1454-1461 First War of the Wars of the Roses

1454-1461 First War of the Wars of the Roses is in 15th Century Events.

Neville Percy Feud

By 27 Jul 1453, says Griffiths, the situation in the north had deteriorated so badly that the crown effectively abrogated its authority in the region, by writing directly to the two earls [Note Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (60) and Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (53)], laying responsibility for ending the dispute on them, and instructing them to keep their sons in order. It was at this point too, that the commission of oyer and terminer of 12 July was re-issued.

Around 10 Aug 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22) summoned with Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (30) to appear before a Royal Council; he ignored it.Neville Percy Feud

In Sep 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22) ransacked the manor of Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (30) breaking windows and tiles.Neville Percy Feud

On 08 Oct 1453, the council wrote to the earl of Westmorland (47) and congratulated him on not assisting the Middleham branch. It also wrote again to Salisbury (53) and Northumberland (60),.

In retaliation, Sir John Neville raided the absent Earl of Northumberland's (60) house at Catton, in Yorkshire, and all but ruined it. The next day, Richard Percy attacked a house on Neville property. ESCALATION.

On 20 Oct 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22), and his brothers Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (23) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (24), met with Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (60) and to negotiate peace.Neville Percy Feud

On 20 Oct 1454 both the Neville and Percy families summoned their retainers to their respective castles: Percy to Topcliffe Castle, Neville to Sheriff of Hutton Castle separated by a distance of around four miles.

1454 Battle of Stamford Bridge

On 31 Oct 1454 or 01 Nov 1454 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (23) and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (24) captured Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (31) and Richard Percy 1426-1461 (28) in a skirmish known as the Battle of Stamford Bridge. [Note. The second battle at Stamford Bridge with the first being in 1066]. The brothers were taken to Middleham Castle. Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (31) was subsequently fined £11,200 in damages which, with an income of £100, he was unlikely to ever pay. He was, therefore, taken to Newgate Prison in which he stayed until he escaped in 1456.

Battle of Arkinholm

On 01 May 1455 the Douglas rebellion was brought to an end at the Battle of Arkinholm near Langholm. Archibald Douglas Earl Moray 1426-1455 (29) was killed. Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde -1455 was executed. John Douglas 1433-1463 (22) escaped.

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (26), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (40) and Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (44).

The Lancastrians ...

Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (49) was killed. Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset 2C 1448. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.

Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (62) was killed. Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland 1422-1480 (33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 (41) was killed. John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (20) succeeded 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford 1434-1493 (21) by marriage Baroness Clifford.

William Cotton 1410-1455 (45) and Richard Fortescue 1414-1455 (41) were killed.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (52) was wounded and captured.

Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (54) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (30) were captured.

Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (55) fought.

Battle of Clyst Heath

On 15 Dec 1455 the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon since 1355, and Bonville family resolved their differences at the Battle of Clyst Heath. Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (41) defeated William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (63). Battle something of an over-statement; the number of dead reported by one chronicler as being twelve. Following the battle the victorious Courtenay's attacked Bonville's Shute Manor.

Birth of King Henry VII

On 28 Jan 1457 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 was born to the late Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (26) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (13) at Pembroke Castle. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

On 25 Apr 1457 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (26) and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe 1441-1476 (16) were married by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (39) at Canterbury Cathedral during the John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe. They were second cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Margaret Beaufort marries Henry Stafford

On 03 Jan 1458 Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (33) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (14) were married probably at Maxstoke Castle. They were second cousins. Her third marriage (second if you don't include the one annulled) aged fourteen and already the mother of the future King Henry VII. She had no further issue.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Loveday

