1520 to May 1536 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn is in 16th Century Events.
Field of the Cloth of Gold
In Jun 1520 Arthur Hopton 1489-1555 (31) attended Field of the Cloth of Gold.
In Jun 1520 Henry VIII (28) hosted Field of the Cloth of Gold at Balinghem.
Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (42) carried the Sword of State.
John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (45) attended as Henry VIII's chaplain.
Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye 1484-1539 (36), Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1478-1521 (42), Anthony Poyntz 1480-1533 (40), William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (25), William "Great" Courtenay 1477-1535 (43), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (37), William Paston 1479-1554 (41), William Denys 1470-1533 (50), Richard Cecil 1495-1553 (25), William Parr 1st Baron Parr Horton 1483-1547 (37), Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (22), John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (40), Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (31), Marmaduke Constable 1480-1545 (40), William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (38), William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (42), Thomas Cheney Treasurer 1485-1558 (35), Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 (69), John Rodney 1461-1528 (59), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney 1484-1525 (35), William Sidney 1482-1554 (38), John Vere 14th Earl Oxford 1499-1526 (20), John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (49), Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (40), Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (63), Robert Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby Broke 10th Baron Latimer 1472-1521 (48), Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (32) and Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham -1529 attended.
William Carey 1500-1528 (20) jousted. Margaret Dymoke 1500-1545 (20) attended.
William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (50) organised.
Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 attended.
Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms -1534 (32) was present.
Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham
In Apr 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was arrested and imprisoned at Tower of London. He was accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (48) presided at his trial. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (43) and Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (32) acted as judges. Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham -1529, Anthony Poyntz 1480-1533 (41) and Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (41) as jurors.
On 17 May 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was executed at Tower Hill for no specific reason other than his having a significant amount of Plantagenet blood and was, therefore, considered a threat by Henry VIII (29). He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523, disinheriting his children. He was buried at St Peter's Church Britford. extinct.
Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor
In May 1522 Henry VIII (30) met with Charles Habsburg Spain V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (22) at Dover. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (44), William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (40), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney 1484-1525 (37) and John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (51) were present. Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.
Sacking of Morlaix
Knighting of Henry Fitzroy
On 18 Jun 1525 Henry Fitzroy (6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset, 1st Earl Lincoln 7C 1525 by his father Henry VIII (33) at Bridewell Palace.
Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (47), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (52), William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (49) and John Vere 14th Earl Oxford 1499-1526 (25) attended.
Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 was created 1st Marquess Exeter 1C 1525.
Henry Clifford 1st Earl Cumberland 1493-1542 (32) was created 1st Earl Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.
Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (33) was created 1st Earl Rutland 3C 1525.
Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter
Around 18 Jun 1525 Henry Clifford 2nd Earl Cumberland 1517-1570 (8) and Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 (6) were married (he was her half third cousin) at Bridewell Palace. He an illegitimate son of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 and 3 x great grandson of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 1368-1422. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. He a 2 x great grandson of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 1368-1422.
Battle of Pavia
Sack of Rome
On 06 May 1527 Charles Bourbon III Duke Bourbon 1490-1527 (37) was killed during the Sack of Rome.
1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 4 1524 1530. 16 Jun 1528. Love Letters XII. 4383. Henry VIII (36). to Anne Boleyn (27).
There came to me in the night the most afflicting news possible. I have to grieve for three causes: first, to hear of my mistress's (27) sickness, whose health I desire as my own, and would willingly bear the half of yours to cure you; secondly, because I fear to suffer yet longer that absence which has already given me so much pain, God deliver me from such an importunate rebel!; thirdly, because the physician I trust most is at present absent when he could do me the greatest pleasure. However, in his absence, I send you the second, praying God he may soon make you well, and I shall love him the better. I beseech you to be governed by his advice, and then I hope to see you soon again.!
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 4 1524 1530. 20 Jun 1528. Love Letters, III. 4403. Henry VIII (36). to Anne Boleyn (27).
The doubt I had of your health troubled me extremely, and I should scarcely have had any quiet without knowing the certainty; but since you have felt nothing, I hope it is with you as with us. When we were at Waltham, two ushers, two valets de chambre, your brother (25), master "Jesoncre" (Treasurer), fell ill, and are now quite well; and we have since removed to Hunsdon, where we are very well, without one sick person. I think if you would retire from Surrey, as we did, you would avoid all danger. Another thing may comfort you:—few women have this illness; and moreover, none of our court, and few elsewhere, have died of it. I beg you, therefore, not to distress yourself at our absence, for whoever strives against fortune is often the further from his end.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 4 1524 1530. 23 Jun 1528. Love Letters IX. 4410. Henry VIII (36). to Anne Boleyn (27).
