River Thames

851 Battle of Oakley

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1649 Trial of Charles I

1667 Raid on the Medway

1683 Frost Fair

River Thames is in Thames Estuary.

Battle of Oakley

Life of Alfred by Asser Part 1 849 887 Page 1. 851. After these things, the aforesaid pagan host went into Surrey, which is a district situated on the south bank of the River Thames, and to the west of Kent. And Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, and his son Ethelbald, with all their army, fought a long time against them at a place called Ac-lea, i.e. the Oak-plain, and there, after a lengthened battle, which was fought with much bravery on both sides, the greater part of the pagan multitude was destroyed and cut to pieces, so that we never heard of their being so defeated, either before or since, in any country, in one day; and the Christians gained an honourable victory, and were triumphant over their graves.

Chronica Majora 1236 Heavy falls of rain. 10 Feb 1236. About the same time, for two months and more, namely, in January, February, and part of March, such deluges of rain fell as had never been seen before in the memory of any one. About the feast of St. Scholastica, when the moon was new, the sea became so swollen by the river torrents which fell into it, that all the rivers, especially those which fell into the sea, rendered the fords impasSable, overflowing their banks, hiding the bridges from sight, carrying away mills and dams, and overwhelming the cultivated lands, crops, meadows, and marshes. Amongst other unusual occurrences, the River Thames overflowed its usual bounds, and entered the grand palace at Westminster, where it spread and covered the whole area, so that small boats could float there, and people went to their apartments on horseback. The water also forcing its way into the cellars could with difficulty be drained off. The signs of this storm which preceded it, then gave proofs of their threats; for on the day of St. Damasus, thunder was heard, and on the Friday next after the conception of St. Mary, a spurious sun was seen by the side of the true sun.

Around 1250. Newbridge is a 13th Century bridge over the River Thames one of three bridges built on the orders of King John (83) to facilitate the wool trade; the other two being St John's Bridge Lechlade and Radcot Bridge.

Chronicle of Gregory 1440. 1440. Ande that yere was the Parlyment concludyd, and ordaynyd that Lumbardys sholde goo to hoste. And that same yere alyens were putte to hyr fynaunce to pay a certayne a yere to the kynge. Also in the same yere there were ij traytours hangyde on a payre of galowys that were made in Temys for the same purposse, be syde Syn Kateryns.

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 1445. And yn the same yere a schippe y-namyde Grace de Dyeu1, whyche was chargyd of goode of Sprusse, sche was loste a lytylle whythe yn Temys.

1. This entry somewaht confusing since the Grace Dieu had been laid up in the River Hamble around 1430 and, having been struck by lightning burned to the water-line in 1439?

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 05 Jul 1450. And uppon the morowe the Sonday at hyghe mas tyme a lette to be heddyd a man of Hampton, a squyer, the whyche was namyd Thomas Mayne. And that same evyn Londyn dyd a rysse and cam owte uppon hem at x [of] a the belle, beyng that tyme hyr captaynys the goode olde lorde Schalys (53) and Mathewe Goughe. Ande from that tyme unto the morowe viij of belle they were ever fyghtynge uppon London Brygge, ande many a man was slayne and caste in Temys, harnys, body, and alle; and monge the presse was slayne Mathewe Goughe and John Sutton aldyrman. And the same nyght, a-non aftyr mydnyght, the Captayneof Kentte dyde fyre the draught brygge of London ; and be-fore that tyme he breke bothe Kyngys Bynche ande the Marchelsy, and lete owte alle the presoners that were yn them.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1558. After 04 Mar 1558. The (blank) day of Marche ther was never so low a nebe [an ebb tide], that men myght stand in the mydes [midst] of Tames, and myght a' gone from the brygys to Belynggatt, for the tyd kept not ys course; the wyche was never sene a-fore that tyme.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1559. 25 Apr 1559. The xxv day of April, was sant Markes day, the Quen('s) (25) grace supt at Beynard castyll at my lord of Penproke('s) (58) P[lace,] and after supper the Quen('s) grace rowed up and downe Temes, and [a] C [100] bottes [boats] at bowte here grace, with trumpettes and drumes and flutes and gones, and sqwybes horlyng on he [high] to and fro, tyll x at nyght, or her grace depertyd, and all the water-syd st ... with a M [1000] pepull lokyng one here grace.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1560 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1559. 01 May 1559. The furst day of May ther was ij [4] pennys [pinnaces] was dekyd with stremars, baners, and flages, and trumpetes and drumes and gones, gahyng a Mayng [going a Maying], and a-ganst the Quen('s) plasse at Westmynster, and ther they shott and thruw eges [eggs] and oregns [against] on a-gaynst a-nodur, and with sqwybes, and by chanse on fell on a bage of gune-powdur and sett dyvers men a'fyre, and so the men drue to on syd of the penus [pinnaces], and yt dyd over-swelmed the pennus [pinnaces], and mony fell in the Temes, butt, thanke be God, ther was but on man drownyd, and a C [100] bottes [boats] abowtt here, and the Quen('s) (25) grace and her lordes and lades lokyng out of wyndows; thys was done by ix [4] of the cloke on May evyn last.

