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1454 1464 First War of the Wars of the Roses

Neville Percy Feud

By 27 Jul 1453, says Griffiths, the situation in the north had deteriorated so badly that the crown effectively abrogated its authority in the region, by writing directly to the two earls, laying responsibility for ending the dispute on them, and instructing them to keep their sons in order. It was at this point too, that the commission of Oyer and Terminer of 12 July was reissued.

On 08 Oct 1453, the council wrote to the earl of Westmorland (47) and congratulated him on not assisting the Middleham branch. It also wrote again to Salisbury (53) and Northumberland,.
In retaliation, Sir John Neville raided the absent Earl of Northumberland's (60) house at Catton, in Yorkshire, and all but ruined it. The next day, Richard Percy attacked a house on Neville property. ESCALATION.

On 20 Oct 1454 both the Neville and Percy families summoned their retainers to their respective castles: Percy to Topcliffe Castle, Neville to Sheriff of Hutton Castle separated by a distance of around four miles. After several threats from King Henry (32), both sides reached a truce and disbanded their men.

1454 Battle of Stamford Bridge

On 31 Oct 1454 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (23) captured Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (31) and Richard Percy 1426-1461 (28) at Stamford Bridge East Riding.

Battle of Arkinholm

On 01 May 1455 the Douglas rebellion was brought to an end at the Battle of Arkinholm near Langholm. Archibald Douglas 8th Earl Moray 1426-1455 (29) was killed. Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde -1455 was executed. John Douglas 1433-1463 (22) escaped.

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (27), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (40) and Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (44).
The Lancastrians ...
Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) succeeded 3rd Duke Somerset 2C 1448,.
Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland 1422-1480 (33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland 1C 1377.
Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 (41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (20) succeeded 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford 1436-1493 (19) by marriage Baroness Clifford.
William Cotton 1410-1455 (45) and Richard Fortescue 1414-1455 were killed.
Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (52) was wounded and captured.
Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (54) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (30) were captured.
Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 fought.

Battle of Clyst Heath

On 15 Dec 1455 the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon since 1355, and Bonville family resolved their differences at the Battle of Clyst Heath. Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (41) defeated William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461. Battle something of an over-statement; the number of dead reported by one chronicler as being twelve. Following the battle the victorious Courtenay's attacked Bonville's Shute Manor.

Birth of King Henry VII

On 28 Jan 1457 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 was born to the late Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (13) at Pembroke Castle.

Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

On 25 Apr 1457 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe 1441-1476 (16) were married (he was her second cousin once removed) by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (39) at Canterbury Cathedral during the John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe.

Margaret Beaufort marries Henry Stafford

On 03 Jan 1458 Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (33) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (14) were married (he was her second cousin) probably at Maxstoke Castle. Her third marriage (second if you don't include the one annulled) aged fourteen and already the mother of the future King Henry VII. She had no further issue.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Loveday

On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (40) presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (22), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30), Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (22), Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (36), Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (35) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (28) attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.

Battle of Blore Heath

On 23 Sep 1459 John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (58) attempted to ambush John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 whilst he was travelling to Ludlow to join up with the main Yorkist army; the Battle of Blore Heath. Forewarned by scouts he arranged his troops into battle order. The Yorkist army included John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (48), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, James Harrington 1430-1485 (29), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59), William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (24), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (26), John Savile, Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (48) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471.
The Lancastrian army included brothers John Dutton -1459, Thomas Dutton 1421-1459 and Peter Dutton -1459 who were killed.
James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley Heighley 1398-1459 (61) was killed by Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (26). His son John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (33) succeeded 6th Baron Audley Heighley in Staffordshire, 3rd Baron Tuchet. Anne Echingham Baroness Audley Heighley 1420-1498 (39) by marriage Baroness Audley Heighley in Staffordshire, Baron Audley Heighley in Staffordshire.
John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (58) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (34) were captured. Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (53) fought.
Richard Molyneux of Sefton 1420-1459 (39) was killed.
John Egerton 1404-1459 (55) was killed.
Adam Bostock 1413-1475 (46) was killed.
After the battle James Harrington 1430-1485 (29), John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (28) were captured at Acton Bridge Tarporley and imprisoned at Chester Castle having been detached from the main Yorkist force.
William Troutbeck 1436-1459 (23) was killed.