The cause of my writing at this time, good sweetheart, is only to understand of your good health and prosperity, whereof to know I would be as glad as in manner mine own; praying God that (and it be His pleasure) to send us shortly together, for I promise you I long for it, howbeit trust it shall not be long to; and seeing my darling is absent, I can no less do than to send her some flesh representing my name, which is hart's flesh for Henry, prognosticating that hereafter, God willing, you must enjoy some of mine, which, He pleased, I would were now. As touching your sister's (29) matter, I have caused Water Welze to write to my Lord my mind therein, whereby I trust that Eve shall not have power to deceive Adam; for surely, what soever is said, it cannot so stand with his honor but that he must needs take her his natural daughter now in her extreme necessity. No more to you at this time, mine own darling, but that a while I would we were together of an evening. With the hand of yours, &c.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 4 1524 1530. 30 Jun 1528. Le Grand, III. 143. 1440. Du Bellay to Montmorency.
Such conversations as he has had with Wolsey (55) he has pretty well foreseen. Will not presume to say things are going wrong, but if they go on, you will not gain much. I protest, if I have not my recall, I will go without it; and whoever would whip me, not being my master, shall find I fear less 100 deaths than one dishonor. Job would have lost patiencc in my place. Whatever you have done, I hear from Richard d'Albene that he has not a crown, and I am sure if my man had one, he has given it him. He would have spent 1,000 crowns in nine months in that stupid way ;—a good thing to resolve me, seeing I had assigned all my property to bankers and bull-brokers before my departure.
News has arrived that Campeggio is coming. Dr. Stephen will be soon at Lyons, who is coming to prepare his lodging; "et puis en dancera qui pourra." The young lady (27) is still with her father. The King (37) keeps moving about for fear of the plague. Many of his people have died of it in three or four hours. Of those you know there are only Poowits, Carey and Cotton (Compton) (46) dead; but Feuguillem, the marquis [Dorset] (51), my lord William, Bron (Brown), Careu, Bryan [Tuke], who is now of the Chamber, Nourriz (Norris), Walop, Chesney, Quinston (Kingston), Paget, and those of the Chamber generally, all but one, have been or are attacked. Yesterday some of them were said to be dead. The King (37) shuts himself up quite alone. It is the same with Wolsey (55). After all, those who are not exposed to the air do not die. Of 40,000 attacked in London, only 2,000 are dead; but if a man only put his hand out of bed during twenty-four hours, it becomes as stiff as a pane of glass. So they do need patience; but I would sooner endure that than what is inflicted on me, for it does not last so long. But, with your aid, or even without it, I mean to be off. After my protests for the last four months, no one will be able to blame me. Let those who have the charge look to it. Moreover, in choosing the persons, you had better not send an Italian, for Wolsey (55) will not have one. Some days ago he told me he would not trust them for their partiality; besides, a man who speaks Latin is required, and he has often been in terrible difficulty for want of it; but you have plenty of bishops and others who will do. In any case, don't send a man who will not spend money, else matters will not mend. I do not speak without reason.
As Wolsey told me he would cause the money of the contribution to be paid to me for you, I spoke to a merchant that it might be paid you at Lyons. Let me know how much is due to you at the end of July, if, as I suppose, it begins on the first day of this month.
Wolsey is informed of great overtures made by the Emperor to the Venetians and duke of Bari, which he thinks they will accept, and that the Duke's ambassador had yielded to the Emperor the investiture of Milan, pretending he had been forced to do so.
The King and Wolsey wish a confirmation by France of the privileges of the isles of Grenesay (Guernsey),—a sort of neutrality which they obtained long ago from the Pope. Such a confirmation was made by Louis XI. London, 30 June.
P.S.—There have died at Wolsey's house the brother of the earl of Derby and a nephew of the duke of Norfolk; and the Cardinal has stolen away with a very few people, letting no one know whither he has gone. The King has at last stopped twenty miles from here, at a house built by Wolsey, finding removals useless. I hear he has made his will, and taken the sacraments, for fear of sudden death. However, he is not ill. I have not written this with my own hand, as you do not read it easily when I write hastily.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 4 1524 1530. 07 Jul 1528. Love Letters, XIII. 4477. Henry VIII (37) to Anne Boleyn (27).