Trial of Charles I

John Evelyn's Diary 22 January 1649. 22 Jan 1649. I went through a course of chemistry, at Sayes Court. Now was the Thames frozen over, and horrid tempests of wind.

The villany of the rebels proceeding now so far as to try, condemn, and murder our excellent King (48) on the 30th of this month, struck me with such horror, that I kept the day of his martyrdom a fast, and would not be present at that execrable wickedness; receiving the sad account of it from my brother George (31), and Mr. Owen, who came to visit me this afternoon, and recounted all the circumstances.

In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 September 1651. 06 Sep 1651. I went with my wife (16) to St. Germains, to condole with Mr. Waller's (45) loss. I carried with me and treated at dinner that excellent and pious person the Dean of St. Paul's, Dr. Stewart, and Sir Lewis Dives (52) (half-brother to the Earl of Bristol (38)) [Note. Beatrice Walcott was mother to Lewis Dyve 1599-1669 (52) and George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 (38) by her first and second husbands respectively. At the time of writing, 1651, the Earl of Bristol was John Digby 1st Earl Bristol 1580-1653 (71); a case of Evelyn writing hi sdiary retrospectively], who entertained us with his wonderful escape out of prison in Whitehall, the very evening before he was to have been put to death, leaping down out of a jakes two stories high into the Thames at high water, in the coldest of winter, and at night; so as by swimming he got to a boat that attended for him, though he was guarded by six musketeers. After this, he went about in women's habit, and then in a small-coal-man's, traveling 200 miles on foot, embarked for Scotland with some men he had raised, who coming on shore were all surprised and imprisoned on the Marquis of Montrose's (38) score; he not knowing anything of their barbarous murder of that hero. This he told us was his fifth escape, and none less miraculous; with this note, that the charging through 1,000 men armed, or whatever danger could befall a man, he believed could not more confound and distract a man's thoughts than the execution of a premeditated escape, the passions of hope and fear being so strong. This knight was indeed a valiant gentleman; but not a little given to romance, when he spoke of himself. I returned to Paris the same evening.

Around 1687. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Edmund Waller Poet 1606-1687. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677.

