1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign

1296 Capture of Berwick

1471 Edward V created Prince of Wales

1472 Creation of Garter Knights

1472 Death of Jacquetta of Luxembourg

1472 Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1474 Creation of Garter Knights

1474 Death of King Henry IV of Castile

1475 Creation of Garter Knights

1475 Treaty of Picquigny

1476 Death of the Duke of Norfolk

1476 Battle of Morat

1476 Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

1477 Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

1477 Battle of Nancy

1477 Execution of Burdett and Stacy

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1478 Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

1478 Attainder of George Duke of Clarence

1296 Capture of Berwick

1483 Death of Edward IV

1483 Mowbray Succession Changed

1483 Funeral of Edward IV

1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign is in 15th Century Events.

Edward V created Prince of Wales

On 26 Jun 1471 Edward, the future Edward V was created Prince of Wales. Thomas Vaughan Master 1410-1483 (61) was knighted.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 Richard Duke of Gloucester (19) and Anne Neville (16) were married at St Stephen's Chapel. They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Gloucester.

1472 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1472 King Edward IV (29) appointed new Garter Knights given the large number of vacant positions as a result of the recent Warwick rebellion:

203rd John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (27).

204th John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (44).

205th Walter Devereux 7th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1432-1485 (40).

206th Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (56).

207th John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (47).

208th John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (29).

Death of Jacquetta of Luxembourg

On 30 May 1472 Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (57) died. Not known where she was buried.

1474 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1474 King Edward IV (31) appointed new Garter Knights:

209th Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel 1450-1524 (24).

210th William Parr KG 1434-1483 (40).

211th Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (19).

212th Federico Montefeltro 1422-1482 (51).

213th Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (25).

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (31) two younger brothers George (24) and the Richard (21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (47) daughters, Isabel (22) and Anne (17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (45) had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.

Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (43), younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker (45), had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of King Edward IV (31) and before Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape 1468-1530 (6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (56).

Parliament Rolls.Edward IV Oct 1472.Second Roll. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster Palace. Exemplification at the request of Richard Duke of Gloucester (21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster, 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that George Duke Clarence (24), and Isabel (22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and Anne (17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle (45), late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to Anne Beauchamp (47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (24) and Isabel (22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said Richard (21) and Anne (17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield and Scarvesdale sometime of Ales (67), late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.

Death of King Henry IV of Castile

On 11 Dec 1474 Henry IV King Castile 1425-1474 (49) died. Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (23) succeeded King Castile.

Around 1490. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504. Around 1502. Possibly Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504.

1475 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1475 King Edward IV (32) created his two sons as Garter Knights:

214th Edward V King England 1470- (4).

215th Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (1).

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896. 1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

Treaty of Picquigny

On 29 Aug 1475 Edward IV (33) signed the Treaty of Picquigny; in effect a non-aggression pact or, possibly, a protection racket. France would pay Edward a pension of 50,000 crowns per year as long as he didn't invade France. Cardinal Bourchier (57) arbitrated on behalf of Edward. William Hastings (44) received a pension of 2000 crowns per year, John Howard and Thomas Montgomery 1200 each, Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York (52) 1000, Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (55) 600.

Edward's youngest brother Richard (22) opposed the Treaty considering it dishonourable. Roger Cheney 1442-1499 (33) was present at the signing, and remained as a hostage until King Edward IV (33) returned to England.

Death of the Duke of Norfolk

On 14 Jan 1476 John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (31) died at Framlingham Castle. Suspicious since he was only 32. Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (3) succeeded 8th Earl Norfolk 3C 1312, 11th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 12th Baron Segrave 2C 1295. His only child Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (3) who inherited the vast Mowbray estates was subsequently married to Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (2) two years later.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

Battle of Morat

On 22 Jun 1476 John Luxemburg Count Soissons -1476 was killed at the Battle of Morat. Peter Luxemburg II Count Saint Pol and Soissons 1440-1482 (36) succeeded Count Soissons 1367.

Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, his father Richard of York (64) and and his younger brother Edmund (33) were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay in a ceremony attended by King Edward IV (34), George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (36).

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 22 Dec 1476 Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (25) died in childbirth. She was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey. George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (27) believed she had been murdered by Ankarette Twynyho -1477. Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (1) succeeded 17th Earl Warwick 1C 1088. See Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho.

On 12 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was arrested at Keyford and taken to Bath.

On 13 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 taken to Cirencester.

On 15 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 and John Thursby -1477 were hanged at Myton Gallows Warwick.

In 1478 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was pardoned by King Edward IV (35).

Battle of Nancy

On 05 Jan 1477 Charles "Bold" Valois Duke Burgundy 1433-1477 (43) was killed at the Battle of Nancy. Mary Valois Duchess Burgundy 1457-1482 (19) succeeded Duke Burgundy.

Execution of Burdett and Stacy

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1477. 13 Jun 1477. Grant to Mary late the wife of John Stacy late of Oxford, alias John Westminster. Stace late of London, "gentilman," alias Marion Stacy of London, widow, of all the goods and debts late of the said John, lately attainted of high treason and hung. By p.s.Execution of Burdett and Stacy

Before 13 Jun 1477 two servants of George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 were hanged at Tyburn for being sorcerers and planning the murder of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503.