Chronicle of Gregory 1458. 24 Mar 1458. Ande thys same yere at Covyntre there was made a pesse [Note. peace] by-twyne the Duke of Somersett Harry (22), and the Earl of Saulysbury (58), and the Erle of Warwycke (29), for the dethe of hys fadyr Duke of Somersette (52), that the Duke of Yorke (46) put to dethe at Synt Albonys. And thys tretys was made at Covyntre, in the holy tyme of Lentyn, by the mene of Kyng Harry the VI. And alle that holy tyme of Lentyn there myght noo mane man that shulde preche by-fore the kynge, but that he shulde shewe hys sarmon in wrytyng, were he docter or other, in so moche the lordys woldys A B C wolde assygne what he schulde say, as for any thynge that longyd unto the comyn wele, and yf he passyd hyr commaundement he schulde lese hys costys, and goo as he come, withowte mete and drynge. But a becheler of holy devynyte come to that cytte, and whenn he come to preche byfore the kyng, as Maystyr Wylliam Saye, Dene of Poulys and Dene of the kyngys chapylle, hadde desyryd and asygnyd, ABC axyd hys name, and hys name was Mayster Wylliam Ive, at that tyme beyng at Wynchester in Wycham ys college. And ABC sayde that they moste nedys se hys sarmon and hys purposse, that he was a vysyd to say by-fore the kynge the Sonday nexte comynge. And he fulle goodly toke them hys papyr; and they seyng and redynge hys papyr, commaundyd to leve owte and put a way many troughtys. But that same Mayster Wylliam Ive sayde but lytylle, but whenn he come to pulpyt he sparyd not to sayd the troughthe, and reportyd by-fore the kyng that ABC made the sarmonys that were sayde fore, and not thoo that prechyd, and that causyd that ]?e men that prechyd hadde but sympylle sarmons, for hyr purposse was alle turnyde upsodowne 3 and that they hadde made love days as Judas made whythe a cosse b with Cryste for they cyste ovyr the mane. The grete rewarde that he hadde for hys labyr was the rydyng of viij xx myle yn and owte for hys travayle, and alle hys frendys fulle sory for hym. But qui veritatem dicit caput fractum kabebit, &c. And that same yere alle thes lordys departyd from the Parlyment, but they come nevyr alle togedyr after that tyme to noo Parlyment nor conselle, but yf hyt were in fylde with spere and schylde.

On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (40) presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (22), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (29), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (22), Richard 3rd Duke York (46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (36), Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (35) and Margaret of Anjou (28) attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.

Battle of Blore Heath

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 23 Sep 1459. Ande thys yere was done a grete jornaye at the Blowre Hethe by the Erle of Saulysbury (59) ande the Quenys galentys. And that day the kynge made vij knyghtys, fyrste, Syr Robert Molyners, Syr John Daune, Syr Thomas Uttyng, Syr John Brembly, Syr Jon Stanley, Syr John Grysly, and Syr Rychard Hardon; and v of thes knyghtys were slayne fulle manly in the fylde, and many men of yemonry soore hurte, and a fulle nobylle knyght, the Lorde Audeley (61), and Syr Thomas Hamdon, knyght, was the getynge of the fylde, and Thomas Squyer and Counteroller of the Pryncys house fulle sore hurte. And [the] batayle or jornay lastyd alle the aftyr none, fro one of the clocke tylle v aftyr non, and the chasse lastyd unto vij at the belle in the mornynge. And men were maymyd many one in the Quenys party. There were in the Quenys party vM [Note. 5000], and in that othyr party vC [Note. 500], a grete wondyr that evyr they myght stonde the grete multytude not ferynge, the kynge beyng with yn x myle and the quene (29) with yn v myle at the castelle of Egyllyssale. But the Erle of Saulysbury (59) hadde ben i-take, save only a Fryer Austyn schot gonnys [Note. shot guns] alle that nyght in a parke that was at the backe syde of the fylde, and by thys mene the erle come to Duke of Yorke (48). And in the morowe they founde nothyr man ne ehylde in that parke but the fryer, and he sayde that for fere he a-bode in that parke alle that nyght. But in the mornyng, by-twyne the fylde and Chester, Syr John Dawne ys sone that was at home in hys fadyrs place hadde worde that hys fadyr was slayne; a-non he raysyd hys tenantys and toke by-syde a lytyl towne i-namyd Torperlay Syr Thomas Nevyle (29), Syr John Nevyle (28), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (59), and brought hem unto the castelle of Chester, ande there they a-boode tylle the batayle of Northehampton was done, &c.

On 23 Sep 1459 John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (58) attempted to ambush John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (28) whilst he was travelling to Ludlow to join up with the main Yorkist army; the Battle of Blore Heath. Forewarned by scouts he arranged his troops into battle order. The Yorkist army included John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (48), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (59), James Harrington 1430-1485 (29), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59), William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (24), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (26), John Savile, Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (48) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (59).

