On this Day in History ... 23 February

1421 Coronation of Catherine of Valois

1447 Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

1462 Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

1509 Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1544 Wyatt's Rebellion

23 Feb is in February.

On 23 Feb 1188 Peter Burgundy 1188-1258 was born to Sancho "Populator" I King Portugal 1154-1211 (33) and Dulce Barcelona Queen Consort Portugal.

Coronation of Catherine of Valois

On 23 Feb 1421 Catherine of Valois (19) was crowned Queen Consort England at Westminster Abbey. Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1385-1452 (36) was appointed Chief Butler of England. James I (26) attended, and was honoured by sitting immediately on the queen's left at the coronation banquet.

Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (44), Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (41), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (47) and Ralph Boteler 6th Baron Sudeley 1389-1473 (58).
On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) died at Bury St Edmunds. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Albans Cathedral. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 six years later.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

On 23 Feb 1462 William Tyrrell 1408-1462 (54), John Montgomery -1462 and Thomas Tuddenham 1401-1462 were beheaded at Tower Hill.

On 23 Feb 1494 Bishop John Blythe 1460-1499 (34) was consecrated Bishop of Salisbury.

Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII. 1509. The coronation of Kinge Henrie the Eight (17), which was the 24th of June, A.D. 1509. See Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
This yeare, Prince Henrie, the Kings (19) first sonne, was borne at Richmonde on Newe Yeares daye, and on St. Mathie's day [Note. 23 Feb] after the saide Prince died, and was buried at Westminster.

Wyatt's Rebellion

On 23 Feb 1554 Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (37) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