John Stacy -1477 and Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire 1425-1477 (52) were hanged.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 17 Jun 1478. 17 Jun 1478. Grant to Simon Mountfort, knight, of the custody of all lordships, manors, lands, rents, services and other posessions, with knights' fees and advowsons late of Thomas Burdet (53), esquire, tenant in chief, during the minority of Nicholas his son and heir, and the custody and marriage of the latter without disparagement. By p.s.Execution of Burdett and Stacy

Croyland Chronicle 1478. The indignation of the duke was probably still further increased by this; and now each began to look upon the other with no very fraternal eyes. You might then have seen, (as such men are generally to be found in the courts of all princes), flatterers running to and fro, from the one side to the other, and carrying backwards and forwards the words which had fallen from the two brothers, even if they had happened to be spoken in the most secret closet. The arrest of the duke for the purpose of compelling him to answer the charges brought against him, happened under the following circumstances. One Master John Stacy, a person who was called an astronomer, when in reality he was rather a great sorcerer, formed a plot in conjunction with one Burdet, an esquire, and one of the said duke's household; upon which, he was accused, among numerous other charges, of having made leaden images and other things to procure thereby the death of Richard, lord Beauchamp, at the request of his adulterous wife1. Upon being questioned in a very severe examination as to his practice of damnable arts of this nature, he made confession of many matters, which told both against himself and the said Thomas Burdet. The consequence was, that Thomas was arrested as well; and at last judgment of death was pronounced upon them both, at Westminster, from the Bench of our lord the king, the judges being there seated, together with nearly all the lords temporal of the kingdom. Being drawn to the gallows at Tyburn, they were permitted briefly to say what they thought fit before being put to death; upon which, they protested their innocence, Stacy indeed but faintly; while, on the other hand, Burdet spoke at great length, and with much spirit, and, as his last words, exclaimed with Susanna,28 'Behold! I must die; whereas I never did such things as these."

Note 28. Hist. Susanna, v. 43.

Note 1. This is somewhat confusing since Elizabeth Stafford 1435-, wife of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 died on 27 Jan 1466? It may be a reference to his mother Margaret Ferrers Baroness Beauchamp Powick 1413-1487 whose husband John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Powick 1409-1475 died in 1475.

Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

On 15 Jan 1478 Edward IV's youngest son Richard of Shrewsbury (4) and Anne Mowbray (5) were married at St Stephen's Chapel in Westminster. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She had recently inherited the vast Mowbray inheritance when her father John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (33) died in 1476. The ceremony was attended by Edward's daughters Elizabeth (11), Mary (10) and Cecily (8). The day before Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (35) was knighted. In 1483 Parliament changed the succession so Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (4) would continue to enjoy her inheritance (she died in 1481) effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (52) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (53) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death).

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Attainder of George Duke of Clarence

After 16 Jan 1478 and before 07 Feb 1478. The original act doesn't contain a date. Parliament opened on 16 Jan 1478. On 07 Feb 1478 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 was appointed Steward of England for the purpose of effecting the exection. George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 was attainted by Parliament. The wording of the attainder as follows:

The Kyng (35), oure Sovereigne Lorde, hath called to his Remembraunce the manyfold grete Conspiracies, malicious and heynous Ttresons, that hertofore hath be compassed by dyverse persones his unnaturall Subgetts, Rebelles and Traytoures, wherby Commocions and Insurrections have been made within this his Royaulme, for entent and purpose to have destroyed his moost Roiall persone, and with that to have subverted the state, wele publique and politic of all his said Royaulme; ne had so been, that by th’elp of Almyghty God, with the grete laboures and diligences and uttermost explette of his persone by Chevalrye and Werr, he had mightly and graciously repressed the same. Wherthrogh grete nowmbre of the said his Rebelles and Traytours he hath at dyverse tymes punysshed, as well by swerd as other punysshments, in exemple to others to have been ware of suche attempting hereafter. And yet as a benigne and a gracious Prince moeved unto pitie, after his grete Victories sent hym by God, not oonly he hath spared the multitudes in theire feldes and assembles overcomen, but thaym and certeyn other, the grete movers, sturters and executours of suche haynous Tresons, at the reverence of God, he hath taken to his mercy and clerly pardoned, as may not be unknowen to all the Worlde.

This notwithstondyng, it is comen nowe of late to his knowlage, howe that agaynst his mooste Royall persone, and agaynst the persones of the blessed Princesse oure alther soveraigne and Liege Lady the Quene, of my Lorde the Prince theire son and Heire, and of all the other of thaire moost noble issue, and also against the grete parte of the Noble of this Lande, the good rule, politike and wele publique of the same, hath been conspired, compassed and purposed a moch higher, moch more malicious, more unnaturall and lothely Treason than atte eny tyme hertoforn hath been compassed, purposed and conspired, from the Kyng’s first Reigne hiderto; which Treason is, and must be called, so moche and more henyous, unnaturell and lothely, for that not oonly it hath proceded of the moost extreme purpensed malice, incomparably excedyng eny other that hath been aforn, but also for that it hath been contryved, imagined and conspired, by the persone that of all erthely creatures, beside the dutie of ligeaunce, by nature, by benefette, by gratitude, and by yeftes and grauntes of Goodes and Possessions, hath been moost bounden and behalden to have dradde, loved, honoured, and evere thanked the kyng more largely, than evere was eny other bounden or beholden, whom to name it gretely aggruggeth the hert of oure said Sovereigne Lorde, sauf oonly that he is of necessite compelled, for the suertie, wele and tranquillite of hym and all this Royaulme, which were full neer the poynt of perdicion, ne were the help and grace of Almyghty God:

He sheweth you therefore, that all this hath been entended by his Brother, George, the Duke of Clarence (28). Wherein it is to be remembered that the Kynges Highnesse, of tendre youthe unto now of late, hath evere loved and cherysshed hym, as tenderly and as kynderly, as eny creature myght his naturell Brother, as well it may be declared, by that that he beyng right yonge, not borne to have eny lifelode, butt oonly of the Kynges grace he yave hym soo large porcion of Possessions that noo memorie is of, or seldom hath been seen, that eny Kyng of Englande hertoforn within his Royaulme yave soo largely to eny his Brothers. And not oonly that, butt above that, he furnyssed hym plenteously of all manere stuff, that to a right grete Prynce myght well suffice; so that aftre the Kynges, his lifelode and richesse notably exceded any other within his Lande at thatt tyme.

And yet the kyng, not herewith content, butt beyng ryght desirous to make hym of myght and puissance excedyng others, caused the greate parte of all the Nobles of this Lande to be assured unto hym next his Highnesse; trustyng that not oonly by the bond of nature, butt also by the bondes of soo grete benefitt, he shulde be more than others loving, helping, assisting and obeissaunt to all the Kyngs good pleasures and commaundments, and to all that myght be to the politik wele of his Lande.

All this notwithstondyng, it is to remember, the large grace and foryevnesse that he yave hym uppon, and for that at dyverse tyme sith he gretely offended the Kyng, as in jupartyng the Kyngs Royall estate, persone and life, in straite warde, puttyng hym thereby from all his libertie, aftre procuryng grete Commocions, and sith the voydaunce oute of his Royaulme, assistyng yevyng to his enemies mortall, the usurpers, laboryng also by Parlement to exclude hym and all his from the Regalie, and enabling hymself to the same, and by dyverse weyes otherwyse attemptyng; which all the Kyng, by nature and love moeved, utterly foryave, entendyng to have putte all in perpetuell oblivion.

The said Duke, nathelesse for all this, noo love encreasyng, but growyng daily in more and more malice, hath not left to consedre and conspire newe Treasons, more haynous and lothely than ever aforn, how that the said Duke falsly and traitrously entended, and puposed fermely, th’extreme distruction and disherityng of the Kyng and his Issue, and to subverte all the polityk rule of this Royaulme, by myght to be goten as well outewarde as inward, which false purpose the rather to brynge aboute, he cast and compassed the moyans to enduce the Kynges naturell Subgetts to withdrawe theire herts, loves and affections from the Kyng, theire naturell Sovereigne Lorde, by many subtill, contryved weyes, as in causyng dyverse his Servauntes, suche as he coude imagyne moste apte to sowe sedicion and aggrugge amonge the People, to goo into diverse parties of this Royaulme, and to laboure to enforme the People largely in every place where they shulde come, that Thomas Burdett (53), his Servaunte, which was lawefully and truly atteynted of Treason, was wrongefully putte to Deth; to some his Servauntes of suche like disposicion, he yave large Money, Veneson, therewith to assemble the Kynges Subgects to Feste theym and chere theym, and by theire policies and resonyng, enduce hem to beleve that the said Burdett (53) was wrongfully executed, and so to putte it in noyse and herts of the People;

he saide and laboured also to be noysed by such his Servauntez apte for that werk, that the Kyng, oure Sovereigne Lorde, wroght by Nygromancye, and used Crafte to poyson his Subgettes, suche as hym pleased; to th’entent to desclaundre the Kyng in the moost haynous wyse he couth in the sight and conceipt of his Subgetts, and thefore to encorage theym to hate, despice and aggrugge theire herts agaynst hym, thynkyng that he ne lived ne dealid with his Subgettes as a Christien Prynce.

And overe this, the said duke beyng in full purpose to exalte hymself and his Heires to the Regallye and Corone of Englande, and clerely in opinion to putte aside from the same for ever the said Corone from the Kyng and his Heirez, uppon oon the falsest and moost unnaturall coloured pretense that man myght imagine, falsely and untruely noysed, published and saide, that the Kyng oure Sovereigne Lorde was a Bastard, and not begottone to reigne uppon us; and to contynue and procede ferther in this his moost malicious and traytorous purpose, after this lothely, false and sedicious langage shewed and declared amonge the People, he enduced dyverse of the Kynges naturall Subgetts to be sworne uppon the blessed Sacrament to be true to hym and his heires, noon exception reserved of theire liegeaunce; and after the same Othe soo made, he shewed to many other, and to certayn persones, that suche Othe had made, that the Kyng had taken his lifelode from hym and his men, and disheryed theym, and he wolde utterly endevoire hym to gete hem theire enheritaunce as he wolde doo for his owen.