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In 1656 Edward Ford 1605-1670 (51) was employed, with Oliver Cromwell's encouragement, and at the request of the citizens of London, in devising an engine for raising the River Thames water into all the higher streets of the city, a height of ninety-three feet. This he accomplished in a year's time, and at his own expense; and the same "rare engine" was later employed for draining mines and lands.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 June 1658. 03 Jun 1658. A large whale was taken between my land abutting on the Thames and Greenwich, which drew an infinite concourse to see it, by water, horse, coach, and on foot, from London, and all parts. It appeared first below Greenwich at low water, for at high water it would have destroyed all the boats, but lying now in shallow water encompassed with boats, after a long conflict, it was killed with a harping iron, struck in the head, out of which spouted blood and water by two tunnels; and after a horrid groan, it ran quite on shore, and died. Its length was fifty-eight feet, height sixteen; black skinned, like coach leather; very small eyes, great tail, only two small fins, a peaked snout and a mouth so wide, that divers men might have stood upright in it; no teeth, but sucked the slime only as through a grate of that bone which we call whalebone; the throat yet so narrow, as would not have admitted the least of fishes. The extremes of the cetaceous bones hang downward from the upper jaw, and are hairy toward the ends and bottom within side: all of it prodigious; but in nothing more wonderful than that an animal of so great a bulk should be nourished only by slime through those grates.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 December 1662. 01 Dec 1662. Having seen the strange and wonderful dexterity of the sliders on the new canal in St James' Park, performed before their Majesties [Note. Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (32) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (24)] by divers gentlemen and others with skates, after the manner of the Hollanders, with what swiftness they pass, how suddenly they stop in full career upon the ice; I went home by water, but not without exceeding difficulty, the Thames being frozen, great flakes of ice encompassing our boat.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 December 1665. 20 Dec 1665. Up, and was trimmed, but not time enough to save my Lord Bruncker's (45) coach or Sir J. Minnes's (66), and so was fain to walk to Lambeth on foot, but it was a very fine frosty walke, and great pleasure in it, but troublesome getting over the River for ice. I to the Duke of Albemarle (57), whither my brethren were all come, but I was not too late. There we sat in discourse upon our Navy business an houre, and thence in my Lord Bruncker's (45) coach alone, he walking before (while I staid awhile talking with Sir G. Downing (40) about the Act, in which he is horrid troublesome) to the Old Exchange.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 December 1665. 22 Dec 1665. But I was more at a letter from my Lord Duke of Albemarle (57) to-day, pressing us to continue our meetings for all Christmas, which, though every body intended not to have done, yet I am concluded in it, who intended nothing else. But I see it is necessary that I do make often visits to my Lord Duke, which nothing shall hinder after I have evened my accounts, and now the river is frozen I know not how to get to him.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 January 1666. 05 Jan 1666. I with my Lord Bruncker (46) and Mrs. Williams by coach with four horses to London, to my Lord's house in Covent-Guarden. But, Lord! what staring to see a nobleman's coach come to town. And porters every where bow to us; and such begging of beggars! And a delightfull thing it is to see the towne full of people again as now it is; and shops begin to open, though in many places seven or eight together, and more, all shut; but yet the towne is full, compared with what it used to be. I mean the City end; for Covent-Guarden and Westminster are yet very empty of people, no Court nor gentry being there. Set Mrs. Williams down at my Lord's house and he and I to Sir G. Carteret (56), at his chamber at White Hall, he being come to town last night to stay one day.

So my Lord and he and I much talke about the Act, what credit we find upon it, but no private talke between him and I So I to the 'Change, and there met Mr. Povy (52), newly come to town, and he and I to Sir George Smith's (51) and there dined nobly. He tells me how my Lord Bellases (51) complains for want of money and of him and me therein, but I value it not, for I know I do all that can be done. We had no time to talk of particulars, but leave it to another day, and I away to Cornhill to expect my Lord Bruncker's (46) coming back again, and I staid at my stationer's house, and by and by comes my Lord, and did take me up and so to Greenwich, and after sitting with them a while at their house, home, thinking to get Mrs. Knipp, but could not, she being busy with company, but sent me a pleasant letter, writing herself "Barbary Allen".

I went therefore to Mr. Boreman's for pastime, and there staid an houre or two talking with him, and reading a discourse about the River of Thames, the reason of its being choked up in several places with shelfes; which is plain is, by the encroachments made upon the River, and running out of causeways into the River at every wood-wharfe; which was not heretofore when Westminster Hall and White Hall were built, and Redriffe Church, which now are sometimes overflown with water. I had great satisfaction herein.

So home and to my papers for lacke of company, but by and by comes little Mrs. Tooker and sat and supped with me, and I kept her very late talking and making her comb my head, and did what I will with her. So late to bed.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705. Around 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689. Around 1669 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689.

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John Evelyn's Diary 06 March 1667. 06 Mar 1667. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor (58), Monsieur Kiviet's (40) undertaking to wharf the whole river of Thames, or quay, from the Temple to the Tower, as far as the fire destroyed, with brick, without piles, both lasting and ornamental.—Great frosts, snow and winds, prodigious at the vernal equinox; indeed it had been a year of prodigies in this nation, plague, war, fire, rain, tempest and comet.

1667 Raid on the Medway

John Evelyn's Diary 08 June 1667. 08 Jun 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen on our fleet at Chatham, by a most audacious enterprise, entering the very river with part of their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but incredible mischief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at anchor and moored there, and all this through our unaccountable negligence in not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even to London (which they might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in the river, too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., from my house to another place. The alarm was so great that it put both country and city into fear, panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more; everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, there were land forces dispatched with the Duke of Albemarle (58), Lord Middleton (59), Prince Rupert (47), and the Duke (33), to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, fortifying Upnor Castle, and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute enemy broke through all, and set fire on our ships, and retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the rest of the fleet lying before the mouth of it.

Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton 1608-1674. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 December 1670. 15 Dec 1670. It was the thickest and darkest fog on the Thames that was ever known in the memory of man, and I happened to be in the very midst of it. I supped with Monsieur Zulestein, late Governor of to the late Prince of Orange (44).