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludford Bridge Ludlow. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison refused to fight against Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (37) who was present.
The Yorkist Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (48), the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (17), Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) left overnight.
John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (26) and Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (52) were present.
The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (41).

Parliament of the Devils

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry. . The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:.
Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (48), his sons Edward Earl of March (17),Edmund Earl of Rutland (16) were attainted, as were ...
Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) and John Neville 1431-1471.

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452 1461. Membrane 27d. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal. Commission of array to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (48), Edward earl of March (17), Richard, earl of Warwick (31), and Richard, earl of Salisbury (59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county ; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K..

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452 1461. Membrane 27d. 08 Nov 1459. Commission to John de Clyfford (24) to arrest all lands, possessions and goods of any rebels in Westmoreland, except of those whom the king has taken into his protection. By K..

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452 1461. Membrane 27d. 10 Dec 1459. Coventry. Commission to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, Thomas Broun, knight, and the mayor of Sandwich to take near Sandwich the muster of the men at arms and archers ordered to go on the safe keeping of the sea in the company of Gervase Clyfton, knight, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery. By K.
Commission to Thomas Kyryell, knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Broun, knight, John Seyncler, esquire, and Richard Dalafeld, esquire, to take near Sandwich the muster of the men at arms and archers ordered to go on the safe-keeping of the sea in the company of Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, as above. By K..

On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) raided Sandwich capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (55), his wife Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (45) and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (20) were captured.

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452 1461. Membrane 17d. 08 May 1460. Commission to Thomas Kiriell, knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Westminster. Broun, knight, John Fogge, Robert Home and William Hexstall, to take near Sandwich the muster of all men at arms and archers ordered to go with Henry, duke of Exeter (29), on the safe-keeping of the sea to resist the king's rebels and enemies, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery..

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452 1461. Membrane 13d. 23 May 1460. Commission to Osbert Mountford and John Baker, esquires, ordered, Coventry, by advice of the council, to bring 200 men at arms and archers to Henry, duke of Somerset (24), for the safe keeping and defence of the castle and town of Guysnes and to resist the king's rebels and enemies, appointing them to arrest ships and vessels necessary herein and masters and mariners therefor.
Commission to Thomas Thorp, Thomas Kiriell, knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Broun, knight, Henry Lowes, esquire, John Scot and Robert Home, to take the muster of the said Osbert Mountfort and John Baker and the said men at arms, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery..

1460 June Raid on Sandwich

Around 05 Jun 1460 when the relief expedition led by Osbert Mountfort -1460 was ready to to leave Sandwich for Guines, waiting only for a fair wind, the Yorkists John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (27), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471, William Neville Baron Fauconberg (55) crossed from Calais and attacked Sandwich killing many of Osbert's men. Osbert Mountfort -1460 was captured. William Neville Baron Fauconberg (55) remained at Sandwich is preparation for the subsequent landing by Yorkist forces at the end of the month.

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

On 25 Jun 1460 Osbert Mountfort -1460 and two of his associates were beheaded on the sands at the foot of the Rysbank Tower by Yorkist sailors.

On 26 Jun 1460 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) landed at Sandwich.

1460 Battle of Northampton

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (28), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.
Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (38) was captured.
Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1C 1444, 7th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 8th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.
John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (11) succeeded 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 2C 1442, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall 1C 1295, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere 1C 1309, 9th Baron Talbot 1C 1331.
Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (37) was killed.
John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (50) was killed. His son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont, 7th Baron Beaumont.
Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 fought.
William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and William Norreys 1441-1507 (19) were knighted.
Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460 was executed following the battle. .