He shewed also that the Kyng entended to consume hym in like wyse as a Candell consumeth in brennyng, wherof he wolde in brief tyme quyte hym. And overe this, the said Duke continuyng ín his false purpose, opteyned and gate an exemplificacion undre the Grete Seall of Herry the Sexte, late in dede and not in right Kyng of this Lande, wherin were conteyned alle suche appoyntements as late was made betwene the said Duke and Margaret, callyng herself Quene of this Lande, and other; amonges whiche it was conteyned, that if the said Herry, and Edward, his first begoton Son, died withoute Issue Male of theire Bodye, that the seid Duke and his Heires shulde be Kyng of this Lande; which exemplificacion the said Duke hath kepyd with hymself secrete, not doyng the Kyng to have eny knowlegge therof, therby to have abused the Kynges true Subgetts for the rather execucion of his said false purpose.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

The Kyng, remembryng over, that to side the neernesse of Blode, howe be nature he myght be kynde to his Brother; the tendre love also, whiche of youthe he bare unto hym, couthe have founden in his hert, uppon due submission, to have yet foryeven hym estsones, ne were, furst that his said Brother by his former dedes, and nowe by this conspiracye, sheweth hymself to be incorrigible, and in noo wyse reducible to that by bonde of nature, and of the grete benefices aforn reherced, he were moost soveraynly beholden of all Creature: Secondly, ne were the grete juparty of effusion of Christien blode, which most likkely shulde therof ensue: And thridenly and principally, the bond of his Conscience, wherby and by solempne Othe, he is bounden anenst God, uppon the peryll of everlastyng dampnacion, to provyde and defende, first the suertie of hymself and his moste Royall Issue, secondly, the tranquilite of Goddes Churche within this, his Royaulme, and after that, the wele publique, peas and tranquilite of all his Lordez, Noblemen, Comens and others of every degree and condicion, whiche all shulde necessarily stande in extreme jupartie, yf Justice and due punyshement of soo lothely offencez shulde be pardoned; in pernicious example to all mysdoers, theves, traytours, rebelles and all other suche as lightly wolde therby bee encoraged and enbolded to spare noo manner of wikkednesse.

Wherfore thof all [sic]11 the Kynges Highnesse be right sory to determyne hymself to the contrarie, yet consideryng that Justice is a vertue excellently pleasyng Almyghty God, wherby Reaulmes stande, Kynges and Pryncez reign and governe, all goode rule, polyce and publique wele is mayteigned; and that this vertue standeth not oonly in retribucion and rewarde for goode dedes, butt also in correccion and punysshement of evil doers, after the qualitees of theire mysdoyngs. For whiche premissez and causez the Kyng, by the avyse and assent of his Lordes Speretuell and Temporell, and by the Commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the auctorite of the same, ordeyneth, enacteth and establith that the said George, Duke of Clarence, be convicte and atteyntit of Heigh Treason commyttet and doon agaynst the Kynges moost Royall persone; and that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever the Honoure, Estate, Dignite and name of Duke1. And also that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever, all Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landes, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions that the same Duke nowe hath by eny of the Kynges Lettrez Patents to his owen use, or that any other persone nowe hath to the use of the same Duke by eny of the Kynges Letterez Patents, or that passed to hym fro the Kyng by the same: And that all Lettrez Patents made by the kyng to the said Duke bee from henseforthe utterly voyde and of noon effecte.

And that it be also ordeigned by the same auctorite that noo Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments or Possessions that the same duke nowe hath joyntly with other, or sole to hymself, to the use of eny other persone, be forfett, nor conteyned by or in this present Acte; but that by the said auctoritee, every other persone to whose use the said Duke is sole seised in eny Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettres Patents, have power and auctorite by this present Acte lawefully to entre into theym, and theym to have and holde after the entent and trust that the said Duke nowe hath theryn. And also where the same Duke is joyntly seased with any other persone in any Castells, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Hereditaments or Possessions to the use of eny other persone, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettrez Patents: that by the said auctorite, the said joynt feffez stonde and be feoffez to the same use and entent as they nowe arre and be; and that suche right, interest and title as the same Duke nowe hath with theym in the same premyssez, by the said auctorite, be in his cofeffez to the same entent as the same Duke nowe ys: Savyng to every of the Kynges Liege people, other than the said Duke and his Heyrez, and all other persone and persones that clayme or have eny tytell of interest in eny of the premyssez by the same Duke, suche right, tytle and interest as they owe or shulde have in eny of the premyssez, as if this Acte had never been made.

A cest Bille les Comunez sont assentuz.

Le Roy le voet.