Since her last, Walter Welshe, Master Browne, Thos. Care, Yrion of Brearton, John Coke the potecary, are fallen of the sweat in this house, and, thank God, have all recovered, so the plague has not yet quite ceased here. The rest of us are well, and I hope will pass it. As for the matter of Wylton, my lord Cardinal has had the nuns before him, and examined them in presence of Master Bell, who assures me that she whom we would have had abbess has confessed herself to have had two children by two different priests, and has since been kept, not long ago, by a servant of lord Broke that was. "Wherefore I would not, for all the gold in the world, cloak your conscience nor mine to make her ruler of a house which is of so ungodly demeanour; nor I trust you would not that neither for brother nor sister I should so distayne mine honor or conscience. And as touching the prioress or dame Ellenor's eldest sister, though there is not any evident case proved against them, and the prioress is so old that of many years she could not be as she was named, yet notwithstanding, to do you pleasure, I have done that nother of them shall have it, but that some other good and well-disposed woman shall have it, whereby the house shall be the better reformed, whereof I ensure you it hath much need, and God much the better served. As touching your abode at Hever, do therein as best shall like you, for you know best what air doth best with you; but I would it were come thereto, if it pleased God, that nother of us need care for that, for I ensure you I think it long. Suche (Zouch) is fallen sick of the sweat, and therefore I send you this bearer because I think you long to hear tidings from us, as we do in likewise from you.".
1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 4 1524 1530. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Card. Wolsey (56).
Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (56) and Suffolk (45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam (39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (38) at Windsor, on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Hen. Norris, Thos. Heneage (49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thos. Hall, of the Hanaper.
On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thos. More (51), in the presence of Hen. Norres and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (56) and Suffolk (45), Th. marquis of Dorset (52), Hen. marquis of Exeter, John earl of Oxford (58), Hen. earl of Northumberland (27), Geo. earl of Shrewsbury (61), Ralph earl of Westmoreland (31), John bishop of Lincoln, Cuthbert bishop of London (55), John bishop of Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, viscount Fitzwater (46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, viscount Rocheforde (52), Sir Wm.Sandys, Lord (52) and others.
Close Roll, 21 Hen. VIII. m. 19d.
Henry VIII Creates New Earldoms
On 08 Dec 1529 Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (38) created two new Earldoms ...
Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (52) was created 1st Earl Wiltshire 6C 1529, 1st Earl Ormonde 2C 1529, 1st Viscount Rochford. Elizabeth Howard Countess Wiltshire Countess Ormonde 1480-1538 (49) by marriage Earl Wiltshire 6C 1529, Earl Ormonde 2C 1529. His mother (64) was the daughter of the last Earl Ormonde Thomas Butler 7th Earl Ormonde 1426-1515.
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (42) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon 7C 1529. Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544 (46) by marriage Earl Huntingdon 7C 1529.
Death of Cardinal Wolsey
On 29 Nov 1530 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (57) died in Leicester. Just before his death he reputedly spoke these words: "I see the matter against me how it is framed. But if I had served God as diligently as I have done the King, he would not have given me over in my grey hairs".
Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury
After 01 Sep 1532 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556, whilst staying in Mantua, received a royal letter dated 01 Sep 1532 by which he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury ; he was ordered to return to England. Cranmer's appointment, supported, if not arranged, by the Boleyn family who he subsequently supported.
Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke
On 01 Sep 1532 Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with Henry VIII (41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.
Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (37), Jean Dinteville, Edward Lee Archbishop of York 1482-1544 (50), John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (57) were present.
Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester 1483-1555 (49) read the Patent of Creation.
Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (13) carried Anne's (31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk 1497-1558 (35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (31) and Mary (13) were cousins.
Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France
Around Nov 1532 Henry VIII (41) and Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (31) met with Francis I King France 1494-1547 (38) at Calais. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (16) was present.
Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (40) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (37) accompanied them.
1533 Buggery Act
In 1533 Parliament, steered by Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (48), passed the 1533 Buggery Act, formally known as An Acte for the punishment of the vice of Buggerie, in which buggery was punishable by death.
On 28 Jul 1540 Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury 1503-1540 (37) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He, together with his chaplain, a Wiltshire clergyman named William Bird, Rector of Fittleton and Vicar of Bradford, who was suspected of sympathising with the pilgrims of grace of the north of England, was attainted by act of parliament. Hungerford was charged with employing Bird in his house as chaplain, knowing him to be a traitor; with ordering another chaplain, Hugh Wood, and one Dr. Maudlin to practise conjuring to determine the king's length of life, and his chances of victory over the northern rebels; and finally with committing offences forbidden by the 1533 Buggery Act.
In 1553 the 1533 Buggery Act was repealed by Catholic Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (36) who preferred such matters to be dealt with by Ecclesiastical Courts.
