683 and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677. Around 1628 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645.

Letters of the Court of James I 1613 Reverend Thomas Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering Baronet 22 Jul 1613. 22 Jul 1613. London. Reverend Thomas Lorkin to Thomas Puckering 1st Baronet 1592-1637 (21).

In this absence of the court, his majesty being now in progress, I find it [so much lost] time here, as were it not rather out of a will I have to keep my custom of writing weekly, than any store of matter I meet with, to furnish out a just letter, I should altogether rest silent for the present, having no further subject than to let you understand how, upon Saturday last, one Talbot, an Irish doctor in the civil law, was committed prisoner to the Tower, for some bad practices of his in Ireland apon that late dissen- sion which there happened between the English and Irish, touching the choice of a speaker. Though I hear he hath thereunto added this further offence, that being the same day of his imprisonment sent for by the king and [the council], and asked whether he thought it lawful upon any occasion whatsoever, and upon [any cause] to kill, or otherwise consent to the killing of his sovereign? answered, that he held no warrant sufficient for so vile an act. But being thereupon [asked a second] time whether he held it lawful for the subject to depose his prince? made answer in the affirmative, in his majesty's own presence; which is like to aggravate [those] that are against him, whereof I cannot yet learn the particulars.

David Ramsay is a great suitor to be captain of a company in the Low Countries, but withal that his debts may be charged and paid here. In the former, he may haply find good success; but he is like to meet with some difficulty in the latter, the rather for that the king's wants are great at this present.

Sandilands hath been offered a place of equerryship to the prince, and, as is said, refusedi it; but he may wait longer, and succeed worse.

Mr. Csesar (23) hath this last act at Oxford taken the degree of doctor in the civil law, that he might not any longer anticipate so reverend a title. He now holdeth lumself a knight's fellow at least, and that upon sure ground of yea, though his father's condition should nothing advantage him; which I therefore write, that you may see that, howsoever the quintessence of vnts reside chiefly in your quarter, we are not so barren here, but that we can find men capable of sch[olastic] dignities.

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On 14 Sep 1613 Thomas Overbury 1581-1613 (32) died from poisoning at the Tower of London.

On 09 Jul 1614 Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (38) died at Tower of London having been imprisoned for eleven years for his involvement in the Bye Plot. Baron Grey Wilton 1C 1295 extinct.

On 25 Sep 1615 Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (40) died at Tower of London from illnesses exacerbated by her refusal to eat.

On 01 Oct 1615 Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (54) was arrested and imprisoned at the Tower of London.

On 30 Dec 1617 Gervase Clifton 1st Baron Clifton 1570-1618 (47) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for having threatened Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (56) when Francis ordered a survey of Gervase's lands.

In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619, whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 who was attached to the English Embassy at the time. In 1731 (Copy of 1618 original).John Vanderbank Painter 1694-1739. Portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626.

The Autobiography and Correspondence of Sir Simonds D'Ewes 1st Baronet 1602 1650 Volume 1 Chapter X 1621. 03 May 1621. Upon Thursday, May the 3rd, Sir Francis Bacon (60), Lord Verulam and Viscount St. Alhan, who had been exuted of the Lord Chancellor's place the Tuesday foregoing, by the taking of the great seal of England from him, was, for his notorious and base bribery in that place, censured by the Upper House of Parliament, to pay 40,000/. fine1 to the King, to be imprisoned, during his Majesty's pleasure, in the Tower of London, never again to be capable of any place of judicature under his Majesty, or to sit amongst the Peers in the Upper House.

Never had any man in those great places of gain he had gone through, having been Attorney Greneral before he was Lord Chancellor, so ill-husbanded the time, or provided for himself. His vast prodigality had eaten up all his gains; for it was agreed by all men, that he owed at this present at least £20,000 more than he was worth. Had he followed the just and virtuous steps of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Knt., his father, that continued Lord Keeper of the Great Seal some eighteen years under Queen Elizabeth, of ever blessed memory, his life might have been as glorious as by his many vices it proved infamous. For though he were an eminent scholar imd a reasonable good lawyer, both which he much adorned with his eloquent expression of himself and his graced delivery, yet his vices were so stupendous and great, as they utterly obscured and out-poised his virtues. He was immoderately ambitious and excessively proud, to maintain which he was necessitated to injustice and bribery, taking sometimes most basely of both sides. To this latter wickedness the favour he had with the beloved Marquis of Buckingham (28) emboldened him, as I learned in discourse from a gentleman of his bedchamber, who told me he was sure his lord should never fall as long as the said Marquis continued in favour. His most abominable and darling sin, I should rather bury in silence than mention it, were it not a most admirable instance how men are inflamed by wickedness, and held captive by the devil2. He lived, many years after his fall, in his lodgings in Gray's Inn, in Holborn, in great want and penury.

Note 1. Meade, in a note dated May 4th, 1621, says: — "On Monday divers lords were with the Lord Chancellor. The next morning the seal was taken from him, who, at delivering of it up, said, Deus dedit, culpa mea perdidit. Yesterday he was censured to pay to the King for his fine and ransom forty thousand pounds, imprisonment in the Tower during the King's pleasure, and never to sit again in Parliament, not in any court of justice, or be in commission, or ever come within the verge, or within twelve miles of the Court; and escaped degradation narrowly." — MS. Barl. 389. Meade adds, " Sir John Bennet and othen are like to follow. Fiat justitia!"

Note 2. D'Ewes here specifically charges Bacon with on abominable offence, in language too gross for publication. He states that it was supposed by some, that he would have been tried at the bar of justice for it; and says, that his guilt was so notorious while he was at York House, in the Strand, and at his lodgings in Gray's Inn, Holborn, that the following verses were cast into his rooms:

"Within this sty a hog3 doth lie. That must be hang'd for villany."

It is but right to add, that D'Ewes is the only authority for this imputation.

Not 3. Alluding, of course, to his surname of Bacon.

Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper 1510-1579. Before 1628 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. In 1616 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 wearing his Garter Robes and Leg Garter. Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. In 1619 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. Around 1625 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628.

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The Autobiography and Correspondence of Sir Simonds D'Ewes 1st Baronet 1602 1650 Volume 1 Chapter X 1621. 09 Jan 1622. The beginning of January, bringing with it the end of the festival days, I spent in discourses, visits, and such like recreations. Upon Wednesday, the 9th day of January, came out a proclamation for the abortive dissolving of the Parliament, which gave a tincture of sadness to most men's countenances, their hope of the delivery of Clod's Church in Germany being thereby quite dashed, and the poor distressed Protestants of France left to the execution of their merciless enemies. And it fell out very strangely the next day, that the King riding or hunting at Theobald's, was cast headlong from his horse into a pond, and narrowly escaped drowning1.

Sir Edward Coke (69), who had been of the House of Commons in the late Parliament and since about the end of December last foregoing, imprisoned in the Tower, was now granted liberty of walking in any part of it. He was a great common lawyer, had been Attorney General, afterwards Lord Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and lastly Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, out of which place he had been put divers years before upon his attempting to bring the old Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Egerton (82), Lord Ellesmere, within the compass of a premunire. He did notable good service in the House of Commons during the last Parliament, and thereby won much love and credit.

Sir Nathaniel fiich, Mr. Thomas Crew, an able lawyer of Gray's Inn, and divers others that had been members also of the House of Commons, were shortly after sent into Ireland about some business to be despatched there, it being an employment they would all of them have been very glad to miss.

It was strangely reported also at this time, that the Spaniards had promised a restitution of the Palatinate to the Prince Elector, which gave the King, his father-in-law, great content. It is possible that he, hearing of the successful proceedings of the late Parliament, and how much the English desired war, fearing a greater danger, meant really to have performed that promise; hut hearing that it was dissolved to the great grief and discontent of the whole kingdom, they grew secure of any great action to be attempted from hence, and so altered their former resolution, for to this day they could never be drawn to any such restitution.

Note 1. " On Wednesday his Majesty rode by coach to Theobald's to dinner, not intending, as the speech is, to return till towards Easter. After dinner, riding on horseback abroad, his hone stumbled, and catt his Majesty into the New River, where the ice brake; he fell in so that nothing but his boots were seen. Sir Richard Young (42) was next, who alighted, went into the water, and lifted him out. There came much water out of his mouth and body. His Majesty rode back to Theobald's, went into a warm bed, and, as we hear, is well, which God continue," — Harl. MSS. This is also quoted by Sir Henry Ellis.

Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634. 1593. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634.

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The Autobiography and Correspondence of Sir Simonds D'Ewes 1st Baronet 1602 1650 Volume 1 Chapter XI 1622. 04 Sep 1623. On Thursday, the 4th day of September, in the afternoon, I first began studying records at the Tower of London, happening at first upon the charter by which Edward the Confessor confirmed Earl Harold's foundation of Waltham Abbey. From this day forward, I never wholly gave over the study of records; but spent many days and months about it, to my great content and satisfaction; and at last grew so perfect in it, that when I had sent for a copy or transcript of a record, I could, without the view of the original, discover many errors which had slipped from the pen of the clerk. I at first read records only to find out the matter of law contained in them; but afterwards perceiving other excellences might be observed from them, both historical and national, I always continued the study of them after I had left the Middle Temple and given over the study of the common law itself. I especially searched the records of the Exchequer; intending, if God shall permit, and that I be not swallowed up of evil times, to restore to Great Britain its true history, — the exactest that ever was yet penned of any nation in the Christian world. To which pupoae, and for the finishing of divers other lesser works, I have already made many collections, and joined some imperfect pieces of them together.

On 02 Mar 1629 Miles Hobart 1595-1632 (33) locked the door of the House of Commons, against the King's Messenger and was accordingly imprisoned in the Tower of London.

After 18 Dec 1640 William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1631 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645. Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645. Wearing a black Chimere over his white Rochet.

In 1642 Isaac Penington Lord Mayor 1584-1661 (58) was appointed Lieutentant of the Tower of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 November 1643. 12 Nov 1643. After dinner we took horse with the Messagere, hoping to have arrived at Boulogne that night; but there fell so great a snow, accompanied with hail, rain, and sudden darkness, that we had much ado to gain the next village; and in this passage, being to cross a valley by a causeway, and a bridge built over a small river, the rain that had fallen making it an impetuous stream for near a quarter of a mile, my horse slipping had almost been the occasion of my perishing. We none of us went to bed; for the soldiers in those parts leaving little in the villages, we had enough to do to get ourselves dry, by morning, between the fire and the fresh straw. The next day early, we arrived at Boulogne.

This is a double town, one part of it situate on a high rock, or downs; the other, called the lower town, is yet with a great declivity toward the sea; both of them defended by a strong castle, which stands on a notable eminence. Under the town runs the river, which is yet but an inconsiderable brook. Henry VIII, in the siege of this place is said to have used those great leathern guns which I have since beheld in the Tower of London, inscribed, "Non Marte opus est cui non deficit Mercurius"; if at least the history be true, which my Lord Herbert doubts.

The next morning, in some danger of parties [Spanish] surprising us, we came to Montreuil, built on the summit of a most conspicuous hill, environed with fair and ample meadows; but all the suburbs had been from time to time ruined, and were now lately burnt by the Spanish inroads. This town is fortified with two very deep dry ditches; the walls about the bastions and citadel are a noble piece of masonry. The church is more glorious without than within; the market place large; but the inhabitants are miserably poor. The next day, we came to Abbeville, having passed all this way in continual expectation of the volunteers, as they call them. This town affords a good aspect toward the hill from whence we descended: nor does it deceive us; for it is handsomely built, and has many pleasant and useful streams passing through it, the main river being the Somme, which discharges itself into the sea at St. Valery, almost in view of the town. The principal church is a very handsome piece of Gothic architecture, and the ports and ramparts sweetly planted for defense and ornament. In the morning, they brought us choice of guns and pistols to sell at reasonable rates, and neatly made, being here a merchandise of great account, the town abounding in gunsmiths.

Hence we advanced to Beauvais, another town of good note, and having the first vineyards we had seen. The next day to Beaumont, and the morrow to Paris, having taken our repast at St Denis, two leagues from that great city. St. Denis is considerable only for its stately cathedral, and the dormitory of the French kings, there inhumed as ours at Westminster Abbey. The treasury is esteemed one of the richest in Europe. The church was built by King Dagobert, but since much enlarged, being now 390 feet long, 100 in breadth, and 80 in height, without comprehending the cover: it has also a very high shaft of stone, and the gates are of brass. Here, while the monks conducted us, we were showed the ancient and modern sepulchers of their kings, beginning with the founder to Louis his son, with Charles Martel and Pepin, son and father of Charlemagne. These lie in the choir, and without it are many more: among the rest that of Bertrand du Guesclin, Constable of France; in the chapel of Charles V., all his posterity; and near him the magnificent sepulcher of Francis I., with his children, wars, victories, and triumphs engraven in marble. In the nave of the church lies the catafalque, or hearse, of Louis XIII., Henry II, a noble tomb of Francis II, and Charles IX. Above are bodies of several Saints; below, under a state of black velvet, the late Louis XIII., father of this present monarch. Every one of the ten chapels, or oratories, had some Saints in them; among the rest, one of the Holy Innocents. The treasury is kept in the sacristy above, in which are crosses of massy gold and silver, studded with precious stones, one of gold three feet high, set with sapphires, rubies, and great oriental pearls. Another given by Charles the Great, having a noble amethyst in the middle of it, stones and pearls of inestimable value. Among the still more valuable relics are, a nail from our Savior's Cross, in a box of gold full of precious stones; a crucifix of the true wood of the Cross, carved by Pope Clement III., enchased in a crystal covered with gold; a box in which is some of the Virgin's hair; some of the linen in which our blessed Savior was wrapped at his nativity; in a huge reliquary, modeled like a church, some of our Savior's blood, hair, clothes, linen with which he wiped the Apostles' feet; with many other equally authentic toys, which the friar who conducted us would have us believe were authentic relics. Among the treasures is the crown of Charlemagne, his seven-foot high scepter and hand of justice, the agraffe of his royal mantle, beset with diamonds and rubies, his sword, belt, and spurs of gold; the crown of St. Louis, covered with precious stones, among which is one vast ruby, uncut, of inestimable value, weighing 300 carats (under which is set one of the thorns of our blessed Savior's crown), his sword, seal, and hand of justice. The two crowns of Henry IV., his scepter, hand of justice, and spurs. The two crowns of his son Louis. In the cloak-royal of Anne of Bretagne is a very great and rare ruby. Divers books covered with solid plates of gold, and studded with precious stones. Two vases of beryl, two of agate, whereof one is esteemed for its bigness, color, and embossed carving, the best now to be seen: by a special favor I was permitted to take the measure and dimensions of it; the story is a Bacchanalia and sacrifice to Priapus; a very holy thing truly, and fit for a cloister! It is really antique, and the noblest jewel there. There is also a large gondola of chrysolite, a huge urn of porphyry, another of calcedon, a vase of onyx, the largest I had ever seen of that stone; two of crystal; a morsel of one of the waterpots in which our Savior did his first miracle; the effigies of the Queen of Saba, of Julius, Augustus, Mark Antony, Cleopatra, and others, upon sapphires, topazes, agates, and cornelians: that of the queen of Saba16 has a Moorish face; those of Julius and Nero on agates are rarely colored and cut. A cup in which Solomon was used to drink, and an Apollo on a great amethyst. There lay in a window a mirror of a kind of stone said to have belonged to the poet Virgil. Charlemagne's chessmen, full of Arabic characters. In the press next the door, the brass lantern full of crystals, said to have conducted Judas and his company to apprehend our blessed Savior. A fair unicorn's horn, sent by a king of Persia, about seven feet long. In another press (over which stands the picture in oil of their Orléans Amazon with her sword), the effigies of the late French kings in wax, like ours in Westminster, covered with their robes; with a world of other rarities. PARISHaving rewarded our courteous friar, we took horse for Paris, where we arrived about five in the afternoon. In the way were fair crosses of stone carved with fleur-de-lis at every furlong's end, where they affirm St. Denis rested and laid down his head after martyrdom, carrying it from the place where this monastery is builded. We lay at Paris at the Ville de Venice; where, after I had something refreshed, I went to visit Sir Richard Browne (38), his Majesty's Resident with the French king.

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On 05 Dec 1643 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 1648. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644.

In 1644 Anthony Hungerford 1608-1657 (36) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After Aug 1644 Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1645 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (59) was imprisoned although his son Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (29) remained as a hostage until his fine was paid at Tower of London.

In 1648 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (62) was released at Tower of London.

On 03 Sep 1651 at the Battle of WorcesterCharles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21)Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle 1629-1685 (22). In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (28), Thomas Blagge 1613-1660 (38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (60) was captured. Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (36) provided 300 gold pieces to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) following his defeat.

Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet 1624-1693 (27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London.

Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet Musgrave of Eden Hall 1607-1678 (44) fought for th Royalists.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

On 06 Jun 1655 Geoffrey Palmer 1st Baronet 1598-1670 (57) was imprisoned in the Tower of London on suspicion of raising forces against Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (56)..

In 1656 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (65) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 06 Nov 1656 Robert Shirley 4th Baronet Staunton Harold 1623-1656 (33) died from poisoning, probably, in the Tower of London. Seymour Shirley 5th Baronet 1647-1667 (9) succeeded 5th Baronet Staunton Harold in Leicestershire.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 January 1657. 07 Jan 1657. Came Mr. Matthew Wren (28) (since secretary to the Duke (23)), slain in the Dutch war, eldest son to the Bishop of Ely (71), now a prisoner in the Tower; a most worthy and honored gentleman.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

In 1658 Philip Stanhope 2nd Earl Chesterfield 1634-1714 (24) was imprisoned for wounding Captain John Whalley in a duel at Tower of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 31 May 1658. 31 May 1658. I went to visit my Lady Peterborough (55), whose son, Mr. Mordaunt (31), prisoner in the Tower, was now on his trial, and acquitted but by one voice; but that holy martyr, Dr. Hewer, was condemned to die without law, jury, or justice, but by a mock Council of State, as they called it. A dangerous, treacherous time!

On 18 Jun 1660 John Downes Regicide 1609-1666 (51) was arrested for being a signatory of the death warrant of Charles I. On being found guilty of regicide, John Downes was condemned to death in October 1660, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment because he had tried to intervene on the King's behalf and only signed the death warrant after being intimidated by the other commissioners. He spent the rest of his life a prisoner at the Tower of London.

On 22 Apr 1661 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) rode from the Tower of London to Whitehall Palace. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".

Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.

At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.

The procession included the Duke of York (27), the Lord High Constable (58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (53).

The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660 (12).

Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland 1602-1668 and Anne Cecil -1637. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland 1602-1668.

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John Evelyn's Diary 23 April 1661. 23 Apr 1661. Was the coronation of his Majesty (30) Charles II in the Abbey-Church of Westminster; at all which ceremony I was present. the King (30) and his Nobility went to the Tower, I accompanying my Lord Viscount Mordaunt (34) part of the way; this was on Sunday, the 22d; but indeed his Majesty (30) went not till early this morning, and proceeded from thence to Westminster in this order:

First went the Duke of York's Horse Guards. Messengers of the Chamber. 136 Esquires to the Knights of the Bath, each of whom had two, most richly habited. The Knight Harbinger. Sergeant Porter. Sewers of the Chamber. Quarter Waiters. Six Clerks of Chancery. Clerk of the Signet. Clerk of the Privy Seal. Clerks of the Council, of the Parliament, and of the Crown. Chaplains in ordinary having dignities, 10. King's Advocates and Remembrancer. Council at Law. Masters of the Chancery. Puisne Sergeants. King's Attorney and Solicitor. King's eldest Sergeant. Secretaries of the French and Latin tongue. Gentlemen Ushers. Daily Waiters, Sewers, Carvers, and Cupbearers in ordinary. Esquires of the body, 4. Masters of standing offices, being no Counsellors, viz, of the Tents, Revels, Ceremonies, Armory, Wardrobe, Ordnance, Requests. Chamberlain of the Exchequer. Barons of the Exchequer. Judges. Lord Chief-Baron. Lord Chief-Justice of the Common Pleas. Master of the Rolls. Lord Chief-Justice of England. Trumpets. Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. Knights of the Bath, 68, in crimson robes, exceeding rich, and the noblest show of the whole cavalcade, his Majesty (30) excepted. Knight Marshal. Treasurer of the Chamber. Master of the Jewels. Lords of the Privy Council. Comptroller of the Household. Treasurer of the Household. Trumpets. Sergeant Trumpet. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Barons. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Viscounts. Two Heralds. Earls. Lord Chamberlain of the Household (59). Two Heralds. Marquises. Dukes. Heralds Clarencieux and Norroy. Lord Chancellor (52). Lord High Steward of England. Two persons representing the Dukes of Normandy and Acquitaine, viz, Sir Richard Fanshawe and Sir Herbert Price, in fantastic habits of the time. Gentlemen Ushers. Garter. Lord Mayor of London. The Duke of York alone (the rest by twos). Lord High Constable of England. Lord Great Chamberlain of England. The sword borne by the Earl Marshal of England. the King (30), in royal robes and equipage. Afterward, followed equerries, footmen, gentlemen pensioners. Master of the Horse, leading a horse richly caparisoned. Vice-Chamberlain. Captain of the Pensioners. Captain of the Guard. The Guard. The Horse Guard. The troop of Volunteers, with many other officers and gentlemen.

This magnificent train on horseback, as rich as embroidery, velvet, cloth of gold and silver, and jewels, could make them and their prancing horses, proceeded through the streets strewed with flowers, houses hung with rich tapestry, windows and balconies full of ladies; the London militia lining the ways, and the several companies, with their banners and loud music, ranked in their orders; the fountains running wine, bells ringing, with speeches made at the several triumphal arches; at that of the Temple Bar (near which I stood) the Lord Mayor was received by the Bailiff of Westminster, who, in a scarlet robe, made a speech. Thence, with joyful acclamations, his Majesty (30) passed to Whitehall. Bonfires at night.

The next day, being St. George's, he went by water to Westminster Abbey. When his Majesty (30) was entered, the Dean and Prebendaries brought all the regalia, and delivered them to several noblemen to bear before the King (30), who met them at the west door of the church, singing an anthem, to the choir. Then, came the Peers, in their robes, and coronets in their hands, till his Majesty (30) was placed on a throne elevated before the altar. Afterward, the Bishop of London (the Archbishop of Canterbury (79) being sick) went to every side of the throne to present the King (30) to the people, asking if they would have him for their King, and do him homage; at this, they shouted four times "God save King Charles II!" Then, an anthem was sung. His Majesty (30), attended by three Bishops, went up to the altar, and he offered a pall and a pound of gold. Afterward, he sat down in another chair during the sermon, which was preached by Dr. Morley (63), Bishop of Worcester.

After sermon, the King (30) took his oath before the altar to maintain the religion, Magna Charta, and laws of the land. The hymn Véni S. Sp. followed, and then the Litany by two Bishops. Then the Archbishop of Canterbury (79), present, but much indisposed and weak, said "Lift up your hearts"; at which, the King (30) rose up, and put off his robes and upper garments, and was in a waistcoat so opened in divers places, that the Archbishop (79) might commodiously anoint him, first in the palms of his hands, when an anthem was sung, and a prayer read; then, his breast and between the shoulders, bending of both arms; and, lastly, on the crown of the head, with apposite hymns and prayers at each anointing; this done, the Dean closed and buttoned up the waistcoat. After which, was a coif put on, and the cobbium, sindon or dalmatic, and over this a super-tunic of cloth of gold, with buskins and sandals of the same, spurs, and the sword; a prayer being first said over it by the Archbishop (79) on the altar, before it was girt on by the Lord Chamberlain (59). Then, the armill, mantle, etc. Then, the Archbishop placed the crown imperial on the altar, prayed over it, and set it on his Majesty's (30) head, at which all the Peers put on their coronets. Anthems, and rare music, with lutes, viols, trumpets, organs, and voices, were then heard, and the Archbishop put a ring on his Majesty's (30) finger. the King (30) next offered his sword on the altar, which being redeemed, was drawn, and borne before him. Then, the Archbishop delivered him the sceptre, with the dove in one hand, and, in the other, the sceptre with the globe. the King (30) kneeling, the Archbishop (79) pronounced the blessing. His Majesty (30) then ascending again his royal throne, while Te Deum was singing, all the Peers did their homage, by every one touching his crown. The Archbishop (79), and the rest of the Bishops, first kissing the King (30); who received the Holy Sacrament, and so disrobed, yet with the crown imperial on his head, and accompanied with all the nobility in the former order, he went on foot upon blue cloth, which was spread and reached from the west door of the Abbey to Westminster stairs, when he took water in a triumphal barge to Whitehall where was extraordinary feasting.

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671. Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674.