Note 1. It is interesting that he forfeits the title of Duke rather than the usual attainted in the blood which may have debarred his children from inheriting the crown.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. George, Duke of Clarence (28), was a goodly noble prince, and at all points fortunate, if either his own ambition had not set him against his brother (35), or the envy of his enemies had not set his brother against him. For were it by the Queen (41) and the lords of her blood, who highly maligned the King's kindred (as women commonly, not of malice but of nature, hate them whom their husbands love), or were it a proud appetite of the Duke (28) himself intending to be king, in any case, heinous treason was there laid to his charge, and, finally, were he faulty or were he faultless, attainted was he by Parliament and judged to the death, and thereupon hastily drowned in a butt of malmesey, whose death, King Edward (although he commanded it), when he knew it was done, piteously bewailed and sorrowfully repented. See Execution of George Duke of Clarence.

New Chronicles of England and France by Robert Fabyan 1478. THis yere, that is to meane ye xviii. daye of February, the duke of Clarence (28) and .... 2brother to the kynge, thanne beyng prysoner in ye Tower, was secretely put to deth & drowned in a barell of maluesye within the sayd Tower. And this mayer this yere pursued also the reparacyon of the wallys, but nat so dylygently as his predccessour dyd, wherfore it was nat spedde as it myght haue been, and also he was a syke and a feble man, and hadde not so sharpe and quycke mynde as that other hadde. And one other cause was, whiche ensuythe of a generaltie, that for the more partie one mayer wyll nat fynesshe that thynge whiche that other begynneth, for then they thynke, be the dede neuer so good and profitable, that the honoure therof shalbe ascribed to y begynner, and nat to the fynyssher, whiche lacke of charytie and desyre of veyngiory causeth many good actes and dedys to dye and growe out of minde, to the great decaye of the cōmon weale of the cytie.

Note 2. second brother. edit. 1542. 1559.

On 18 Feb 1478 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London. Duke Clarence 3C 1461 extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

History of England by Polydore Vergil 1478. Book 24. Chapter 26. King Edward, who in the meane time desyryd to know of his ambassadors proceedinges with the duke, and therfor thowght the tyme very long till he might heare tlierof, when he understoode that they had bene so nighe the very poynt of conveyghing erle Henry prysoner to him into England as nothing could be more nere and escape, was very sory that the matter had not succedyd. But hearing that therle showed be safely kept his mynde was easyd, and from thencefoorth thowght best to have more regard how to encrease his owne welth, which was very sclender, than of any thing els; and so for a while gave himself to seke busyly his owne profyt; whereby when he had fyllyd his coffers with gold and silver suffycyently, remembring then what appertanyd to honor, he shewyd himself furthwith a lyberall, bowntyfull, and profytable prince to the commonwelth: but eaven loe sudaynly he fell into a fact most horryble, commandyng rashly and uppon the suddane his brother George duke of Clarence to be apprehendyd and put to death, who was drowned (as they say) in a butte of malmesey; the woorst example that ever man cowld committed remember. And as touching the cause of his death, thowgh I Tower, have enqueryd of many, who wer not of leest authorytie emongest The maner the kinges cownsaylle at that time, yeat have I no certaintie therof to leave in memory. A report was eaven then spred rences emongest the common people, that the king was afeard, by reason of a soothsayers prophecy, and so became incensyd agaynst his broother George, which prophecy was, that, after king Edward, showld raigne soome one the first letter of whose name should be G. And because the devels ar wont in that sort to envegle the mynds of them who conceave pleasures in suche illusions, with ther crafty conceytes and subtylties, menn sayd afterwardes that the same prophecy tooke effect, whan after Edward the duke of Glocester usurpyd the kingdom. Others lay an other cause of his death, which ys in this sort. That abowt the same time thold hatryd renewing betwixt the two brothers, then the which nothing ys more vehement, the duke, being a wydower, requyryd, by meane of his sister Margaret, to have in maryage Mary, thonely dowghter of Charles duke of Burgoigne, and that king Edward, envying his brothers prosperytie, hinderyd that afFynytie. Theruppon pryvy grudge further growing, a certane servant of the dukes was the very same time also convict of sorcery and executyd, against which dede whan the duke could not hold him content, but vehemently speake and cry owt, the king muche movyd with this exclamation commyttyd the duke to warde, and not long after, being condemnyd, by right or wrong, put him to death. But yt ys very lykly that king Edward right soone repentyd that dede; for (as men say) whan so ever any sewyd for saving a mans lyfe, he was woont to cry owt in a rage, " O infortunate broother, for ■whose lyfe no man in this world wold once make request; affirming in that manyfestly, that he was cast away by envy of the nobylytie. The duke left behind him two chyldren, Margaret, who after maryed to Rycherd Pole, and Edward, whom the king made erle of Warwicke. These thinges were doone that yere which was of mans salvation M.cccc.lxxxtie and the xixten yere of king Edwardes raigne. And thus being delyveryd from all care of warres and cyvill seditions, which before that time might have happenyd, the king began to marke more severely thofFences of noblemen, and to be more covetous in gathering of money, by reason wherof many were persw^adyd in ther opynyons that he wold from thencefurth proove an hard and severe prince; for after the death of his brother, as he perceavyd that every man fearyd him, so now he fearyd nobody. But that matter was preventyd by brevytie of his lyfe. And thus may we se that as well prosperytie ys soometyme cause of evell unto them who enjoy yt, as adversytie profytable to them who ar patient.