The Lancastrian army included brothers John Dutton -1459, Thomas Dutton 1421-1459 (38) and Peter Dutton -1459 who were killed.

James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley Heighley 1398-1459 (61) was killed by Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (26). John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (33) succeeded 6th Baron Audley Heighley in Staffordshire, 3rd Baron Tuchet. Anne Echingham Baroness Audley Heighley 1420-1498 (39) by marriage Baroness Audley Heighley in Staffordshire, Baron Audley Heighley in Staffordshire.

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (58) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (34) were captured. Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (53) fought.

Richard Molyneux of Sefton 1420-1459 (39) was killed.

John Egerton 1404-1459 (55) was killed.

Adam Bostock 1413-1475 (46) was killed.

After the battle Margaret of Anjou (29) took refuge at Eccleshall Castle.

After the battle Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (59), John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (28) and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (29) were captured at Acton Bridge Tarporley and imprisoned at Chester Castle having been detached from the main Yorkist force.

William Troutbeck 1436-1459 (23) was killed.

Battle of Ludford Bridge

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459Battle of Ludford Bridge. Ande thys same yere there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the kynge and the Duke of Yorke (48), the Erle of Salusbury (59), the Erle of Warwyke (30), the Erle of Marche (17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but hys party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo thenn xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the kynge. And thenne the duke (48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr hym that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and hys yong sonys were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne, and they were fulle welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope -1461 refused to fight against Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (37) who was present.

The Yorkist Richard 3rd Duke York (48), the future King Edward IV (17), Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) left overnight before the battle.

John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (26) and Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (52) were present.

The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (41).

Parliament of the Devils

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. Oct 1459. Ande thes fore sayde lordys sende letters unto many placys of Inglonde howe they were a vysyde to reforme the hurtys and myschevys ande grevys that raynyd in thys londe; and that causyd them moche the more to be lovyde of the comyns of Kente and of London; and by thys mene the comyns of Kent sende hem worde to ressayve hem and to go with hem in that a-tente that they wolde kepe trewe promys, and as for the more parte of thys londe hadde pytte that they were attaynte and proclaymyd trayters by the Parlement at was holde at Covyntre.

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (39) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry. The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:

Richard 3rd Duke York (48), his sons Edward Earl of March (17),Edmund Earl of Rutland (16) were attainted, as were ...

Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30) and John Neville 1431-1471 (28).

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 27d. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal. Commission of array to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (48), Edward earl of March (17), Richard, earl of Warwick (30), and Richard, earl of Salisbury (59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 27d. 08 Nov 1459. Commission to John de Clyfford (24) to arrest all lands, possessions and goods of any rebels in Westmoreland, except of those whom the king has taken into his protection. By K.1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 27d. 10 Dec 1459. Coventry. Commission to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, Thomas Broun, knight, and the mayor of Sandwich to take near Sandwich the muster of the men at arms and archers ordered to go on the safe keeping of the sea in the company of Gervase Clyfton (54), knight, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery. By K.

Commission to Thomas Kyryell (63), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Broun, knight, John Seyncler, esquire, and Richard Dalafeld, esquire, to take near Sandwich the muster of the men at arms and archers ordered to go on the safe-keeping of the sea in the company of Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, as above. By K.1460 January Raid on Sandwich

On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) raided Sandwich capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (55), his wife Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (45) and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (20) were captured.

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 17d. 08 May 1460. Commission to Thomas Kiriell (64), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Westminster. Broun, knight, John Fogge, Robert Home and William Hexstall, to take near Sandwich the muster of all men at arms and archers ordered to go with Henry, duke of Exeter (29), on the safe-keeping of the sea to resist the king's rebels and enemies, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery.1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 13d. 23 May 1460. Commission to Osbert Mountford and John Baker, esquires, ordered, Coventry, by advice of the council, to bring 200 men at arms and archers to Henry, duke of Somerset (24), for the safe keeping and defence of the castle and town of Guysnes and to resist the king's rebels and enemies, appointing them to arrest ships and vessels necessary herein and masters and mariners therefor.

Commission to Thomas Thorp, Thomas Kiriell (64), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Broun, knight, Henry Lowes, esquire, John Scot and Robert Home, to take the muster of the said Osbert Mountfort and John Baker and the said men at arms, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery.