John Evelyn's Diary 02 February 1683. 02 Feb 1683. I made my court at St. James's, when I saw the sea charts of Captain Collins (40), which that industrious man now brought to show the Duke (49), having taken all the coasting from the mouth of the Thames, as far as Wales, and exactly measuring every creek, island, rock, soundings, harbors, sands, and tides, intending next spring to proceed till he had finished the whole island, and that measured by chains and other instruments: a most exact and useful undertaking. He affirmed, that of all the maps put out since, there are none extant so true as those of Joseph Norden, who gave us the first in Queen Elizabeth's time; all since him are erroneous.

Frost Fair

In Dec 1683 the River Thames froze for a period of six weeks during which a great Frost Fair took place on the frozen surface.

The printer Croom sold souvenir cards written with the customer's name, the date, and the fact that the card was printed on the Thames; he was making five pounds a day (ten times a labourer's weekly wage). King Charles II (53) bought one.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 May 1687. 12 May 1687. To London. Lord Sunderland (45) being Lord President and Secretary of State, was made Knight of the Garter and Prime favorite. This day there was such a storm of wind as had seldom happened, being a sort of hurricane. It kept the flood out of the Thames, so that people went on foot over several places above bridge. Also an earthquake in several places in England about the time of the storm.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 January 1689. 07 Jan 1689. A long frost and deep snow; the Thames almost frozen over.

John Evelyn's Diary 11 July 1689. 11 Jul 1689. I dined at Lord Clarendon's, it being his lady's wedding day, when about three in the afternoon there was an unusual and violent storm of thunder, rain, and wind; many boats on the Thames were overwhelmed, and such was the impetuosity of the wind as to carry up the waves in pillars and spouts most dreadful to behold, rooting up trees and ruining some houses.

Before 1661. Remigius van Leemput Painter 1607-1675. Copy of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 portrait of Henry Hyde, Viscount Cornbury and his first wife Theodosia Capell.

John Ashton Edmund Elliot Richard Graham 1691. On Fryday, the 2d day of this Sessions, my Lord Preston (41), John Ashton and Edmund Elliot, were all Arrained for High Treason, my Lord Preston (41) was Tryed on Saturday by the name of Sir Richard Graham, Mr. Ashton on Monday. The Indictments against them consisted of Two Parts, the First of which set forth, That they had a Treasonable Design carrying on to Depose the King and Queen, and to Subvert and Alter the Government of the Kingdom of England, and to raise War and Rebellion in the same; which said Traiterous and Wicked Designs and Purposes to bring to pass, they did, on the 29th of December last, Meet and Conspire together, with several other Traitors not yet discovered, and did Compose several Treasonable Letters, Notes and Memorandums in writing, which set forth the most effectual way and means how they might Dethrone and Depose our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady the King (40) and Queen (28), and further describing therein how the Affairs of this Kingdom stood, and of what Strength and Force our Shipping was; as also the Fortifications of several Sea-Port-Towns within this Kingdom. The Second Part was their adhering to the Kings's Enemies: And to that end, that they might Acquaint Lewis the French King of the same, they did hire a Boat and Embarque themselves in order to Transport themselves and Pacquet of Treasonable Letters into France, agreeing to pay for their said Passages the Sum of One hundred Pound; and, in order to their Treasonable Voyage, they had made their Passage as far as below Gravesend, but were then Taken by Captain Billop, who Cruised abroad to search for them.

After this the Evidence for the King (40) being called, gave an Account particularly from Step to Step, how cunningly and subtilly they managed this horrid Conspiracy, by hiring the Smack called the Thomas and Elizabeth, to convey them secretly into France; in order to which they took Water in a Skuller at Surrey-Stairs, and went on Board the aforesaid Vessel, which lay in the River of Thames over against the Tower: From thence they set Sail down the River, till coming within the View of the George Frigate, lying in Long-reach, they desired the Master of the Smack to hide them under the Quarter-Hatches; which was done, they having some Fear of being discovered: There they remained till past that Danger, and then came up; but when they were within Sight of Gravesend they hid again, and a little below it Captain Billop came aboard them, under Pretence of Pressing the Masters two Men, who were assistants to him; but indeed his Design and real Intention was to find out those Traytors, which, upon Search, he found lying along under the Hatches; and after their being haled up he search'd them, and found a Pacquet of Treasonable Papers in Mr. Ashton's Bosom: which he with the Prisoners carried before my Lord Nottingham; who examined the Papers, and after being examined by the Cabinet Council they were committed to the Tower. The Evidence was very full and plain against them both, much to the same effect and purport: The Letters being also Read against them in Court, were adjudged to be of no less Import than High-Treason. Upon the whole they had nothing material to offer in their Defence; so after a very long hearing, they were both found Guilty of High Treason. Edmond Elliot was ordered to remain till further order.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694. Around 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694.