Siege of Roxburgh

On 03 Aug 1460 James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (29) was killed accidentally when a cannon exploded and he was hit by debris. He was buried at Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood. His son James III King Scotland 1451-1488 (9) succeeded III King Scotland: Stewart.
William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig 1440-1464 (20) was present.

Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

On 10 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (42). .

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was declared heir to Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was appointed Prince of Wales, Earl Chester, Duke Cornwall and Lord Protector.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33) and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was killed. His son Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) succeeded 4th Duke York 1C 1385, 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.
Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (29), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed. Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed. Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

02 Feb 1461. Monument to the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross Wigmore. Note the mistake - Edward IV described as Edward Mortimer. The. Monument was erected by subscription in 1799.

02 Feb 1461. Memorial to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) in the Market Place Hereford. Somewhat icongruously between a toddlers merry-go-round and a baked potato stall on the day of our visit.

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Wigmore the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471, John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (35), John Savage 1444-1492 and Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51). In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) (captured by Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51) ) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40). Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth 1393-1461 (68) was killed.
Following the battle Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) was beheaded in the Market Place Hereford. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church Hereford in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen 1459-1535 (2).

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33). Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 were knighted.
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (33), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (42) and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 were killed.
John Grey 1432-1461 (29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) subsequently married Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18).
During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.
William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 succeeded 7th Baron Harington, 2nd Baron Bonville.
Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was beheaded.

Proclamation of Edward IV as King

On 04 Mar 1461 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) declared himself King of England. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) was present. .

Battles of Ferrybridge

On 27 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (33) fought at Ferrybridge West Yorkshire with John Radclyffe 1426-1461 (35) capturing the bridge. .
On 28 Mar 1461 a further skirmish occurred near Ferrybridge West Yorkshire. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (33) fought. John Radclyffe 1426-1461 (35) was killed. For Lancaster John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25) and John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461. .
On 28 Mar 1461 John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25) was killed at Dintingdale West Yorkshire during a skirmish. William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56) fought for York. His son Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford 1454-1523 (7) succeeded 10th Baron Clifford, 10th Lord Skipton.

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.
The Yorkist army was commanded by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471.
The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy 1426-1461 (35), Ralph Bigod 1410-1461, John Bigod -1461, Robert Cromwell 1390-1461, Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1412-1461, Ralph Eure 1412-1461, John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, John Beaumont 1428-1461, Thomas Dethick 1400-1461, Everard Simon Digby -1461, William Plumpton 1436-1461 and William Welles 1410-1461 who were killed.
Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39) was killed. His son Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377. Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland 1458-1485 (3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland 1C 1377.
Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (55) was killed. His son Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.
Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (60), William Norreys 1441-1507 (20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (30), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33), Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471. Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (41) were captured.
On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon 1432-1461 (29) was beheaded at York. His brother John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (26) succeeded 15th Earl Devon 2C Courtenay. Laura Bourchier Countess Devon 1440- by marriage Countess Devon 2C Courtenay.
Robert Dethick 1375-1461 (86) was killed.
John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland 1416-1461 (45) was killed.
Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43) was executed.

On 01 May 1461 James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40) was beheaded at Newcastle on Tyne having been captured at, or after, the Battle of Towton. His brother John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39) succeeded 6th Earl Ormonde 1C 1328.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

Around Jun 1461 , the record is very vague, Edward IV King England 1442-1483 and Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 (25) were possibly secretly married by Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41) provided the information to the future Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's (19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and George Duke of Clarence's (11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder. .

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. And the same day, in the after-noone, at a solemne court kept at Lambeth by the Lord Archbishoppe of Canterburie (46) and the doctors of the lawe, the King was divorced from his wife Queene Anne (35), and there at the same cowrte was a privie contract approved that she had made to the Earle of Northumberlande (34) afore the Kings tyme; and so she was discharged, and was never lawfull Queene of England, and there it was approved the same.
Dès l'heure que le roy Edouard fut mort, le Roy nostre maistre en fut adverty, et n'en feit nulle joye quant il le sceut:
From the hour that King Edward IV died, the King our master was made aware, and took no joy in it [Note. Not clear what il le sceut means!]

et peu de jours après receut lettres du duc de Clocestre, qui s'estoit faict roy d'Angleterre1, et se signoit Richard, lequel avoit faict mourir les deux filz du roy Edouard son frère.
And few days after he received letters from the Duke of Gloucester, who had become the King of England, and signed Richard, who had caused the death of the two sons [Note. The Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-] of King Edward his brother.