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On 01 Jul 1661 Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (68) was sentenced and degraded from his honours and titles and to be drawn every year on the anniversary of the king's sentence (27 Jan) upon a sledge through the streets to and under the gallows at Tyburn, with a rope about his neck, and so back to the Tower of London, there to remain a prisoner during his life.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 October 1661. 01 Oct 1661. I sailed this morning with his Majesty (31) in one of his yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels not known among us till the Dutch East India Company presented that curious piece to the King (31); being very excellent sailing vessels. It was on a wager between his other new pleasure boat, built frigate-like, and one of the Duke of York's (27); the wager £100; the race from Greenwich to Gravesend and back. The King (31) lost it going, the wind being contrary, but saved stakes in returning. There were divers noble persons and lords on board, his Majesty (31) sometimes steering himself. His barge and kitchen boat attended. I brake fast this morning with the King (31) at return in his smaller vessel, he being pleased to take me and only four more, who were noblemen, with him; but dined in his yacht, where we all ate together with his Majesty (31). In this passage he was pleased to discourse to me about my book inveighing against the nuisance of the smoke of London, and proposing expedients how, by removing those particulars I mentioned, it might be reformed; commanding me to prepare a Bill against the next session of Parliament, being, as he said, resolved to have something done in it. Then he discoursed to me of the improvement of gardens and buildings, now very rare in England comparatively to other countries. He then commanded me to draw up the matter of fact happening at the bloody encounter which then had newly happened between the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the Tower, contending for precedency, at the reception of the Swedish Ambassador; giving me orders to consult Sir William Compton (36), Master of the Ordnance, to inform me of what he knew of it, and with his favorite, Sir Charles Berkeley (31), captain of the Duke's life guard, then present with his troop and three foot companies; with some other reflections and instructions, to be prepared with a declaration to take off the reports which went about of his Majesty's (31) partiality in the affairs, and of his officers' and spectators' rudeness while the conflict lasted. So I came home that night, and went next morning to London, where from the officers of the Tower, Sir William Compton (36), Sir Charles Berkeley (31), and others who were attending at this meeting of the Ambassadors three days before, having collected what I could, I drew up a Narrative in vindication of his Majesty (31), and the carriage of his officers and standers-by.

On Thursday his Majesty (31) sent one of the pages of the back stairs for me to wait on him with my papers, in his cabinet where was present only Sir Henry Bennett (43) (Privy-Purse), when beginning to read to his Majesty (31) what I had drawn up, by the time I had read half a page, came in Mr. Secretary Morice (58) with a large paper, desiring to speak with his Majesty (31), who told him he was now very busy, and therefore ordered him to come again some other time; the Secretary replied that what he had in his hand was of extraordinary importance. So the King (31) rose up, and, commanding me to stay, went aside to a corner of the room with the Secretary; after a while, the Secretary being dispatched, his Majesty (31) returning to me at the table, a letter was brought him from Madame out of France;68 this he read and then bid me proceed from where I left off. This I did till I had ended all the narrative, to his Majesty's (31) great satisfaction; and, after I had inserted one or two more clauses, in which his Majesty (31) instructed me, commanded that it should that night be sent to the posthouse, directed to the Lord Ambassador at Paris (the Earl of St. Alban's), and then at leisure to prepare him a copy, which he would publish. This I did, and immediately sent my papers to the Secretary of State, with his Majesty's (31) express command of dispatching them that night for France. Before I went out of the King's (31) closet, he called me back to show me some ivory statues, and other curiosities that I had not seen before.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685. Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of William Morice 1602-1676.

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On 16 Dec 1661 Isaac Penington Lord Mayor 1584-1661 (77) died at the Tower of London.

Before 16 Dec 1661 Isaac Penington Lord Mayor 1584-1661 was tried for High Treason and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

On 07 Jan 1662 Arthur Haselrigge 2nd Baronet 1601-1662 (61) died at the Tower of London. Thomas Haselrigge 3rd Baronet 1625-1680 (37) succeeded 3rd Baronet Haselrigge of Noseley Hall.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 January 1662. 15 Jan 1662. There was a general fast through the whole nation, and now celebrated in London, to avert God's heavy judgments on this land. Great rain had fallen without any frost, or seasonable cold, not only in England, but in Sweden, and the most northern parts, being here near as warm as at midsummer in some years.

This solemn fast was held for the House of Commons at St. Margaret's. Dr. Reeves, Dean of Windsor, preached on Joshua vii. 12, showing how the neglect of exacting justice on offenders (by which he insinuated such of the old King's murderers as were yet reprieved and in the Tower) was a main cause of God's punishing a land. He brought in that of the Gibeonites, as well as Achan and others, concluding with an eulogy of the Parliament for their loyalty in restoring the Bishops and Clergy, and vindicating the Church from sacrilege.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 May 1662. 03 May 1662. Sir W. Pen (41) and I by coach to St. James's, and there to the Duke's Chamber, who had been a-hunting this morning and is come back again.

Thence to Westminster, where I met Mr. Moore, and hear that Mr. Watkins' is suddenly dead since my going.

To dinner to my Lady Sandwich (37), and Sir Thomas Crew's (38) children coming thither, I took them and all my Ladys to the Tower and showed them the lions1 and all that was to be shown, and so took them to my house, and there made much of them, and so saw them back to my Lady's. Sir Thomas Crew's (38) children being as pretty and the best behaved that ever I saw of their age.

Thence, at the goldsmith's, took my picture in little, [Miniature by Savill (53)] which is now done, home with me, and pleases me exceedingly and my wife.

So to supper and to bed, it being exceeding hot.

Note 1. The Tower Menagerie was not abolished until the reign of William IV.

In or before 1674. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674. Around 1707. Charles D'Agar Painter 1669-1723. Portrait of Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697.

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John Evelyn's Diary 20 August 1663. 20 Aug 1663. I dined at the Comptroller's [of the Household] with the Earl of Oxford (36) and Mr. Ashburnham; it was said it should be the last of the public diets, or tables, at Court, it being determined to put down the old hospitality, at which was great murmuring, considering his Majesty's (33) vast revenue and the plenty of the nation. Hence, I went to sit in a Committee, to consider about the regulation of the Mint at the Tower; in which some small progress was made.

Around 1656 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Aubrey Vere 20th Earl Oxford 1627-1703.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 November 1663. 15 Nov 1663. Lord's Day. Lay very long in bed with my wife and then up and to my office there to copy fair my letter to Sir G. Carteret (53), which I did, and by and by most opportunely a footman of his came to me about other business, and so I sent it him by his own servant. I wish good luck with it.

At noon home to dinner, my wife not being up, she lying to expect Mr. Holyard (54) the surgeon. So I dined by myself, and in the afternoon to my office again, and there drew up a letter to my Lord, stating to him what the world talks concerning him, and leaving it to him and myself to be thought of by him as he pleases, but I have done but my duty in it. I wait Mr. Moore's coming for his advice about sending it.

So home to supper to my wife, myself finding myself by cold got last night beginning to have some pain, which grieves me much in my mind to see to what a weakness I am come. This day being our Queene's (53) birthday, the guns of the Tower went all off; and in the evening the Lord Mayor (47) sent from church to church to order the constables to cause bonfires to be made in every streete, which methinks is a poor thing to be forced to be commanded. After a good supper with my wife, and hearing of the mayds read in the Bible, we to prayers, and to bed.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 March 1664. 09 Mar 1664. I went to the Tower, to sit in commission about regulating the Mint; and now it was that the fine new-milled coin, both of white money and guineas, was established.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 November 1664. 09 Nov 1664. Thence not staying, the wind blowing hard, I made use of the Jemmy yacht and returned to the Tower in her, my boy being a very droll boy and good company.

Home and eat something, and then shifted myself, and to White Hall, and there the King (34) being in his Cabinet Council (I desiring to speak with Sir G. Carteret (54)), I was called in, and demanded by the King (34) himself many questions, to which I did give him full answers. There were at this Council my Chancellor (55), Archbishop of Canterbury (66), Lord Treasurer (57), the two Secretarys, and Sir G. Carteret (54). Not a little contented at this chance of being made known to these persons, and called often by my name by the King (34), I to Mr. Pierces to take leave of him, but he not within, but saw her and made very little stay, but straight home to my office, where I did business, and then to supper and to bed.

The Duke of York (31) is this day gone away to Portsmouth.

Around 1660 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 1607-1667 holding his Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 January 1665. 09 Jan 1665. Up and walked to White Hall, it being still a brave frost, and I in perfect good health, blessed be God! In my way saw a woman that broke her thigh, in her heels slipping up upon the frosty streete.

To the Duke (31), and there did our usual worke. Here I saw the Royal Society bring their new book, wherein is nobly writ their charter' and laws, and comes to be signed by the Duke (31) as a Fellow; and all the Fellows' hands are to be entered there, and lie as a monument; and the King (34) hath put his with the word Founder.

Thence I to Westminster, to my barber's, and found occasion to see Jane, but in presence of her mistress, and so could not speak to her of her failing me yesterday, and then to the Swan to Herbert's girl, and lost time a little with her, and so took coach, and to my Lord Crew's (67) and dined with him, who receives me with the greatest respect that could be, telling me that he do much doubt of the successe of this warr with Holland, we going about it, he doubts, by the instigation of persons that do not enough apprehend the consequences of the danger of it, and therein I do think with him. Holmes was this day sent to the Tower1, but I perceive it is made matter of jest only; but if the Dutch should be our masters, it may come to be of earnest to him, to be given over to them for a sacrifice, as Sir W. Rawly [Raleigh] was.

Thence to White Hall to a Tangier Committee, where I was accosted and most highly complimented by my Lord Bellasses (50)2, our new governor, beyond my expectation, or measure I could imagine he would have given any man, as if I were the only person of business that he intended to rely on, and desires my correspondence with him. This I was not only surprized at, but am well pleased with, and may make good use of it. Our patent is renewed, and he and my Lord Barkeley (63), and Sir Thomas Ingram (50) put in as commissioners. Here some business happened which may bring me some profit.

Thence took coach and calling my wife at her tailor's (she being come this afternoon to bring her mother some apples, neat's tongues, and wine); I home, and there at my office late with Sir W. Warren, and had a great deal of good discourse and counsel from him, which I hope I shall take, being all for my good in my deportment in my office, yet with all honesty. He gone I home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. For taking New York from the Dutch.

Note 2. John Belasyse (50), second son of Thomas, first Viscount Fauconberg (88), created Baron Belasyse of Worlaby, January 27th, 1644, Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire, and Governor of Hull. He was appointed Governor of Tangier, and Captain of the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners. He was a Roman Catholic, and therefore was deprived of all his appointments in 1672 by the provisions of the Test Act, but in 1684 James II made him First Commissioner of the Treasury. He died 1689.

Around 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689. Around 1669 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 March 1665. 14 Mar 1665. Up before six, to the office, where busy all the morning.

At noon dined with Sir W. Batten (64) and Sir J. Minnes (66), at the Tower, with Sir J. Robinson (50), at a farewell dinner which he gives Major Holmes (43) at his going out of the Tower, where he hath for some time, since his coming from Guinny, been a prisoner, and, it seems, had presented the Lieutenant with fifty pieces yesterday. Here a great deale of good victuals and company.

Thence home to my office, where very late, and home to supper and to bed weary of business.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. Around 1662 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of John Robinson Lord Mayor of London 1st Baronet 1615-1680. Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 May 1665. 28 May 1665. Lord's Day. By water to the Duke of Albemarle (56), where I hear that Nixon is condemned to be shot to death, for his cowardice, by a Council of War.

Went to chapel and heard a little musique, and there met with Creed, and with him a little while walking, and to Wilkinson's for me to drink, being troubled with winde, and at noon to Sir Philip Warwicke's (55) to dinner, where abundance of company come in unexpectedly; and here I saw one pretty piece of household stuff, as the company increaseth, to put a larger leaf upon an oval table.

After dinner much good discourse with Sir Philip (55), who I find, I think, a most pious, good man, and a Professor of a philosophical manner of life and principles like Epictetus, whom he cites in many things.

Thence to my Lady Sandwich's (40), where, to my shame, I had not been a great while before. Here, upon my telling her a story of my Lord Rochester's (18) running away on Friday night last with Mrs. Mallett (14), the great beauty and fortune of the North, who had supped at White Hall with Mrs. Stewart (17), and was going home to her lodgings with her grandfather, my Lord Haly (57), by coach; and was at Charing Cross seized on by both horse and foot men, and forcibly taken from him, and put into a coach with six horses, and two women provided to receive her, and carried away. Upon immediate pursuit, my Lord of Rochester (18) (for whom the King (34) had spoke to the lady often, but with no successe) was taken at Uxbridge; but the lady (14) is not yet heard of, and the King (34) mighty angry, and the Lord (18) sent to the Tower. Hereupon my Lady did confess to me, as a great secret, her being concerned in this story. For if this match breaks between my Lord Rochester (18) and her (14), then, by the consent of all her friends, my Lord Hinchingbrooke (17) stands fair, and is invited for her. She is worth, and will be at her mother's (31) death (who keeps but a little from her), £2500 per annum. Pray God give a good success to it! But my poor Lady, who is afeard of the sickness, and resolved to be gone into the country, is forced to stay in towne a day or two, or three about it, to see the event of it.

Thence home and to see my Lady Pen (41), where my wife and I were shown a fine rarity: of fishes kept in a glass of water, that will live so for ever; and finely marked they are, being foreign. [Gold-fish introduced from China.] So to supper at home and to bed, after many people being with me about business, among others the two Bellamys about their old debt due to them from the King (34) for their victualling business, out of which I hope to get some money.

Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Wilmot 2nd Earl Rochester 1647-1680. Before 26 Jul 1680 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Wilmot 2nd Earl Rochester 1647-1680. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Elizabeth Malet Countess Rochester 1651-1681. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Teresa Stewart Duchess Lennox and Richmond 1647-1702. One of the Windsor Beauties.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 July 1665. 20 Jul 1665. Up, in a boat among other people to the Tower, and there to the office, where we sat all the morning.

So down to Deptford and there dined, and after dinner saw my Lady Sandwich (40) and Mr. Carteret (24) and his two sisters over the water, going to Dagenhams, and my Baroness Carteret (63) towards Cranburne1. So all the company broke up in most extraordinary joy, wherein I am mighty contented that I have had the good fortune to be so instrumental, and I think it will be of good use to me.

So walked to Redriffe, where I hear the sickness is, and indeed is scattered almost every where, there dying 1089 of the plague this week. My Baroness Carteret (63) did this day give me a bottle of plague-water home with me.

So home to write letters late, and then home to bed, where I have not lain these 3 or 4 nights. I received yesterday a letter from my Lord Sandwich (39), giving me thanks for my care about their marriage business, and desiring it to be dispatched, that no disappointment may happen therein, which I will help on all I can.

This afternoon I waited on the Duke of Albemarle (56), and so to Mrs. Croft's, where I found and saluted Mrs. Burrows, who is a very pretty woman for a mother of so many children. But, Lord! to see how the plague spreads. It being now all over King's Streete, at the Axe, and next door to it, and in other places.

Note 1. The royal lodge of that name in Windsor Forest, occupied by Sir George Carteret (55) as Vice-Chamberlain to the King (35). B.

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 August 1665. 10 Aug 1665. Up betimes, and called upon early by my she-cozen Porter, the turner's wife, to tell me that her husband was carried to the Tower, for buying of some of the King's powder, and would have my helpe, but I could give her none, not daring any more to appear in the business, having too much trouble lately therein.

By and by to the office, where we sat all the morning; in great trouble to see the Bill this week rise so high, to above 4,000 in all, and of them above 3,000 of the plague. And an odd story of Alderman Bence's stumbling at night over a dead corps in the streete, and going home and telling his wife, she at the fright, being with child, fell sicke and died of the plague.

We sat late, and then by invitation my Lord Bruncker (45), Sir J. Minnes (66), Sir W. Batten (64) and I to Sir G. Smith's (50) to dinner, where very good company and good cheer. Captain Cocke (48) was there and Jacke Fenn, but to our great wonder Alderman Bence, and tells us that not a word of all this is true, and others said so too, but by his owne story his wife hath been ill, and he fain to leave his house and comes not to her, which continuing a trouble to me all the time I was there.

Thence to the office and, after writing letters, home, to draw-over anew my will, which I had bound myself by oath to dispatch by to-morrow night; the town growing so unhealthy, that a man cannot depend upon living two days to an end. So having done something of it, I to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 September 1665. 07 Sep 1665. Up by 5 of the clock, mighty full of fear of an ague, but was obliged to go, and so by water, wrapping myself up warm, to the Tower, and there sent for the Weekely Bill, and find 8,252 dead in all, and of them 6,878 of the plague; which is a most dreadfull number, and shows reason to fear that the plague hath got that hold that it will yet continue among us.

Thence to Brainford, reading "The Villaine", a pretty good play, all the way. There a coach of Mr. Povy's (51) stood ready for me, and he at his house ready to come in, and so we together merrily to Swakely, Sir R. Viner's (34). A very pleasant place, bought by him of Sir James Harrington's (57) lady (48). He took us up and down with great respect, and showed us all his house and grounds; and it is a place not very moderne in the garden nor house, but the most uniforme in all that ever I saw; and some things to excess. Pretty to see over the screene of the hall (put up by Sir Mr. Harrington (57), a Long Parliamentman) the King's head, and my Lord of Essex (33) on one side, and Fairfax on the other; and upon the other side of the screene, the parson of the parish, and the lord of the manor and his sisters. The window-cases, door-cases, and chimnys of all the house are marble. He showed me a black boy that he had, that died of a consumption, and being dead, he caused him to be dried in an oven, and lies there entire in a box.

By and by to dinner, where his lady I find yet handsome, but hath been a very handsome woman; now is old. Hath brought him near £100,000 and now he lives, no man in England in greater plenty, and commands both King and Council with his credit he gives them. Here was a fine lady a merchant's wife at dinner with us, and who should be here in the quality of a woman but Mrs. Worship's daughter, Dr. Clerke's niece, and after dinner Sir Robert (34) led us up to his Long gallery, very fine, above stairs (and better, or such, furniture I never did see), and there Mrs. Worship did give us three or four very good songs, and sings very neatly, to my great delight.

After all this, and ending the chief business to my content about getting a promise of some money of him, we took leave, being exceedingly well treated here, and a most pleasant journey we had back, Povy (51) and I, and his company most excellent in anything but business, he here giving me an account of as many persons at Court as I had a mind or thought of enquiring after. He tells me by a letter he showed me, that the King (35) is not, nor hath been of late, very well, but quite out of humour; and, as some think, in a consumption, and weary of every thing. He showed me my Lord Arlington's (47) house that he was born in, in a towne called Harlington: and so carried me through a most pleasant country to Brainford, and there put me into my boat, and good night. So I wrapt myself warm, and by water got to Woolwich about one in the morning, my wife and all in bed.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705. Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Robert Vyner Banker 1st Baronet 1631-1688 and Mary Whitchurch Lady Vyner -1674 and their children. Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Robert Vyner Banker 1st Baronet 1631-1688 and Mary Whitchurch Lady Vyner -1674 and their children.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 September 1665. 23 Sep 1665. Up, and to my Lord Sandwich (40), who did advise alone with me how far he might trust Captain Cocke (48) in the business of the prize-goods, my Lord telling me that he hath taken into his hands 2 or £3000 value of them: it being a good way, he says, to get money, and afterwards to get the King's allowance thereof, it being easier, he observes, to keepe money when got of the King (35) than to get it when it is too late. I advised him not to trust Cocke (48) too far, and did therefore offer him ready money for a £1000 or two, which he listens to and do agree to, which is great joy to me, hoping thereby to get something!

Thence by coach to Lambeth, his Lordship, and all our office, and Mr. Evelyn (44), to the Duke of Albemarle (56), where, after the compliment with my Lord very kind, we sat down to consult of the disposing and supporting of the fleete with victuals and money, and for the sicke men and prisoners; and I did propose the taking out some goods out of the prizes, to the value of £10,000, which was accorded to, and an order, drawn up and signed by the Duke (31) and my Lord, done in the best manner I can, and referred to my Lord Bruncker (45) and Sir J. Minnes (66), but what inconveniences may arise from it I do not yet see, but fear there may be many.

Here we dined, and I did hear my Lord Craven (57) whisper, as he is mightily possessed with a good opinion of me, much to my advantage, which my good Lord did second, and anon my Lord Craven (57) did speak publiquely of me to the Duke (31), in the hearing of all the rest; and the Duke (31) did say something of the like advantage to me; I believe, not much to the satisfaction of my brethren; but I was mightily joyed at it.

Thence took leave, leaving my Lord Sandwich (40) to go visit the Bishop of Canterbury (67), and I and Sir W. Batten (64) down to the Tower, where he went further by water, and I home, and among other things took out all my gold to carry along with me to-night with Captain Cocke (48) downe to the fleete, being £180 and more, hoping to lay out that and a great deal more to good advantage.

Thence down to Greenwich to the office, and there wrote several letters, and so to my Lord Sandwich (40), and mighty merry and he mighty kind to me in the face of all, saying much in my favour, and after supper I took leave and with Captain Cocke (48) set out in the yacht about ten o'clock at night, and after some discourse, and drinking a little, my mind full of what we are going about and jealous of Cocke's (48) outdoing me.

So to sleep upon beds brought by Cocke (48) on board mighty handsome, and never slept better than upon this bed upon the floor in the Cabbin.

Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn Diarist 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn Diarist 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn Diarist 1620-1706. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of William Craven 1st Earl Craven 1608-1697.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 October 1665. 03 Oct 1665. Up, and to my great content visited betimes by Mr. Woolly, my uncle Wight's (63) cozen, who comes to see what work I have for him about these East India goods, and I do find that this fellow might have been of great use, and hereafter may be of very great use to me, in this trade of prize goods, and glad I am fully of his coming hither. While I dressed myself, and afterwards in walking to Greenwich we did discourse over all the business of the prize goods, and he puts me in hopes I may get some money in what I have done, but not so much as I expected, but that I may hereafter do more. We have laid a design of getting more, and are to talk again of it a few days hence.

To the office, where nobody to meet me, Sir W. Batten (64) being the only man and he gone this day to meet to adjourne the Parliament to Oxford.

Anon by appointment comes one to tell me my Lord Rutherford is come; so I to the King's Head to him, where I find his lady (25), a fine young Scotch lady, pretty handsome and plain. My wife also, and Mercer, by and by comes, Creed bringing them; and so presently to dinner and very merry; and after to even our accounts, and I to give him tallys, where he do allow me £100, of which to my grief the rogue Creed has trepanned me out of £50. But I do foresee a way how it may be I may get a greater sum of my Lord to his content by getting him allowance of interest upon his tallys.

That being done, and some musique and other diversions, at last away goes my Lord and Lady, and I sent my wife to visit Mrs. Pierce, and so I to my office, where wrote important letters to the Court, and at night (Creed having clownishly left my wife), I to Mrs. Pierce's and brought her and Mrs. Pierce to the King's Head and there spent a piece upon a supper for her and mighty merry and pretty discourse, she being as pretty as ever, most of our mirth being upon "my Cozen" (meaning my Lord Bruncker's (45) ugly mistress, whom he calls cozen), and to my trouble she tells me that the fine Mrs. Middleton (20) is noted for carrying about her body a continued sour base smell, that is very offensive, especially if she be a little hot. Here some bad musique to close the night and so away and all of us saw Mrs. Belle Pierce (as pretty as ever she was almost) home, and so walked to Will's lodging where I used to lie, and there made shift for a bed for Mercer, and mighty pleasantly to bed.

This night I hear that of our two watermen that use to carry our letters, and were well on Saturday last, one is dead, and the other dying sick of the plague. The plague, though decreasing elsewhere, yet being greater about the Tower and thereabouts.

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Jane Needham 1645-1692. One of the Windsor Beauties.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 October 1665. 16 Oct 1665. Up about seven o'clock; and, after drinking, and I observing Mr. Povy's (51) being mightily mortifyed in his eating and drinking, and coaches and horses, he desiring to sell his best, and every thing else, his furniture of his house, he walked with me to Syon1, and there I took water, in our way he discoursing of the wantonnesse of the Court, and how it minds nothing else, and I saying that that would leave the King (35) shortly if he did not leave it, he told me "No", for the King (35) do spend most of his time in feeling and kissing them naked... But this lechery will never leave him.

Here I took boat (leaving him there) and down to the Tower, where I hear the Duke of Albemarle (56) is, and I to Lombard Street, but can get no money. So upon the Exchange, which is very empty, God knows! and but mean people there. The newes for certain that the Dutch are come with their fleete before Margett, and some men were endeavouring to come on shore when the post come away, perhaps to steal some sheep.