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John Evelyn's Diary 13 January 1695. 13 Jan 1695. The Thames was frozen over. The deaths by smallpox increased to five hundred more than in the preceding week. The King (44) and Princess Anne (29) reconciled, and she was invited to keep her Court at Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley House; she was desired to take into her family divers servants of the late Queen (32); to maintain them the King (44) has assigned her £5,000 a quarter.

In 1703 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. In 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. Around 1705. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 October 1695. 25 Oct 1695. The Archbishop (59) and myself went to Hammersmith, to visit Sir Samuel Morland (70), who was entirely blind; a very mortifying sight. He showed us his invention of writing, which was very ingenious; also his wooden calendar, which instructed him all by feeling; and other pretty and useful inventions of mills, pumps, etc., and the pump he had erected that serves water to his garden, and to passengers, with an inscription, and brings from a filthy part of the Thames near it a most perfect and pure water. He had newly buried £200 worth of music books six feet under ground, being, as he said, love songs and vanity. He plays himself psalms and religious hymns on the theorbo. Very mild weather the whole of October.

1645 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Samuel Morland Polymath 1st Baronet 1625-1695.

John Evelyn's Diary 26 March 1699. 26 Mar 1699. After an extraordinary storm, there came up the Thames a whale which was fifty-six feet long. Such, and a larger of the spout kind, was killed there forty years ago (June 1658). That year died Cromwell.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 November 1699. 15 Nov 1699. There happened this week so thick a mist and fog, that people lost their way in the streets, it being so intense that no light of candles, or torches, yielded any (or but very little) direction. I was in it, and in danger. Robberies were committed between the very lights which were fixed between London and Kensington on both sides, and while coaches and travelers were passing. It began about four in the afternoon, and was quite gone by eight, without any wind to disperse it. At the Thames, they beat drums to direct the watermen to make the shore.

Putney Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames. The first bridge, slightly downstream from the current position, was opened on 29 Nov 1729 being the only bridge between, upstream, Kingston Bridge and, downstream, London Bridge. The bridge was badly damaged by the collision of a river barge in 1870 after which it was repaired but subsequently demolished for replacement.

Around 1746. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768 (48). The City of Westminster from River Thames near the York Water Gate with Westminster Bridge under construction.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768 (49). View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1747. Walton on Thames Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames first opened in 1747.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768 (49). Westminster Bridge, with the Lord Mayor's Procession on the Thames.

Around 1752. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768 (54). Greenwich Hospital from the North Bank of the Thames.

Around 1754. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768 (56). View across the River Thames to Eton College with the new Eton College Chapel visible in white stone and the original Tudor buildings in red brick.

01 Jun 1759. Kew Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames. The original bridge was constructed before 1759. The first bridge was built by Robert Tunstall of Brentford who previously owned the ferry on the site. The bridge was inaugurated on 1 June 1759 by the Prince of Wales (20) driving over it with his mother (39) and a number of other royals, and was opened to the public three days later.

In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough Painter 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. Around 1768. Nathaniel Dance Holland Painter 1735-1811. Portrait of King George III. In 1804. Samuel Woodford Painter 1763-1817. Portrait of King George III. Around 1800. William Beechey Painter 1753-1839. Portrait of King George III. Around 1762. Allan Ramsay Painter 1713-1784. Portrait of King George III. In 1754 Jean Etienne Liotard Painter 1702-1789. Portrait of King George III. Around 1750 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779 (attributed). Portrait of Augusta Saxe Coburg Altenburg 1719-1772.

Richmond Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames opened in Sep 1777.

1789. Swinford Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames in Oxfordshire which opened in 1789.

On 29 Jun 1794 George Waldegrave 1784-1794 (9) drowned whilst swimming in the River Thames near Eton. John James Waldegrave 6th Earl Waldegrave 1785-1835 (8) succeeded 6th Earl Waldegrave 1C 1729.

1805. Joseph Mallord William Turner 1775-1851 (29). Kew Bridge and the River Thames, with Brentford Eyot in the Foreground and Strand-on-Green Seen through the Arches: Low Tide. From the Thames sketchbooks c.1804-14.