Croyland Chronicle 1478. The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind quite shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife carried on before these two brethren of such high estate.29 For not a single person uttered a word against the duke, except the king; not one individual made answer to the king except the duke. Some parties were introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether they filled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses: these two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and ofered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament, being of opinion that the informations which they had heard were established, passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham, who was appointed Seneschal of England for the occasion. After this, execution was delayed for a considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place, (and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London, it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of king Edward.

Note 29. One would think that "tantae himanitatis," can hardly mean "of such humanity," when applied to such persons as Edward the Fourth and iua brother Clarence.

Richard III Act 1 Scene 4 Lines 167 to 297. [Clarence wakes].

CLARENCE. Where art thou, keeper? Give me a cup of wine.

SECOND MURDERER. You shall have wine enough, my lord, anon.

CLARENCE. In God’s name, what art thou?

FIRST MURDERER A man, as you are.

CLARENCE But not, as I am, royal.

FIRST MURDERER Nor you, as we are, loyal.

CLARENCE Thy voice is thunder, but thy looks are humble.

FIRST MURDERER My voice is now the King’s, my looks mine own.

CLARENCE How darkly and how deadly dost thou speak! Your eyes do menace me. Why look you pale? Who sent you hither? Wherefore do you come?

SECOND MURDERER To, to, to—

CLARENCE To murder me?

BOTH Ay, ay.

CLARENCE You scarcely have the hearts to tell me so And therefore cannot have the hearts to do it. Wherein, my friends, have I offended you? FIRST MURDERER Offended us you have not, but the King.

CLARENCE I shall be reconciled to him again.

SECOND MURDERER Never, my lord. Therefore prepare to die.

CLARENCE Are you drawn forth among a world of men To slay the innocent? What is my offense? Where is the evidence that doth accuse me? What lawful quest have given their verdict up Unto the frowning judge? Or who pronounced The bitter sentence of poor Clarence’ death Before I be convict by course of law? To threaten me with death is most unlawful. I charge you, as you hope to have redemption, By Christ’s dear blood shed for our grievous sins, That you depart, and lay no hands on me. The deed you undertake is damnable.

FIRST MURDERER What we will do, we do upon command.

SECOND MURDERER And he that hath commanded is our king.

CLARENCE Erroneous vassals, the great King of kings Hath in the table of His law commanded That thou shalt do no murder. Will you then Spurn at His edict and fulfill a man’s? Take heed, for He holds vengeance in His hand To hurl upon their heads that break His law.

SECOND MURDERER And that same vengeance doth He hurl on thee For false forswearing and for murder too. Thou didst receive the sacrament to fight In quarrel of the House of Lancaster.

FIRST MURDERER And, like a traitor to the name of God, Didst break that vow, and with thy treacherous blade Unrippedst the bowels of thy sovereign’s son.

SECOND MURDERER Whom thou wast sworn to cherish and defend.

FIRST MURDERER How canst thou urge God’s dreadful law to us When thou hast broke it in such dear degree?

CLARENCE Alas! For whose sake did I that ill deed? For Edward, for my brother, for his sake. He sends you not to murder me for this, For in that sin he is as deep as I. If God will be avengèd for the deed, O, know you yet He doth it publicly! Take not the quarrel from His powerful arm; He needs no indirect or lawless course To cut off those that have offended Him.

FIRST MURDERER Who made thee then a bloody minister When gallant-springing, brave Plantagenet, That princely novice, was struck dead by thee?

CLARENCE My brother’s love, the devil, and my rage.

FIRST MURDERER Thy brother’s love, our duty, and thy faults Provoke us hither now to slaughter thee.

CLARENCE If you do love my brother, hate not me. I am his brother, and I love him well. If you are hired for meed, go back again, And I will send you to my brother Gloucester, Who shall reward you better for my life Than Edward will for tidings of my death.

SECOND MURDERER You are deceived. Your brother Gloucester hates you.

CLARENCE O no, he loves me, and he holds me dear. Go you to him from me.

FIRST MURDERER Ay, so we will.

CLARENCE Tell him, when that our princely father York Blessed his three sons with his victorious arm, He little thought of this divided friendship. Bid Gloucester think of this, and he will weep.

FIRST MURDERER Ay, millstones, as he lessoned us to weep.

CLARENCE O, do not slander him, for he is kind.

FIRST MURDERER Right, as snow in harvest. Come, you deceive yourself. ’Tis he that sends us to destroy you here.

CLARENCE It cannot be, for he bewept my fortune, And hugged me in his arms, and swore with sobs That he would labor my delivery.

FIRST MURDERER Why, so he doth, when he delivers you From this Earth’s thralldom to the joys of heaven.

SECOND MURDERER Make peace with God, for you must die, my lord.

CLARENCE Have you that holy feeling in your souls To counsel me to make my peace with God, And are you yet to your own souls so blind That you will war with God by murd’ring me? O sirs, consider: they that set you on To do this deed will hate you for the deed.

SECOND MURDERER, to First Murderer What shall we do?