1460 June Raid on Sandwich

Around 05 Jun 1460 when the relief expedition led by Osbert Mountfort -1460 was ready to to leave Sandwich for Guines, waiting only for a fair wind, the Yorkists John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (27), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (60), William Neville Baron Fauconberg (55) crossed from Calais and attacked Sandwich killing many of Osbert's men. Osbert Mountfort -1460 was captured. William Neville Baron Fauconberg (55) remained at Sandwich is preparation for the subsequent landing by Yorkist forces at the end of the month.

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. Jun 1460.1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich Alle soo thes for sayde lordys come agayne unto Sondewyche the xxj day of June nexte folowyng. And the comyns of Kente and there welle-wyllers brought hem to Lundon, and so forthe to Northehampton.

On 25 Jun 1460 Osbert Mountfort -1460 and two of his associates were beheaded on the sands at the foot of the Rysbank Tower by Yorkist sailors.

On 26 Jun 1460 King Edward IV (18) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) landed at Sandwich.

1460 Battle of Northampton

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 10 Jul 1460 And there they mete with the kynge and foughte manly with the kyngys lordys and mayny, but there was moche favyr in that fylde unto the Erle of Warwycke (31). And there they toke the kynge (38), and made newe offycers of the londe, as the chaunceler and tresyrar and othyr, but they occupy de not fo[r]thewith, but abode a seson of the comyng of Duke of York (48) owte of Irlonde. And in that fylde was slayne the Duke of Bokyngham (57), stondyng stylle at hys tente, the Erle of Schrovysbury (42), the Lord Bemond (50), and the Lord Egremond (37), with many othyr men. Ande many men were drownyd by syde the fylde in the revyr at a mylle. And that goode knyght Syr Wylliam Lucy (56) that dwellyd besyde Northehampton hyrde the gonne schotte, and come unto the fylde to have holpyn the kynge, but the fylde was done or that he come; an one of the Staffordys was ware of hys comynge, and lovyd that knyght ys wyffe (21) and hatyd hym, and a-non causyd hys dethe.

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future King Edward IV (18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31), George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (28), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.

Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (38) was captured.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) was killed. Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1C 1444, 7th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 8th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.

John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (42) was killed. John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (11) succeeded 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 2C 1442, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall 1C 1295, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere 1C 1309, 9th Baron Talbot 1C 1331.

Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (37) was killed.

John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (50) was killed. William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont, 7th Baron Beaumont.

William Lucy Sheriff 1404-1460 (56) was killed apparently by a member of the Stafford family who wanted his wife Margaret Fitzlewis 1439-1466 (21).

Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (40) fought.

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and William Norreys 1441-1507 (19) were knighted.

Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460 was executed following the battle.

Siege of Roxburgh

On 03 Aug 1460 King James II of Scotland 1430-1460 (29) was killed accidentally when a cannon exploded and he was hit by debris. He was buried at Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood. King James III of Scotland 1451-1488 (9) succeeded III King Scotland: Stewart.

William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig 1440-1464 (20) was present.

Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 09 Sep 1460. Ande thys same yere the Duke of Yorke (48) come owte of Yrlonde, and londyd at the Redde Clyffe in Loncaschyre, and hys lyvery was whyte and brewe in hyr clothyng, and i-brawderyd a-bove with fetyrlockys. And thys he come forthe towarde London; ande then hys lady the duchyes (45) met with hym in a chare i-coveryd with blewe felewette, and iiij pore coursserys theryn. And so he come to Habyngdon, and there he sende for trompeters and claryners to bryng hym to London, and there he gave them baners with the hole armys of Inglonde with owte any dyversyte, and commaundyd hys swerde to ben borne uppe ryghte be-fore hym; and soo he rode forthe unto Lundon tylle he come to Westemyster to Kyng Harrys palys ande there he claymyde the crowne of Inglonde.

On 10 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York (49) claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (42).