Hammersmith Bridge is a bridge on the River Thames designed by Joseph Bazalgette 1819-1891 (8) opened on 06 Oct 1827.

Kingston Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames opened on 17 Jul 1828 by the future Queen (35) then Duchess of Clarence.

Hampton Court Bridge is a bridge on the River Thames.

The River Churn is a tributary of the River Thames that rises at Seven Springs in Gloucestershire. Some consider this to be the source of the River Thames since its is further from the mouth of the Thames than the official source Thameshead. The River Churn joins the River Thames near Cricklade.

The Nore. A sandbank at the mouth of the Thames Estuary, near the town of Sheerness. It marks the point where the River Thames meets the North Sea.

The River Hogsmill rises at Ewell from where it flows to Kingston Upon Thames where it joins the River Thames.

Lechlade Bridge is over the River Thames.

Radcot Bridge is two adajcent bridges over the River Thames.

Works of Gildas Chapter 2 The History. 3. The island of Britain, situated on almost the utmost border of the earth, towards the south and west, and poised in the Divine balance, as is said, which supports the whole world, stretches out from the southwest towards the North Pole, and is eight hundred miles long and two hundred broad, except where the headlands of sundry promontories stretch farther into the sea. It is surrounded by the ocean, which forms winding bays, and is strongly defended by this ample and, if I may so call it, impassable barrier, save on the south side, where the narrow sea affords a passage to Belgic Gaul. It is enriched by the mouths of two noble rivers, the Thames and the Severn, as it were two arms, by which foreign luxuries were of old imported, and by other streams of less importance. It is famous for eightand-twenty cities, and is embellished by certain castles, with walls, towers, well-barred gates, and houses with threatening battlements built on high, and provided with all requisite instruments of defence. Its plains are spacious, its hills are pleasantly situated, adapted for superior tillage, and its mountains are admirably calculated for the alternate pasturage of cattle, where flowers of various colours, trodden by the feet of man, give it the appearance of a lovely picture. It is decked, like a man’s chosen bride, with divers jewels, with lucid fountains, and abundant brooks wandering over the snowwhite sands; with transparent rivers, flowing in gentle murmurs, and offering a pledge of sweet slumber to those who recline upon their banks, whilst it is irrigated by abundant lakes, which pour forth cool torrents of refreshing water.

Henley Bridge is over the River Thames.

Thameshead is considered to the source of the River Thames although the head of the River Churn at Seven Springs is further away from the mouth of the Thames than Thameshead.

Goring is on the left bank of the River Thames in the Goring Gap between the Berkshire Downs and Chiltern Hills.

Cricklade is on the River Thames.

Dorchester on Thames is on the River Thames.

The River Windrush is a tributary of the River Thames. Its is near Taddington in Gloucestershire. It travels broadly south-west through Bourton-on-the-Water, Burford, Minster Lovell, Witney joining the River Thames at Nebridge.

The River Lea rises near Leagrave after which it travels through Wheathampstead, Hertford, Ware, Broxbourne, Waltham Cross, Tottenham before joining the River Thames at Leamouth.

The River Wey is a tributary of the River Thames which it joins around 2km west of Walton_Bridge. It rises just west of Alton in Hampshire and thereafter flows through, or near, Farnham and Weybridge.

Chiswick Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames.

Chertsey Bridge is on the River Thames.

Taplow is on the River Thames.

Wallingford is on the River Thames.

Marlow Bridge is over the River Thames.

Works of Gildas Chapter 2 The History. 11. The first of these martyrs, St. Alban, for charity’s sake saved another confessor who was pursued by his persecutors, and was on the point of being seized, by hiding him in his house, and then by changing clothes with him, imitating in this the example of Christ, who laid down his life for his sheep, and exposing himself in the other’s clothes to be pursued in his stead. So pleasing to God was this conduct, that between his confession and martyrdom, he was honoured with the performance of wonderful miracles in presence of the impious blasphemers who were carrying the Roman standards, and like the Israelites of old, who trod dry-foot an unfrequented path whilst the Ark of the Covenant stood some time on the sands in the midst of Jordan; so also the martyr, with a thousand others, opened a path across the noble river Thames, whose waters stood abrupt like precipices on either side; and seeing this, the first of his executors was stricken with awe, and from a wolf became a lamb; so that he thirsted for martyrdom, and boldly underwent that for which he thirsted. The other holy martyrs were tormented with divers sufferings, and their limbs were racked in such unheard of ways, that they, without delay, erected the trophies of their glorious martyrdom even in the gates of the city of Jerusalem. For those who survived, hid themselves in woods and deserts, and secret caves, waiting until God, who is the righteous judge of all, should reward their persecutors with judgment, and themselves with protection of their lives.