But, Lord! how Colvill talks of the businesse of publique revenue like a madman, and yet I doubt all true; that nobody minds it, but that the King (35) and Kingdom must speedily be undone, and rails at my Lord about the prizes, but I think knows not my relation to him. Here I endeavoured to satisfy all I could, people about Bills of Exchange from Tangier, but it is only with good words, for money I have not, nor can get. God knows what will become of all the King's matters in a little time, for he runs in debt every day, and nothing to pay them looked after.

Thence I walked to the Tower; but, Lord! how empty the streets are and melancholy, so many poor sick people in the streets full of sores; and so many sad stories overheard as I walk, every body talking of this dead, and that man sick, and so many in this place, and so many in that. And they tell me that, in Westminster, there is never a physician and but one apothecary left, all being dead; but that there are great hopes of a great decrease this week: God send it!

At the Tower found my Lord Duke (56) and Duchesse (46) at dinner; so I sat down. And much good cheer, the Lieutenant (50) and his lady (53), and several officers with the Duke. But, Lord! to hear the silly talk that was there, would make one mad; the Duke having none almost but fools about him. Much of their talke about the Dutch coming on shore, which they believe they may some of them have been and steal sheep, and speak all in reproach of them in whose hands the fleete is; but, Lord helpe him, there is something will hinder him and all the world in going to sea, which is want of victuals; for we have not wherewith to answer our service; and how much better it would have been if the Duke's advice had been taken for the fleete to have gone presently out; but, God helpe the King (35)! while no better counsels are given, and what is given no better taken.

Thence after dinner receiving many commands from the Duke (56), I to our office on the Hill, and there did a little business and to Colvill's again, and so took water at the Tower, and there met with Captain Cocke (48), and he down with me to Greenwich, I having received letters from my Lord Sandwich (40) to-day, speaking very high about the prize goods, that he would have us to fear nobody, but be very confident in what we have done, and not to confess any fault or doubt of what he hath done; for the King (35) hath allowed it, and do now confirm it, and sent orders, as he says, for nothing to be disturbed that his Lordshipp hath ordered therein as to the division of the goods to the fleete; which do comfort us, but my Lord writes to me that both he and I may hence learn by what we see in this business. But that which pleases me best is that Cocke (48) tells me that he now understands that Fisher was set on in this business by the design of some of the Duke of Albemarle's (56) people, Warcupp and others, who lent him money to set him out in it, and he has spent high. Who now curse him for a rogue to take £100 when he might have had as well £1,500, and they are mightily fallen out about it. Which in due time shall be discovered, but that now that troubles me afresh is, after I am got to the office at Greenwich that some new troubles are come, and Captain Cocke's (48) house is beset before and behind with guards, and more, I do fear they may come to my office here to search for Cocke's (48) goods and find some small things of my clerk's. So I assisted them in helping to remove their small trade, but by and by I am told that it is only the Custome House men who came to seize the things that did lie at Mr. Glanville's (47), for which they did never yet see our Transire, nor did know of them till to-day. So that my fear is now over, for a transire is ready for them. Cocke (48) did get a great many of his goods to London to-day.

To the Still Yarde, which place, however, is now shut up of the plague; but I was there, and we now make no bones of it. Much talke there is of the Chancellor's (56) speech and the King's at the Parliament's meeting, which are very well liked; and that we shall certainly, by their speeches, fall out with France at this time, together with the Dutch, which will find us work. Late at the office entering my Journall for 8 days past, the greatness of my business hindering me of late to put it down daily, but I have done it now very true and particularly, and hereafter will, I hope, be able to fall into my old way of doing it daily.

So to my lodging, and there had a good pullet to my supper, and so to bed, it being very cold again, God be thanked for it!

Note 1. Sion House, granted by Edward VI to his uncle, the Duke of Somerset. After his execution, 1552, it was forfeited, and given to John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. The duke being beheaded in 1553, it reverted to the Crown, and was granted in 1604 to Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. It still belongs to the Duke of Northumberland.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 October 1665. 26 Oct 1665. Up, and, leaving my guests to make themselves ready, I to the office, and thither comes Sir Jer. Smith and Sir Christopher Mings (39) to see me, being just come from Portsmouth and going down to the Fleete. Here I sat and talked with them a good while and then parted, only Sir Christopher Mings (39) and I together by water to the Tower; and I find him a very witty well-spoken fellow, and mighty free to tell his parentage, being a shoemaker's son, to whom he is now going, and I to the 'Change, where I hear how the French have taken two and sunk one of our merchant-men in the Streights, and carried the ships to Toulon; so that there is no expectation but we must fall out with them.

The 'Change pretty full, and the town begins to be lively again, though the streets very empty, and most shops shut. So back again I and took boat and called for Sir Christopher Mings (39) at St. Katharine's, who was followed with some ordinary friends, of which, he says, he is proud, and so down to Greenwich, the wind furious high, and we with our sail up till I made it be taken down. I took him, it being 3 o'clock, to my lodgings and did give him a good dinner and so parted, he being pretty close to me as to any business of the fleete, knowing me to be a servant of my Lord Sandwich's (40).

He gone I to the office till night, and then they come and tell me my wife is come to towne, so I to her vexed at her coming, but it was upon innocent business, so I was pleased and made her stay, Captain Ferrers and his lady being yet there, and so I left them to dance, and I to the office till past nine at night, and so to them and there saw them dance very prettily, the Captain and his wife, my wife and Mrs. Barbary, and Mercer and my landlady's daughter, and then little Mistress Frances Tooker and her mother, a pretty woman come to see my wife.

Anon to supper, and then to dance again (Golding being our fiddler, who plays very well and all tunes) till past twelve at night, and then we broke up and every one to bed, we make shift for all our company, Mrs. Tooker being gone.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Vice-Admiral Christopher Myngs 1625-1666. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 November 1665. 15 Nov 1665. Up and all the morning at the office, busy, and at noon to the King's Head taverne, where all the Trinity House dined to-day, to choose a new Master in the room of Hurlestone, that is dead, and Captain Crispe is chosen. But, Lord! to see how Sir W. Batten (64) governs all and tramples upon Hurlestone, but I am confident the Company will grow the worse for that man's death, for now Batten (64), and in him a lazy, corrupt, doating rogue, will have all the sway there.

After dinner who comes in but my Lady Batten, and a troop of a dozen women almost, and expected, as I found afterward, to be made mighty much of, but nobody minded them; but the best jest was, that when they saw themselves not regarded, they would go away, and it was horrible foule weather; and my Lady Batten walking through the dirty lane with new spicke and span white shoes, she dropped one of her galoshes in the dirt, where it stuck, and she forced to go home without one, at which she was horribly vexed, and I led her; and after vexing her a little more in mirth, I parted, and to Glanville's (47), where I knew Sir John Robinson (50), Sir G. Smith (50), and Captain Cocke (48) were gone, and there, with the company of Mrs. Penington, whose father (81), I hear, was one of the Court of justice, and died prisoner, of the stone, in the Tower, I made them, against their resolutions, to stay from houre to houre till it was almost midnight, and a furious, darke and rainy, and windy, stormy night, and, which was best, I, with drinking small beer, made them all drunk drinking wine, at which Sir John Robinson (50) made great sport.

But, they being gone, the lady and I very civilly sat an houre by the fireside observing the folly of this Robinson (50), that makes it his worke to praise himself, and all he say and do, like a heavy-headed coxcombe. The plague, blessed be God! is decreased 400; making the whole this week but 1300 and odd; for which the Lord be praised!

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 January 1666. 24 Jan 1666. By agreement my Lord Bruncker (46) called me up, and though it was a very foule, windy, and rainy morning, yet down to the waterside we went, but no boat could go, the storme continued so. So my Lord to stay till fairer weather carried me into the Tower to Mr. Hore's and there we staid talking an houre, but at last we found no boats yet could go, so we to the office, where we met upon an occasion extraordinary of examining abuses of our clerkes in taking money for examining of tickets, but nothing done in it.

Thence my Lord and I, the weather being a little fairer, by water to Deptford to Sir G. Carteret's (56) house, where W. Howe met us, and there we opened the chests, and saw the poor sorry rubys which have caused all this ado to the undoing of W. Howe; though I am not much sorry for it, because of his pride and ill nature. About 200 of these very small stones, and a cod of muske (which it is strange I was not able to smell) is all we could find; so locked them up again, and my Lord and I, the wind being again very furious, so as we durst not go by water, walked to London quite round the bridge, no boat being able to stirre; and, Lord! what a dirty walk we had, and so strong the wind, that in the fields we many times could not carry our bodies against it, but were driven backwards. We went through Horsydowne, where I never was since a little boy, that I went to enquire after my father, whom we did give over for lost coming from Holland. It was dangerous to walk the streets, the bricks and tiles falling from the houses that the whole streets were covered with them; and whole chimneys, nay, whole houses in two or three places, blowed down. But, above all, the pales on London-bridge on both sides were blown away, so that we were fain to stoop very low for fear of blowing off of the bridge. We could see no boats in the Thames afloat, but what were broke loose, and carried through the bridge, it being ebbing water. And the greatest sight of all was, among other parcels of ships driven here and there in clusters together, one was quite overset and lay with her masts all along in the water, and keel above water. So walked home, my Lord away to his house and I to dinner, Mr. Creed being come to towne and to dine with me, though now it was three o'clock.

After dinner he and I to our accounts and very troublesome he is and with tricks which I found plainly and was vexed at; while we were together comes Sir G. Downing (41) with Colonell Norwood (52), Rumball, and Warrupp to visit me. I made them drink good wine and discoursed above alone a good while with Sir G. Downing (41), who is very troublesome, and then with Colonell Norwood (52), who hath a great mind to have me concerned with him in everything; which I like, but am shy of adventuring too much, but will thinke of it. They gone, Creed and I to finish the settling his accounts.

Thence to the office, where the Houblans and we discoursed upon a rubb which we have for one of the ships I hoped to have got to go out to Tangier for them. They being gone, I to my office-business late, and then home to supper and even sacke for lacke of a little wine, which I was forced to drink against my oathe, but without pleasure.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 March 1666. 11 Mar 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, there met Mr. Coventry (38) coming out, going along with the Commissioners of the Ordnance to the water side to take barge, they being to go down to the Hope. I returned with them as far as the Tower in their barge speaking with Sir W. Coventry (38) and so home and to church, and at noon dined and then to my chamber, where with great pleasure about one business or other till late, and so to supper and to bed.

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 March 1666. 26 Mar 1666. Up, and a meeting extraordinary there was of Sir W. Coventry (38), Lord Bruncker (46), and myself, about the business of settling the ticket office, where infinite room is left for abusing the King (35) in the wages of seamen.

Our [meeting] being done, my Lord Bruncker (46) and I to the Tower, to see the famous engraver (34), to get him to grave a seale for the office. And did see some of the finest pieces of work in embossed work, that ever I did see in my life, for fineness and smallness of the images thereon, and I will carry my wife thither to shew them her. Here I also did see bars of gold melting, which was a fine sight.

So with my Lord to the Pope's Head Taverne in Lombard Street to dine by appointment with Captain Taylor, whither Sir W. Coventry (38) come to us, and were mighty merry, and I find reason to honour him every day more and more.

Thence alone to Broade Street to Sir G. Carteret (56) by his desire to confer with him, who is I find in great pain about the business of the office, and not a little, I believe, in fear of falling there, Sir W. Coventry (38) having so great a pique against him, and herein I first learn an eminent instance how great a man this day, that nobody would think could be shaken, is the next overthrown, dashed out of countenance, and every small thing of irregularity in his business taken notice of, where nobody the other day durst cast an eye upon them, and next I see that he that the other day nobody durst come near is now as supple as a spaniel, and sends and speaks to me with great submission, and readily hears to advice.

Thence home to the office, where busy late, and so home a little to my accounts publique and private, but could not get myself rightly to know how to dispose of them in order to passing.

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John Evelyn's Diary 02 July 1666. 02 Jul 1666. Came Sir John Duncomb (44) and Mr. Thomas Chicheley (52), both Privy Councillors and Commissioners of His Majesty's (36) Ordnance, to visit me, and let me know that his Majesty (36) had in Council, nominated me to be one of the Commissioners for regulating the farming and making of saltpetre through the whole kingdom, and that we were to sit in the Tower the next day. When they were gone, came to see me Sir John Cotton (45), heir to the famous antiquary, Sir Robert Cotton (95): a pretended great Grecian, but had by no means the parts, or genius of his grandfather (95).

In 1666. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of John Cotton 3rd Baronet Cotton 1621-1702. In 1629 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Robert Bruce Cotton 1st Baronet Cotton 1571-1631.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 July 1666. 03 Jul 1666. I went to sit with the Commissioners at the Tower, where our commission being read, we made some progress in business, our Secretary being Sir George Wharton (49), that famous mathematician who wrote the yearly Almanac during his Majesty's (36) troubles. Thence, to Painters' Hall, Queenhithe, to our other commission, and dined at my Lord Mayor's.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 July 1666. 12 Jul 1666. But was up again by five o'clock, and was forced to rise, having much business, and so up and dressed myself (enquiring, was told that Mrs. Tooker was gone hence to live at London) and away with Poundy to the Tower, and thence, having shifted myself, but being mighty drowsy for want of sleep, I by coach to St. James's, to Goring House, there to wait on my Lord Arlington (48) to give him an account of my night's worke, but he was not up, being not long since married: so, after walking up and down the house below,—being the house I was once at Hartlib's (66) sister's wedding, and is a very fine house and finely furnished,—and then thinking it too much for me to lose time to wait my Lord's rising, I away to St. James's, and there to Sir W. Coventry (38), and wrote a letter to my Lord Arlington (48) giving him an account of what I have done, and so with Sir W. Coventry (38) into London, to the office. And all the way I observed him mightily to make mirth of the Duke of Albemarle (57) and his people about him, saying, that he was the happiest man in the world for doing of great things by sorry instruments. And so particularized in Sir W. Clerke (43), and Riggs, and Halsey, and others. And then again said that the only quality eminent in him was, that he did persevere; and indeed he is a very drudge, and stands by the King's business. And this he said, that one thing he was good at, that he never would receive an excuse if the thing was not done; listening to no reasoning for it, be it good or bad. But then I told him, what he confessed, that he would however give the man, that he employs, orders for removing of any obstruction that he thinks he shall meet with in the world, and instanced in several warrants that he issued for breaking open of houses and other outrages about the business of prizes, which people bore with either for affection or fear, which he believes would not have been borne with from the King (36), nor Duke (32), nor any man else in England, and I thinke he is in the right, but it is not from their love of him, but from something else I cannot presently say. Sir W. Coventry (38) did further say concerning Warcupp, his kinsman, that had the simplicity to tell Sir W. Coventry (38), that the Duke (32) did intend to go to sea and to leave him his agent on shore for all things that related to the sea. But, says Sir W. Coventry (38), I did believe but the Duke of Yorke (32) would expect to be his agent on shore for all sea matters. And then he begun to say what a great man Warcupp was, and something else, and what was that but a great lyer; and told me a story, how at table he did, they speaking about antipathys, say, that a rose touching his skin any where, would make it rise and pimple; and, by and by, the dessert coming, with roses upon it, the Duchesse (29) bid him try, and they did; but they rubbed and rubbed, but nothing would do in the world, by which his lie was found at then.

He spoke contemptibly of Holmes and his mermidons, that come to take down the ships from hence, and have carried them without any necessaries, or any thing almost, that they will certainly be longer getting ready than if they had staid here.

In fine, I do observe, he hath no esteem nor kindnesse for the Duke's matters, but, contrarily, do slight him and them; and I pray God the Kingdom do not pay too dear by this jarring; though this blockheaded Duke I did never expect better from.

At the office all the morning, at noon home and thought to have slept, my head all day being full of business and yet sleepy and out of order, and so I lay down on my bed in my gowne to sleep, but I could not, therefore about three o'clock up and to dinner and thence to the office, where. Mrs. Burroughs, my pretty widow, was and so I did her business and sent her away by agreement, and presently I by coach after and took her up in Fenchurch Streete and away through the City, hiding my face as much as I could, but she being mighty pretty and well enough clad, I was not afeard, but only lest somebody should see me and think me idle.

I quite through with her, and so into the fields Uxbridge way, a mile or two beyond Tyburne, and then back and then to Paddington, and then back to Lyssen green, a place the coachman led me to (I never knew in my life) and there we eat and drank and so back to Chasing Crosse, and there I set her down. All the way most excellent pretty company. I had her lips as much as I would, and a mighty pretty woman she is and very modest and yet kinde in all fair ways. All this time I passed with mighty pleasure, it being what I have for a long time wished for, and did pay this day 5s. forfeite for her company.

She being gone, I to White Hall and there to Lord Arlington's (48), and met Mr. Williamson (32), and find there is no more need of my trouble about the Galliott, so with content departed, and went straight home, where at the office did the most at the office in that wearied and sleepy state I could, and so home to supper, and after supper falling to singing with Mercer did however sit up with her, she pleasing me with her singing of "Helpe, helpe", 'till past midnight and I not a whit drowsy, and so to bed.

Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.

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John Evelyn's Diary 14 July 1666. 14 Jul 1666. Sat at the Tower with J. Duncomb (44) and Lord Berkeley (38), to sign deputations for undertakers to furnish their proportions of saltpetre.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 August 1666. 15 Aug 1666. Mighty sleepy; slept till past eight of the clock, and was called up by a letter from Sir W. Coventry (38), which, among other things, tells me how we have burned one hundred and sixty ships of the enemy within the Fly1. I up, and with all possible haste, and in pain for fear of coming late, it being our day of attending the Duke of Yorke (32), to St. James's, where they are full of the particulars; how they are generally good merchant ships, some of them laden and supposed rich ships. We spent five fire-ships upon them. We landed on the Schelling (Sir Philip Howard (35) with some men, and Holmes (44), I think; with others, about 1000 in all), and burned a town; and so come away.

By and by the Duke of Yorke (32) with his books showed us the very place and manner, and that it was not our design or expectation to have done this, but only to have landed on the Fly, and burned some of their store; but being come in, we spied those ships, and with our long boats, one by one, fired them, our ships running all aground, it being so shoal water. We were led to this by, it seems, a renegado captain of the Hollanders, who found himself ill used by De Ruyter (59) for his good service, and so come over to us, and hath done us good service; so that now we trust him, and he himself did go on this expedition. The service is very great, and our joys as great for it. All this will make the Duke of Albemarle (57) in repute again, I doubt, though there is nothing of his in this. But, Lord! to see what successe do, whether with or without reason, and making a man seem wise, notwithstanding never so late demonstration of the profoundest folly in the world.

Thence walked over the Parke with Sir W. Coventry (38), in our way talking of the unhappy state of our office; and I took an opportunity to let him know, that though the backwardnesses of all our matters of the office may be well imputed to the known want of money, yet, perhaps, there might be personal and particular failings; and that I did, therefore, depend still upon his promise of telling me whenever he finds any ground to believe any defect or neglect on my part, which he promised me still to do; and that there was none he saw, nor, indeed, says he, is there room now-a-days to find fault with any particular man, while we are in this condition for money. This, methought, did not so well please me; but, however, I am glad I have said this, thereby giving myself good grounds to believe that at this time he did not want an occasion to have said what he pleased to me, if he had had anything in his mind, which by his late distance and silence I have feared. But then again I am to consider he is grown a very great man, much greater than he was, and so must keep more distance; and, next, that the condition of our office will not afford me occasion of shewing myself so active and deserving as heretofore; and, lastly, the muchness of his business cannot suffer him to mind it, or give him leisure to reflect on anything, or shew the freedom and kindnesse that he used to do. But I think I have done something considerable to my satisfaction in doing this; and that if I do but my duty remarkably from this time forward, and not neglect it, as I have of late done, and minded my pleasures, I may be as well as ever I was.

Thence to the Exchequer, but did nothing, they being all gone from their offices; and so to the Old Exchange, where the towne full of the good newes, but I did not stay to tell or hear any, but home, my head akeing and drowsy, and to dinner, and then lay down upon the couch, thinking to get a little rest, but could not. So down the river, reading "The Adventures of Five Hours", which the more I read the more I admire. So down below Greenwich, but the wind and tide being against us, I back again to Deptford, and did a little business there, and thence walked to Redriffe; and so home, and to the office a while.

In the evening comes W. Batelier and his sister, and my wife, and fair Mrs. Turner (43) into the garden, and there we walked, and then with my Lady Pen (42) and Pegg (15) in a-doors, and eat and were merry, and so pretty late broke up, and to bed. The guns of the Tower going off, and there being bonefires also in the street for this late good successe.

Note 1. On the 8th August the Duke of Albemarle (57) reported to Lord Arlington (48) that he had "sent 1000 good men under Sir R. Holmes (44) and Sir William Jennings to destroy the islands of Vlie and Schelling". On the 10th James Hayes wrote to Williamson: "On the 9th at noon smoke was seen rising from several places in the island of Vlie, and the 10th brought news that Sir Robert had burned in the enemy's harbour 160 outward bound valuable merchant men and three men-of-war, and taken a little pleasure boat and eight guns in four hours. The loss is computed at a million sterling, and will make great confusion when the people see themselves in the power of the English at their very doors. Sir Robert then landed his forces, and is burning the houses in Vlie and Schelling as bonfires for his good success at sea" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 21,27).

1667. Ferdinand Bol 1616-1680. Portrait of Admiral Michiel de Ruyter 1607-1676.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 September 1666. 02 Sep 1666. Lord's Day. Some of our mayds sitting up late last night to get things ready against our feast to-day, Jane called us up about three in the morning, to tell us of a great fire they saw in the City. So I rose and slipped on my nightgowne, and went to her window, and thought it to be on the backside of Marke-lane at the farthest; but, being unused to such fires as followed, I thought it far enough off; and so went to bed again and to sleep. About seven rose again to dress myself, and there looked out at the window, and saw the fire not so much as it was and further off.

So to my closett to set things to rights after yesterday's cleaning.

By and by Jane comes and tells me that she hears that above 300 houses have been burned down to-night by the fire we saw, and that it is now burning down all Fish-street, by London Bridge. So I made myself ready presently, and walked to the Tower, and there got up upon one of the high places, Sir J. Robinson's (51) little son going up with me; and there I did see the houses at that end of the bridge all on fire, and an infinite great fire on this and the other side the end of the bridge; which, among other people, did trouble me for poor little Michell and our Sarah on the bridge. So down, with my heart full of trouble, to the Lieutenant of the Tower (51), who tells me that it begun this morning in the King's baker's' house in Pudding-lane, and that it hath burned St. Magnus's Church and most part of Fish-street already.

So I down to the water-side, and there got a boat and through bridge, and there saw a lamentable fire. Poor Michell's house, as far as the Old Swan, already burned that way, and the fire running further, that in a very little time it got as far as the Steeleyard, while I was there. Everybody endeavouring to remove their goods, and flinging into the river or bringing them into lighters that layoff; poor people staying in their houses as long as till the very fire touched them, and then running into boats, or clambering from one pair of stairs by the water-side to another. And among other things, the poor pigeons, I perceive, were loth to leave their houses, but hovered about the windows and balconys till they were, some of them burned, their wings, and fell down.

Having staid, and in an hour's time seen the fire: rage every way, and nobody, to my sight, endeavouring to quench it, but to remove their goods, and leave all to the fire, and having seen it get as far as the Steele-yard, and the wind mighty high and driving it into the City; and every thing, after so long a drought, proving combustible, even the very stones of churches, and among other things the poor steeple by which pretty Mrs.————lives, and whereof my old school-fellow Elborough is parson, taken fire in the very top, an there burned till it fell down: I to White Hall (with a gentleman with me who desired to go off from the Tower, to see the fire, in my boat); to White Hall, and there up to the Kings closett in the Chappell, where people come about me, and did give them an account dismayed them all, and word was carried in to the King (36).

So I was called for, and did tell the King (36) and Duke of Yorke (32) what I saw, and that unless his Majesty did command houses to be pulled down nothing could stop the fire. They seemed much troubled, and the King (36) commanded me to go to my Lord Mayor (46)1 from him, and command him to spare no houses, but to pull down before the fire every way. The Duke of York (32) bid me tell him that if he would have any more soldiers he shall; and so did my Lord Arlington (48) afterwards, as a great secret2.

Here meeting, with Captain Cocke (49), I in his coach, which he lent me, and Creed with me to Paul's, and there walked along Watlingstreet, as well as I could, every creature coming away loaden with goods to save, and here and there sicke people carried away in beds. Extraordinary good goods carried in carts and on backs. At last met my Lord Mayor (46) in Canningstreet, like a man spent, with a handkercher about his neck. To the King's message he cried, like a fainting woman, "Lord! what can I do? I am spent: people will not obey me. I have been pulling down houses; but the fire overtakes us faster than we can do it". That he needed no more soldiers; and that, for himself, he must go and refresh himself, having been up all night.