CLARENCE Relent, and save your souls. Which of you—if you were a prince’s son Being pent from liberty, as I am now—If two such murderers as yourselves came to you, Would not entreat for life? Ay, you would beg, Were you in my distress.

FIRST MURDERER Relent? No. ’Tis cowardly and womanish.

CLARENCE Not to relent is beastly, savage, devilish. To Second Murderer. My friend, I spy some pity in thy looks. O, if thine eye be not a flatterer, Come thou on my side and entreat for me. A begging prince what beggar pities not?

SECOND MURDERER Look behind you, my lord.

FIRST MURDERER Take that, and that. (Stabs him.) If all this will not do, I’ll drown you in the malmsey butt within. He exits with the body.

SECOND MURDERER A bloody deed, and desperately dispatched. How fain, like Pilate, would I wash my hands Of this most grievous murder.

[Enter First Murderer]

FIRST MURDERER How now? What mean’st thou that thou help’st me not? By heavens, the Duke shall know how slack you have been.

SECOND MURDERER I would he knew that I had saved his brother. Take thou the fee, and tell him what I say, For I repent me that the Duke is slain.

[He exits].

FIRST MURDERER So do not I. Go, coward as thou art. Well, I’ll go hide the body in some hole Till that the Duke give order for his burial. And when I have my meed, I will away, For this will out, and then I must not stay.

[He exits].

Capture of Berwick

On 30 Mar 1296 Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (21) captured Berwick on Tweed from William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (56). Richard Cornwall 1252-1296 (44) was killed during the course of the siege.'When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred. So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.' - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower's Scotichronicon. Capture of Berwick

On 24 Aug 1482 Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (20) was knighted by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (29) at Berwick on Tweed during the Capture of Berwick.

Mowbray Succession Changed

In Jan 1483 King Edward IV (40) had Parliament re-enact earlier legislation regarding the Mowbray succession so that his son, Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (9), who had married Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (10) (who had died in 1481), would continue to benefit from them effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

Death of Edward IV

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. As soon as the King (40) was departed, that noble Prince (12) his son drew toward London, who at the time of his father's death kept household at Ludlow in Wales. Such country, being far off from the law and recourse to justice, was begun to be far out of good will and had grown up wild with robbers and thieves walking at liberty uncorrected. And for this reason the Prince (12) was, in the life of his father, sent thither, to the end that the authority of his presence should restrain evilly disposed persons from the boldness of their former outrages. To the governance and ordering of this young Prince (12), at his sending thither, was there appointed Sir Anthony Woodville, Lord Rivers (43) and brother unto the Queen (46), a right honorable man, as valiant of hand as politic in counsel. Adjoined were there unto him others of the same party, and, in effect, every one as he was nearest of kin unto the Queen (46) was so planted next about the Prince (12).

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

On 25 Mar 1483 King Edward IV (40) returned to Westminster from Windsor. A few days later he became sufficiently unwell to add codicils to his will, and to have urged reconciliation between William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28); it isn't clear what the cause of the friction between the two men was although it appears well known that Hastings resented the Woodville family.

On 09 Apr 1483 King Edward IV (40) died at Westminster. Edward V King England 1470- (12) succeeded V King England. Those present included Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28).

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. This noble prince died at his palace of Westminster and, with great funeral honor and heaviness of his people from thence conveyed, was interred at Windsor. He was a king of such governance and behavior in time of peace (for in war each part must needs be another's enemy) that there was never any prince of this land attaining the crown by battle so heartily beloved by the substance of the people, nor he himself so specially in any part of his life as at the time of his death.

Mémoires de Philippe de Commynes Chapter 6 Section 8. Dès l'heure que le roy Edouard fut mort, le Roy nostre maistre en fut adverty, et n'en feit nulle joye quant il le sceut:

From the hour that King Edward IV died, the King our master was made aware, and took no joy in it [Note. Not clear what il le sceut means!]

et peu de jours après receut lettres du duc de Clocestre, qui s'estoit faict roy d'Angleterre1, et se signoit Richard, lequel avoit faict mourir les deux filz du roy Edouard son frère.

And few days after he received letters from the Duke of Gloucester, who had become the King of England, and signed Richard, who had caused the death of the two sons [Note. The Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-] of King Edward his brother.

Lequel roy Richard requeroit l'amytié du Roy, et croy qu'il eust bien voulu ravoir reste pension;

King Richard wanted the friendship of the King, and belived he would continue to receive the pension;

mais le Roy ne voulut respondre à ses lettres, ne ouyr le messagier, et l'estima très cruel et mauvais:

but the King didn't want to respond to the letters, nor hear the messanger, and considered him very cruel and bad:

car, après le trespas dudict roy Edouard, ledict duc de Clocestre avoit faict hommaige à son nepveu, comme à son roy et souverain seigneur, et incontinent après commit ce cas.

since, after the [Note. didict? Possibly dudit ie said] crime against King Edward, the Duke of Gloucester gave homage to his nephew, as his King and sovereign lord, and [Note. incontinent?] after commited this case.