On 23 Feb 1620 Francis Newport 1st Earl Bradford 1620-1708 was born to Richard Newport 1st Baron Newport 1587-1651 (32) and Frances Leveson Baroness Gower 1614-1661 (6) at Wroxeter.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 23 February 1661. 23 Feb 1661. This my birthday, 28 years. This morning Sir W. Batten (60), Pen, and I did some business, and then I by water to Whitehall, having met Mr. Hartlibb (61) by the way at Alderman Backwell's (43). So he did give me a glass of Rhenish wine at the Steeleyard, and so to Whitehall by water. He continues of the same bold impertinent humour that he was always of and will ever be. He told me how my Lord Chancellor (52) had lately got the Duke of York (27) and Duchess, and her woman, my Lord Ossory's and a Doctor, to make oath before most of the judges of the kingdom, concerning all the circumstances of their marriage. And in fine, it is confessed that they were not fully married till about a month or two before she was brought to bed; but that they were contracted long before, and time enough for the child to be legitimate1. But I do not hear that it was put to the judges to determine whether it was so or no.
To my Lord and there spoke to him about his opinion of the Light, the sea-mark that Captain Murford is about, and do offer me an eighth part to concern myself with it, and my Lord do give me some encouragement in it, and I shall go on. I dined herewith Mr. Shepley and Howe. After dinner to Whitehall Chappell with Mr. Child, and there did hear Captain Cooke (45) and his boy make a trial of an Anthem against tomorrow, which was brave musique.
Then by water to Whitefriars to the Play-house, and there saw "The Changeling", the first time it hath been acted these twenty years, and it takes exceedingly. Besides, I see the gallants do begin to be tyred with the vanity and pride of the Theatre actors who are indeed grown very proud and rich.
Then by link home, and there to my book awhile and to bed. I met to-day with Mr. Townsend, who tells me that the old man is yet alive in whose place in the Wardrobe he hopes to get my father, which I do resolve to put for. I also met with the Comptroller (50), who told me how it was easy for us all, the principal officers, and proper for us, to labour to get into the next Parliament; and would have me to ask the Duke's letter, but I shall not endeavour it because it will spend much money, though I am sure I could well obtain it. This is now 28 years that I am born. And blessed be God, in a state of full content, and great hopes to be a happy man in all respects, both to myself and friends.
Note 1. The Duke of York's (27) marriage took place September 3rd, 1660. Anne Hyde was contracted to the Duke at Breda, November 24th, 1659.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 23 February 1662. 23 Feb 1662. Lord's Day. My cold being increased, I staid at home all day, pleasing myself with my dining-room, now graced with pictures, and reading of Dr. Fuller's (54) "Worthys". So I spent the day, and at night comes Sir W. Pen (40) and supped and talked with me. This day by God's mercy I am 29 years of age, and in very good health, and like to live and get an estate; and if I have a heart to be contented, I think I may reckon myself as happy a man as any is in the world, for which God be praised.
So to prayers and to bed.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 23 February 1663. 23 Feb 1663. Up by times; and not daring to go by land, did (Griffin going along with me for fear), slip to White Hall by water; where to Mr. Coventry (35), and, as we used to do, to the Duke (29); the other of my fellows being come. But we said nothing of our business, the Duke (29) being sent for to the King (32), that he could not stay to speak with us.
This morning came my Lord Windsor (36) to kiss the Duke's (29) hand, being returned from Jamaica. He tells the Duke (29), that from such a degree of latitude going thither he begun to be sick, and was never well till his coming so far back again, and then presently begun to be well. He told the Duke (29) of their taking the fort of St. Jago, upon Cuba, by his men; but, upon the whole, I believe that he did matters like a young lord, and was weary of being upon service out of his own country, where he might have pleasure. For methought it was a shame to see him this very afternoon, being the first day of his coming to town, to be at a playhouse.
Thence to my Lord Sandwich (37), who though he has been abroad again two or three days is falling ill again, and is let blood this morning, though I hope it is only a great cold that he has got. It was a great trouble to me (and I had great apprehensions of it) that my Lord desired me to go to Westminster Hall, to the Parliament-house door, about business; and to Sir Wm. Wheeler (52), which I told him I would do, but durst not go for fear of being taken by these rogues; but was forced to go to White Hall and take boat, and so land below the Tower at the Iron-gate; and so the back way over Little Tower Hill; and with my cloak over my face, took one of the watermen along with me, and staid behind a wall in the New-buildings behind our garden, while he went to see whether any body stood within the Merchants' Gate, under which we pass to go into our garden, and there standing but a little dirty boy before the gate, did make me quake and sweat to think he might be a Trepan1. But there was nobody, and so I got safe into the garden, and coming to open my office door, something behind it fell in the opening, which made me start. So that God knows in what a sad condition I should be in if I were truly in the condition that many a poor man is for debt: and therefore ought to bless God that I have no such reall reason, and to endeavour to keep myself, by my good deportment and good husbandry, out of any such condition.
At home I found Mr. Creed with my wife, and so he dined with us, I finding by a note that Mr. Clerke (40) in my absence hath left here, that I am free; and that he hath stopped all matters in Court; I was very glad of it, and immediately had a light thought of taking pleasure to rejoice my heart, and so resolved to take my wife to a play at Court to-night, and the rather because it is my birthday, being this day thirty years old, for which let me praise God. While my wife dressed herself, Creed and I walked out to see what play was acted to-day, and we find it "The Slighted Mayde". But, Lord! to see that though I did know myself to be out of danger, yet I durst not go through the street, but round by the garden into Tower Street.
By and by took coach, and to the Duke's house, where we saw it well acted, though the play hath little good in it, being most pleased to see the little girl dance in boy's apparel, she having very fine legs, only bends in the hams, as I perceive all women do. The play being done, we took coach and to Court, and there got good places, and saw "The Wilde Gallant", performed by the King's house, but it was ill acted, and the play so poor a thing as I never saw in my life almost, and so little answering the name, that from beginning to end, I could not, nor can at this time, tell certainly which was the Wild Gallant. The King (32) did not seem pleased at all, all the whole play, nor any body else, though Mr. Clerke (40) whom we met here did commend it to us. My Baroness Castlemaine's (22) was all worth seeing tonight, and little Steward (15). Mrs. Wells do appear at Court again, and looks well; so that, it may be, the late report of laying the dropped child to her was not true.
It being done, we got a coach and got well home about 12 at night. Now as my mind was but very ill satisfied with these two plays themselves, so was I in the midst of them sad to think of the spending so much money and venturing upon the breach of my vow, which I found myself sorry for, I bless God, though my nature would well be contented to follow the pleasure still. But I did make payment of my forfeiture presently, though I hope to save it back again by forbearing two plays at Court for this one at the Theatre, or else to forbear that to the Theatre which I am to have at Easter. But it being my birthday and my day of liberty regained to me, and lastly, the last play that is likely to be acted at Court before Easter, because of the Lent coming in, I was the easier content to fling away so much money.
So to bed. This day I was told that my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) hath all the King's Christmas presents, made him by the peers, given to her, which is a most abominable thing; and that at the great ball she was much richer in jewells than the Queen (24) and Duchess (25) put both together.
Note 1. TT. Trickster.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 23 February 1666. 23 Feb 1666. Up betimes, and out of doors by 6 of the clock, and walked (W. Howe with me) to my Lord Sandwich's (40), who did lie the last night at his house in Lincoln's Inne Fields. It being fine walking in the morning, and the streets full of people again. There I staid, and the house full of people come to take leave of my Lord, who this day goes out of towne upon his embassy towards Spayne. And I was glad to find Sir W. Coventry (38) to come, though I know it is only a piece of courtshipp. I had much discourse with my Lord, he telling me how fully he leaves the King (35) his friend and the large discourse he had with him the other day, and how he desired to have the business of the prizes examined before he went, and that he yielded to it, and it is done as far as it concerns himself to the full, and the Lords Commissioners for prizes did reprehend all the informers in what related to his Lordship, which I am glad of in many respects. But we could not make an end of discourse, so I promised to waite upon (him) on Sunday at Cranborne, and took leave and away hence to Mr. Hales's (66) with Mr. Hill (36) and two of the Houblons, who come thither to speak with me, and saw my wife's picture, which pleases me well, but Mr. Hill's (36) picture never a whit so well as it did before it was finished, which troubled me, and I begin to doubt the picture of my Lady Peters my wife takes her posture from, and which is an excellent picture, is not of his making, it is so master-like. I set them down at the 'Change and I home to the office, and at noon dined at home and to the office again.
Anon comes Mrs. Knipp to see my wife, who is gone out, so I fain to entertain her, and took her out by coach to look my wife at Mrs. Pierce's and Unthanke's, but find her not. So back again, and then my wife comes home, having been buying of things, and at home I spent all the night talking with this baggage, and teaching her my song of "Beauty retire", which she sings and makes go most rarely, and a very fine song it seems to be. She also entertained me with repeating many of her own and others' parts of the play-house, which she do most excellently; and tells me the whole practices of the play-house and players, and is in every respect most excellent company. So I supped, and was merry at home all the evening, and the rather it being my birthday, 33 years, for which God be praised that I am in so good a condition of healthe and estate, and every thing else as I am, beyond expectation, in all. So she to Mrs. Turner's (43) to lie, and we to bed. Mightily pleased to find myself in condition to have these people come about me and to be able to entertain them, and have the pleasure of their qualities, than which no man can have more in the world.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 23 February 1667. 23 Feb 1667. This day I am, by the blessing of God, 34 years old, in very good health and mind's content, and in condition of estate much beyond whatever my friends could expect of a child of theirs, this day 34 years. The Lord's name be praised! and may I be ever thankful for it. Up betimes to the office, in order to my letter to the Duke of York (33) to-morrow, and then the office met and spent the greatest part about this letter.
At noon home to dinner, and then to the office again very close at it all the day till midnight, making an end and writing fair this great letter and other things to my full content, it abundantly providing for the vindication of this office, whatever the success be of our wants of money. This evening Sir W. Batten (66) come to me to the office on purpose, out of spleen (of which he is full to Carcasse!), to tell me that he is now informed of many double tickets now found of Carcasses making which quite overthrows him. It is strange to see how, though I do believe this fellow to be a rogue, and could be contented to have him removed, yet to see him persecuted by Sir W. Batten (66), who is as bad himself, and that with so much rancour, I am almost the fellow's friend. But this good I shall have from it, that the differences between Sir W. Batten (66) and my Lord Bruncker (47) will do me no hurt.