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. Oct 1460. Ande he kepte Kynge Harry there by fors and strengythe, tylle at the laste the kynge for fere of dethe grauntyd hym the crowne, for a man that hathe by ly tylle wytte wylle sone be a feryd of dethe, and yet I truste and bee-leve there was no man that wolde doo hym bodely harme. But the lordys entretyd that Kyng Harry shuld rejoyse the crowne durynge hys lyffe, and aftyr hys lyffe that the crowne sholde returne unto the dukys ys a hayrys as hyt requyrythe by that tytylle, and here uppon they were swore to ben faythefulle and trewe unto Kyng Harry. And alle so that hyt shulde [be] b graunte treson to them that spake any evyr c by the Duke of Yorke or hys wyffe, or any of hys chyldryn. And alle the lordys grauntyd there to, and soo hyt was proclaymyd in London and in many placys of Inglond. And that the for-sayde duke shulde have owte of the crow[n]e yerely to hys expence, for hym and hys hayrys durynge Kyng Harrys lyffe, xM [Note. 10000] marke in mony. Thys acordement was made the laste day of October.

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was declared heir to Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was created Prince of Wales, Earl Chester, Duke Cornwall and Lord Protector.

Battle of Worksop

On 16 Dec 1460 a Lancastrian force ambushed the forces of the Richard 3rd Duke York (49) near Worksop. Andrew Trollope -1461 fought for the Lancastrians. The only source for the battle is William of Worcester's book Annales rerum Anglicarum: "In December Parliament adjourned. And the Duke of York, with the Earl of Salisbury and many thousand armed men, were going from London to York, in December 1460, when a portion of his men, the van, as is supposed, or perhaps the scouts were cut off by the people of the Duke of Somerset (24) at Worsop"".

Battle of Wakefield

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 30 Dec 1460. Ande the same yere, the xxx day of December, the Duke of Exceter (30), the Duke of Somersett (24), the Erle of Northehomberlond (39), the Lorde Roos (33), the Lorde Nevyle (50), the Lorde ClyfForde (25), with many mo lordys, knyghtys, squyers, and gentyllys, and the commyns of the Quenys party, met with the Duke of Yorke (49) at Wakefylde, and there they made a grete jorney a-pon the Lorde and Duke of Yorke, and toke hym and the Erle of Saulysbury (60), the Erle of Rutlond (17), and the Lorde Haryngdon (18), and Syr Thomas Nevyle (30), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (60), and many mo knyghtys were take a slayne by syde alle the comyns. But thys good Duke of Yorke with hys lordys a-fore sayde loste hyr heddys; God have marcy on there soulys, for they loste in that jorneys the nombyr of xxvc men. And in the Quenys party were slay but iic men, &c.

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was killed. King Edward IV (18) succeeded 4th Duke York 1C 1385, 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.

Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (30), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (60), William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.

Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed.

Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed on Wakefield Bridge by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

1897. Monument to Richard 3rd Duke York on Manygates Lane at the location where he is traditionally thought to have been killed at the Battle of Wakefield.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of [t]e Erle of Marche unto London; thenn alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and sayde that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to hem take,

and sayde, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with thys fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche." And the Erle of Warwycke mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle owte of hit, at a towne of hys owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was fulle sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for hys fadyr the Duke of Yorke, and for hys good brother the Erle of Rutlond, and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 following the battle Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) was beheaded in the Market Place Hereford. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church Hereford in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen 1459-1535 (2). Somewhat curious that his other son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) didn't contribute although the political situation may have made it difficult to do so.

Memorial to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) in the Market Place Hereford. Somewhat icongruously between a toddlers merry-go-round and a baked potato stall on the day of our visit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 02 Feb 1461. Alle so Edwarde Erle of Marche (18), the Duke of Yorke (49) ys sone and heyre, hadde a gre jornaye at Mortymer ys Crosse in Walys the secunde day of Februar nexte soo folowynge, and there he put to flyght the Erle of Penbroke (29), the Erle of Wylteschyre (40). And there he toke and slowe of knyghtys and squyers, and of the,a to the nomber of iij M1 [3000] ., &c.

a. So in MS.

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross Wigmore the future King Edward IV (18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (35), John Savage 1444-1492 (17) and Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51).

In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) (captured by Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51)) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40) and Henry Roos -1504. Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth 1393-1461 (68) was killed. Watkin Vaughan 1395-1469 (66) and Henry Wogan 1402-1469 (59) were killed.

Monument to the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross Wigmore. Note the mistake - Edward IV described as Edward Mortimer. The monument was erected by subscription in 1799.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Alle soo the same day that the Erle of Marche shulde take hys jornaye towarde Mortymer ys Crosse fro Herforde este, he mousterd hys many with owte the towne wallys in a mersche that ys callyd Wyg mersche. And ovyr hym men say iij sonnys schynyng.