Et, en plain parlement d'Angleterre, feit desgrader deux filles dudict roy Edouard et desclarer bastardes, soubz couleur3 qu'il prouva par ung evesque de Bas4 en Angleterre

And, in the parliament of England, had degraded the two daughters of the said King of England and declared them bastards, on the pretext of the evidence of a Bishop of Bath in England

(qui aultresfois avoit eu grant credit avec ledict roy Edouard, et puis le desappoincta, et le tint en prison, et puis le ranconna d'une somme d'argent):

(who formerley had great credit with the King Edward then disappointed him, and held him in prison, and then ransomed himself with a sum of money)

lequel evesque disoit que ledict roy Edouard avoit promis foy de mariaige à une dame d'Angleterre (qu'il nommoit)5 pour ce qu'il en estoit amoureux, pour en avoir son plaisir;

which Bishop said that King Edward had promised [Note. foy? ] marriage to an English lady [who he named] who he was in love with, to have his pleasure; [See Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly].

et en avoit faict la promesse en la main dudict evesque, et, sur ceste promesse, coucha avec elle: et ne le faisoit que pour la tromper.

and had made this promise in the presence of the Bishop, and, on this promise, slept with her: and did this to deceive her. See The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate.

Toutesfois telz jeux sont bien dangereux, tesmoing ces enseignes. J'ay veu beaucoup de gens de court qui, une bonne adventure qui leur eust pleu en tel cas, ilz ne l'eussent point perdue par faulte de promettre.

Nevertheless such games are very dangerous, [Note. tesmoing?] these signs. I saw alot of courtiers who, having the opportunity of such an adventure, would not have lost it for the sake of a promise.

Et ce mauvais evesque garda ceste vengeance en son cueur, par adventure vingt ans; mais il luy en meschut:

And this bad Bishop guarded revenge in his heart, for twenty years; but he is in [Note. meshut?]:

car il avoit ung filz, qu'il aymoit fort, à qui ledict roy Richard vouloit faire de grans biens et luy faire espouser l'une de ces deux filles, desgradees de leur dignité, laquelle de présent est royne d'Angleterre et a deux beaux enfans.

because he had a son, who he loved very much, whom King Richard wished to do great things and to marry one of the two daughters, beneath their dignity, one of whom is now the present Queen of England and has two beautiful children [Note. Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 and Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541].

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500. Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541.

Funeral of Edward IV

On 10 Apr 1483, in the morning, the coffin of King Edward IV (40) was moved to St Stephen's Chapel. Edward Story Bishop of Chichester -1503 sang the masses. Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68), Chamberlain to Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), offered on the Queen's behalf.

On 17 Apr 1483 the coffin of Edward IV (40) was carried to Westminster Abbey by Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (21), John Savage 1444-1492 (39), Thomas Wortley 1433-1514 (50), Thomas Molyneux 1445-1483 (38), probably John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 (33) who had married Edward's daughter Cecily), John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (41), Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (19), Guy Wolston 1433-1490 (50), John Sapcote 1448-1501 (35), Thomas Tyrrell 1453-1512 (30), John Risley, Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (15), John Norreys, Louis de Bretelles and John Comyn 4th Lord Baddenoch 1294-1314.

Those in the procession included:

Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (43), widow of Edward's sister Anne.

William Parr KG 1434-1483 (49).

John Astley 1373-1441.

William Stonor 1450-1494 (33).

Henry Ferrers 1443-1500 (40).

James Radclyffe 1440-1484 (43).

George Browne 1440-1483 (43).

Gilbert Debenham.

John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) walked in front of the coffin with Edward's personal arms.

John Marlow Abbot Bermondsey followed by:

Thomas Kempe Bishop of London 1390-1489 (93).

John Hales Bishop Coventry and Lichfield 1400- (83) (Bishop of Chester?).

Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63).

Edward Story Bishop of Chichester -1503.

Richard Bell Bishop of Carlisle -1496.

James Goldwell Bishop of Norwich -1499.

Bishop William Dudley 1425-1483 (58).

John Russell Bishop -1494.

Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) (as Bishop of Ely).

Edmund Tuchet Bishop of Rochester Bishop of Hereford Bishop of Salisbury 1443-1524 (40) (as Bishop of Rochester).

Peter Courtenay Bishop of Exeter Bishop of Winchester -1492, and.

Lionel Woodville Bishop of Salisbury 1447-1484 (36).

Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) brought up the rear.

Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65), then Archbishop of Canterbury, took no part due to infirmity.

John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21); the King's nephew,.

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52).

Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28).

William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1451-1491 (32) (some sources say Earl of Huntingindon?).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48).

Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68).

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (82).

George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (43).

John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (57).

Walter Devereux 7th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1432-1485 (51).

Edward Grey 1st Viscount Lisle 1432-1492 (51).

Henry Lovell 9th Baron Marshal 8th Baron Morley 1476-1489 (7).

Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30).

John Brooke 7th Baron Cobham 1447-1512 (35).

Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1433-1503 (50).

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers Groby 1438-1495 (45).

Thomas Bourchier -1492.

Thomas Bourchier -1533.

On 20 Apr 1483 King Edward IV (40) was buried at Altar St George's Chapel Windsor Castle. Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) celebrated the mass. John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) attended. John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21) was chief mourner. John Savage 1444-1492 (39) and Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (21) were pall-bearers.