John Evelyn's Diary 23 February 1673. 23 Feb 1673. The Bishop of Chichester (59) preached before the King (42) on Coloss. II 14, 15, admirably well, as he can do nothing but what is well.

John Evelyn's Diary 23 February 1684. 23 Feb 1684. I went to Sir John Chardine (40), who desired my assistance for the engraving the plates, the translation, and printing his History of that wonderfull Persian. Monument neere Persepolis, and other rare antiquities, which he had caus'd to be drawne from the originals in his second journey into Persia, which we now concluded upon. Afterwards I went with Sr Christ' Wren to Dr Tenison (47), where we made the drawing and estimate of the expence of the Library, to be begun this next Spring neere the Mewes. Greate expectation of the Prince of Orange's (33) attempts in Holland to bring those of Amsterdam to consent to the new levies, to which we were no friends, by a pseudo-politic adherence to the French interest.

On 23 Feb 1727 Lionel Tollemache 3rd Earl Dysart 1649-1727 (78) died. His grandson Lionel Tollemache 4th Earl Dysart 1708-1770 (18) succeeded 4th Earl Dysart.

On 23 Feb 1727 Lionel Tollemache 3rd Earl Dysart 1649-1727 (78) and Grace Wilbraham Countess Dysart 1661-1740 (65) were married. Grace Wilbraham Countess Dysart 1661-1740 (65) by marriage Earl Dysart.

On 23 Feb 1728 Isabella Bentinck 1688-1728 (39) died.

After 23 Feb 1730. Monument to Katherine late wife of Roland Hunt Rector of Stoke Doyle. Church of St Rumbold Stoke Doyle.

On 23 Feb 1748 Mary Montagu 1748-1761 was born to John Montagu 4th Earl Sandwich 1718-1792 (29) and Dorothy Fane Countess Sandwich 1717-1797 (30).

On 23 Feb 1750 Catherine Gl├╝cksburg 1750-1811 was born to Peter August Oldenburg I Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Beck 1697-1775 (52) and Sophie Unknown Duchess Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Beck.

On 23 Feb 1768 Mary Webb Duchess Somerset 1697-1768 (71) died.

On 23 Feb 1803 Alexandrine Hohenzollern 1803-1892 was born to Frederick William II King Prussia 1770-1840 (32).

On 23 Feb 1808 William George Howard 8th Earl Carlisle 1808-1889 was born to George Howard 6th Earl Carlisle 1773-1848 (34) and Georgiana Cavendish Countess Carlisle 1783-1858 (24).

On 23 Feb 1847 Hugh Percy 3rd Duke Northumberland 1785-1847 was buried at Northumberland Vault Westminster Abbey.

On 23 Feb 1852 Edward Smith Stanley 14th Earl Derby 1799-1869 (52) was appointed Prime Minister.