Lequel roy Richard requeroit l'amytié du Roy, et croy qu'il eust bien voulu ravoir reste pension;
King Richard wanted the friendship of the King, and belived he would continue to receive the pension;

mais le Roy ne voulut respondre à ses lettres, ne ouyr le messagier, et l'estima très cruel et mauvais:
but the King didn't want to respond to the letters, nor hear the messanger, and considered him very cruel and bad:

car, après le trespas dudict roy Edouard, ledict duc de Clocestre avoit faict hommaige à son nepveu, comme à son roy et souverain seigneur, et incontinent après commit ce cas.
since, after the [Note. didict? Possibly dudit ie said] crime against King Edward, the Duke of Gloucester gave homage to his nephew, as his King and sovereign lord, and [Note. incontinent?] after commited this case.

Et, en plain parlement d'Angleterre, feit desgrader deux filles dudict roy Edouard et desclarer bastardes, soubz couleur3 qu'il prouva par ung evesque de Bas4 en Angleterre
And, in the parliament of England, had degraded the two daughters of the said King of England and declared them bastards, on the pretext of the evidence of a Bishop of Bath in England

(qui aultresfois avoit eu grant credit avec ledict roy Edouard, et puis le desappoincta, et le tint en prison, et puis le ranconna d'une somme d'argent):
(who formerley had great credit with the King Edward then disappointed him, and held him in prison, and then ransomed himself with a sum of money)

lequel evesque disoit que ledict roy Edouard avoit promis foy de mariaige à une dame d'Angleterre (qu'il nommoit)5 pour ce qu'il en estoit amoureux, pour en avoir son plaisir;
which Bishop said that King Edward had promised [Note. foy? ] marriage to an English lady [who he named] who he was in love with, to have his pleasure; [See Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly].

et en avoit faict la promesse en la main dudict evesque, et, sur ceste promesse, coucha avec elle: et ne le faisoit que pour la tromper.
and had made this promise in the presence of the Bishop, and, on this promise, slept with her: and did this to deceive her. See The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate.

Toutesfois telz jeux sont bien dangereux, tesmoing ces enseignes. J'ay veu beaucoup de gens de court qui, une bonne adventure qui leur eust pleu en tel cas, ilz ne l'eussent point perdue par faulte de promettre.
Nevertheless such games are very dangerous, [Note. tesmoing?] these signs. I saw alot of courtiers who, having the opportunity of such an adventure, would not have lost it for the sake of a promise.


Et ce mauvais evesque garda ceste vengeance en son cueur, par adventure vingt ans; mais il luy en meschut:
And this bad Bishop guarded revenge in his heart, for twenty years; but he is in [Note. meshut?]:

car il avoit ung filz, qu'il aymoit fort, à qui ledict roy Richard vouloit faire de grans biens et luy faire espouser l'une de ces deux filles, desgradees de leur dignité, laquelle de présent est royne d'Angleterre et a deux beaux enfans.
because he had a son, who he loved very much, whom King Richard wished to do great things and to marry one of the two daughters, beneath their dignity, one of whom is now the present Queen of England and has two beautiful children [Note. Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 and Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (46)].

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 (13).

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (35).

Coronation of Edward IV

Around the time of his coronation Edward IV King England 1442-1483 created his two brothers as Dukes ...
George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 was created 1st Duke Clarence 3C 1461.
Richard III King England 1452-1485 was created 1st Duke Gloucester 3C 1461 by his brother Edward IV King England 1442-1483.