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

On 08 Feb 1461 Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (39) created four Garter Knights two of whom would be killed nine days later at the Second Battle of St Albans:

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) was appointed 181st. [Note. The date here appears unlikely since he was fighting against the King at the time?]

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) was appointed 182nd..

Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was appointed 183rd.

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61) was appointed 184th.

Second Battle of St Albans

On 08 Feb 1461 Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (39) created four Garter Knights two of whom would be killed nine days later at the Second Battle of St Albans:

Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) was appointed 181st. [Note. The date here appears unlikely since he was fighting against the King at the time?]

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) was appointed 182nd..

Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was appointed 183rd.

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61) was appointed 184th.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge Kyng Harry (39) roode to Synt Albonys, and the Duke of Northefolke (45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (32), the Erle of Arundelle (43), the Lorde Bouser (30), the Lorde Bonvyle (68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Mlmen. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the Quene (30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore sayde; and hyr mayny and every lorde ys men bare hyr lordys leverey, that every man myghte knowe hys owne feleschippe by hys lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lorde bare the Pryncys (7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge ys fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and sum were take and spoylyd owte of hyr harnysse by the way as they fledde. And sum of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit ys to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for sum were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And sone aftyr the bocher, for schame of hys sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as hyt ys sayde, hynge hym selfe; and sum men sayde that hyt was for loste of hys goode, but dede he ys—God knowythe the trought.

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (26), Henry Roos -1504 and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33).

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41) were knighted.

The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (30) was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (42) and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 (34) were killed.

John Grey 1432-1461 (29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) subsequently married King Edward IV (18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) was beheaded. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 succeeded 7th Baron Harington, 2nd Baron Bonville.

Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was beheaded.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of [t]e Erle of Marche unto London; thenn alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and sayde that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to hem take,

and sayde, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with thys fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche." And the Erle of Warwycke mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle owte of hit, at a towne of hys owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was fulle sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for hys fadyr the Duke of Yorke, and for hys good brother the Erle of Rutlond, and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

Proclamation of Edward IV as King

On 04 Mar 1461 King Edward IV (18) declared himself King of England. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) was present.

Battles of Ferrybridge

On 27 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) fought at Ferrybridge with John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter 1426-1461 (35) capturing the bridge.

On 28 Mar 1461 a further skirmish occurred near Ferrybridge. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) fought. John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter 1426-1461 (35) was killed. For Lancaster John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25) and John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (51).

On 28 Mar 1461 John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25) was killed at Dintingdale during a skirmish. William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56) fought for York. Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford 1454-1523 (7) succeeded 10th Baron Clifford, 10th Lord Skipton.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. And the xxviij day of Marche, that was Palme Sunday evyn, the Lorde Fewater (35) was slayne at Ferybryge, and many with hym was slayne and drownyd. And the Erle of Warwycke (32) was hurte yn hys legge with an arowe at the same jornaye.

Battle of Towton

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xxix day of the same monythe of Marche, that was Palme Sunday, the kyng (18) mette with the lordys of the Northe at Schyrborne. And there was on Harrys party that was kynge—

Prynce Edwarde (7), Kyng Harrys son.

The Duke of Exceter (30).

The Duke of Somersett (25).

The Erle of Northehumberlond (39).

The Erle of Devynschyre (29).

The Lorde Roos.

The Lorde Bemound (33).

The Lorde Clyfforde (25).

The Lorde Nevyle.

The Lorde Wellys (51).

The Lorde Wylby (40).

The Lorde Harry of Bokyngham.

The Lorde Ryvers (56).

The Lorde Schalys.

The Lorde Maule (50).

The Lorde Ferys of Groby (23).

The Lorde Foschewe. [Possibly John Fortescue 1394-1479 (67)]

The Lorde Lovelle (28).

Syr Thomas Hammys, captayne of alle the fote men.

Syr Androwe Thorlloppe.

Syr Thomas Tressam (41).

Syr Robert Whytyngham (32).

Syr John Dawne.

And the yonge Lorde of Schrouysbury (12), and many moo othyr, bothe lordys, knyghtys, and squyers.