So he left me, and I him, and walked home, seeing people all almost distracted, and no manner of means used to quench the fire. The houses, too, so very thick thereabouts, and full of matter for burning, as pitch and tarr, in Thames-street; and Warehouses of oyle, and wines, and brandy, and other things. Here I saw Mr. Isaake Houblon, the handsome man, prettily dressed and dirty, at his door at Dowgate, receiving some of his brothers' (37) things, whose houses were on fire; and, as he says, have been removed twice already; and he doubts (as it soon proved) that they must be in a little time removed from his house also, which was a sad consideration. And to see the churches all filling with goods by people who themselves should have been quietly there at this time.

By this time it was about twelve o'clock; and so home, and there find my guests, which was Mr. Wood and his wife Barbary Sheldon, and also Mr. Moons: she mighty fine, and her husband; for aught I see, a likely man. But Mr. Moone's design and mine, which was to look over my closett and please him with the sight thereof, which he hath long desired, was wholly disappointed; for we were in great trouble and disturbance at this fire, not knowing what to think of it. However, we had an extraordinary good dinner, and as merry, as at this time we could be. While at dinner Mrs. Batelier come to enquire after Mr. Woolfe and Stanes (who, it seems, are related to them), whose houses in Fish-street are all burned; and they in a sad condition. She would not stay in the fright. Soon as dined, I and Moone away, and walked, through the City, the streets full of nothing but people and horses and carts loaden with goods, ready to run over one another, and, removing goods from one burned house to another.

They now removing out of Canning-streets (which received goods in the morning) into Lumbard-streets, and further; and among others I now saw my little goldsmith, Stokes, receiving some friend's goods, whose house itself was burned the day after. We parted at Paul's; he home, and I to Paul's Wharf, where I had appointed a boat to attend me, and took in Mr. Carcasse and his brother, whom I met in the streets and carried them below and above bridge to and again to see the fire, which was now got further, both below and above and no likelihood of stopping it. Met with the King (36) and Duke of York (32) in their barge, and with them to Queenhith and there called Sir Richard Browne (61) to them. Their order was only to pull down houses apace, and so below bridge the water-side; but little was or could be done, the fire coming upon them so fast. Good hopes there was of stopping it at the Three Cranes above, and at Buttolph's Wharf below bridge, if care be used; but the wind carries it into the City so as we know not by the water-side what it do there. River full of lighters and boats taking in goods, and good goods swimming in the water, and only I observed that hardly one lighter or boat in three that had the goods of a house in, but there was a pair of Virginalls3 in it.

Having seen as much as I could now, I away to White Hall by appointment, and there walked to St. James's Parks, and there met my wife and Creed and Wood and his wife, and walked to my boat; and there upon the water again, and to the fire up and down, it still encreasing, and the wind great. So near the fire as we could for smoke; and all over the Thames, with one's face in the wind, you were almost burned with a shower of firedrops. This is very true; so as houses were burned by these drops and flakes of fire, three or four, nay, five or six houses, one from another. When we could endure no more upon the water; we to a little ale-house on the Bankside, over against the Three Cranes, and there staid till it was dark almost, and saw the fire grow; and, as it grew darker, appeared more and more, and in corners and upon steeples, and between churches and houses, as far as we could see up the hill of the City, in a most horrid malicious bloody flame, not like the fine flame of an ordinary fire. Barbary and her husband away before us.

We staid till, it being darkish, we saw the fire as only one entire arch of fire from this to the other side the bridge, and in a bow up the hill for an arch of above a mile long: it made me weep to see it. The churches, houses, and all on fire and flaming at once; and a horrid noise the flames made, and the cracking of houses at their ruins.

So home with a sad heart, and there find every body discoursing and lamenting the fire; and poor Tom Hater come with some few of his goods saved out of his house, which is burned upon Fish-streets Hill. I invited him to lie at my house, and did receive his goods, but was deceived in his lying there, the newes coming every moment of the growth of the fire; so as we were forced to begin to pack up our owne goods; and prepare for their removal; and did by moonshine (it being brave dry, and moon: shine, and warm weather) carry much of my goods into the garden, and Mr. Hater and I did remove my money and iron chests into my cellar, as thinking that the safest place. And got my bags of gold into my office, ready to carry away, and my chief papers of accounts also there, and my tallys into a box by themselves. So great was our fear, as Sir W. Batten (65) hath carts come out of the country to fetch away his goods this night. We did put Mr. Hater, poor man, to bed a little; but he got but very little rest, so much noise being in my house, taking down of goods.

Note 1. Sir Thomas Bludworth (46). See June 30th, 1666.

Note 2. Sir William Coventry wrote to Lord Arlington on the evening of this day, "The Duke of York (32) fears the want of workmen and tools to-morrow morning, and wishes the deputy lieutenants and justices of peace to summon the workmen with tools to be there by break of day. In some churches and chapels are great hooks for pulling down houses, which should be brought ready upon the place to-night against the morning" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-66, p. 95).

Note 3. The virginal differed from the spinet in being square instead of triangular in form. The word pair was used in the obsolete sense of a set, as we read also of a pair of organs. The instrument is supposed to have obtained its name from young women, playing upon it.

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John Evelyn's Diary 05 September 1666. 05 Sep 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall; but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty (36) to command me, among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all despair. It also broke out again in the Temple; but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.

The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, etc., did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had dedicated to his Majesty (36) and published, giving warning what probably might be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the city was looked upon as a prophecy.

The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, were now reduced to extreme misery and poverty.

In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine, who, in the midst of all this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound.

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John Evelyn's Diary 07 September 1666. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet Street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate Ward, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.

At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King (65)) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.

The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.

I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty (36) and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.

In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's (36) proclamation also invited them.

Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.

In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

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In 1667 Robert Wallop 1601-1667 (65) died in the Tower of London.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 February 1667. 27 Feb 1667. Up by candle-light, about six o'clock, it being bitter cold weather again, after all our warm weather, and by water down to Woolwich Rope-yard, I being this day at a leisure, the King (36) and Duke of York (33) being gone down to Sheerenesse this morning to lay out the design for a fortification there to the river Medway; and so we do not attend the Duke of York (33) as we should otherwise have done, and there to the Dock Yard to enquire of the state of things, and went into Mr. Pett's (56); and there, beyond expectation, he did present me with a Japan cane, with a silver head, and his wife sent me by him a ring, with a Woolwich stone1 now much in request; which I accepted, the values not being great, and knowing that I had done them courtesies, which he did own in very high terms; and then, at my asking, did give me an old draught of an ancient-built ship, given him by his father, of the Beare, in Queen Elizabeth's time. This did much please me, it being a thing I much desired to have, to shew the difference in the build of ships now and heretofore.

Being much taken with this kindness, I away to Blackwall and Deptford, to satisfy myself there about the King's business, and then walked to Redriffe, and so home about noon; there find Mr. Hunt, newly come out of the country, who tells me the country is much impoverished by the greatness of taxes: the farmers do break every day almost, and £1000 a-year become not worth £500. He dined with us, and we had good discourse of the general ill state of things, and, by the way, he told me some ridiculous pieces of thrift of Sir G. Downing's (42), who is his countryman, in inviting some poor people, at Christmas last, to charm the country people's mouths; but did give them nothing but beef, porridge, pudding, and pork, and nothing said all dinner, but only his mother would say, "It's good broth, son". He would answer, "Yes, it is good broth". Then, says his lady, Confirm all, and say, "Yes, very good broth". By and by she would begin and say, "Good pork:"—"Yes", says the mother, "good pork". Then he cries, "Yes, very good pork". And so they said of all things; to which nobody made any answer, they going there not out of love or esteem of them, but to eat his victuals, knowing him to be a niggardly fellow; and with this he is jeered now all over the country.

This day just before dinner comes Captain Story, of Cambridge, to me to the office, about a bill for prest money2, for men sent out of the country and the countries about him to the fleete the last year; but, Lord! to see the natures of men; how this man, hearing of my name, did ask me of my country, and told me of my cozen Roger (49), that he was not so wise a man as his father (84); for that he do not agree in Parliament with his fellow burgesses and knights of the shire, whereas I know very well the reason; for he is not so high a flyer as Mr. Chichley (52) and others, but loves the King (36) better than any of them, and to better purpose. But yet, he says that he is a very honest gentleman, and thence runs into a hundred stories of his own services to the King (36), and how he at this day brings in the taxes before anybody here thinks they are collected: discourse very absurd to entertain a stranger with. He being gone, and I glad of it, I home then to dinner.

After dinner with my wife by coach abroad, and set Mr. Hunt down at the Temple and her at her brother's (27), and I to White Hall to meet Sir W. Coventry (39), but found him not, but met Mr. Cooling, who tells me of my Lord Duke of Buckingham's (39) being sent for last night, by a Serjeant at Armes, to the Tower, for treasonable practices, and that the King (36) is infinitely angry with him, and declared him no longer one of his Council. I know not the reason of it, or occasion.

To Westminster Hall, and there paid what I owed for books, and so by coach, took up my wife to the Exchange, and there bought things for Mrs. Pierce's little daughter, my Valentine, and so to their house, where we find Knipp, who also challengeth me for her Valentine. She looks well, sang well, and very merry we were for half an hour. Tells me Harris (33) is well again, having been very ill, and so we home, and I to the office; then, at night, to Sir W. Pen's (45), and sat with my Lady, and the young couple (Sir William out of town) talking merrily; but they make a very sorry couple, methinks, though rich. So late home and to bed.

Note 1. Woolwich stones, still collected in that locality, are simply waterworn pebbles of flint, which, when broken with a hammer, exhibit on the smooth surface some resemblance to the human face; and their possessors are thus enabled to trace likenesses of friends, or eminent public characters. The late Mr. Tennant, the geologist, of the Strand, had a collection of such stones. In the British Museum is a nodule of globular or Egyptian jasper, which, in its fracture, bears a striking resemblance to the well-known portrait of Chaucer. It is engraved in Rymsdyk's "Museum Britannicum", tab. xxviii. A flint, showing Mr. Pitt's face, used once to be exhibited at the meetings of the Pitt Club. B.

Note 2. Money paid to men who enlist into the public service; press money. So called because those who receive it are to be prest or ready when called on ("Encyclopaedic Dictionary ").

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 March 1667. 03 Mar 1667. Lord's Day. Lay long, merrily talking with my wife, and then up and to church, where a dull sermon of Mr. Mills touching Original Sin, and then home, and there find little Michell and his wife, whom I love mightily. Mightily contented I was in their company, for I love her much; and so after dinner I left them and by water from the Old Swan to White Hall, where, walking in the galleries, I in the first place met Mr. Pierce, who tells me the story of Tom Woodall, the surgeon, killed in a drunken quarrel, and how the Duke of York (33) hath a mind to get him [Pierce] one of his places in St. Thomas's Hospitall. Then comes Mr. Hayward, the Duke of York's (33) servant, and tells us that the Swede's Embassador hath been here to-day with news that it is believed that the Dutch will yield to have the treaty at London or Dover, neither of which will get our King any credit, we having already consented to have it at The Hague; which, it seems, De Witt opposed, as a thing wherein the King (36) of England must needs have some profound design, which in my conscience he hath not. They do also tell me that newes is this day come to the King (36), that the King of France (28) is come with his army to the frontiers of Flanders, demanding leave to pass through their country towards Poland, but is denied, and thereupon that he is gone into the country. How true this is I dare not believe till I hear more.

From them I walked into the Parke, it being a fine but very cold day; and there took two or three turns the length of the Pell Mell: and there I met Serjeant Bearcroft, who was sent for the Duke of Buckingham (39), to have brought him prisoner to the Tower. He come to towne this day, and brings word that, being overtaken and outrid by the Duchesse of Buckingham (28) within a few miles of the Duke's house of Westhorp, he believes she got thither about a quarter of an hour before him, and so had time to consider; so that, when he come, the doors were kept shut against him. The next day, coming with officers of the neighbour market-town to force open the doors, they were open for him, but the Duke (39) gone; so he took horse presently, and heard upon the road that the Duke of Buckingham (39) was gone before him for London: so that he believes he is this day also come to towne before him; but no newes is yet heard of him. This is all he brings.

Thence to my Chancellor's (58), and there, meeting Sir H. Cholmly (34), he and I walked in my Lord's garden, and talked; among other things, of the treaty: and he says there will certainly be a peace, but I cannot believe it. He tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (39) his crimes, as far as he knows, are his being of a caball with some discontented persons of the late House of Commons, and opposing the desires of the King (36) in all his matters in that House; and endeavouring to become popular, and advising how the Commons' House should proceed, and how he would order the House of Lords. And that he hath been endeavouring to have the King's nativity calculated; which was done, and the fellow now in the Tower about it; which itself hath heretofore, as he says, been held treason, and people died for it; but by the Statute of Treasons, in Queen Mary's times and since, it hath been left out. He tells me that this silly Lord hath provoked, by his ill-carriage, the Duke of York (33), my Chancellor (58), and all the great persons; and therefore, most likely, will die. He tells me, too, many practices of treachery against this King; as betraying him in Scotland, and giving Oliver an account of the King's private councils; which the King (36) knows very well, and hath yet pardoned him1.

Here I passed away a little time more talking with him and Creed, whom I met there, and so away, Creed walking with me to White Hall, and there I took water and stayed at Michell's to drink. I home, and there to read very good things in Fuller's "Church History", and "Worthies", and so to supper, and after supper had much good discourse with W. Hewer (25), who supped with us, about the ticket office and the knaveries and extortions every day used there, and particularly of the business of Mr. Carcasse, whom I fear I shall find a very rogue. So parted with him, and then to bed.

Note 1. Two of our greatest poets have drawn the character of the Duke of Buckingham (39) in brilliant verse, and both have condemned him to infamy. There is enough in Pepys's reports to corroborate the main features of Dryden's (35) magnificent portrait of Zimri in "Absolom and Achitophel": "In the first rank of these did Zimri stand; A man so various that he seemed to be Not one, but all mankind's epitome; Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong; Was everything by starts, and nothing long, But, in the course of one revolving moon, Was chymist, fiddler, statesman, and buffoon; Then all for women, painting, rhyming, drinking, Besides ten thousand freaks that died in thinking, * * * * * * * He laughed himself from Court, then sought relief By forming parties, but could ne'er be chief". Pope's facts are not correct, and hence the effect of his picture is impaired. In spite of the duke's constant visits to the Tower, Charles II still continued his friend; but on the death of the King (36), expecting little from James, he retired to his estate at Helmsley, in Yorkshire, to nurse his property and to restore his constitution. He died on April 16th, 1687, at Kirkby Moorside, after a few days' illness, caused by sitting on the damp grass when heated from a fox chase. The scene of his death was the house of a tenant, not "the worst inn's worst room" ("Moral Essays", epist. iii.). He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

After 1659. After John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of John Dryden Poet 1631-1700. Around 1693. Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Dryden Poet 1631-1700. Around 1697. Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Dryden Poet 1631-1700. Around 1665 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of John Dryden Poet 1631-1700.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 March 1667. 06 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (45) to White Hall by coach, and by the way agreed to acquaint Sir W. Coventry (39) with the business of Mr. Carcasse, and he and I spoke to Sir W. Coventry (39) that we might move it to the Duke of York (33), which I did in a very indifferent, that is, impartial manner, but vexed I believe Lord Bruncker (47). Here the Duke of York (33) did acquaint us, and the King (36) did the like also, afterwards coming in, with his resolution of altering the manner of the war this year; that is, we shall keep what fleete we have abroad in several squadrons: so that now all is come out; but we are to keep it as close as we can, without hindering the work that is to be done in preparation to this. Great preparations there are to fortify Sheernesse and the yard at Portsmouth, and forces are drawing down to both those places, and elsewhere by the seaside; so that we have some fear of an invasion; and the Duke of York (33) himself did declare his expectation of the enemy's blocking us up here in the River, and therefore directed that we should send away all the ships that we have to fit out hence. Sir W. Pen (45) told me, going with me this morning to White Hall, that for certain the Duke of Buckingham (39) is brought into the Tower, and that he hath had an hour's private conference with the King (36) before he was sent thither. To Westminster Hall. There bought some news books, and, as every where else, hear every body complain of the dearness of coals, being at £4 per chaldron, the weather, too, being become most bitter cold, the King (36) saying to-day that it was the coldest day he ever knew in England.

Thence by coach to my Lord Crew's (69), where very welcome. Here I find they are in doubt where the Duke of Buckingham (39) is; which makes me mightily reflect on the uncertainty of all history, when, in a business of this moment, and of this day's growth, we cannot tell the truth. Here dined my old acquaintance, Mr. Borfett, that was my Lord Sandwich's (41) chaplain, and my Lady Wright and Dr. Boreman, who is preacher at St. Gyles's in the Fields, who, after dinner, did give my Lord an account of two papist women lately converted, whereof one wrote her recantation, which he shewed under her own hand mighty well drawn, so as my Lord desired a copy of it, after he had satisfied himself from the Doctor, that to his knowledge she was not a woman under any necessity.

Thence by coach home and staid a very little, and then by water to Redriffe, and walked to Bagwell's, where 'la moher' was 'defro, sed' would not have me 'demeurer' there 'parce que' Mrs. Batters and one of my 'ancillas', I believe Jane (for she was gone abroad to-day), was in the town, and coming thither; so I away presently, esteeming it a great escape.

So to the yard and spoke a word or two, and then by water home, wondrous cold, and reading a ridiculous ballad made in praise of the Duke of Albemarle (58), to the tune of St. George, the tune being printed, too; and I observe that people have some great encouragement to make ballads of him of this kind. There are so many, that hereafter he will sound like Guy of Warwicke.

Then abroad with my wife, leaving her at the 'Change, while I to Sir H. Cholmly's (34), a pretty house, and a fine, worthy, well-disposed gentleman he is. He and I to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (57), about money for Tangier, but to little purpose. H. Cholmley (34) tells me, among other things, that he hears of little hopes of a peace, their demands being so high as we shall never grant, and could tell me that we shall keep no fleete abroad this year, but only squadrons. And, among other things, that my Lord Bellasses (52), he believes, will lose his command of Tangier by his corrupt covetous ways of.endeavouring to sell his command, which I am glad [of], for he is a man of no worth in the world but compliment.

So to the 'Change, and there bought 32s. worth of things for Mrs. Knipp, my Valentine, which is pretty to see how my wife is come to convention with me, that, whatever I do give to anybody else, I shall give her as much, which I am not much displeased with.

So home and to the office and Sir W. Batten (66), to tell him what I had done to-day about Carcasse's business, and God forgive me I am not without design to give a blow to Sir W. Batten (66) by it.

So home, where Mr. Batelier supped with us and talked away the evening pretty late, and so he gone and we to bed.

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John Evelyn's Diary 06 March 1667. 06 Mar 1667. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor (58), Monsieur Kiviet's (40) undertaking to wharf the whole river of Thames, or quay, from the Temple to the Tower, as far as the fire destroyed, with brick, without piles, both lasting and ornamental.—Great frosts, snow and winds, prodigious at the vernal equinox; indeed it had been a year of prodigies in this nation, plague, war, fire, rain, tempest and comet.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 March 1667. 22 Mar 1667. Up and by coach to Sir Ph. Warwicke (57) about business for Tangier about money, and then to Sir Stephen Fox (39) to give him account of a little service I have done him about money coming to him from our office, and then to Lovett's and saw a few baubling things of their doing which are very pretty, but the quality of the people, living only by shifts, do not please me, that it makes me I do no more care for them, nor shall have more acquaintance with them after I have got my Baroness Castlemayne's (26) picture home.

So to White Hall, where the King (36) at Chapel, and I would not stay, but to Westminster to Howlett's, and there, he being not well, I sent for a quart of claret and burnt it and drank, and had a 'basado' or three or four of Sarah, whom 'je trouve ici', and so by coach to Sir Robt. Viner's (36) about my accounts with him, and so to the 'Change, where I hear for certain that we are going on with our treaty of peace, and that we are to treat at Bredah. But this our condescension people do think will undo us, and I do much fear it.

So home to dinner, where my wife having dressed herself in a silly dress of a blue petticoat uppermost, and a white satin waistcoat and whitehood, though I think she did it because her gown is gone to the tailor's, did, together with my being hungry, which always makes me peevish, make me angry, but when my belly was full were friends again, and dined and then by water down to Greenwich and thence walked to Woolwich, all the way reading Playford's (44) "Introduction to Musique", wherein are some things very pretty.

At Woolwich I did much business, taking an account of the state of the ships there under hand, thence to Blackwall, and did the like for two ships we have repairing there, and then to Deptford and did the like there, and so home. Captain Perriman with me from Deptford, telling me many particulars how the King's business is ill ordered, and indeed so they are, God knows!

So home and to the office, where did business, and so home to my chamber, and then to supper and to bed. Landing at the Tower to-night I met on Tower Hill with Captain Cocke (50) and spent half an hour walking in the dusk of the evening with him, talking of the sorrowful condition we are in, that we must be ruined if the Parliament do not come and chastize us, that we are resolved to make a peace whatever it cost, that the King (36) is disobliging the Parliament in this interval all that may be, yet his money is gone and he must have more, and they likely not to give it, without a great deal of do. God knows what the issue of it will be. But the considering that the Duke of York (33), instead of being at sea as Admirall, is now going from port to port, as he is at this day at Harwich, and was the other day with the King (36) at Sheernesse, and hath ordered at Portsmouth how fortifications shall be made to oppose the enemy, in case of invasion, [which] is to us a sad consideration, and as shameful to the nation, especially after so many proud vaunts as we have made against the Dutch, and all from the folly of the Duke of Albemarle (58), who made nothing of beating them, and Sir John Lawson (52) he always declared that we never did fail to beat them with lesser numbers than theirs, which did so prevail with the King (36) as to throw us into this war.

Before 1725. John James Baker Painter -1725. Portrait of Stephen Fox Paymaster 1627-1716. Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 April 1667. 14 Apr 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and to read a little in my new History of Turkey, and so with my wife to church, and then home, where is little Michell and my pretty Betty and also Mercer, and very merry. A good dinner of roast beef.

After dinner I away to take water at the Tower, and thence to Westminster, where Mrs. Martin was not at home.

So to White Hall, and there walked up and down, and among other things visited Sir G. Carteret (57), and much talk with him, who is discontented, as he hath reason, to see how things are like to come all to naught, and it is very much that this resolution of having of country Admirals should not come to his eares till I told him the other day, so that I doubt who manages things.

From him to Margaret's Church, and there spied Martin, and home with her.... but fell out to see her expensefullness, having bought Turkey work, chairs, &c.

By and by away home, and there took out my wife, and the two Mercers, and two of our mayds, Barker and Jane, and over the water to the Jamaica House, where I never was before, and there the girls did run for wagers over the bowling-green; and there, with much pleasure, spent little, and so home, and they home, and I to read with satisfaction in my book of Turkey, and so to bed.

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John Evelyn's Diary 23 April 1667. 23 Apr 1667. In the morning, his Majesty (36) went to chapel with the Knights of the Garter, all in their habits and robes, ushered by the heralds; after the first service, they went in procession, the youngest first, the Sovereign last, with the Prelate of the Order and Dean, who had about his neck the book of the Statutes of the Order; and then the Chancellor of the Order (old Sir Henry de Vic (68)), who wore the purse about his neck; then the Heralds and Garter King-at-Arms, Clarencieux, Black Rod. But before the Prelate and Dean of Windsor went the gentlemen of the chapel and choristers, singing as they marched; behind them two doctors of music in damask robes; this procession was about the courts at Whitehall. Then, returning to their stalls and seats in the chapel, placed under each knight's coat-armor and titles, the second service began. Then, the King (36) offered at the altar, an anthem was sung; then, the rest of the Knights offered, and lastly proceeded to the banqueting-house to a great feast. The King (36) sat on an elevated throne at the upper end at a table alone; the Knights at a table on the right hand, reaching all the length of the room; over against them a cupboard of rich gilded plate; at the lower end, the music; on the balusters above, wind music, trumpets, and kettle-drums. the King (36) was served by the lords and pensioners who brought up the dishes. About the middle of the dinner, the Knights drank the King's (36) health, then the King (36), theirs, when the trumpets and music played and sounded, the guns going off at the Tower. At the Banquet, came in the Queen (28), and stood by the King's (36) left hand, but did not sit. Then was the banqueting-stuff flung about the room profusely. In truth, the crowd was so great, that though I stayed all the supper the day before, I now stayed no longer than this sport began, for fear of disorder. The cheer was extraordinary, each Knight having forty dishes to his mess, piled up five or six high; the room hung with the richest tapestry.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 May 1667. 05 May 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and going down to the water side, I met Sir John Robinson (52), and so with him by coach to White Hall, still a vain, prating, boasting man as any I know, as if the whole City and Kingdom had all its work done by him. He tells me he hath now got a street ordered to be continued, forty feet broad, from Paul's through Cannon Street to the Tower, which will be very fine.