On 27 Jun 1461 Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel 1450-1524 (11) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

On 28 Jun 1461 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) was crowned IV King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (43) who was assisted by William Booth Archbishop of York 1388-1464 at Westminster Abbey during the Coronation of Edward IV.

Edward IV Rewards his Followers

On 26 Jul 1461 William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) was created 1st Baron Hastings 2C 1430 for supporting Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) in his claim to the throne.
Robert Ogle 1st Baron Ogle 1406-1469 (55) was created 1st Baron Ogle by his fourth cousin once removed Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) for having been the principal Northumbrian gentleman to support the Yorkist cause. .

On 28 Jul 1461 Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41) was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal. .

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

Before 20 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford 1408-1462, his son Aubrey Vere -1462 and Thomas Tuddenham 1401-1462 were arrested for treason against King Edward IV. They were subsequently tried by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470.

On 20 Feb 1462 Aubrey Vere -1462 was executed at Tower Hill.

On 23 Feb 1462 William Tyrrell 1408-1462 (54), John Montgomery -1462 and Thomas Tuddenham 1401-1462 were beheaded at Tower Hill.

On 26 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford 1408-1462 (53) was hanged at Tower Hill. His son John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (19) succeeded 13th Earl Oxford 2C 1141.

Siege of Alnwick

In Jul 1462 William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig 1440-1464 (22) fought at Alnwick Castle Alnwick during the Siege of Alnwick.

Battle of Piltown

Around Jul 1462 the Yorkist army of Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond -1468 defeated the Lancastrian army of John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (40) at Piltown, Kilkenny, County Kilkenny. The Lancastrian army suffered around 1000 killed. .

1463 Siege of Norham Castle

Around Jun 1463 a Scottish and Lancastrian force, including James III King Scotland 1451-1488 (11), his mother Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland 1434-1463 (29), Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (41) and his wife Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (33), laid siege to Norham Castle. They held Norham for eighteen days until a force led by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (35) and his brother John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 advanced to Norham Castle at which time the Scottish and Lancastrian force fled in panic pursued by the Yorkist army. Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (33) and her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (9) escaped to Berwick on Tweed and then to the continent. Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (41) remained in Scotland - he and his wife never saw each other again.

Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance

Battle of Hedgeley Moor

On 25 Apr 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hedgeley Moor Glanton during the Battle of Hedgeley Moor.
Of the Lancastrians ...
Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (36) was killed. His son Edmund Ros 10th Baron Ros Helmsley 1455-1508 (9) succeeded 10th Baron Ros Helmsley.
Ralph Percy 1425-1464 (39) was killed.

Battle of Hexham

On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hexham during the Battle of Hexham.
Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (36), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (36).
Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) was beheaded following the battle. His brother Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471 succeeded 4th Duke Somerset 2C 1448.
Philip Wentworth 1424-1464 (40) was executed at Middleham.

On 18 May 1464 Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (33) was executed at Newcastle on Tyne having been captured at the Battle of Hexham. His daughter Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings 4th Baroness Hungerford 5th Baroness Botreaux 1466-1553 became the ward of William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (33) whose son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 1466-1506 she subsequently married.

On 26 May 1464 William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (49) was beheaded at Sandhills Newcastle on Tyne having been captured at the Battle of Hexham.. He was buried at Greyfriar's Church Newcastle on Tyne. His son Robert Tailboys 8th Baron Kyme 1450-1495 (14) de jure 8th Baron Kyme. Elizabeth Heron Baroness Kyme 1453-1495 (11) by marriage Baroness Kyme.

On 27 May 1464 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 was created 1st Earl of Northumberland 3C 1464 as a reward for successfully suppressing the Lancastrian resistance in the North. The Ealdom of Northumberland traditionally held by the Percy family with whom the Neville family had been feuding for generations.

Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

Around May 1464 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (27) were married at Grafton Regis. Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (49), Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness. .

Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

In Sep 1464 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (36) who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife. .