Here ben the namys of the lordys that were slayne in the felde in Kynge Harrys (39) party.Battle of Towton

The Erle of Northehumberlond (39),

The Lorde Clyfforde (25),

The Lorde Nevyle,

The Lorde Wellys (51),

The Lorde Maules (50),

And many moo then I can reherse; but whythe [t]es and othyr that were slayne in the fylde ys a grete nombyr, by syde xlij knyghtys that were slayne aftyr; the hoole nombyr ys xxxv Mlof comeners. Jhesu be [t]ou marcyfulle unto hyr soulys. Amen.

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for King Edward IV (18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.

The Yorkist army was commanded by King Edward IV (18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61).

The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy 1426-1461 (35), Ralph Bigod Lord Morley 1410-1461 (50), John Bigod 1433-1461 (28), Robert Cromwell 1390-1461 (71), Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1412-1461 (49), Ralph Eure 1412-1461 (49), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (51), John Beaumont 1428-1461 (33), Thomas Dethick 1400-1461 (61), Everard Simon Digby -1461, William Plumpton 1436-1461 (25) and William Welles 1410-1461 (51) who were killed.

Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39) was killed. Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 7th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 15th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland 1458-1485 (3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (55) was killed. Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.

Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (60), William Norreys 1441-1507 (20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns 1431-1464 (30), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33), Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41). Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (41) were captured.

On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon 1432-1461 (29) was beheaded at York. John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (26) succeeded 15th Earl Devon 2C Courtenay. Laura Bourchier Countess Devon 1440-1484 (21) by marriage Countess Devon 2C Courtenay.

John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland 1416-1461 (45), Robert Dethick 1375-1461 (86), Andrew Trollope -1461 and his son David Trollope -1461 were killed.

Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43) was executed.

On 01 May 1461 James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40) was beheaded at Newcastle upon Tyne having been captured at, or after, the Battle of Towton. John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39) succeeded 6th Earl Ormonde 1C 1328.

Paston Letters Volume 2 450. 04 Apr 1661. William Paston and John Playters to John Paston 1421-1466.

To my maister, John Paston, in hast,

Please you to knowe and wete of suche tydyngs as my Lady of York hath by a lettre of credens, under the signe manuel of oure Soverayn Lord King Edward, whiche lettre cam un to oure sayd Lady this same day, Esterne Evyn, at xj. clok, and was sene and red by me, William Paston.

Fyrst, oure Soverayn Lord hath wonne the feld, and uppon the Munday next after Palmesunday, he was resseved in to York with gret solempnyte and processyons. And the Mair the Yorkist cause and Comons of the said cite mad ther menys to have grace be Lord Montagu and Lord Barenars, whiche be for the Kyngs coming in to the said cite desyred hym of grace for the said cite, whiche graunted hem grace. On the Kyngs parte is slayn Lord Fitz Water, and Lord Scrop sore hurt; John Stafford, Horne of Kent ben ded; and Umfrey Stafford, William Hastyngs mad knyghts with other; Blont is knygth, &c.

Un the contrary part is ded Lord Clyfford, Lord Nevyle, Lord Welles, Lord Wyllouby, Antony Lord Scales, Lord Harry, and be supposyng the Erle of Northumberland, Andrew Trollop, with many other gentyll and comons to the nomber of xx.ml. (20000).

Item, Kyng Harry, the Qwen, the Prince, Duke of Somerset, Duke of Exeter, Lord Roos, be fledde in to Scotteland, and they be chased and folwed, &c. We send no er un to you be cause we had non certynges tyl now; for un to this day London was as sory cite as myght. And because Spordauns had no certeyn tydyngs, we thought ye schuld take them a worthe tyl more certayn.

Item, Thorp Waterfeld is yeldyn, as Spordauns can telle you. And Jesu spede you. We pray you that this tydyngs my moder may knowe.

Be your Broder,

W. PASTON.

T. PLAYTERS.

Comes Northumbriæ.

Comes Devon.

Dominus de Beamunde.

Dominus de Clifford.

Dominus de Nevyll.

Dominus de Dacre.

Dominus Henricus de Bokyngham.

Dominus de Well[es].

Dominus de Scales Antony Revers.

Dominus de Wellugby.