He and others this day, where I was in the afternoon, do tell me of at least six or eight fires within these few days; and continually stirs of fires, and real fires there have been, in one place or other, almost ever since the late great fire, as if there was a fate sent people for fire. I walked over the Park to Sir W. Coventry's (39). Among other things to tell him what I hear of people being forced to sell their bills before September for 35 and 40 per cent. loss, and what is worst, that there are some courtiers that have made a knot to buy them, in hopes of some ways to get money of the King (36) to pay them, which Sir W. Coventry (39) is amazed at, and says we are a people made up for destruction, and will do what he can to prevent all this by getting the King (36) to provide wherewith to pay them.

We talked of Tangier, of which he is ashamed; also that it should put the King (36) to this charge for no good in the world: and now a man going over that is a good soldier, but a debauched man, which the place need not to have. And so used these words: "That this place was to the King (36) as my Lord Carnarvon (34) says of wood, that it is an excrescence of the earth provided by God for the payment of debts".

Thence away to Sir G. Carteret (57), whom I find taking physic. I staid talking with him but a little, and so home to church, and heard a dull sermon, and most of the best women of our parish gone into the country, or at least not at church.

So home, and find my boy not there, nor was at church, which vexed me, and when he come home I enquired, he tells me he went to see his mother. I send him back to her to send me some token that he was with her. So there come a man with him back of good fashion. He says he saw him with her, which pacified me, but I did soundly threaten him before him, and so to dinner, and then had a little scolding with my wife for not being fine enough to go to the christening to-day, which she excused by being ill, as she was indeed, and cried, but I was in an ill humour and ashamed, indeed, that she should not go dressed. However, friends by and by, and we went by water to Michell's, and there his little house full of his father and mothers and the kindred, hardly any else, and mighty merry in this innocent company, and Betty mighty pretty in bed, but, her head akeing, not very merry, but the company mighty merry, and I with them, and so the child was christened; my wife, his father, and her mother, the witnesses, and the child's name Elizabeth. So we had gloves and wine and wafers, very pretty, and talked and tattled, and so we away by water and up with the tide, she and I and Barker, as high as Barne Elmes, it being a fine evening, and back again to pass the bridges at standing water between 9 and 10 at might, and then home and to supper, and then to bed with much pleasure.

This day Sir W. Coventry (39) tells me the Dutch fleete shot some shot, four or five hundred, into Burnt-Island in the Frith, but without any hurt; and so are gone.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 May 1667. 20 May 1667. Up betimes, and comes my flagelette master to set me a new tune, which I played presently, and shall in a month do as much as I desire at it. He being gone, I to several businesses in my chamber, and then by coach to the Commissioners of Excise, and so to Westminster Hall, and there spoke with several persons I had to do with. Here among other news, I hear that the Commissioners for the Treasury were named by the King (36) yesterday; but who they are nobody could tell: but the persons are the Chancellor (58), the two Secretaries, Lord Ashly (45), and others say Sir W. Coventry (39) and Sir John Duncomb (44), but all conclude the Duke of Albemarle (58); but reports do differ, but will be known in a day or two.

Having done my business, I then homeward, and overtook Mr. Commander; so took him into a coach with me, and he and I into Lincoln's Inne Fields, there to look upon the coach-houses to see what ground is necessary for coach-house and horses, because of that that I am going about to do, and having satisfied myself in this he and I to Mr. Hide's to look upon the ground again behind our house, and concluded upon his going along with us to-morrow to see some stables, he thinking that we demand more than is necessary.

So away home, and then, I, it being a broken day, and had power by my vows, did walk abroad, first through the Minorys, the first time I have been over the Hill to the postern-gate, and seen the place, since the houses were pulled down about that side of the Tower, since the fire, to find where my young mercer with my pretty little woman to his wife lives, who lived in Lombard Street, and I did espy them, but took no notice now of them, but may do hereafter.

Thence down to the Old Swan, and there saw Betty Michell, whom I have not seen since her christening. But, Lord! how pretty she is, and looks as well as ever I saw her, and her child (which I am fain to seem very fond of) is pretty also, I think, and will be.

Thence by water to Westminster Hall, and there walked a while talking at random with Sir W. Doyly (53), and so away to Mrs. Martin's lodging, who was gone before, expecting me, and there je hazer what je vellem cum her and drank, and so by coach home (but I have forgot that I did in the morning go to the Swan, and there tumbling of la little fille, son uncle did trouver her cum su neckcloth off, which I was ashamed of, but made no great matter of it, but let it pass with a laugh), and there spent the evening with my wife at our flagelets, and so to supper, and after a little reading to bed. My wife still troubled with her cold. I find it everywhere now to be a thing doubted whether we shall have peace or no, and the captain of one of our ships that went with the Embassadors do say, that the seamen of Holland to his hearing did defy us, and called us English dogs, and cried out against peace, and that the great people there do oppose peace, though he says the common people do wish it.

Around 1672 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683.

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John Evelyn's Diary 17 June 1667. 17 Jun 1667. This night, about two o'clock, some chips and combustible matter prepared for some fire-ships, taking flame in Deptford-yard, made such a blaze, and caused such an uproar in the Tower (it being given out that the Dutch fleet was come up, and had landed their men and fired the Tower), as had liked to have done more mischief before people would be persuaded to the contrary and believe the accident. Everybody went to their arms. These were sad and troublesome times.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 June 1667. 18 Jun 1667. Up, and did this morning dally with Nell... [Missing text 'and touch her thing'] which I was afterward troubled for.

To the office, and there all the morning. Peg Pen (16) come to see me, and I was glad of it, and did resolve to have tried her this afternoon, but that there was company with elle at my home, whither I got her.

Dined at home, W. Hewer (25) with me, and then to the office, and to my Lady Pen's (43), and did find occasion for Peg (16) to go home with me to my chamber, but there being an idle gentleman with them, he went with us, and I lost my hope.

So to the office, and by and by word was brought me that Commissioner Pett (56) is brought to the Tower, and there laid up close prisoner; which puts me into a fright, lest they may do the same with us as they do with him. This puts me upon hastening what I am doing with my people, and collecting out of my papers our defence. Myself got Fist, Sir W. Batten's (66) clerk, and busy with him writing letters late, and then home to supper and to read myself asleep, after piping, and so to bed.

Great newes to-night of the blowing up of one of the Dutch greatest ships, while a Council of War was on board: the latter part, I doubt, is not so, it not being confirmed since; but the former, that they had a ship blown up, is said to be true.

This evening comes Sir G. Carteret (57) to the office, to talk of business at Sir W. Batten's (66); where all to be undone for want of money, there being none to pay the Chest at their publique pay the 24th of this month, which will make us a scorn to the world.

After he had done there, he and I into the garden, and walked; and the greatest of our discourse is, his sense of the requisiteness of his parting with his being Treasurer of the Navy, if he can, on any good terms. He do harp upon getting my Lord Bruncker (47) to take it on half profit, but that he is not able to secure him in paying him so much. But the thing I do advise him to do by all means, and he resolves on it, being but the same counsel which I intend to take myself.

My Lady Jem goes down to Hinchingbroke to lie down, because of the troubles of the times here. He tells me he is not sure that the King of France (28) will not annoy us this year, but that the Court seems [to] reckon upon it as a thing certain, for that is all that I and most people are afeard of this year. He tells me now the great question is, whether a Parliament or no Parliament; and says the Parliament itself cannot be thought able at present to raise money, and therefore it will be to no purpose to call one. I hear this day poor Michell's child is dead.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 June 1667. 20 Jun 1667. Up, without any respect to my wife, only answering her a question or two, without any anger though, and so to the office, where all the morning busy, and among other things Mr. Barber come to me (one of the clerks of the Ticket office) to get me to sign some tickets, and told me that all the discourse yesterday, about that part of the town where he was, was that Mr. Pett (56) and I were in the Tower; and I did hear the same before.

At noon, home to dinner, and there my wife and I very good friends; the care of my gold being somewhat over, considering it was in their hands that have as much cause to secure it as myself almost, and so if they will be mad, let them. But yet I do intend to, send for it away. Here dined Mercer with us, and after dinner she cut my hair, and then I into my closet and there slept a little, as I do now almost every day after dinner; and then, after dallying a little with Nell, which I am ashamed to think of, away to the office.

Busy all the afternoon; in the evening did treat with, and in the end agree; but by some kind of compulsion, with the owners of six merchant ships, to serve the King (37) as men-of-war. But, Lord! to see how against the hair it is with these men and every body to trust us and the King (37); and how unreasonable it is to expect they should be willing to lend their ships, and lay out 2 or £300 a man to fit their ships for new voyages, when we have not paid them half of what we owe them for their old services! I did write so to Sir W. Coventry (39) this night. At night my wife and I to walk and talk again about our gold, which I am not quiet in my mind to be safe, and therefore will think of some way to remove it, it troubling me very much.

So home with my wife to supper and to bed, miserable hot weather all night it was.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 June 1667. 25 Jun 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (46) in his new chariot (which indeed is plain, but pretty and more fashionable in shape than any coach he hath, and yet do not cost him, harness and all, above £32) to White Hall; where staid a very little: and thence to St. James's to Sir W. Coventry (39), whom I have not seen since before the coming of the Dutch into the river, nor did indeed know how well to go see him, for shame either to him or me, or both of us, to find ourselves in so much misery. I find that he and his fellow-Treasurers are in the utmost want of money, and do find fault with Sir G. Carteret (57), that, having kept the mystery of borrowing money to himself so long, to the ruin of the nation, as Sir W. Coventry (39) said in words to Sir W. Pen (46) and me, he should now lay it aside and come to them for money for every penny he hath, declaring that he can raise no more: which, I confess, do appear to me the most like ill-will of any thing that I have observed of Sir W. Coventry (39), when he himself did tell us, on another occasion at the same time, that the bankers who used to furnish them money are not able to lend a farthing, and he knows well enough that that was all the mystery Sir G. Carteret did use, that is, only his credit with them. He told us the masters and owners of the two ships that I had complained of, for not readily setting forth their ships, which we had taken up to make men-of-war, had been yesterday with the King (37) and Council, and had made their case so well understood, that the King (37) did owe them for what they had earned the last year, that they could not set them out again without some money or stores out of the King's Yards; the latter of which Sir W. Coventry (39) said must be done, for that they were not able to raise money for them, though it was but £200 a ship: which do skew us our condition to be so bad, that I am in a total despair of ever having the nation do well.

After talking awhile, and all out of heart with stories of want of seamen, and seamen's running away, and their demanding a month's advance, and our being forced to give seamen 3s. a-day to go hence to work at Chatham, and other things that show nothing but destruction upon us; for it is certain that, as it now is, the seamen of England, in my conscience, would, if they could, go over and serve the King of France (28) or Holland rather than us.

Up to the Duke of York (33) to his chamber, where he seems to be pretty easy, and now and then merry; but yet one may perceive in all their minds there is something of trouble and care, and with good reason.

Thence to White Hall, and with Sir W. Pen (46), by chariot; and there in the Court met with my Lord Anglesey (52): and he to talk with Sir W. Pen (46), and told him of the masters of ships being with the Council yesterday, and that we were not in condition, though the men were willing, to furnish them with £200 of money, already due to them as earned by them the last year, to enable them to set out their ships again this year for the King (37): which he is amazed at; and when I told him, "my Lord, this is a sad instance of the condition we are in", he answered, that it was so indeed, and sighed: and so parted: and he up to the Council-chamber, where I perceive they sit every morning, and I to Westminster Hall, where it is Term time. I met with none I knew, nor did desire it, but only past through the-Hall and so back again, and by coach home to dinner, being weary indeed of seeing the world, and thinking it high time for me to provide against the foul weather that is certainly coming upon us.

So to the office, and there Sir W. Pen (46) and I did some business, and then home to dinner, where my wife pleases me mightily with what she can do upon the flageolet, and then I to the office again, and busy all the afternoon, and it is worth noting that the King (37) and Council, in their order of the 23rd instant, for unloading three merchant-ships taken up for the King's service for men-of-war, do call the late coming of the Dutch "an invasion". I was told, yesterday, that Mr. Oldenburg (48), our Secretary at Gresham College, is put into the Tower, for writing newes to a virtuoso in France, with whom he constantly corresponds in philosophical matters; which makes it very unsafe at this time to write, or almost do any thing. Several captains come to the office yesterday and to-day, complaining that their men come and go when they will, and will not be commanded, though they are paid every night, or may be. Nay, this afternoon comes Harry Russell from Gravesend, telling us that the money carried down yesterday for the Chest at Chatham had like to have been seized upon yesterday, in the barge there, by seamen, who did beat our watermen: and what men should these be but the boat's crew of Sir Fretcheville Hollis (25), who used to brag so much of the goodness and order of his men, and his command over them.

Busy all the afternoon at the office. Towards night I with Mr. Kinaston to White Hall about a Tangier order, but lost our labour, only met Sir H. Cholmly (34) there, and he tells me great newes; that this day in Council the King (37) hath declared that he will call his Parliament in thirty days: which is the best newes I have heard a great while, and will, if any thing, save the Kingdom. How the King (37) come to be advised to this, I know not; but he tells me that it was against the Duke of York's (33) mind flatly, who did rather advise the King (37) to raise money as he pleased; and against the Chancellor's (58), who told the King (37) that Queen Elizabeth did do all her business in eighty-eight without calling a Parliament, and so might he do, for anything he saw.

But, blessed be God! it is done; and pray God it may hold, though some of us must surely go to the pot, for all must be flung up to them, or nothing will be done. So back home, and my wife down by water, I sent her, with Mrs. Hewer and her son, W. Hewer (25), to see the sunk ships, while I staid at the office, and in the evening was visited by Mr. Roberts the merchant by us about the getting him a ship cleared from serving the King (37) as a man of war, which I will endeavour to do. So home to supper and to bed.

In 1676 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Anglesey 1614-1686. Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 June 1667. 28 Jun 1667. Up, and hear Sir W. Batten (66) is come to town: I to see him; he is very ill of his fever, and come to town only for advice. Sir J. Minnes (68), I hear also, is very ill all this night, worse than before.

Thence I going out met at the gate Sir H. Cholmly (34) coming to me, and I to him in the coach, and both of us presently to St. James's, by the way discoursing of some Tangier business about money, which the want of I see will certainly bring the place into a bad condition. We find the Duke of York (33) and Sir W. Coventry (39) gone this morning, by two o'clock, to Chatham, to come home to-night: and it is fine to observe how both the King (37) and Duke of York (33) have, in their several late journeys to and again, done them in the night for coolnesse.

Thence with him to the Treasury Chamber, and then to the Exchequer to inform ourselves a little about our warrant for £30,000 for Tangier, which vexes us that it is so far off in time of payment. Having walked two or three turns with him in the Hall we parted, and I home by coach, and did business at the office till noon, and then by water to White Hall to dinner to Sir G. Carteret (57), but he not at home, but I dined with my Lady and good company, and good dinner. My Lady and the family in very good humour upon this business of his parting with his place of Treasurer of the Navy, which I perceive they do own, and we did talk of it with satisfaction. They do here tell me that the Duke of Buckingham (39) hath surrendered himself to Secretary Morrice (64), and is going to the Tower. Mr. Fenn, at the table, says that he hath been taken by the watch two or three times of late, at unseasonable hours, but so disguised that they could not know him: and when I come home, by and by, Mr. Lowther (26) tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (39) do dine publickly this day at Wadlow's, at the Sun Tavern; and is mighty merry, and sent word to the Lieutenant of the Tower (52), that he would come to him as soon as he had dined. Now, how sad a thing it is, when we come to make sport of proclaiming men traitors, and banishing them, and putting them out of their offices, and Privy Council, and of sending to and going to the Tower: God have mercy on us!

At table, my Lady and Sir Philip Carteret (26) have great and good discourse of the greatness of the present King of France—what great things he hath done, that a man may pass, at any hour in the night, all over that wild city [Paris], with a purse in his hand and no danger: that there is not a beggar to be seen in it, nor dirt lying in it; that he hath married two of Colbert's (42) daughters to two of the greatest Princes of France, and given them portions—bought the greatest dukedom in France, and given it to Colbert (42)1 and ne'er a Prince in France dare whisper against it, whereas here our King cannot do any such thing, but everybody's mouth is open against him for it, and the man that hath the favour also. That to several commanders that had not money to set them out to the present campagne, he did of his own accord—send them £1000 sterling a-piece, to equip themselves. But then they did enlarge upon the slavery of the people—that they are taxed more than the real estates they have; nay, it is an ordinary thing for people to desire to give the King (37) all their land that they have, and themselves become only his tenants, and pay him rent to the full value of it: so they may have but their earnings, But this will not be granted; but he shall give the value of his rent, and part of his labour too.

That there is not a petty governor of a province—nay, of a town, but he will take the daughter from the richest man in the town under him, that hath got anything, and give her to his footman for a wife if he pleases, and the King of France (28) will do the like to the best man in his kingdom—take his daughter from him, and give her to his footman, or whom he pleases.

It is said that he do make a sport of us now; and says, that he knows no reason why his cozen, the King (37) of England, should not be as willing to let him have his kingdom, as that the Dutch should take it from him, which is a most wretched thing that ever we should live to be in this most contemptible condition.

After dinner Sir G. Carteret (57) come in, and I to him and my Lady, and there he did tell me that the business was done between him and my Lord Anglesey (52); that himself is to have the other's place of Deputy Treasurer of Ireland, which is a place of honour and great profit, being far better, I know not for what reason, but a reason there is, than the Treasurer's, my Lord of Corke's (54), and to give the other his, of Treasurer of the Navy; that the King (37), at his earnest entreaty, did, with much unwillingness, but with owning of great obligations to him, for his faithfulness and long service to him and his father, and therefore was willing to grant his desire. That the Duke of York (33) hath given him the same kind words, so that it is done with all the good manner that could be, and he I perceive do look upon it, and so do I, I confess, as a great good fortune to him to meet with one of my Lord Anglesey's (52) quality willing to receive it at this time. Sir W. Coventry (39) he hath not yet made acquainted with it, nor do intend it, it being done purely to ease himself of the many troubles and plagues which he thinks the perverseness and unkindness of Sir W. Coventry (39) and others by his means have and is likely every day to bring upon him, and the Parliament's envy, and lastly to put himself into a condition of making up his accounts, which he is, he says, afeard he shall never otherwise be. My Chancellor (58), I perceive, is his friend in it.

I remember I did in the morning tell Sir H. Cholmly (34) of this business: and he answered me, he was sorry for it; for, whatever Sir G. Carteret (57) was, he is confident my Lord Anglesey (52) is one of the greatest knaves in the world, which is news to me, but I shall make my use of it. Having done this discourse with Sir G. Carteret (57), and signified my great satisfaction in it, which they seem to look upon as something, I went away and by coach home, and there find my wife making of tea, a drink which Mr. Pelling, the Potticary, tells her is good for her cold and defluxions.

I to the office (whither come Mr. Carcasse to me to sue for my favour to him), and Sir W. Pen's (46), where I find Mr. Lowther (26) come to town after the journey, and after a small visit to him, I to the office to do much business, and then in the evening to Sir W. Batten's (66), to see how he did; and he is better than he was. He told me how Mrs. Lowther had her train held up yesterday by her page, at his house in the country; which is so ridiculous a piece of pride as I am ashamed of.

He told me also how he hears by somebody that my Lord Bruncker's (47) maid hath told that her lady Mrs. Williams had sold her jewels and clothes to raise money for something or other; and indeed the last night a letter was sent from her to me, to send to my Lord, with about five pieces of gold in it, which methought at the time was but a poor supply.

I then to Sir W. Pen (46), who continues a little ill, or dissembles it, the latter of which I am apt to believe. Here I staid but little, not meaning much kindness in it; and so to the office, and dispatched more business; and then home at night, and to supper with my wife, and who should come in but Mr. Pelling, and supped with us, and told us the news of the town; how the officers of the Navy are cried out upon, and a great many greater men; but do think that I shall do well enough; and I think, if I have justice, I shall. He tells me of my Lord Duke of Buckingham (39), his dining to-day at the Sun, and that he was mighty merry; and, what is strange, tells me that really he is at this day a very popular man, the world reckoning him to suffer upon no other account than that he did propound in Parliament to have all the questions that had to do with the receipt of the taxes and prizes; but they must be very silly that do think he can do any thing out of good intention. After a great deal of tittle-tattle with this honest man, he gone we to bed. We hear that the Dutch are gone down again; and thanks be to God! the trouble they give us this second time is not very considerable.

Note 1. The Carterets appear to have mystified Pepys, who eagerly believed all that was told him. At this time Paris was notoriously unsafe, infested with robbers and beggars, and abominably unclean. Colbert had three daughters, of whom the eldest was just married when Pepys wrote, viz., Jean Marie Therese, to the Duc de Chevreuse, on the 3rd February, 1667. The second daughter, Henriette Louise, was not married to the Duc de St. Aignan till January 21st, 1671; and the third, Marie Anne, to the Duc de Mortemart, February 14th, 1679. Colbert himself was never made a duke. His highest title was Marquis de Seignelay. B.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington 1612-1698.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 July 1667. 29 Jul 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (66) to St. James's, to Sir W. Coventry's (39) chamber; where, among other things, he come to me, and told me that he had received my yesterday's letters, and that we concurred very well in our notions; and that, as to my place which I had offered to resign of the Victualling, he had drawn up a letter at the same time for the Duke of York's (33) signing for the like places in general raised during this war; and that he had done me right to the Duke of York (33), to let him know that I had, of my own accord, offered to resign mine. The letter do bid us to do all things, particularizing several, for the laying up of the ships, and easing the King (37) of charge; so that the war is now professedly over.

By and by up to the Duke of York's (33) chamber; and there all the talk was about Jordan's coming with so much indiscretion, with his four little frigates and sixteen fire-ships from Harwich, to annoy the enemy. His failures were of several sorts, I know not which the truest: that he come with so strong a gale of wind, that his grapplings would not hold; that he did come by their lee; whereas if he had come athwart their hawse, they would have held; that they did not stop a tide, and come up with a windward tide, and then they would not have come so fast. Now, there happened to be Captain Jenifer by, who commanded the Lily in this business, and thus says that, finding the Dutch not so many as they expected, they did not know but that there were more of them above, and so were not so earnest to the setting upon these; that they did do what they could to make the fire-ships fall in among the enemy; and, for their lives, neither Sir J. Jordan nor others could, by shooting several times at them, make them go in; and it seems they were commanded by some idle fellows, such as they could of a sudden gather up at Harwich; which is a sad consideration that, at such a time as this, where the saving the reputation of the whole nation lay at stake, and after so long a war, the King (37) had not credit to gather a few able men to command these vessels. He says, that if they had come up slower, the enemy would, with their boats and their great sloops, which they have to row with a great many men, they would, and did, come and cut up several of our fireships, and would certainly have taken most of them, for they do come with a great provision of these boats on purpose, and to save their men, which is bravely done of them, though they did, on this very occasion, shew great fear, as they say, by some men leaping overboard out of a great ship, as these were all of them of sixty and seventy guns a-piece, which one of our fireships laid on board, though the fire did not take. But yet it is brave to see what care they do take to encourage their men to provide great stores of boats to save them, while we have not credit to find one boat for a ship. And, further, he told us that this new way used by Deane (33), and this Sir W. Coventry (39) observed several times, of preparing of fire-ships, do not do the work; for the fire, not being strong and quick enough to flame up, so as to take the rigging and sails, lies smothering a great while, half an hour before it flames, in which time they can get her off safely, though, which is uncertain, and did fail in one or two this bout, it do serve to burn our own ships. But what a shame it is to consider how two of our ships' companies did desert their ships for fear of being taken by their boats, our little frigates being forced to leave them, being chased by their greater! And one more company did set their ship on fire, and leave her; which afterwards a Feversham fisherman come up to, and put out the fire, and carried safe into Feversham, where she now is, which was observed by the Duke of York (33), and all the company with him, that it was only want of courage, and a general dismay and abjectness of spirit upon all our men; and others did observe our ill management, and God Almighty's curse upon all that we have in hand, for never such an opportunity was of destroying so many good ships of theirs as we now had. But to see how negligent we were in this business, that our fleete of Jordan's should not have any notice where Spragg was, nor Spragg of Jordan's, so as to be able to meet and join in the business, and help one another; but Jordan, when he saw Spragg's fleete above, did think them to be another part of the enemy's fleete! While, on the other side, notwithstanding our people at Court made such a secret of Jordan's design that nobody must know it, and even this Office itself must not know it; nor for my part I did not, though Sir W. Batten (66) says by others' discourse to him he had heard something of it; yet De Ruyter (60), or he that commanded this fleete, had notice of it, and told it to a fisherman of ours that he took and released on Thursday last, which was the day before our fleete came to him. But then, that, that seems most to our disgrace, and which the Duke of York (33) did take special and vehement notice of, is, that when the Dutch saw so many fire-ships provided for them, themselves lying, I think, about the Nore, they did with all their great ships, with a North-east wind, as I take it they said, but whatever it was, it was a wind that we should not have done it with, turn down to the Middle-ground; which the Duke of York (33) observed, never was nor would have been undertaken by ourselves. And whereas some of the company answered, it was their great fear, not their choice that made them do it, the Duke of York (33) answered, that it was, it may be, their fear and wisdom that made them do it; but yet their fear did not make them mistake, as we should have done, when we have had no fear upon us, and have run our ships on ground. And this brought it into my mind, that they managed their retreat down this difficult passage, with all their fear, better than we could do ourselves in the main sea, when the Duke of Albemarle (58) run away from the Dutch, when the Prince was lost, and the Royal Charles and the other great ships come on ground upon the Galloper. Thus, in all things, in wisdom, courage, force, knowledge of our own streams, and success, the Dutch have the best of us, and do end the war with victory on their side. The Duke of York (33) being ready, we into his closet, but, being in haste to go to the Parliament House, he could not stay. So we parted, and to Westminster Hall, where the Hall full of people to see the issue of the day, the King (37) being come to speak to the House to-day.

