Earl Marshal is in Offices of State.
Chronica Majora 1236 The ceremonies at the marriage of Henry the Third. 19 Jan 1236. There were assembled at the king's (28) nuptial festivities such a host of nobles of both sexes, such numbers of religious men, such crowds of the populace, and such a variety of actors, that London, with its capacious bosom, could scarcely contain them. The whole city was ornamented with flags and banners, chaplets and hangings, candles and lamps, and with wonderful devices and extraordinary representations, and all the roads were cleansed from mud and dirt, sticks, and everything offensive. The citizens, too, went out to meet the king (28) and queen (13), dressed out in their ornaments, and vied with each other in trying the speed of their horses. On the same day, when they left the city for Westminster, to perform the duties of butler to the king (which office belonged to them by right of old, at the coronation), they proceeded thither dressed in silk garments, with mantles worked in gold, and with costly changes of raiment, mounted on valuable horses, glittering with new bits and saddles, and riding in troops arranged in order. They carried with them three hundred and sixty gold and silver cups, preceded by the king's trumpeters and with horns sounding, so that such a wonderful novelty struck all who beheld it with astonishment. The archbishop of Canterbury (61), by the right especially belonging to him, performed the duty of crowning, with the usual solemnities, the bishop of London assisting him as a dean, the other bishops taking their stations according to their rank. In the same way all the abbats, at the head of whom, as was his right, was the abbat of St. Alban's (for as the Protomartyr of England, B. Alban, was the chief of all the martyrs of England, so also was his abbat the chief of all the abbats in rank and dignity), as the authentic privileges of that church set forth. The nobles, too, performed the duties, which, by ancient right and custom, pertained to them at the coronations of kings. In like manner some of the inhabitants of certain cities discharged certain duties which belonged to them by right of their ancestors. The earl of Chester (29) carried the sword of St. Edward, which was called "Curtein", before the king, as a sign that he was earl of the palace, and had by right the power of restraining the king if he should commit an error. The earl was attended by the constable of Chester (44), and kept the people away with a wand when they pressed forward in a disorderly way. The grand marshal of England, the earl of Pembroke (39), carried a wand before the king and cleared the way before him both, in the church and in the banquet-hall, and arranged the banquet and the guests at table. The Wardens of the Cinque Ports carried the pall over the king, supported by four spears, but the claim to this duty was not altogether undisputed. The earl of Leicester (28) supplied the king with water in basins to wash before his meal; the Earl Warrenne performed the duty of king's Cupbearer, supplying the place of the earl of Arundel, because the latter was a youth and not as yet made a belted knight. Master Michael Belet was butler ex officio; the earl of Hereford (32) performed the duties of marshal of the king's household, and William Beauchamp (51) held the station of almoner. The justiciary of the forests arranged the drinking cups on the table at the king's right hand, although he met with some opposition, which however fell to the ground. The citizens of London passed the wine about in all directions, in costly cups, and those of Winchester superintended the cooking of the feast; the rest, according to the ancient statutes, filled their separate stations, or made their claims to do so. And in order that the nuptial festivities might not be clouded by any disputes, saving the right of any one, many things were put up with for the time which they left for decision at a more favourable opportunity. The office of chancellor of England, and all the offices connected with the king, are ordained and assized in the Exchequer. Therefore the chancellor, the chamberlain, the marshal, and the constable, by right of their office, took their seats there, as also did the barons, according to the date of their creation, in the city of London, whereby they each knew his own place. The ceremony was splendid, with the gay dresses of the clergy and knights who were present. The abbat of Westminster sprinkled the holy water, and the treasurer, acting the part of sub-dean, carried the Paten. Why should I describe all those persons who reverently ministered in the church to God as was their duty? Why describe the abundance of meats and dishes on the table & the quantity of venison, the variety of fish, the joyous sounds of the glee-men, and the gaiety of the waiters? Whatever the world could afford to create pleasure and magnificence was there brought together from every quarter.
On 10 Feb 1316 Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300-1338 (15) was appointed Earl Marshal.
On 22 Sep 1399 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (31) died of plague in Venice. His son Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 (14) succeeded 4th Earl Norfolk 3C 1312, 2nd Earl Nottingham 2C 1383, 7th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 8th Baron Segrave 1C 1283 and Earl Marshal. In 1425 His son John Mowbray 2nd Duke Norfolk 1392-1432 (7) succeeded 2nd Duke Norfolk 1C 1397.
On 30 Sep 1399 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) became IV King England. He had usurped his cousin Richard II (32) and Richard's heir the seven year old Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March (7) who was descended from Edward III's second son Lionel of Antwerp Duke of Clarence (60). This second usurption was to have far reaching consequences since it subsequently became the descent by which the House of York claimed precedence over the House of Lancaster being one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses.
Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (35) was appointed Earl Marshal.
On 19 Oct 1432 John Mowbray 2nd Duke Norfolk 1392-1432 (40) died at Epworth. His son John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (17) succeeded 3rd Duke Norfolk 1C 1397 6th Earl Norfolk 3C 1312, 4th Earl Nottingham 2C 1383, 9th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 10th Baron Segrave 1C 1283 and Earl Marshal.
On 06 Nov 1461 John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (46) died. He was buried at Thetford Priory. His son John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (17) succeeded 4th Duke Norfolk 1C 1397 7th Earl Norfolk 3C 1312, 5th Earl Nottingham 2C 1383, 10th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 11th Baron Segrave 1C 1283 and Earl Marshal.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. Item, on Munday, the 15th of May, 1536, there was arreigned within the Tower of London Queene Anne (35), for treason againste the Kinges owne person, and there was a great scaffold made in the Kinges Hall within the Tower of London, and there were made benches and seates for the lordes, my Lord of Northfolke (63) sittinge under the clothe of estate, representinge there the Kinges person as Highe Steward of Englande and uncle to the Queene, he holdinge a longe white staffe in his hande, and the Earle of Surrey (20) his sonne and heire, sittinge at his feete before him holdinge the golden staffe for the Earle Marshall of Englande, which sayde office the saide duke had in his handes; the Lord Awdley Chauncellour of England (48), sittinge on his right hande, and the Duke of Suffolke on his lefl hande, with other marqueses, earles, and lordes, everie one after their degrees. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.
On 17 May 1569 George Dacre 5th Baron Dacre Gilsland 9th Baron Greystoke 1561-1569 (8) died. There was a dispute as to whether his uncle Leonard Dacre -1573 should inherit Baron Dacre Gilsland 3C 1473 which would be the case if it was created by letters patent, or whether the Barony was in abeyance between the 5th Baron's (8) three sisters which would be the case of the barony had been created through a writ of summons. Such decisions would normally be referred to the Duke of Norfolk (33) in his capacity as Earl Marshal but he, Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (33), had married Elizabeth Leybourne Duchess Norfolk 1536-1567 (33), the mother of the three daughters although she had died in the meantime; he was not impartial - the three daughters were now his step-daughters. The matter was referred to Commissioners who decided the Barony had been created by writ between and was, therefore, abeyant between the three daughters who were now the step-daughters of Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (33). He, Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (33) subsequently married his eldest son Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (11) to his eldest step-daughter Anne Dacre Countess Arundel 1557-1630 (12). After Thomas Howard's (33) execution in 1572 the two remaining daughters, Mary Dacre 1563-1578 (5) and Elizabeth Dacre 1564-1639 (4) were married to his two remaining sons Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (7) and William "Belted" Howard 1563-1640 (5) respectively ensuring all of the Dacre and Greystoke wealth and estates in Cumberland, Yorkshire and Northumberland would become the property of the Howard family.
On 23 Apr 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey.
John Evelyn's Diary 26 September 1672. 26 Sep 1672. I carried with me to dinner my Lord H. Howard (44) (now to be made Earl of Norwich and Earl Marshal of England) to Sir Robert Clayton's (43), now Sheriff of London, at his new house, where we had a great feast; it is built indeed for a great magistrate, at excessive cost. The cedar dining room is painted with the history of the Giants' War, incomparably done by Mr. Streeter (51), but the figures are too near the eye.
John Evelyn's Diary 29 August 1678. 29 Aug 1678. I was called to London to wait upon the Duke of Norfolk (50), who having at my sole request bestowed the Arundelian Library on the Royal Society; sent to me to take charge of the books, and remove them, only stipulating that I would suffer the Herald's chief officer, Sir William Dugdale (72), to have such of them as concerned heraldry and the marshal's office, books of armory and genealogies, the Duke being Earl Marshal of England. I procured for our Society, besides printed books, near one hundred MSS. some in Greek of great concernment. The printed books being of the oldest impressions, are not the less valuable; I esteem them almost equal to MSS. Among them, are most of the Fathers, printed at Basil, before the Jesuits abused them with their expurgatory Indexes; there is a noble MS. of Vitruvius. Many of these books had been presented by Popes, Cardinals, and great persons, to the Earls of Arundel and Dukes of Norfolk; and the late magnificent Earl of Arundel bought a noble library in Germany, which is in this collection. I should not, for the honor I bear the family, have persuaded the Duke to part with these, had I not seen how negligent he was of them, suffering the priests and everybody to carry away and dispose of what they pleased; so that abundance of rare things are irrecoverably gone.