Marriage of John Woodville and Catherine Neville

In Jan 1465 John Woodville 1445-1469 (20) and Katherine Neville Duchess Norfolk 1400-1483 (65) were married. Described as a 'Diabolical Marriage' by opponents of the Woodvilles. He being nineteen, she sixty-five. His first wife, her fourth husband. Regarded as an example of the Woodville family increasing their wealth and power. .

Lancastrians Attainders

In Jan 1465  a number of attainders were renewed including Humphrey Neville's of Brancepeth (26). .

Coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

On 26 May 1465 Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (28) was crowned Queen Consort England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (47) at Westminster Abbey. Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (23) attended. John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (23), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (25) and Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (12) were appointed Knight of the Bath. .
Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (20) carried her train.

George Neville's Enthronement as Archbishop of York

On 06 Sep 1465 George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (33) was enthroned as Archbishop of York at Cawood Castle Cawood North Yorkshire. Isabel Neville 1451-1476 (14), Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (9) and Richard III King England 1452-1485 (12) were present. .

Harlech Rebels

In 1466 the Lancastrian Richard Turnstall led the garrison of Harlech Castle in a raid on Wrexham. The rebels captured Holt Castle Wrexham. John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (38) was sent to suppress the rebellion. .

Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

On 23 May 1467 Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" 1421-1504 (46) arrived at Greenwich with a retinue of 400 people to take part in a great Tournament. He was greeted by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40).

On 29 May 1467 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" 1421-1504 (46) met at Chelsea. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (36), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (63), Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (12), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (27), James Douglas 9th Earl Douglas 3rd Earl Avondale 1426-1488 (41) and Thomas Montgomery -1495 accompanied Edward. .

On 30 May 1467 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (17) and John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) visited Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" 1421-1504 (46) at his lodgings in Chelsea. .

On 05 Jun 1467 the challenger Edward Woodville Lord Scales -1488 travelled to London and was conveyed to Ely Palace Camden by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40). .

On 08 Jun 1467 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) went to Whitehall Palace to retrieve the Great Seal from George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (35). Considered as a slight against the Neville family to whom Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) was increasingly distant. .

On 11 Jun 1467 the fighting on horseback took place witnessed by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25). John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) was Master of the Ceremonies accompanied by John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (42). The day ended with the Bastard's (46) horse having being accidentally fatally injured by Lord Scales' saddle. .

On 12 Jun 1467 the fighting on foot commenced, with axes. The day ended with no clear winner; honours equal. .

On 14 Jun 1467 the Tournament ended with a great banquet attended by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (30) at the Grocer's Hall. John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (49) were present. .

On 16 Jun 1467 a great banquet was hosted by the King's older sister Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (27) and, in the absence of her husband Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (36) who remained, her future husband Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (27). Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (30) attended as did Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" 1421-1504 (46). .

On 23 Jun 1467 the Tournament was brought to a premature close following the announcement of the death of the Bastard's (46) father Philip "Good" Valois Burgundy III Duke Burgundy 1396-1467. .

Skirmish of Southampton

Before 10 May 1468 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 sat in judgement on the Earl of Warwick's men who had attempted to steal the ship Trinity for the Earl of Warwick. In addition to the usual punishment of hanging, drawing and quartering Tiptoft also subjected the men's corpses to being impaled, perhaps unique in English punishments, but usual for pirates in Europe. His actions were described as cruel and unmerited by the common people and resulted in Tiptoft being known as 'Butcher'. .

Meeting at Salisbury

On 10 May 1468 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26), his brother Richard III King England 1452-1485 (15), John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (41) and John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (42) met in the Chapter_House_Salisbury_Cathedral. .

On 24 May 1468 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26) was admitted to the confraternity of the Chapter of Salisbury in the Chapter House at Salisbury Cathedral. .

Marriage of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York

Before 03 Jul 1468 Charles "Bold" Valois Burgundy Duke Burgundy 1433-1477 and Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 were married (he was her half second cousin) at Bruges. John Paston 1444-1504 travelled with Margaret. The marriage re-enforced Edward's connection with the Low Countries. After Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 rebelled against Edward IV King England 1442-1483 escaped to the Low Countries. .