One thing extraordinary was, this day a man, a Quaker, came naked through the Hall, only very civilly tied about the privities to avoid scandal, and with a chafing-dish of fire and brimstone burning upon his head, did pass through the Hall, crying, "Repent! repent!" I up to the Painted Chamber, thinking to have got in to have heard the King's speech, but upon second thoughts did not think it would be worth the crowd, and so went down again into the Hall and there walked with several, among others my Lord Rutherford, who is come out of Scotland, and I hope I may get some advantage by it in reference to the business of the interest of the great sum of money I paid him long since without interest. But I did not now move him in it.

But presently comes down the House of Commons, the King (37) having made then a very short and no pleasing speech to them at all, not at all giving them thanks for their readiness to come up to town at this busy time; but told them that he did think he should have had occasion for them, but had none, and therefore did dismiss them to look after their own occasions till October; and that he did wonder any should offer to bring in a suspicion that he intended to rule by an army, or otherwise than by the laws of the land, which he promised them he would do; and so bade them go home and settle the minds of the country in that particular; and only added, that he had made a peace which he did believe they would find reasonable, and a good peace, but did give them none of the particulars thereof. Thus they are dismissed again to their general great distaste, I believe the greatest that ever Parliament was, to see themselves so fooled, and the nation in certain condition of ruin, while the King (37), they see, is only governed by his lust, and women, and rogues about him. The Speaker, they found, was kept from coming in the morning to the House on purpose, till after the King (37) was come to the House of Lords, for fear they should be doing anything in the House of Commons to the further dissatisfaction of the King (37) and his courtiers. They do all give up the Kingdom for lost that I speak to; and do hear what the King (37) says, how he and the Duke of York (33) do do what they can to get up an army, that they may need no more Parliaments: and how my Baroness Castlemayne (26) hath, before the late breach between her and the King (37), said to the King (37) that he must rule by an army, or all would be lost, and that Bab. May (39) hath given the like advice to the King (37), to crush the English gentlemen, saying that £300 a-year was enough for any man but them that lived at Court. I am told that many petitions were provided for the Parliament, complaining of the wrongs they have received from the Court and courtiers, in city and country, if the Parliament had but sat: and I do perceive they all do resolve to have a good account of the money spent before ever they give a farthing more: and the whole kingdom is everywhere sensible of their being abused, insomuch that they forced their Parliament-men to come up to sit; and my cozen Roger (50) told me that (but that was in mirth) he believed, if he had not come up, he should have had his house burned. The Kingdom never in so troubled a condition in this world as now; nobody pleased with the peace, and yet nobody daring to wish for the continuance of the war, it being plain that nothing do nor can thrive under us. Here I saw old good Mr. Vaughan (63), and several of the great men of the Commons, and some of them old men, that are come 200 miles, and more, to attend this session-of Parliament; and have been at great charge and disappointments in their other private business; and now all to no purpose, neither to serve their country, content themselves, nor receive any thanks from the King (37). It is verily expected by many of them that the King (37) will continue the prorogation in October, so as, if it be possible, never to have [this] Parliament more. My Lord Bristoll (54) took his place in the House of Lords this day, but not in his robes; and when the King (37) come in, he withdrew but my Lord of Buckingham (39) was there as brisk as ever, and sat in his robes; which is a monstrous thing, that a man proclaimed against, and put in the Tower, and all, and released without any trial, and yet not restored to his places.

But, above all, I saw my Lord Mordaunt (41) as merry as the best, that it seems hath done such further indignities to Mr. Taylor' since the last sitting of Parliament as would hang (him), if there were nothing else, would the King (37) do what were fit for him; but nothing of that is now likely to be. After having spent an hour or two in the hall, my cozen Roger (50) and I and Creed to the Old Exchange, where I find all the merchants sad at this peace and breaking up of the Parliament, as men despairing of any good to the nation, which is a grievous consideration; and so home, and there cozen Roger (50) and Creed to dinner with me, and very merry:—but among other things they told me of the strange, bold sermon of Dr. Creeton yesterday, before the King (37); how he preached against the sins of the Court, and particularly against adultery, over and over instancing how for that single sin in David, the whole nation was undone; and of our negligence in having our castles without ammunition and powder when the Dutch come upon us; and how we have no courage now a-days, but let our ships be taken out of our harbour. Here Creed did tell us the story of the dwell last night, in Coventgarden, between Sir H. Bellasses (28) and Tom Porter. It is worth remembering the silliness of the quarrell, and is a kind of emblem of the general complexion of this whole kingdom at present. They two it seems dined yesterday at Sir Robert Carr's (30), where it seems people do drink high, all that come. It happened that these two, the greatest friends in the world, were talking together: and Sir H. Bellasses talked a little louder than ordinary to Tom Porter, giving of him some advice. Some of the company standing by said, "What! are they quarrelling, that they talk so high?" Sir H. Bellasses hearing it, said, "No!" says he: "I would have you know that I never quarrel, but I strike; and take that as a rule of mine!"—"How?" says Tom Porter, "strike! I would I could see the man in England that durst give me a blow!" with that Sir H. Bellasses did give him a box of the eare; and so they were going to fight there, but were hindered. And by and by Tom Porter went out; and meeting Dryden (35) the poet, told him of the business, and that he was resolved to fight Sir H. Bellasses presently; for he knew, if he did not, they should be made friends to-morrow, and then the blow would rest upon him; which he would prevent, and desired Dryden (35) to let him have his boy to bring him notice which way Sir H. Bellasses goes.

By and by he is informed that Sir H. Bellasses's (28) coach was coming: so Tom Porter went down out of the Coffee-house where he stayed for the tidings, and stopped the coach, and bade Sir H. Bellasses come out. "Why", says H. Bellasses, "you will not hurt me coming out, will you?"—"No", says Tom Porter. So out he went, and both drew: and H. Bellasses having drawn and flung away his scabbard, Tom Porter asked him whether he was ready? The other answering him he was, they fell to fight, some of their acquaintance by. They wounded one another, and H. Bellasses so much that it is feared he will die: and finding himself severely wounded, he called to Tom Porter, and kissed him, and bade him shift for himself; "for", says he, "Tom, thou hast hurt me; but I will make shift to stand upon my legs till thou mayest withdraw, and the world not take notice of you, for I would not have thee troubled for what thou hast done". And so whether he did fly or no I cannot tell: but Tom Porter shewed H. Bellasses that he was wounded too: and they are both ill, but H. Bellasses to fear of life. And this is a fine example; and H. Bellasses a Parliament-man too, and both of them most extraordinary friends! Among other discourse, my cozen Roger (50) told us a thing certain, that the Archbishop of Canterbury (69); that now is, do keep a wench, and that he is as very a wencher as can be; and tells us it is a thing publickly known that Sir Charles Sidley (28) had got away one of the Archbishop's wenches from him, and the Archbishop sent to him to let him know that she was his kinswoman, and did wonder that he would offer any dishonour to one related to him. To which Sir Charles Sidley is said to answer, "A pox take his Grace! pray tell his Grace that I believe he finds himself too old, and is afraid that I should outdo him among his girls, and spoil his trade". But he makes no more of doubt to say that the Archbishop is a wencher, and known to be so, which is one of the most astonishing things that I have heard of, unless it be, what for certain he says is true, that my Baroness Castlemayne (26) hath made a Bishop lately, namely,—her uncle, Dr. Glenham, who, I think they say, is Bishop of Carlisle; a drunken, swearing rascal, and a scandal to the Church; and do now pretend to be Bishop of Lincoln, in competition with Dr. Raynbow (59), who is reckoned as worthy a man as most in the Church for piety and learning: which are things so scandalous to consider, that no man can doubt but we must be undone that hears of them.

After dinner comes W. How and a son of Mr. Pagett's to see me, with whom I drank, but could not stay, and so by coach with cozen Roger (50) (who before his going did acquaint me in private with an offer made of his marrying of Mrs. Elizabeth Wiles, whom I know; a kinswoman of Mr. Honiwood's, an ugly old maid, but a good housewife; and is said to have £2500 to her portion; but if I can find that she hath but £2000, which he prays me to examine, he says he will have her, she being one he hath long known intimately, and a good housewife, and discreet woman; though I am against it in my heart, she being not handsome at all) and it hath been the very bad fortune of the Pepyses that ever I knew, never to marry an handsome woman, excepting Ned Pepys and Creed, set the former down at the Temple resolving to go to Cambridge to-morrow, and Creed and I to White Hall to the Treasury chamber there to attend, but in vain, only here, looking out of the window into the garden, I saw the King (37) (whom I have not had any desire to see since the Dutch come upon the coast first to Sheerness, for shame that I should see him, or he me, methinks, after such a dishonour) come upon the garden; with him two or three idle Lords; and instantly after him, in another walk, my Baroness Castlemayne (26), led by Bab. May: at which I was surprised, having but newly heard the stories of the King (37) and her being parted for ever. So I took Mr. Povy (53), who was there, aside, and he told me all, how imperious this woman is, and hectors the King (37) to whatever she will. It seems she is with child, and the King (37) says he did not get it: with that she made a slighting "puh" with her mouth, and went out of the house, and never come in again till the King (37) went to Sir Daniel Harvy's to pray her; and so she is come to-day, when one would think his mind should be full of some other cares, having but this morning broken up such a Parliament, with so much discontent, and so many wants upon him, and but yesterday heard such a sermon against adultery. But it seems she hath told the King (37), that whoever did get it, he should own it; and the bottom of the quarrel is this:—She is fallen in love with young Jermin who hath of late lain with her oftener than the King (37), and is now going to marry my Lady Falmouth; the King (37) he is mad at her entertaining Jermin, and she is mad at Jermin's going to marry from her: so they are all mad; and thus the Kingdom is governed! and they say it is labouring to make breaches between the Duke of Richmond and his lady that the King (37) may get her to him. But he tells me for certain that nothing is more sure than that the King (37), and Duke of York (33), and the Chancellor (58), are desirous and labouring all they can to get an army, whatever the King (37) says to the Parliament; and he believes that they are at last resolved to stand and fall all three together: so that he says match of the Duke of York (33) with the Chancellor's (58) daughter hath undone the nation. He tells me also that the King (37) hath not greater enemies in the world than those of his own family; for there is not an officer in the house almost but curses him for letting them starve, and there is not a farthing of money to be raised for the buying them bread. Having done talking with him I to Westminster Hall, and there talked and wandered up and down till the evening to no purpose, there and to the Swan, and so till the evening, and so home, and there to walk in the garden with my wife, telling her of my losing £300 a year by my place that I am to part with, which do a little trouble me, but we must live with somewhat more thrift, and so home to supper and to play on the flageolet, which do do very prettily, and so to bed. Many guns were heard this afternoon, it seems, at White Hall and in the Temple garden very plain; but what it should be nobody knows, unless the Dutch be driving our ships up the river. To-morrow we shall know.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677.

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John Evelyn's Diary 08 August 1667. 08 Aug 1667. Visited Mr. Oldenburg (48), a close prisoner in the Tower, being suspected of writing intelligence. I had an order from Lord Arlington (49), Secretary of State, which caused me to be admitted. This gentleman was secretary to our Society, and I am confident will prove an innocent person.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 December 1667. 09 Dec 1667. To visit the late Lord Chancellor. I found him in his garden at his new-built palace, sitting in his gout wheel-chair, and seeing the gates setting up toward the north and the fields. He looked and spake very disconsolately. After some while deploring his condition to me, I took my leave. Next morning, I heard he was gone; though I am persuaded that, had he gone sooner, though but to Cornbury, and there lain quiet, it would have satisfied the Parliament. That which exasperated them was his presuming to stay and contest the accusation as long as it was possible: and they were on the point of sending him to the Tower.

Note. There is some confusion over the dating of this entry since Lord Clarendon is supposed to have left London on 28 Nov 1667. Possible case of Evelyn writing his diary retrospectively.

Before 1661. Remigius van Leemput Painter 1607-1675. Copy of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 portrait of Henry Hyde, Viscount Cornbury and his first wife Theodosia Capell.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 April 1668. 23 Apr 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and at noon comes Knepp and Mrs. Pierce, and her daughter, and one Mrs. Foster, and dined with me, and mighty merry, and after dinner carried them to the Tower, and shewed them all to be seen there, and, among other things, the Crown and Scepters and rich plate, which I myself never saw before, and indeed is noble, and I mightily pleased with it.

Thence by water to the Temple, and thereto the Cocke (51) alehouse, and drank, and eat a lobster, and sang, and mighty merry. So, almost night, I carried Mrs. Pierce home, and then Knepp and I to the Temple again, and took boat, it being darkish, and to Fox Hall, it being now night, and a bonfire burning at Lambeth for the King's coronation-day. And there she and I drank;.... [Note. Missing text "and yo did tocar her corps all over and besar sans fin her, but did not offer algo mas; and so back, and led her home, it being now ten at night...."] and so back, and led her home, it being now ten at night; and so got a link; and, walking towards home, just at my entrance into the ruines at St. Dunstan's, I was met by two rogues with clubs, who come towards us. So I went back, and walked home quite round by the wall, and got well home, and to bed weary, but pleased at my day's pleasure, but yet displeased at my expence, and time I lose.

John Evelyn's Diary 17 September 1668. 17 Sep 1668. I entertained Signor Muccinigo, the Venetian Ambassador, of one of the noblest families of the State, this being the day of making his public entry, setting forth from my house with several gentlemen of Venice and others in a very glorious train. He staid with me till the Earl of Anglesea (54) and Sir Charles Cotterell (53) (Master of the Ceremonies) came with the King's (38) barge to carry him to the Tower, where the guns were fired at his landing; he then entered his Majesty's (38) coach, followed by many others of the nobility. I accompanied him to his house, where there was a most noble supper to all the company, of course. After the extraordinary compliments to me and my wife (33), for the civilities he received at my house, I took leave and returned. He is a very accomplished person. He is since Ambassador at Rome.

In 1669 Henry Savile 1642-1687 (27) was sent to the Tower of London for a few days for having carried Thomas Coventry's (40) challenge to the Duke of Buckingham (40).

Around 1675 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 March 1669. 04 Mar 1669. Up, and a while at the office, but thinking to have Mr. Povy's (55) business to-day at the Committee for Tangier, I left the Board and away to White Hall, where in the first court I did meet Sir Jeremy Smith, who did tell me that Sir W. Coventry (41) was just now sent to the Tower, about the business of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham (41), and so was also Harry Saville (27) to the Gate-house; which, as [he is] a gentleman, and of the Duke of York's (35) bedchamber, I heard afterwards that the Duke of York (35) is mightily incensed at, and do appear very high to the King (38) that he might not be sent thither, but to the Tower, this being done only in contempt to him. This news of Sir W. Coventry (41) did strike me to the heart, and with reason, for by this and my Lord of Ormond's (58) business, I do doubt that the Duke of Buckingham (41) will be so flushed, that he will not stop at any thing, but be forced to do any thing now, as thinking it not safe to end here; and, Sir W. Coventry (41) being gone, the King (38) will have never a good counsellor, nor the Duke of York (35) any sure friend to stick to him; nor any good man will be left to advise what is good. This, therefore, do heartily trouble me as any thing that ever I heard. So up into the House, and met with several people; but the Committee did not meet; and the whole House I find full of this business of Sir W. Coventry's (41), and most men very sensible of the cause and effects of it. So, meeting with my Lord Bellassis (54), he told me the particulars of this matter; that it arises about a quarrel which Sir W. Coventry (41) had with the Duke of Buckingham (41) about a design between the Duke and Sir Robert Howard, to bring him into a play at the King's house, which W. Coventry (41) not enduring, did by H. Saville (27) send a letter to the Duke of Buckingham (41), that he had a desire to speak with him. Upon which, the Duke of Buckingham (41) did bid Holmes (47), his champion ever since my Lord Shrewsbury's business1, go to him to know the business; but H. Saville (27) would not tell it to any but himself, and therefore did go presently to the Duke of Buckingham (41), and told him that his uncle Coventry (41) was a person of honour, and was sensible of his Grace's liberty taken of abusing him, and that he had a desire of satisfaction, and would fight with him. But that here they were interrupted by my Lord Chamberlain's (67) coming in, who was commanded to go to bid the Duke of Buckingham (41) to come to the King (38), Holmes (47) having discovered it. He told me that the King (38) did last night, at the Council, ask the Duke of Buckingham (41), upon his honour, whether he had received any challenge from W. Coventry (41)? which he confessed that he had; and then the King (38) asking W. Coventry (41), he told him that he did not owne what the Duke of Buckingham (41) had said, though it was not fit for him to give him a direct contradiction. But, being by the King (38) put upon declaring, upon his honour, the matter, he answered that he had understood that many hard questions had upon this business been moved to some lawyers, and that therefore he was unwilling to declare any thing that might, from his own mouth, render him obnoxious to his Majesty's displeasure, and, therefore, prayed to be excused: which the King (38) did think fit to interpret to be a confession, and so gave warrant that night for his commitment to the Tower. Being very much troubled at this, I away by coach homewards, and directly to the Tower, where I find him in one Mr. Bennet's house, son to Major Bayly, one of the Officers of the Ordnance, in the Bricke Tower2 where I find him busy with my Lord Halifax (35) and his brother (50); so I would not stay to interrupt them, but only to give him comfort, and offer my service to him, which he kindly and cheerfully received, only owning his being troubled for the King (38) his master's displeasure, which, I suppose, is the ordinary form and will of persons in this condition. And so I parted, with great content, that I had so earlily seen him there; and so going out, did meet Sir Jer. Smith going to meet me, who had newly been with Sir W. Coventry (41). And so he and I by water to Redriffe, and so walked to Deptford, where I have not been, I think, these twelve months: and there to the Treasurer's house, where the Duke of York (35) is, and his Duchess (31); and there we find them at dinner in the great room, unhung; and there was with them my Lady Duchess of Monmouth (31), the Countess of Falmouth (24), Castlemayne (28), Henrietta Hide (23) (my Lady Hinchingbroke's (24) sister), and my Lady Peterborough (47). And after dinner Sir Jer. Smith and I were invited down to dinner with some of the Maids of Honour, namely, Mrs. Ogle (17), Blake (16), and Howard (18), which did me good to have the honour to dine with, and look on; and the Mother of the Maids, and Mrs. Howard (43), the mother of the Maid of Honour of that name, and the Duke's housekeeper here. Here was also Monsieur Blancfort (28), Sir Richard Powell, Colonel Villers (48), Sir Jonathan Trelawny, and others. And here drank most excellent, and great variety, and plenty of wines, more than I have drank, at once, these seven years, but yet did me no great hurt. Having dined and very merry, and understanding by Blancfort (28) how angry the Duke of York (35) was, about their offering to send Saville to the Gate-house, among the rogues; and then, observing how this company, both the ladies and all, are of a gang, and did drink a health to the union of the two brothers, and talking of others as their enemies, they parted, and so we up; and there I did find the Duke of York (35) and Duchess (31), with all the great ladies, sitting upon a carpet, on the ground, there being no chairs, playing at "I love my love with an A, because he is so and so: and I hate him with an A, because of this and that:" and some of them, but particularly the Duchess (31) herself, and my Baroness Castlemayne (28), were very witty. This done, they took barge, and I with Sir J. Smith to Captain Cox's; and there to talk, and left them and other company to drink; while I slunk out to Bagwell's; and there saw her, and her mother, and our late maid Nell, who cried for joy to see me, but I had no time for pleasure then nor could stay, but after drinking I back to the yard, having a month's mind para have had a bout with Nell, which I believe I could have had, and may another time.

So to Cox's, and thence walked with Sir J. Smith back to Redriffe; and so, by water home, and there my wife mighty angry for my absence, and fell mightily out, but not being certain of any thing, but thinks only that Pierce or Knepp was there, and did ask me, and, I perceive, the boy, many questions. But I did answer her; and so, after much ado, did go to bed, and lie quiet all night; but [she] had another bout with me in the morning, but I did make shift to quiet her, but yet she was not fully satisfied, poor wretch! in her mind, and thinks much of my taking so much pleasure from her; which, indeed, is a fault, though I did not design or foresee it when I went.

Note 1. Charles II wrote to his sister (24) (Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans), on March 7th, 1669: "I am not sorry that Sir Will. Coventry has given me this good occasion by sending my Lord of Buckingham (41) a challenge to turne him out of the Councill. I do intend to turn him allso out of the Treasury. The truth of it is, he has been a troublesome man in both places and I am well rid of him" (Julia Cartwright's "Madame", 1894, p. 283).

Note 2. The Brick Tower stands on the northern wall, a little to the west of Martin tower, with which it communicates by a secret passage. It was the residence of the Master of the Ordnance, and Raleigh was lodged here for a time.

In 1715 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1647 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1678 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 in his Garter Robes. Before 10 Sep 1687 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1678 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of George Savile 1st Marquess Halifax 1633-1695. Around 1670 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Mary Bagot Countess Falmouth and Dorset 1645-1679. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henrietta Boyle Countess Rochester 1646-1687. One of the Windsor Beauties. In 1673. Unknown Painter, possibly Matthew Dixon. Portrait of Margaret Blagge Maid of Honour 1652-1678. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Postumous portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

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John Evelyn's Diary 26 May 1670. 26 May 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard (41), Lord Almoner to the Queen, that Monsieur Evelin, first physician to Madame (25) (who was now come to Dover to visit the King (39) her brother), was come to town, greatly desirous to see me; but his stay so short, that he could not come to me, I went with my brother (52) to meet him at the Tower, where he was seeing the magazines and other curiosities, having never before been in England: we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much regret on both sides that, he being to return toward Dover that evening, we could not enjoy one another any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted into our pedigree, see in the collection brought from Paris, 1650.

On 09 May 1671 Colonel Thomas Blood 1618-1680 (53) attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. He was captured whilst trying to escape the Tower of London with the Crown. Following his capture he refused to to answer to anyone but the King (40). He was questioned by the King (40) and Prince Rupert (51). For unknown reasons he was pardoned by the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (40) and rewarded with land in Ireland worth £500 per year much to the irritation of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 (60), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whom Blood had attempted to kidnap twice before.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 May 1671. 10 May 1671. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's (40), in company with Monsieur De Grammont (50) and several French noblemen, and one Blood (53), that impudent, bold fellow who had not long before attempted to steal the imperial crown itself out of the Tower of London, pretending only curiosity of seeing the regalia there, when, stabbing the keeper, though not mortally, he boldly went away with it through all the guards, taken only by the accident of his horse falling down. How he came to be pardoned, and even received into favor, not only after this, but several other exploits almost as daring both in Ireland and here, I could never come to understand. Some believed he became a spy of several parties, being well with the sectaries and enthusiasts, and did his Majesty (40) services that way, which none alive could do so well as he; but it was certainly the boldest attempt, so the only treason of this sort that was ever pardoned. This man had not only a daring but a villanous, unmerciful look, a false countenance, but very well-spoken and dangerously insinuating.

Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Clifford 1st Baron Clifford Chudleigh 1630-1673.

On 02 Feb 1675 John Flamsteed Astronomer 1646-1719 (28) arrived in London. He stayed at the Tower of London with Jonas Moore (57). He was taken by Silius Titus (52) to meet Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44).

Around 1678 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (44) was imprisoned being under suspiscion of supporting a Popish Plot at Tower of London.

On 28 Jan 1678 Philip "Infamous Earl" Herbert 7th Earl Pembroke 4th Earl Montgomery 1652-1683 (26) was imprisoned at Tower of London by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (47) "for uttering such horrid and blasphemous words, and other actions proved upon oath, as are not fit to be repeated in any Christian assembly". He was released two days later on 30 Jan 1678.