Having taken order here, I went to the Royal Society to give them an account of what I had procured, that they might call a Council and appoint a day to wait on the Duke to thank him for this munificent gift.
John Evelyn's Diary 30 November 1680. 30 Nov 1680. The anniversary election at the Royal Society brought me to London, where was chosen President that excellent person and great philosopher, Mr. Robert Boyle (53), who indeed ought to have been the very first; but neither his infirmity nor his modesty could now any longer excuse him. I desired I might for this year be left out of the Council, by reason my dwelling was in the country. The Society according to custom dined together.
The signal day begun the trial (at which I was present) of my Lord Viscount Stafford (66), (for conspiring the death of the King (50), second son to my Lord Thomas Howard (95), Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, and grandfather to the present Duke of Norfolk (52), whom I so well knew, and from which excellent person I received so many favors. It was likewise his birthday, The trial was in Westminster Hall, before the King (50), Lords, and Commons, just in the same manner as, forty years past, the great and wise Earl of Strafford (87) (there being but one letter differing their names) received his trial for pretended ill government in Ireland, in the very same place, this Lord Stafford's father being then High Steward. The place of sitting was now exalted some considerable height from the paved floor of the hall, with a stage of boards. The throne, woolsacks for the Judges, long forms for the Peers, chair for the Lord Steward, exactly ranged, as in the House of Lords. The sides on both hands scaffolded to the very roof for the members of the House of Commons. At the upper end, and on the right side of the King's (50) state, was a box for his Majesty (50), and on the left others for the great ladies, and over head a gallery for ambassadors and public ministers. At the lower end, or entrance, was a bar, and place for the prisoner (66), the Lieutenant of the Tower of London, the ax-bearer and guards, my Lord Stafford's two daughters, the Marchioness of Winchester being one; there was likewise a box for my Lord to retire into. At the right hand, in another box, somewhat higher, stood the witnesses; at the left, the managers, in the name of the Commons of England, namely, Serjeant Maynard (76) (the great lawyer, the same who prosecuted the cause against the Earl of Strafford (87) forty years before, being now near eighty years of age), Sir William Jones (49), late Attorney-General, Sir Francis Winnington (46), a famous pleader, and Mr. Treby, now Recorder of London, not appearing in their gowns as lawyers, but in their cloaks and swords, as representing the Commons of England: to these were joined Mr. Hampden, Dr. Sacheverell, Mr. Poule, Colonel Titus (57), Sir Thomas Lee (45), all gentlemen of quality, and noted parliamentary men. The first two days, in which were read the commission and impeachment, were but a tedious entrance into matter of fact, at which I was but little present. But, on Thursday, I was commodiously seated among the Commons, when the witnesses were sworn and examined. The principal witnesses were Mr. Oates (31) (who called himself Dr.), Mr. Dugdale (40), and Turberville (32). Oates (31) swore that he delivered a commission to Viscount Stafford (66) from the Pope, to be Paymaster-General to an army intended to be raised; Dugdale (40), that being at Lord Aston's, the prisoner dealt with him plainly to murder his Majesty (50); and Turberville (32), that at Paris he also proposed the same to him.
On 13 Jan 1684 Henry Howard 6th Duke Norfolk 1628-1684 (55) died. His son Henry Howard 7th Duke Norfolk 1655-1701 (29) succeeded 7th Duke Norfolk 3C 1483, 25th Earl Arundel Sussex, 8th Earl Surrey 3C 1483, 5th Earl Norfolk 5C 1644, 2nd Earl Norwich 3C 1672, 18th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 22nd Baron Segrave 1C 1283, 16th Baron Furnivall 1C 1295, 20th Baron Strange Blackmere 1C 1309, 15th Baron Maltravers 1C 1330, 17th Baron Talbot 1C 1331, 15th Baron Arundel 1C 1377, 2nd Baron Howard of Castle Rising, Earl Marshal. Mary Mordaunt Duchess Norfolk 1659-1705 (25) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.
On 23 Dec 1732 Thomas Howard 8th Duke Norfolk 1683-1732 (49) died. His brother Edward Howard 9th Duke Norfolk 1686-1777 (46) succeeded 9th Duke Norfolk 3C 1483, 27th Earl Arundel Sussex, 10th Earl Surrey 3C 1483, 7th Earl Norfolk 5C 1644, 4th Earl Norwich 3C 1672, 20th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 24th Baron Segrave 1C 1283, 18th Baron Furnivall 1C 1295, 22nd Baron Strange Blackmere 1C 1309, 17th Baron Maltravers 1C 1330, 19th Baron Talbot 1C 1331, 17th Baron Arundel 1C 1377, 4th Baron Howard of Castle Rising and Earl Marshal and Earl Marshal. Mary Blount Duchess Norfolk 1711-1773 (21) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.
Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: By the king in parliament. 33. Also, on the same Saturday [10 February 1397], a charter of the king made to the earl marshal touching his office of marshal of England, and the gold staff adorned with the emblem of the king's arms which he will carry in his office, was read and delivered to the said earl. The tenor of which charter follows:
The king to the same, greeting. Know that whereas recently by our letters patent of our special grace we granted to our beloved kinsman Thomas, earl of Nottingham, the office of marshal of England, together with the name and honour of earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, with all the fees, profits, and appurtenances whatsoever pertaining in any way to the said office, in perpetuity; as is fully contained in the same letters. We, mindful of the gracious and laudable services often performed by the aforementioned earl, on either side of the sea, for the benefit and honour of us and our kingdom, at no small effort, cost, and charge to him; and wishing therefore to provide for the estate and honour of that earl, of our special grace have granted in our present parliament for us and our heirs to the same earl the said office, and the name, title, and honour of earl marshal of England, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, together with all offices, commodities, profits and other appurtenances whatsoever, both in our courts and elsewhere, relating or pertaining in any way to the same office, in the same manner and as fully, freely, wholly, and peacefully as Thomas Brotherton, lately earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, father of our beloved kinswoman Margaret countess of Norfolk, [widow] of the aforesaid late earl, or Roger Bigod sometime earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, or any other after the death of the same former earl, or the same present earl, had or held the said office of marshal of England in their time.
Willing further and granting for us and our heirs, that the office of marshal of our Bench before us, which John Wicks holds for the term of his life by our grant, and the office of marshal in our treasury which Richard Gascoigne holds for his life by grant of our beloved brother Thomas earl of Kent, lately marshal of England, by our confirmation; and also the office of herald of the marshal before the steward and marshal of our household, which Guy Allesley holds for his life by grant of the lord Edward [III], late king of England, our grandfather, and by our confirmation; which offices after the death of the aforesaid John, Richard and Guy should revert to us and our heirs, after the death of the same John, Richard, and Guy shall remain to the aforementioned earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs in perpetuity. And that the same offices, and all other offices in any of our courts and elsewhere, which pertained, and used to pertain to the said office of marshal of England in times past, shall be fully restored, annexed, and reunited to the said office of marshal of England in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his male heirs may give, grant, or confer those offices on any suitable persons freely and without hindrance as soon as they shall have fallen vacant by death, demise, resignation, surrender, or in any other way, notwithstanding any of our letters patent made to the contrary.
Considering also the vigour and nobility of that earl, and that he may in future the more fittingly and honourably perform and exercise the aforesaid office, we have granted for us and our heirs to the same present earl that he and his said male heirs, marshals of England, by virtue of their aforesaid office should have, carry, and bear, as well in the presence as in the absence of us and our heirs, a certain gold staff, with both ends enamelled in black, and with the emblem of our arms decorating the top of the said staff, and with the emblem of the arms of that earl decorating the bottom of the said staff; notwithstanding that the same present earl in his time, or the aforementioned former earls, or any other who had the said office of marshal of England before this time, used to carry or bear a wooden staff. Witnessed by these, the venerable fathers Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert of London, William of Winchester, John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor, bishops; John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, Edmund of York, dukes, our beloved uncles; Henry of Derby, Edward of Rutland, Henry of Northumberland, earls; Reginald Grey of Ruthin, Ralph Neville, John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden, dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy, steward of our household, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February 1397.
In Oct 1618 Thomas Vavasour 1560-1620 (58) sold his office of Knight Marshall to.
Deputy Earl Marshal
William Cavendish 6th Duke Devonshire 1790-1858 (31) carried the Orb at Westminster Abbey.
Edward Boscawen 1st Earl Falmouth 1787-1841 (34) was created 1st Earl Falmouth 2C 1821.
On 19 Jul 1821 Kenneth Alexander Howard 1st Earl Effingham 1767-1845 (53) attended as Deputy Earl Marshal as a result of Henry Howard Molyneux Howard 1766-1824 (54) being ill at Westminster Abbey during the Coronation of William IV.
Kenneth Alexander Howard 1st Earl Effingham 1767-1845 (63) attended as Deputy Earl Marshal as a result of Henry Howard Molyneux Howard 1766-1824 (64) being ill.