Cliveden is an estate and house on the banks of the River Thames.

The River Coln is a tributary of the River Thames joining at 3m west of Lechlade Bridge.

Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames.

Survey London Volume 4 Chelsea Part II. The Site of Beaufort House.

In the whole history of Chelsea, a history which is indeed famous, so many notable men and women has this little village known—the chief interest has centred about Beaufort House. From those early days in the 16th century, when it was the well-loved home of Sir Thomas More, until the 18th, when it was the seat of the Duke of Beaufort, it yielded to no other house in importance, not to King Henry VIII's manor house in Cheyne Walk, nor to the Earl of Shrewsbury's mansion, nor to the old manor house with which it shared the dignity of a proprietary chapel in the old Church. It did not carry with it the lordship of the manor, but its property was extensive, including practically the frontage of the Thames between Milman Street and Church Street, and its gardens stretched northwards as far as the King's Road.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant.

Twickenham Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames.

The River Loddon is a tributary of the River Thames which it joins just west of Wargrave. Its rises at Mapledurwell in Hampshire and flows broadly north passing Stratfield Saye House.

Battersea Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames.

Windsor and Eton are separated by the River Thames.

Reading is located where the River Kennet meets the River Thames.

Bisham Abbey is on the south bank of the River Thames.

The River Mole is a tributary of the River Thames which it joins opposite Hampton Court Palace. It rises near Rusper and flows broadly north through Leatherhead.

River Darent

The River Darent joins the River Thames at Dartford.

River Cray

The River Cray joins the River Thames at Dartford.

River Lea

The River Lea rises near Leagrave after which it travels through Wheathampstead, Hertford, Ware, Broxbourne, Waltham Cross, Tottenham before joining the River Thames at Leamouth.

River Hogsmill

1851 to 1852. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896 (21). "Ophelia". Hamlet Act IV Scene 7 Part IV in which Queen Gertrude describes Ophelia's death to Laertes. Millais painted the scene near Tolworth using the River Hogsmill. Elizabeth Siddal Model 1829-1862 (21) modelled in a bath-tub at 7 Gower Street. Note the initials PRB bottom right next to his name.

The River Hogsmill rises at Ewell from where it flows to Kingston Upon Thames where it joins the River Thames.

River Mole

The River Mole is a tributary of the River Thames which it joins opposite Hampton Court Palace. It rises near Rusper and flows broadly north through Leatherhead.

River Wey

The River Wey is a tributary of the River Thames which it joins around 2km west of Walton_Bridge. It rises just west of Alton in Hampshire and thereafter flows through, or near, Farnham and Weybridge.

River Cherwell

Shipton-on-Cherwell is on the River Cherwell.

Wulf Hall was the seat of the Seymour family. It is in Wiltshire 600m from the River Cherwell.

The River Cherwell rises at Hellidon in Northamptonshire and travels broadly south passing through, or near, Charwelton, which gives the river its name, Woodford Halse, West Farndon, Cropredy Banbury, Twyford Wharf, Clifton, Somerton, Upper Heyford and Lower Heyford, Enslow, Shipton-on-Cherwell, Hampton Poyle and Islip after which it joins the River Thames south-west of Oxford

River Ray

The River Ray rises around 1500m north of Quainton from where it flows broadly west past Grendon Underwood, Blackthorn, Lower Arncott, Merton, Oddington to Islip where it joins the River Cherwell.

River Loddon

The River Loddon is a tributary of the River Thames which it joins just west of Wargrave. Its rises at Mapledurwell in Hampshire and flows broadly north passing Stratfield Saye House.

River Kennet

Prehistoric Avebury describes a number of Prehistoric monuments including the largest causewayed enclosure in Britain, Windmill Hill, the largest stone circle in Britain, Avebury Henge, the two largest prehistoric mounds in Europe Silbury Hill and Marlborough Mound, the longest long barrows, West and East and the West Kennet Avenue. Avebury was clearly an important area in Prehistory. The Ridgeway Path passes near Avebury as do the the headwaters of the River Kennet. Stonehenge, built around the same time as the Avebury Henge, is seventeen miles away, more or less, almost exactly south.