John Evelyn's Diary 20 July 1678. 20 Jul 1678. I went to the Tower to try a metal at the Assay-master's, which only proved sulphur; then saw Monsieur Rotière (47), that excellent graver belonging to the Mint, who emulates even the ancients, in both metal and stone; he was now molding a horse for the King's (48) statue, to be cast in silver, of a yard high. I dined with Mr. Slingsby (57), Master of the Mint.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 November 1678. 15 Nov 1678. The Queen's (39) birthday. I never saw the Court more brave, nor the nation in more apprehension and consternation. Coleman (42) and one Staly had now been tried, condemned, and executed. On this, Oates grew so presumptuous as to accuse the Queen (39) of intending to poison the King (48); which certainly that pious and virtuous lady abhorred the thoughts of, and Oates's circumstances made it utterly unlikely in my opinion. He probably thought to gratify some who would have been glad his Majesty (48) should have married a fruitful lady; but the King (48) was too kind a husband to let any of these make impression on him. However, divers of the Popish peers were sent to the Tower of London, accused by Oates; and all the Roman Catholic lords were by a new Act forever excluded the Parliament; which was a mighty blow. the King's (48), Queen's, and Duke's servants, were banished, and a test to be taken by everybody who pretended to enjoy any office of public trust, and who would not be suspected of Popery. I went with Sir William Godolphin (38), a member of the Commons' House, to the Bishop of Ely (Dr. Peter Gunning (64)), to be resolved whether masses were idolatry, as the text expressed it, which was so worded, that several good Protestants scrupled, and Sir William, though a learned man and excellent divine himself, had some doubts about it. The Bishop's opinion was that he might take it, though he wished it had been otherwise worded in the text.

Before 1684. Circle of Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Peter Gunning Bishop 1614-1684.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 June 1679. 04 Jun 1679. I dined with Mr. Pepys (46) in the Tower of London, he having been committed by the House of Commons for misdemeanors in the Admiralty when he was secretary; I believe he was unjustly charged. Here I saluted my Lords Stafford (64) and Petre (53), who were committed for the Popish plot.

In 1666. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 February 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 May 1666. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703.

John Evelyn's Diary 28 June 1683. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the King (53) and the Duke (49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower, the Lord Russell (43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (60), son to the old Earl of Leicester (87), Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King (53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (60) and Russell (43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King (53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!

Was born my granddaughter at Sayes Court, and christened by the name of Martha Maria, our Vicar officiating. I pray God bless her, and may she choose the better part!

Before 21 Jul 1683. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683. Before 1681 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Postumous portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649. Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685.

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Before Jul 1683 Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville 1655-1701 was arrested for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. He ecasped from the Tower of London in Jul 1683.

On 08 Jul 1683 John Hampden of Great Hampden 1653-1696 (30) was sent to the Tower of London on the discovery of the Rye House Plot.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 July 1683. 13 Jul 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady, in Covent Garden, the astonishing news was brought to us of the Earl of Essex (51) having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower, and this happened on the very day and instant that Lord Russell (43) was on his trial, and had sentence of death [See Rye House Plot.]. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex (51) being so well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to the King (53). It is certain the King (53) and Duke (49) were at the Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when my Lord (51) asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were odd reflections upon it.

The fatal news coming to Hicks's Hall upon the article of my Lord Russell's (43) trial, was said to have had no little influence on the Jury and all the Bench to his prejudice. Others said that he had himself on some occasions hinted that in case he should be in danger of having his life taken from him by any public misfortune, those who thirsted for his estate should miss of their aim; and that he should speak favorably of that Earl of Northumberland, and some others, who made away with themselves; but these are discourses so unlike his sober and prudent conversation that I have no inclination to credit them. What might instigate him to this devilish act, I am not able to conjecture. My Lord Clarendon, his brother-in-law, who was with him but the day before, assured me he was then very cheerful, and declared it to be the effect of his innocence and loyalty; and most believe that his Majesty (53) had no severe intentions against him, though he was altogether inexorable as to Lord Russell (43) and some of the rest. For my part, I believe the crafty and ambitious Earl of Shaftesbury (61) had brought them into some dislike of the present carriage of matters at Court, not with any design of destroying the monarchy (which Shaftesbury (61) had in confidence and for unanswerable reasons told me he would support to his last breath, as having seen and felt the misery of being under mechanic tyranny), but perhaps of setting up some other whom he might govern, and frame to his own platonic fancy, without much regard to the religion established under the hierarchy, for which he had no esteem; but when he perceived those whom he had engaged to rise, fail of his expectations, and the day past, reproaching his accomplices that a second day for an exploit of this nature was never successful, he gave them the slip, and got into Holland, where the fox died, three months before these unhappy Lords and others were discovered or suspected. Every one deplored Essex (51) and Russell (43), especially the last, as being thought to have been drawn in on pretense only of endeavoring to rescue the King (53) from his present councilors, and secure religion from Popery, and the nation from arbitrary government, now so much apprehended; while the rest of those who were fled, especially Ferguson and his gang, had doubtless some bloody design to get up a Commonwealth, and turn all things topsy-turvy. Of the same tragical principles is Sydney.

I had this day much discourse with Monsieur Pontaq, son to the famous and wise prime President of Bordeaux. This gentleman was owner of that excellent vignoble of Pontaq and O'Brien, from whence come the choicest of our Bordeaux wines; and I think I may truly say of him, what was not so truly said of St. Paul, that much learning had made him mad. He had studied well in philosophy, but chiefly the Rabbins, and was exceedingly addicted to cabalistical fancies, an eternal hablador [romancer], and half distracted by reading abundance of the extravagant Eastern Jews. He spoke all languages, was very rich, had a handsome person, and was well bred, about forty-five years of age.

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On 05 Jan 1684 William Petre 4th Baron Petre 1626-1684 (58) died at the Tower of London having been confined after having been impeached by the Commons of high treason. John Petre 5th Baron Petre 1629-1685 (54) succeeded 5th Baron Petre.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 February 1684. 12 Feb 1684. The Earle of Danby (51), late Lord Treasurer, together with the Roman Catholic Lords impeach'd of High Treason in the Popish Plot, had now their Habeas Corpus, and came out upon baile, after five yeares imprisonment in the Tower. Then were also tried and deeply fin'd Mr. Hampden and others for being suppos'd of the late Plot, for which Lord Russell (44) and Col. Sidney (61) suffer'd; as also the person who went about to prove that the Earle of Essex (52) had his throat cut in the Tower by others; likewise Mr. Johnson, the author of that famous piece called Julian.

In 1685 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (38) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 28 January 1685. 28 Jan 1685. I was invited to my Lord Arundel of Wardour (52), (now newly released of his 6 yeares confinement in ye Tower on suspicion of the Plot call'd Oates's Plot), where after dinner the same Mr. Pordage entertain'd us with his voice, that excellent and stupendous artist Sign' Jo. Baptist playing to it on the harpsichord. My daughter Mary (20) being with us, she also sung to the greate satisfaction of both the masters, and a world of people of quality present. She did so also at my Lord Rochester's (42) the evening following, where we had the French Boy so fam'd for his singing, and indeede he had a delicate voice, and had ben well taught. I also heard Mrs. Packer (daughter to my old friend) sing before his Ma* and the Duke, privately, that stupendous basse Gosling accompanying her, but hers was so loud as tooke away much of the sweetnesse. Certainly never woman had a stronger or better eare, could she possibly have govern'd it. She would do rarely in a large church among the nunns.

In 1685 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711. Around 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester 1642-1711 wearing his Garter Robes including the Garter Collar and holding his white Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 July 1685. 15 Jul 1685. I went to see Dr. Tenison's (48) Library [in St. Martin's.].

Monmouth (36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower, had an interview with his late Dutchesse (34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he profess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell (45), and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King (55), his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (47) and Bath and Wells (48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.

Thus ended this quondam Duke (36), darling of his father (55) and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King (55) being of another religion, to gather a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King (55) his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July [Note. Most sources quote 15 Jul 1685]. His mother (55), whose name was Barlow [Note. Lucy Walter is often spoken of incorrectly as Mrs. Walters or Waters, and during her career she seems to have adopted the alias of Mrs. Barlo or Barlow (the name of a family with which the Walters of Pembrokeshire had intermarried). From Dictionary of National Biography.], daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King (55) had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King (55) his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney (89), who was familiar with his mother (55)) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.

Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cozens (90) to sign a certificate of the King's (55) marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name was Walters: this the Bishop refused. She was born of a gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sidney (62), then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her 50 broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) but being ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother Colonel Robert Sidney (89), who kept her for some time, till the King (55) hearing of her, got her from him. On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her she is already sped and after being with the King (55) she was so soon with child that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wort on his face. However the King (55) owned the child. In the King's (55) absence she behaved so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King James II Vol I.

Had it not pleas'd God to dissipate this attempt in ye beginning, there would in all appearance have gather'd an irresistable force which would have desperately proceeded to ye ruine of ye Church and Govern ment, so general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my owne part I look'd upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an Inundation of phanatics and men of impious principles must needs have caus'd universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, an unavoidable civil war and misery without end. Blessed be God the knot was happily broken, and a faire prospect of tranquillity for the future if we reforme, be thankful!, and make a right use of this mercy.

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John Evelyn's Diary 08 June 1688. 08 Jun 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), with the Bishops of Ely (50), Chichester (64), St. Asaph (60), Bristol (38), Peterborough (60), and Bath and Wells (50), were sent from the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower, for refusing to give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the Declaration for liberty of conscience; they refused to give bail, as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The concern of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds on their knees begging their blessing, and praying for them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower wharf.

Around 1720 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Bishop Jonathan Trelawny 3rd Baronet 1650-1721.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 June 1688. 10 Jun 1688. A YOUNG PRINCE born, which will cause disputes.

About two o'clock, we heard the Tower ordnance discharged, and the bells ring for the birth of a Prince of Wales. This was very surprising, it having been universally given out that her Majesty (58) did not look till the next month.

Around 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of James

John Evelyn's Diary 13 June 1688. 13 Jun 1688. I went to the Tower to see the Bishops, visited the Archbishop (71) and the Bishops of Ely (50), St. Asaph (60), and Bath and Wells (50).

John Evelyn's Diary 20 June 1689. 20 Jun 1689. News of A PLOT discovered, on which divers were sent to the Tower and secured.

John Evelyn's Diary 24 June 1690. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower, on suspicion of being affected to King James (56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's (28) uncle. King William (39) having vanquished King James (56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (74) was slain, and Dr. Walker (72), who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (60), was taken. It is reported that King James (56) is gone back to France. Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William (39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici". But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694. Around 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694. Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 June 1690. 27 Jun 1690. I went to visit some friends in the Tower, when asking for Lord Clarendon, they by mistake directed me to the Earl of Torrington (42), who about three days before had been sent for from the fleet, and put into the Tower for cowardice and not fighting the French fleet, which having beaten a squadron of the Hollanders, while Torrington (42) did nothing, did now ride masters of the sea, threatening a descent.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 August 1690. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).

The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

On 09 Oct 1690 Richard Power 1st Earl Tyrone 1630-1690 (60) was sent to the Tower of London having accussed of treason.

On 14 Oct 1690 Richard Power 1st Earl Tyrone 1630-1690 (60) died in the Tower of London. John Power 2nd Earl Tyrone 1665-1693 (25) succeeded 2nd Earl Tyrone 2C 1673.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 November 1690. 03 Nov 1690. Went to the Countess of Clancarty (48), to condole with her concerning her debauched and dissolute son (22), who had done so much mischief in Ireland, now taken and brought prisoner to the Tower.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 January 1691. 04 Jan 1691. This week a PLOT was discovered for a general rising against the new Government, for which (Henry) Lord Clarendon and others were sent to the Tower. The next day, I went to see Lord Clarendon. The Bishop of Ely (53) searched for. Trial of Lord Preston (41), as not being an English Peer, hastened at the Old Bailey.

John Ashton Edmund Elliot Richard Graham 1691. On Fryday, the 2d day of this Sessions, my Lord Preston (41), John Ashton and Edmund Elliot, were all Arrained for High Treason, my Lord Preston (41) was Tryed on Saturday by the name of Sir Richard Graham, Mr. Ashton on Monday. The Indictments against them consisted of Two Parts, the First of which set forth, That they had a Treasonable Design carrying on to Depose the King and Queen, and to Subvert and Alter the Government of the Kingdom of England, and to raise War and Rebellion in the same; which said Traiterous and Wicked Designs and Purposes to bring to pass, they did, on the 29th of December last, Meet and Conspire together, with several other Traitors not yet discovered, and did Compose several Treasonable Letters, Notes and Memorandums in writing, which set forth the most effectual way and means how they might Dethrone and Depose our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady the King (40) and Queen (28), and further describing therein how the Affairs of this Kingdom stood, and of what Strength and Force our Shipping was; as also the Fortifications of several Sea-Port-Towns within this Kingdom. The Second Part was their adhering to the Kings's Enemies: And to that end, that they might Acquaint Lewis the French King of the same, they did hire a Boat and Embarque themselves in order to Transport themselves and Pacquet of Treasonable Letters into France, agreeing to pay for their said Passages the Sum of One hundred Pound; and, in order to their Treasonable Voyage, they had made their Passage as far as below Gravesend, but were then Taken by Captain Billop, who Cruised abroad to search for them.

After this the Evidence for the King (40) being called, gave an Account particularly from Step to Step, how cunningly and subtilly they managed this horrid Conspiracy, by hiring the Smack called the Thomas and Elizabeth, to convey them secretly into France; in order to which they took Water in a Skuller at Surrey-Stairs, and went on Board the aforesaid Vessel, which lay in the River of Thames over against the Tower: From thence they set Sail down the River, till coming within the View of the George Frigate, lying in Long-reach, they desired the Master of the Smack to hide them under the Quarter-Hatches; which was done, they having some Fear of being discovered: There they remained till past that Danger, and then came up; but when they were within Sight of Gravesend they hid again, and a little below it Captain Billop came aboard them, under Pretence of Pressing the Masters two Men, who were assistants to him; but indeed his Design and real Intention was to find out those Traytors, which, upon Search, he found lying along under the Hatches; and after their being haled up he search'd them, and found a Pacquet of Treasonable Papers in Mr. Ashton's Bosom: which he with the Prisoners carried before my Lord Nottingham; who examined the Papers, and after being examined by the Cabinet Council they were committed to the Tower. The Evidence was very full and plain against them both, much to the same effect and purport: The Letters being also Read against them in Court, were adjudged to be of no less Import than High-Treason. Upon the whole they had nothing material to offer in their Defence; so after a very long hearing, they were both found Guilty of High Treason. Edmond Elliot was ordered to remain till further order.

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John Evelyn's Diary 22 April 1691. 22 Apr 1691. I dined with Lord Clarendon in the Tower.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 June 1691. 10 Jun 1691. I went to visit Lord Clarendon, still prisoner in the Tower, though Lord Preston (41) being pardoned was released.

In Jul 1691 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (44) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 25 Oct 1691 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (44) died at Tower of London. He was buried at Holy Trinity Church Minories.

In 1692 Charles Middleton 2nd Earl Middleton 1650-1719 (42) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for plotting to restore King James II (58). After his release his joined the exiled court in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines.

In Mar 1694 Anthony Carey 5th Viscount Falkland 1656-1694 (38) was imprisoned on charges of peculation at Tower of London.

In 1703 John Roettiers Engraver 1631-1703 (71) died and was buried in the Tower of London.

On 10 Nov 1710 Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin 1650-1710 (59) died having been imprisoned for being a Jacobite at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin 1667-1715 (42) succeeded 2nd Baron Griffin of Braybrooke.

Before 1710 Enoch Before 31 Oct 1715 Enoch

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:

George Seton 5th Earl of Winton 1678-1749 (37). The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.

On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure 1672-1716 was beheaded on Tower Hill.

William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale 1676-1744. On 09 Feb 1716 he was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (35) effected his escape from the Tower of London by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (26) was.

James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater 1692-1723 (23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave 1695-1719 (20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond 1671-1722 (44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (74) appealed to King George I of Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727 (54) in person without success. On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was beheaded on Tower Hill.

William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne 1665-1726 was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.

On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh -1716 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.

The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723 (50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

Before 1727. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727. Before 1723 Johnathan

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On 29 Oct 1722 Thomas Howard 8th Duke Norfolk 1683-1732 (38) was arrested under suspicion of involvement in a Jacobite plot, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London.

In 1725 Thomas Parker 1st Earl Macclesfield 1666-1732 (58) was imprisoned until payment of his £30,000 fine was received at Tower of London.

Diary of Mrs Philip Lybbe-Powys aka Caroline Girle May 1760. 06 May 1760. Earl Ferrers (39) was carried from the Tower to Tyburn executed by a party of Horse and Foot Guards, a Clergyman and the two Sherifs were in the Coach with him he poor unhappy man was drest in his wedding suit, dating as he himself said his whole unhappy conduct from a forced marriage He observed that the apparatus, and being made a spectacle of to so vast a multitude was greatly worse than death itself the procession was two hours & 3/4 from setting out, the Landau & six in which he was ye Sheriffs each in their Chariots one mourning Coach and a Hearse attended, and return'd thro' Lincoln's Inn Fields about one, I think I never shall forget a procession so moving, to know a man an hour before in perfect health then a Lifeless course, yet a just victim to his Country, for the abuse of of that power his rank in Life had given him a Title too, his rank indeed caused his punishment, as the good Old King, in answer to numerous petitions of his greatly to be pitied Family made this memorable speech, " That for the last years of his Life, he had been beyond his most Sanguine hopes successful, for which he should ever return thanks to God, and on his part he had and always would endeavor to Administer justice as he ought, as Events had shown by the punishment of his most exalted Subjects". This was a noble answer. yet none could help pitying this unhappy Lord, his intellects most probably was rather more in fault than his heart in the murder for which he Suffer'd, and had he been low born his majesty would have shewn more Mercy without such strict Justice.

My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915 Chapter IX: Deene and its History. Sir Thomas, who was a hospitable and generous man, died in 1549, and Deene passed to his son Edmund, who married Agnes Bussey, a member of the great Lincohishire family. Sir Edmund Brudenell carried out extensive building operations at Deene, and the numerous initials of E. and A. and the many shields with the Brudenell and Bussey arms show that he considered his alliance with their family an important one. Camden mentions that Sir Edmund had literary and antiquarian tastes, which were also possessed by his nephew Thomas, who succeeded to the estates in 1606. He also built largely, but the great Tower was not finished until about 1628. Sir Thomas was a staunch cavalier, who raised soldiers for the King's garrisons, and he was made a Baron by Charles I. After the Royal cause was lost he suffered the penalty of his loyalty and was imprisoned in the Tower for twenty years. The brave old cavalier kept a most interesting diary during his imprisonment, which is still preserved in the library at Deene; it consists of about 30 or 40 volumes of MS., which give interesting details of his confinement and the principal events of the time.

Before 1585. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edmund Brudenell 1521-1585.

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. REMEMBRANCE for the enterment of the right high right excelent and most Christen Princese Elizabeth Queene of England and of France Lady of Ireland and the Eldest daughter of king Edward the fourth wife to the most hygh most puyssant and most victorious king Henry the viith our most dread Souveraigne Lord the which deceased in childbed in The Tower of London the xith day of Februarye which was upon Saturday and the xviiith yeare of the reigne of our said Soveraigne Lord the king her most dearest husband whose departing was as heveye and dolorous to the kings hcighuess as hath been sene or heard of. And also in likeyse to all the Estates of this Realme as well Citizens as Comnyns for she was one of the most gracious and best, beloved princesses in the world in her tyme beinge.

Then the king of his wisdom ordeyned certaine of his Counsell for the ordering of her buryall to be at Westminster. That is to say The Erle of Surry Treasurer of England and Sr Richard Guilford Comptrowler of his noble household And himselfe tooke with him certain of his secretest and prevely departed to a solitary place to passe his sorrows and would no man should resort to him but such his grace appointed untill such tyme it should please him to showe his pleasure and over yt every Officer to give their Attendance upon the said Councellours And over yt in his Departing ordeyned Incontinent the next day following for vi Hundredth and xxxvi hole masses said in London and by Sr Charles Somerset and Sr Richard Guilford sent the best comfort to all the Queens servants that hath bene sene of a soveraigne Lord with as good words.

Also then were ronngen the bells of London everye one and after that through out the Realme with solomne Dyrgies and Masses of Requiems and everye Religious place collegs and Churches.

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Chronica Majora: The king of England marches into Wales with his army. Incited by these promises, the king made arrangements to enter Wales, He therefore issued royal letters, ordering all throughout England who owed him military service to assemble at Gloucester, in the beginning of autumn, equipped with horses and arms, to set out on an expedition which he had determined on. He next held a council at Shrewsbury, on the morrow of the feast of St. Peter "ad vincula," and within a fortnight he raised his standard, and turned his arms against his nephew David, as he had discovered him to be a traitor and rebel in every respect, and as he refused to come at any time to a peaceable conference at his, the king's, summons, even under a promise of safe-conduct; for in a stiff-necked and obstinate way he replaied that he would not, on any account, release his brother Griffin. The king then led his army, which was numerous and of great strength, in good order, towards Chester, as if about to make war immediately. David, however, feared to encounter his violence, both because the heat, which had continued intense for four months, had dried up all the lakes and marshy places of Wales, and because many of the Welsh nobles, especially the powerfid and prudent Griffin, the son of Madoch, who had become a great ally of the king's, loved Griffin more than him, David, and also because he was lying under an anathema, and feared lest he should become still worse off; he therefore sent word to the king that he would set Griffin at liberty, at the same time informing him with many reasonings, that if he did release him, he would excite renewed wars against him. David also imposed on the king the condition that he should receive him peaceably, on his binding himself by oath, and by giving hostages, and that he would not deprive him of his inheritance. This the king kindly conceded, and David thereupon released his brother Griffin, and sent him to the king, who, trusting to prudent advice, sent him, on his arrival, to London, under the protection and conduct of John of Lexington, to be there kept in the Tower, with some other nobles of Wales, the hostages of David and other Welsh princes. All these events occurred between the day of the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas-day.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. The king of England left the Tower of London at a very early hour, and rode to Eltham, where he remained. The same day, towards evening, the earls of Arundel and Warwick were brought to the Tower by the king's officers, and there confined, to the great surprise of the citizens. Their imprisonment caused many to murmur, but they were afraid to act, or do anything against the king's pleasure, lest they might suffer for it. It was the common conversation of the knights, squires, and citizens of London, and in other towns, — "It is useless for us to say more on this matter, for the dukes of Lancaster and of York, brothers to the duke of Gloucester, can provide a remedy for all this whenever they please: they assuredly would have prevented it from happening, if they had suspected the king had so much courage, or that he would have arrested their brother; but they will repent of their indolence: and, if they are not instantly active, it will end badly."

On 22 Apr 1613, before Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 and Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 were married, the Howard family sought to undermine Thomas Overbury's influence over Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645. King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 offered Thomas Overbury 1581-1613 an ambassadorship, possibly on the Howard's advice, which Overbury declined to James' annoyance who put Overbury in the Tower of London.

Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632.

Geoffrey Mandeville -1100 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Ingelram Percy 1506-1538 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

William Mandeville -1129 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer Chirk 1256-1326 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 245. Of the Death of King Richard

It was not long after that true tidings ran through London, how Richard of Bordeaux was dead; but how he died and by what means, I could not tell when I wrote this chronicle. But this king Richard dead was laid in a litter and set in a chare covered with black baudkin, and four horses all black in the chare, and two men in black leading the chare, and four knights all in black following. Thus the chare departed from the Tower of London and was brought along through London fair and softly, till they came into Cheapside, whereas the chief assembly of London was, and there the chare rested the space of two hours. Thither came in and out more than twenty thousand persons men and women, to see him whereas he lay, his head on a black cushion and his visage open. Some had on him pity and some none, but said he had long deserved death. Now consider well, ye great lords, kings, dukes, earls, barons and prelates, and all men of great lineage and puissance: see and behold how the fortunes of this world are marvelloua and turn diversely. This king Richard reigned king of England twenty-two yeai in great prosperity, holding great estate and seignory. There was never before any king of England that spent so much in his house as he did, by a hundred thousand florins every year; for I, sir John Froissart canon and treasurer of Chimay, knew it well, for I was in his court more than quarter of a year together, and he made me good cheer, because that in my youth I was clerk and servant to the noble king Edward the third, his grandfather, and with my lady Philippa of Hainault, queen of England, his grandam; and when I departed from him, it was at Windsor, and at my departing the king sent me by a knight of his called sir John Golofre a goblet of silver and gilt weighing two mark of silver, and within it a hundred nobles, by the which I am as yet tjie better, and shall be as long as I live: wherefore I am bound to pray to God for his soul, and with much sorrow I write of his death; but because I have continued this history therefore I write thereof to follow it.