Dominus de Malley Radulfus Bigot Miles.

Millites.

Sir Rauff Gray.

Sir Ric. Jeney.

Sir Harry Bekingham.

Sir Andrew Trollop.

With xxviij.ml. (28000) nomberd by Harralds.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

Around Jun 1461, the record is very vague, King Edward IV (19) and Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 (25) were possibly secretly married by Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41) provided the information to the future Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's (19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and George Duke of Clarence's (11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder.

Mémoires de Philippe de Commynes Chapter 6 Section 8. Dès l'heure que le roy Edouard fut mort, le Roy nostre maistre en fut adverty, et n'en feit nulle joye quant il le sceut:

From the hour that King Edward IV died, the King our master was made aware, and took no joy in it [Note. Not clear what il le sceut means!]

et peu de jours après receut lettres du duc de Clocestre, qui s'estoit faict roy d'Angleterre1, et se signoit Richard, lequel avoit faict mourir les deux filz du roy Edouard son frère.

And few days after he received letters from the Duke of Gloucester, who had become the King of England, and signed Richard, who had caused the death of the two sons [Note. The Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-] of King Edward his brother.

Lequel roy Richard requeroit l'amytié du Roy, et croy qu'il eust bien voulu ravoir reste pension;

King Richard wanted the friendship of the King, and belived he would continue to receive the pension;

mais le Roy ne voulut respondre à ses lettres, ne ouyr le messagier, et l'estima très cruel et mauvais:

but the King didn't want to respond to the letters, nor hear the messanger, and considered him very cruel and bad:

car, après le trespas dudict roy Edouard, ledict duc de Clocestre avoit faict hommaige à son nepveu, comme à son roy et souverain seigneur, et incontinent après commit ce cas.

since, after the [Note. didict? Possibly dudit ie said] crime against King Edward, the Duke of Gloucester gave homage to his nephew, as his King and sovereign lord, and [Note. incontinent?] after commited this case.

Et, en plain parlement d'Angleterre, feit desgrader deux filles dudict roy Edouard et desclarer bastardes, soubz couleur3 qu'il prouva par ung evesque de Bas4 en Angleterre

And, in the parliament of England, had degraded the two daughters of the said King of England and declared them bastards, on the pretext of the evidence of a Bishop of Bath in England

(qui aultresfois avoit eu grant credit avec ledict roy Edouard, et puis le desappoincta, et le tint en prison, et puis le ranconna d'une somme d'argent):

(who formerley had great credit with the King Edward then disappointed him, and held him in prison, and then ransomed himself with a sum of money)

lequel evesque disoit que ledict roy Edouard avoit promis foy de mariaige à une dame d'Angleterre (qu'il nommoit)5 pour ce qu'il en estoit amoureux, pour en avoir son plaisir;

which Bishop said that King Edward had promised [Note. foy? ] marriage to an English lady [who he named] who he was in love with, to have his pleasure; [See Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly].

et en avoit faict la promesse en la main dudict evesque, et, sur ceste promesse, coucha avec elle: et ne le faisoit que pour la tromper.

and had made this promise in the presence of the Bishop, and, on this promise, slept with her: and did this to deceive her. See The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate.

Toutesfois telz jeux sont bien dangereux, tesmoing ces enseignes. J'ay veu beaucoup de gens de court qui, une bonne adventure qui leur eust pleu en tel cas, ilz ne l'eussent point perdue par faulte de promettre.

Nevertheless such games are very dangerous, [Note. tesmoing?] these signs. I saw alot of courtiers who, having the opportunity of such an adventure, would not have lost it for the sake of a promise.

Et ce mauvais evesque garda ceste vengeance en son cueur, par adventure vingt ans; mais il luy en meschut:

And this bad Bishop guarded revenge in his heart, for twenty years; but he is in [Note. meshut?]:

car il avoit ung filz, qu'il aymoit fort, à qui ledict roy Richard vouloit faire de grans biens et luy faire espouser l'une de ces deux filles, desgradees de leur dignité, laquelle de présent est royne d'Angleterre et a deux beaux enfans.

because he had a son, who he loved very much, whom King Richard wished to do great things and to marry one of the two daughters, beneath their dignity, one of whom is now the present Queen of England and has two beautiful children [Note. Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 and Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541].

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896. 1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500. Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541.