2400BC. Silbury Hill is a Prehistoric Mound - the largest in Europe. Around 40m high and 167 meters wide at its base. The summit is flat; 30m wide. No-one knows why it was built. It is at the headwaters of the River Kennet with views west downriver to Marlborough where there is, possibly, another Prehistoric Mound, half the height, next to the River Kennet; the Marlborough Mound. Silbury Hill was constructed around 2400BC. Its construction is complex being a gravel core with kerbs on which alternate layers of chalk rubble and earth. A second phase involved the addition of furthe chalk.

Newbury Bridge, also known as Kennet Bridge or Town Bridge, is a bridge over the River Kennet. In 1312, King Edward II directed that the bridge should be kept in good order.

Reading is located where the River Kennet meets the River Thames.

Marlborough is on the River Kennet.

The River Dun is a tributary of the River Kennet which it joins at Hungerford. The head of the River Dun is near Great Bedwyn.

Marlborough Mound is a probable Prehistoric Mound located at Marlborough School next the the River Kennet. Its base diameter is 83m and a height of 19 meters. Around half the size of Silbury Hill which is 5.2 miles West upstream on the River Kennet. Curiously Silbury Hill and the Marlborough Mound are 5.2 miles apart east to west more or less exactly east to west - a difference of 0.8 degrees.

Marlborough Mound. Historic England 1005634.

This monument includes a motte castle situated on the summit of a ridge surrounded by a meander of the River Kennet and within the grounds of Marlborough College within a Grade II Registered Garden (2247). The motte survives as a circular mound of up to 85m in diameter and 18m high. Excavations in 1912 found layers of charcoal and antler picks which have long caused speculation as to whether this was a prehistoric earthwork which was re-used as a motte, although a survey in 2001 did not prove the castle to be anything other than medieval in origin. Further excavations in 1936 found the footings for a curtain wall and the buttress for a shell keep on the summit together with 12th to 13th century pottery. Speculation of this having once been part of a much larger castle with baileys was apparently fuelled by the discovery of a V-shaped profile ditch to the north of the motte in 2000 and it has long been believed that much of the bailey extended to the south although the extent of this is not known. In 2005 further excavations indicated the spiral path which winds its way up to the summit was in existence from 1654. Marlborough was part of a royal borough which was visited often by sovereigns, there is no documentary mention of a castle prior to 1138, but it is thought significant that William I imprisoned Bishop Aethelfric of Selsey in Marlborough and that Henry I held an Easter Court there in 1110. Also, several charters were signed in Marlborough which implies the castle did already exist. The first definitive documentary record was in 1139 when it was held by King Stephen from the Empress Matilda. There was further building work during the reign of Henry II which included the 'Great Tower' and continued from 1175 to 1179. King John had the castle repaired and a ring wall built around the motte in 1209-11. Henry III spent £2000 on works between 1227 and 1272 which included work on two chapels, the hall, the keep, two barbicans, a curtain wall, two bridges, gatehouse, and the Queen's apartments. From 1273-1369 it formed part of the Queen's possessions as her 'Dower House'. However, by 1403 it had deteriorated significantly and subsequently remained neglected. Allegedly the black marble font now in Preshute Church came from the castle chapel and was supposedly used to baptise King John and Edward the Black Prince. The winding path, a grotto (listed at Grade II) and a water tower on top of the motte were all landscape garden features from the 17th to 18th centuries. The grotto was originally part of a canal and cascade feature associated with the mound.

River Dun

The River Dun is a tributary of the River Kennet which it joins at Hungerford. The head of the River Dun is near Great Bedwyn.

River Windrush

Battle Edge Burford is a former field located beside Sheep Street and Tanners Lane and bounded by the River Windrush at the bottom of the hill in Burford.

The River Windrush is a tributary of the River Thames. Its is near Taddington in Gloucestershire. It travels broadly south-west through Bourton-on-the-Water, Burford, Minster Lovell, Witney joining the River Thames at Nebridge.

River Coln

Bibury is on the River Coln.

Fairford is on the River Coln.

The River Coln is a tributary of the River Thames joining at 3m west of Lechlade Bridge.

River Churn

Thameshead is considered to the source of the River Thames although the head of the River Churn at Seven Springs is further away from the mouth of the Thames than Thameshead.

The River Churn is a tributary of the River Thames that rises at Seven Springs in Gloucestershire. Some consider this to be the source of the River Thames since its is further from the mouth of the Thames than the official source Thameshead. The River Churn joins the River Thames near Cricklade.