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The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Richard, the third son, of whom we now treat, was in wit and courage equal with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both: little of stature, ill featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favored in appearance, and such as is in the case of lords called warlike, in other men called otherwise. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from before his birth, ever perverse. It is for truth reported that the Duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail to birth him that she could not be delivered of him uncut, and he came into the world with the feet forward, as men be borne outward, and (as the story runs) also not untoothed. Either men of hatred reported the above for truth or else nature changed her course in his beginning—in the course of whose life many things were unnaturally committed. No unskilled captain was he in war, for which his disposition was more suited than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never by fault of his own person, either of hardiness or political order. Free was he called when dispensing gifts, and somewhat above his power liberal; with large gifts he got for himself unsteadfast friendship, for which he was glad to pillage and spoil in other places, and get for himself steadfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissembler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly friendly where he inwardly hated, not omitting to kiss whom he thought to kill; pitiless and cruel, not for evil will always, but for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much the same; where his advantage grew, he spared no man death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower, as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the King, who would, undoubtedly, if he had intended such a thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

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John Seymour 1527-1552 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Ordinance on bullion. 19. Be it remembered that it was ordained in this parliament, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizens as aliens, who should wish to take out of England wool, hides or woolfells, should pay one ounce of gold in foreign coin for every sack of wool, and one such ounce for every half last of hides, and one such ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to the king's bullion in the Tower of London, within half a year from the time of the custom and cocketing of the same wool, hides and woolfells, and in and under the name of him from whom they shall thus be customed and cocketed. And that the said merchants, if they do not pay one such ounce of foreign coin for every sack of wool and for every half last of hides, and for every two hundred and forty woolfells to the said bullion, in the aforesaid form, should pay the king for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence, in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that each and every such merchant, before they take the said wool, hides, and woolfells out of any ports of the kingdom of England, should find sufficient surety to the king's customs officers in the same ports to pay the said ounces of gold to the said bullion in the aforesaid form.

Whereupon writs of proclamation were directed to the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are. Also, writs to the collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are, to take surety from the said merchants, and to notify thereof the keeper and master of the mint in the said Tower of London, as appears from the tenor of the said writs transcribed below:

Writs made thereon.

Gruffudd ab Owain Glyndŵr Mathrafal 1375-1412 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde, Mr. Norys, Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston, and Markys, were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London; the Lord of Rochfordes bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower, Mr. Weston and Norys in the church yeard of the same in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London. See Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused.

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Croyland Chronicle 1478. The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind quite shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife carried on before these two brethren of such high estate.29 For not a single person uttered a word against the duke, except the king; not one individual made answer to the king except the duke. Some parties were introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether they filled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses: these two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and ofered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament, being of opinion that the informations which they had heard were established, passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham, who was appointed Seneschal of England for the occasion. After this, execution was delayed for a considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place, (and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London, it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of king Edward.

Note 29. One would think that "tantae himanitatis," can hardly mean "of such humanity," when applied to such persons as Edward the Fourth and iua brother Clarence.

Grafton's Chronicle Henry VII. The next yere after Queene Elizabeth, liyng within the Tower of London, was brought abed of a fayre daughter on Candlemasse day, which was there christened and named Katheryn, and the xj. day of the same moneth, the sayde most vertuous Princes and gracious Queene there deceassed, and was with all funerall pompe caryed through the Citie of London to Westminster, and there buried, whose daughter also taryed but a small season after her mother.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Ordinance on bullion. 20. The king to the mayor and sheriffs of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament it was ordained, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizen as alien, who shall wish to take any wool, hides, or woolfells out of our kingdom of England, should deliver and bring one ounce of gold in foreign coinage for each sack of wool, and a similar ounce for every last of hides, and a similar ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to our bullion in our Tower of London, within half a year from the time of customing and cocketing the wool, hides and woolfells, in and under the name of him by whom they were thus customed and cocketed; and that the said merchants, if they did not pay one ounce of this kind of foreign coinage for each sack of wool and each half last of hides and every two hundred and forty woolfells to our aforesaid bullion in the above manner, should pay us for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence; in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that all and singular such merchants before exporting the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from any port of the kingdom of England should find surety to our customs officers in the same ports to pay and deliver the ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form. We order you publicly to proclaim all and singular the aforesaid things in the said city and suburbs of the same wheresoever shall seem best to you, and cause them to be firmly kept as best you can. Witnessed by the king at Westminster on 20 February 1397.

Similar writs were sent to all the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are.

Writs for taking surety.

The king to the collectors of customs and subsidies on wool, hides, and woolfells in the port of our city of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament, etc., as above, as far as to deliver and bring, and then thus - We order you that from every such merchant, before they take the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from the said port of London, you take sufficient surety, for which you will answer to us at your peril, that they will deliver such ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form, from time to time under your seal clearly and distinctly notifying the keeper and master of our mint in the aforesaid Tower of the surety thus taken, and of the names of the aforesaid merchants, and of the number of sacks of wool and hides and woolfells which are taken out of the said port. Witnessed as above.

Similar writs are sent to the king's collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are under the same date.

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Beauchamp Tower Tower of London

In 1397 Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 1338-1401 (58) was imprisoned at Beauchamp Tower Tower of London during the Lords Appellant.

On 12 May 1537 Abbot Adam Sedbar 1502-1537 (35) was captured. He was imprisoned in the Beauchamp Tower Tower of London where his inscribed name on the wall "ADAM SEDBAR. ABBAS JOREVALL 1537" can still be seen.

On 26 Feb 1563 Arthur Pole of Lordington in Sussex 1531-1570 (32) was found guilty of treason. He was imprisoned in the Beauchamp Tower, where an inscription can be found that reads: "Deo Servire / Penitentiam Inire / Fato Obedire / Regnare Est / A Poole / 1564 / IHS" ("To be subject to God, to enter upon penance, to be obedient to fate, is to reign, A Poole, 1564, Jesus").

Bowyer Tower Tower of London

On 18 Feb 1478 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London. Duke Clarence 3C 1461 extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

Brick Tower Tower of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 March 1669. 04 Mar 1669. Up, and a while at the office, but thinking to have Mr. Povy's (55) business to-day at the Committee for Tangier, I left the Board and away to White Hall, where in the first court I did meet Sir Jeremy Smith, who did tell me that Sir W. Coventry (41) was just now sent to the Tower, about the business of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham (41), and so was also Harry Saville (27) to the Gate-house; which, as [he is] a gentleman, and of the Duke of York's (35) bedchamber, I heard afterwards that the Duke of York (35) is mightily incensed at, and do appear very high to the King (38) that he might not be sent thither, but to the Tower, this being done only in contempt to him. This news of Sir W. Coventry (41) did strike me to the heart, and with reason, for by this and my Lord of Ormond's (58) business, I do doubt that the Duke of Buckingham (41) will be so flushed, that he will not stop at any thing, but be forced to do any thing now, as thinking it not safe to end here; and, Sir W. Coventry (41) being gone, the King (38) will have never a good counsellor, nor the Duke of York (35) any sure friend to stick to him; nor any good man will be left to advise what is good. This, therefore, do heartily trouble me as any thing that ever I heard. So up into the House, and met with several people; but the Committee did not meet; and the whole House I find full of this business of Sir W. Coventry's (41), and most men very sensible of the cause and effects of it. So, meeting with my Lord Bellassis (54), he told me the particulars of this matter; that it arises about a quarrel which Sir W. Coventry (41) had with the Duke of Buckingham (41) about a design between the Duke and Sir Robert Howard, to bring him into a play at the King's house, which W. Coventry (41) not enduring, did by H. Saville (27) send a letter to the Duke of Buckingham (41), that he had a desire to speak with him. Upon which, the Duke of Buckingham (41) did bid Holmes (47), his champion ever since my Lord Shrewsbury's business1, go to him to know the business; but H. Saville (27) would not tell it to any but himself, and therefore did go presently to the Duke of Buckingham (41), and told him that his uncle Coventry (41) was a person of honour, and was sensible of his Grace's liberty taken of abusing him, and that he had a desire of satisfaction, and would fight with him. But that here they were interrupted by my Lord Chamberlain's (67) coming in, who was commanded to go to bid the Duke of Buckingham (41) to come to the King (38), Holmes (47) having discovered it. He told me that the King (38) did last night, at the Council, ask the Duke of Buckingham (41), upon his honour, whether he had received any challenge from W. Coventry (41)? which he confessed that he had; and then the King (38) asking W. Coventry (41), he told him that he did not owne what the Duke of Buckingham (41) had said, though it was not fit for him to give him a direct contradiction. But, being by the King (38) put upon declaring, upon his honour, the matter, he answered that he had understood that many hard questions had upon this business been moved to some lawyers, and that therefore he was unwilling to declare any thing that might, from his own mouth, render him obnoxious to his Majesty's displeasure, and, therefore, prayed to be excused: which the King (38) did think fit to interpret to be a confession, and so gave warrant that night for his commitment to the Tower. Being very much troubled at this, I away by coach homewards, and directly to the Tower, where I find him in one Mr. Bennet's house, son to Major Bayly, one of the Officers of the Ordnance, in the Bricke Tower2 where I find him busy with my Lord Halifax (35) and his brother (50); so I would not stay to interrupt them, but only to give him comfort, and offer my service to him, which he kindly and cheerfully received, only owning his being troubled for the King (38) his master's displeasure, which, I suppose, is the ordinary form and will of persons in this condition. And so I parted, with great content, that I had so earlily seen him there; and so going out, did meet Sir Jer. Smith going to meet me, who had newly been with Sir W. Coventry (41). And so he and I by water to Redriffe, and so walked to Deptford, where I have not been, I think, these twelve months: and there to the Treasurer's house, where the Duke of York (35) is, and his Duchess (31); and there we find them at dinner in the great room, unhung; and there was with them my Lady Duchess of Monmouth (31), the Countess of Falmouth (24), Castlemayne (28), Henrietta Hide (23) (my Lady Hinchingbroke's (24) sister), and my Lady Peterborough (47). And after dinner Sir Jer. Smith and I were invited down to dinner with some of the Maids of Honour, namely, Mrs. Ogle (17), Blake (16), and Howard (18), which did me good to have the honour to dine with, and look on; and the Mother of the Maids, and Mrs. Howard (43), the mother of the Maid of Honour of that name, and the Duke's housekeeper here. Here was also Monsieur Blancfort (28), Sir Richard Powell, Colonel Villers (48), Sir Jonathan Trelawny, and others. And here drank most excellent, and great variety, and plenty of wines, more than I have drank, at once, these seven years, but yet did me no great hurt. Having dined and very merry, and understanding by Blancfort (28) how angry the Duke of York (35) was, about their offering to send Saville to the Gate-house, among the rogues; and then, observing how this company, both the ladies and all, are of a gang, and did drink a health to the union of the two brothers, and talking of others as their enemies, they parted, and so we up; and there I did find the Duke of York (35) and Duchess (31), with all the great ladies, sitting upon a carpet, on the ground, there being no chairs, playing at "I love my love with an A, because he is so and so: and I hate him with an A, because of this and that:" and some of them, but particularly the Duchess (31) herself, and my Baroness Castlemayne (28), were very witty. This done, they took barge, and I with Sir J. Smith to Captain Cox's; and there to talk, and left them and other company to drink; while I slunk out to Bagwell's; and there saw her, and her mother, and our late maid Nell, who cried for joy to see me, but I had no time for pleasure then nor could stay, but after drinking I back to the yard, having a month's mind para have had a bout with Nell, which I believe I could have had, and may another time.

So to Cox's, and thence walked with Sir J. Smith back to Redriffe; and so, by water home, and there my wife mighty angry for my absence, and fell mightily out, but not being certain of any thing, but thinks only that Pierce or Knepp was there, and did ask me, and, I perceive, the boy, many questions. But I did answer her; and so, after much ado, did go to bed, and lie quiet all night; but [she] had another bout with me in the morning, but I did make shift to quiet her, but yet she was not fully satisfied, poor wretch! in her mind, and thinks much of my taking so much pleasure from her; which, indeed, is a fault, though I did not design or foresee it when I went.

Note 1. Charles II wrote to his sister (24) (Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans), on March 7th, 1669: "I am not sorry that Sir Will. Coventry has given me this good occasion by sending my Lord of Buckingham (41) a challenge to turne him out of the Councill. I do intend to turn him allso out of the Treasury. The truth of it is, he has been a troublesome man in both places and I am well rid of him" (Julia Cartwright's "Madame", 1894, p. 283).

Note 2. The Brick Tower stands on the northern wall, a little to the west of Martin tower, with which it communicates by a secret passage. It was the residence of the Master of the Ordnance, and Raleigh was lodged here for a time.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705. Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II In 1715 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1647 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1678 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 in his Garter Robes. Before 10 Sep 1687 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689. Around 1669 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689. Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671. Around 1678 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of George Savile 1st Marquess Halifax 1633-1695. Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Around 1670 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Mary Bagot Countess Falmouth and Dorset 1645-1679. Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henrietta Boyle Countess Rochester 1646-1687. One of the Windsor Beauties. In 1673. Unknown Painter, possibly Matthew Dixon. Portrait of Margaret Blagge Maid of Honour 1652-1678. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Postumous portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

Iron Gate, Tower of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 February 1663. 23 Feb 1663. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (37), who though he has been abroad again two or three days is falling ill again, and is let blood this morning, though I hope it is only a great cold that he has got. It was a great trouble to me (and I had great apprehensions of it) that my Lord desired me to go to Westminster Hall, to the Parliament-house door, about business; and to Sir Wm. Wheeler (52), which I told him I would do, but durst not go for fear of being taken by these rogues; but was forced to go to White Hall and take boat, and so land below the Tower at the Iron-gate; and so the back way over Little Tower Hill; and with my cloak over my face, took one of the watermen along with me, and staid behind a wall in the New-buildings behind our garden, while he went to see whether any body stood within the Merchants' Gate, under which we pass to go into our garden, and there standing but a little dirty boy before the gate, did make me quake and sweat to think he might be a Trepan1. But there was nobody, and so I got safe into the garden, and coming to open my office door, something behind it fell in the opening, which made me start. So that God knows in what a sad condition I should be in if I were truly in the condition that many a poor man is for debt: and therefore ought to bless God that I have no such reall reason, and to endeavour to keep myself, by my good deportment and good husbandry, out of any such condition.

Note 1. TT. Trickster.

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

Ordnance Office Tower of London

In 1664 Samuel Martin worked at the Ordnance Office Tower of London.

Red Bulwarke, Tower of London

John Stow's Annales of England Edward VI 1547. 28 Jan 1547. Edward (9) the first borne at Hampton court (by the decease of k. Henry (55) his father) began his raigne the 28 of January, and was proclaimed k. of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, and of the churches of England and also of Ireland the supreme head immedlatly in earth under God, & on the last day of January, in the yere of Christ after the Church of England 1546 but after the accompt of them that begin the yere at Chatfimas 1547 being then of the age of nine yéeres. And the same day in the afternoone the saide young king came to the tower of London from Hertford, and rode into the City at Aldgate, and so along the wall by the crossed Friars to the Tower hill, & entred at the red bulwarke, where be was received by sir John Gage (67) constable of the tower, and the lieutenant on horseback, the Earle of Hertford (47) riding before the king, and sir Anthony Browne (47) riding after him: and on the bridge next the warde gate, the archbishop of Canterbury (57), the lorde Chancellor (41), with other great lords of the Councell received him, and so brought him to his chamber of pretence, there they were sworne to his majesty.

Around 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 Around 1546 Unknown Painter. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. Around 1547. Workshop of Master John Painter. Portrait of Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. Around 1535 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550.

The Red Bulwarke, or The Bulwarke Gate, was a brick extension to the entrance of the Tower of London built during the reign of King Edward IV. It is now longer extant being demolished before 1668.

St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London

Tower Green Tower of London

On 18 Oct 1470 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (43) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. On 14 Apr 1471 Edward Tiptoft 2nd Earl Worcester 1470-1485 (1) succeeded 2nd Earl Worcester 4C 1449, 3rd Baron Tiptoft.

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle St George's Chapel Windsor Castle next to King Edward IV (41). Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings 2C 1430.

Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. 15 May 1536. And first the Kinges commission was redd, and then the Constable of the Tower (60) and the Lieutenant (56) brought forthe the Queene (35) to the barre, where was made a chaire for her to sitt downe in, and then her indictment was redd afore her, whereunto she made so wise and discreet aunsweres to all thinges layde against her, excusinge herselfe with her wordes so clearlie, as thoughe she had never bene faultie to the same, and at length putt her to the triall of the Peeres of the Realme, and then were 26 of the greatest peeres there present chosen to passe on her, the Duke of Suffolke beinge highest, and, after thei had communed together, the yongest lorde of the saide inquest was called first to give verdict, who sayde guiltie, and so everie lorde and earle after their degrees sayde guiltie to the last and so condemned her. And then the Duke of Northfolke (63) gave this sentence on her, sayinge: Because thou haste offended our Sovereigne the Kinges grace, in committinge treason against his person, and here attaynted of the same,' the lawe of the realme is this, that thou haste deserved death, and thy judgment is this: That thow shalt be brent here within the Tower of London on the Greene, els to have thy head smitten of as the Kinges pleasure shal be further knowne of the same; and so she was brought to warde agayne, and two ladies wayted on her, which came in with her at the first, and wayted still on her, whose names were the Ladie Kingstone (60) and the Ladie Boleyn (56), her aunte. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England. 1541 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry Brandon 2nd Duke Suffolk 1535-1551.

On 19 May 1536 Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).

Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:

Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.

To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545. Around 1562 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of (probably) Catherine Carey 1524-1569.

On 27 May 1541, after some two and a half years of imprisonment, Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (67) was executed at Tower Green Tower of London for her role in the Exeter Conspiracy.

Around 1535 Unknown Painter. Portrait of unknown woman thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541. She holding a wine butt on a thread between her fingers which may refer to her father's death.

On 13 Feb 1542 Queen Catherine Howard (19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 (37) were beheaded at Tower Green. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Based on a work of 1546. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. In 1546 Unknown Painter. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300 1338 Arms, his left Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355 1397 Arms.

On 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley (19) was beheaded at Tower Hill. An hour later his wife Lady Jane Grey (18) was beheaded at Tower Green by order of Queen Mary I (37). They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Jane Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 12 Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. The 12 of Februarie Guilforde Dudley (19) was beheaded at the Tower hill. And Ladie Jane (18) his wife was immediatlie after his death beheaded within the Tower upon the greene.

On 25 Feb 1601 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (35) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London during the Essex Rebellion.

In 1590 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601. Around 1596 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601. Around 1597 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601.

Tower Wharfe

Wakefield Tower Tower of London

On 21 May 1471 Henry VI (49) died (possibly murdered) in the Wakefield Tower in the Tower of London.

White Tower Tower of London

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1561. 01 Oct 1561. The furst day of October was a fyre whet-in [within] the Towre of London be-yond the Whyt Towre.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 September 1666. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet Street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate Ward, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.

At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King (65)) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.

The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.

I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty (36) and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.

In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's (36) proclamation also invited them.

Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

Chapel of St John the Evangelist, White Tower Tower of London

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. And after that the corps (37) was could the Serjeant of the Chandry with such officers that belong to that Office had the Charge of baumeing with other serimonies theirto belonging and were allowed xl. Ells of lynning holland Cloth of Ell bredth with there gomes baumes Spices sweet wines and other as thereto belongeth and was thereto according.

Item after that she was sered by the Kings Plumer Closed her in lead with an Epitaph of lead what she was and then all that was Chested in borcle sufficiently Coverd for bearing of the same which was covered with white and black velvet with a Crosse of white damaske.

Item in the quire of the Chappell of the Tower was ordeyned a hearse of fine prncipills with Renninge lights about the Church and all the windowes rayled about a good heighte furnish'd with burninge tapers and also hanged with black Cloth furnish'd with scochins of her Armes.

The Sunday next following the corps (37) was removed from her Chamber to the Chappcll in manner that followeth.

First there was The Abbott of Westminster (39) in pontificalibus with the Dean of the kings Chappell (63) and the whole company of the same fowr knights bearing the Canapye with great Number of Gentlemen which went two and two together on every syde of the prossion great Number of torches brening borne by the Kings and the Queens servants after them the Officers of Armes and the Greatest estates and other Lords their present layd their hands to the Corps the Lady Elizabeth Stafford (24) was that day principall Mourner and all the other Laides followed her two and two together in such most sadd and simplest Clothing that they had on their heads thredden kierchiefs hanging on their shoulders and close under their Chins and this daily until their slopps mantells hoodes and paris were made and Ordyned. And when the Corps was sett under the hearse in the Chapell Coverd with a rich Cloth of black velvet with a Crosse of Cloth of Gold. And an Officer of Armes in an high voice said for Queen EHzebeth soule and all Xtn souls Pater noster and every ...... and atoremus before the Collect Aminabus inlykewise.

That night and every Night following was ordyned a goodly watch both of men and Gentlewomen at the lest iiij gentlewomen ij officers of Armes and vij yeomen and grooms. The gentlewomen were relieved with vj ladies which continually did knele about the Corps.

Then the kings Chaplin began and Redd the sawter that done to the laudes and Commendations.

After that the Deane of the kings Chappell (63) all the nobles officers of Armes other gentle and honest persons went to the great chamber for the Ladys to the Masse of Requiem.

Then was the Lady Catherin (23) sister of the noble Queene (37) Cheif mourner led by the Earle of Surry (60) and Earle of Essex her train borne by the Lady Elizabeth Stafford (24) accompanied also with all the other Laidies and Gentlewomen of the Court And when they were comen to the quier the foresaid vj Laides gave roome to there betters in tyme masse was done after which they continued their watch.

The Cheif Mourner (23) kneled at the heade alone then an officer of Arms began for the Queene &c And so began the masse songen by the Abbot of Westminster (39) at the Offringe the Lady was led by ij of the greatest Estates there present and the lest gave her the offring having before her the Chamberlain and the Officers of Arms passing always by the Corps did their obeysance as before.

Then offered the other six Laides before any Estate ij and ij together then the greatest estates and all the Laides and Gentlewomen then all the other Laides and knights and squires with other Gentlemen So this order as before was dayly kept as long as she was in the Tower every day in pontificalibus by a Bishop or an Abbott at the least as the next day by the Abbott of Barmsey The iij11 by the Abbott Albones The iiijth by the Abbott of Winchcomb The vth by the Abbott of Towerhill The vj'h by the Abbott of Stratford The vij"1 day there was iij solempne masses The first of our lady sungen by the Abbott of Redyng att that masse offered a piece of Gold of xld for the masse pennye the principle Mourner and no other person The second masse songen by the bishop Landaffe and Likewise at the masse none offered but she and then offered a piece of Gold of 5s. The iijd Masse songen by the bishop of Norwigge and att that Masse she offered a Noble Then offered the Laides and the Nobles as before The viijth day the service was done by the Bishop of Bangor The ixth day by the Bishop of Exeter the xll> day by the Bishop of Lincolne.

That Masse done the Lords and Laides went to breakfast and in meane tyme the Corps was conveyd into the Chaire which was eniparralled as followeth:

First all the bayles sydes and Coffers were covered with black velvett and over all along of a prety depnes a Cloth of black velvett with a Crosse of White Cloth of gould well frindged drawn with vi horses traped with black velvett and all the draught of the same.

And when the Corps was in the Chest there was Ordeyned an Image or a personage like a Queene Clothed in the very Roabes of Estate of the Queene having her very rich Crowne on her Head her heire about her shoulders her septer in her right Hand and her fingers well garnished with Gould and precious Stones.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

King's Hall Tower of London, White Tower Tower of London

On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess Worcester 1502-1565 (34) was the principal witness.

The jurors were:

Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52).

Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 (24).

Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (21).

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (49).

Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (44).

John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (56).

Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (38).

Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley 1481-1556 (55).

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (27).

Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle 1507-1560 (28).

John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (65).

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth 1501-1551 (35).

Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 (40).

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (58).

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham Sternborough 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh 1488-1550 (48).

Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (40).

William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (60).

Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (24).

Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544 (48).

Edward PowersLord Powers.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (66).

Thomas Ware.

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (69).

George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (39).

She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman Judge 1480-1546 (56) signed the death warrant.

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After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33) was also tried and found guilty.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England. Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Based on a work of 1546. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. In 1546 Unknown Painter. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300 1338 Arms, his left Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355 1397 Arms. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585. In 1583 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Neville Baroness Dacre Gilsland 1524-1576 with an inset portrait of husband Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541. Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572. Around 1550 John In 1550 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 with the motto Invidia Torquet Autorem meaning Let envy torment its author. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580. In 1569 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558.

The King's Hall at the Tower of London was located on the first floor of the White Tower.