On 14 May 1631 Mervyn Tuchet 2nd Earl Castlehaven 1593-1631 (38) was beheaded at Tower Hill for the unnatural crime of sodomy in accordance with the 1533 Buggery Act, committed with his page Laurence (or Florence) FitzPatrick, who confessed to the crime and was executed; and assisting Giles Browning (alias Broadway), who was also executed, in the rape of his wife Anne, Countess of Castlehaven (51), in which Lord Castlehaven was found to have participated by restraining her. His son James Tuchet 3rd Earl Castlehaven 1617-1686 (14) succeeded 3rd Earl Castlehaven, 3rd Baron Audley of Orier. He didn't succeed to his father's English titles as a result of his father's attainder.
In 1810 two men were hanged and six pilloried, known as the Vere Street Coterie, for offences against the 1533 Buggery Act. The The club had been operating for less than six months when, , it was by .
On 08 Jul 1810 the Bow Street police raided the White Swan on Vere Street in London that had been established as a molly-house in early 1810 by two men, James Cook and Yardley. Twenty-seven men were arrested, but the majority of them were released (perhaps as a result of bribe); eight were tried and convicted. On 27 Sep 1810 six men were pilloried at the Haymarket. On 07 Mar 1811 John Hepburn (46) and Thomas White (16), a drummer boy, were hanged at Newgate Prison despite not being present on the night of the raid.
On 27 Nov 1835 James Pratt 1805-1835 and John Smith 1795-1835 were the last two men to be executed under the 1828 Offences Against the Person Act which had replaced the 1533 Buggery Act. They were hanged in front of Newgate Prison.
In 1861 the 1861 Offences against the Person Act reduced the act of buggery to a non-captital offence.
Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
On 25 Jan 1533 Henry VIII (41) and Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop Coventry and Lichfield (46) at Whitehall Palace. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley 1496-1546 (37), Thomas Heneage 1480-1553 (53) and Henry Norreys 1482-1536 witnessed.
Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 and 2 x great grandson of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 1368-1422.
Statute in Restraint of Appeals
In Mar 1533 Parliament enacted the Statute in Restraint of Appeals by which Henry VIII (41) forbade all appeals to the Pope in Rome on religious or other matters, making the King the final legal authority in all such matters in England, Wales, and other English possessions. Considered to be a cornerstone of the English Reformation.
Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen
On 12 Apr 1533, Saturday, Easter Eve, Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32) made her first appearance as Queen attending mass at the Queen's Closet Greenwich Palace. She was accompanied by sixty ladies including Margaret "Madge" Shelton -1555.
The Venetian Ambassdor reported ... "This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne went with the King (41) to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament.".
Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 4 Part 2 1531 1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33). See Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen.
On Saturday, the eve of Easter, Lady Anne (32) went to mass in truly Royal state, loaded with diamonds and other precious stones, and dressed in a gorgeous suit of tissue, the train of which was carried by the daughter (14) of the duke of Norfolk (60), betrothed to the duke of Richmond (13). She was followed by numerous damsels, and conducted to and from the church with the same or perhaps greater ceremonies and solemnities than those used with former queens on such occasions. She has now changed her title of marchioness for that of queen, and preachers specially name her so in their church prayers. At which all people here are perfectly astonished, for the whole thing seems a dream, and even those who support her party do not know whether to laugh or cry at it. The King (41) is watching what sort of mien the people put on at this, and solicits his nobles to visit and pay their court to his new queen, whom he purposes to have crowned after Easter in the most solemn manner, and it is said that there will be banqueting and tournaments on the occasion. Indeed some think that Clarence, the king-at-arms who left for France four days ago, is gone for the purpose of inviting knights for the tournament in imitation of the Most Christian King when he celebrated his own nuptials. I cannot say whether the coronation will take place before or after these festivities, but I am told that this King (41) has secretly arranged with the archbishop of Canterbury (43), that in virtue of his office, and without application from anyone he is to summon him before his court as having two wives, upon which, without sending for the Queen (47), he (the Archbishop) will declare that the King (41) can lawfully marry again, as he has done, without waiting for a dispensation, for a sentence from the Pope, or any other declaration whatever.
Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess
Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 4 Part 2 1531 1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
On Wednesday the said Duke (60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the Queen (47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the King (41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (55), the Queen's (47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.
Though the King (41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the Lady (32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with queen Katharine (47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey, whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the Princess (17).
Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 4 Part 2 1531 1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
The name and title which the King (41) wishes the Queen (47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to princess Mary (17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the Lady (32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).
On 16 Apr 1533, Wednesday, Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England 1485-1536 (47) was demoted from Queen to Princess.
Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid
Coronation of Anne Boleyn
On 01 Jun 1533 the six months pregnant Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32) was crowned Queen Consort England by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (43) at Westminster Abbey. See Coronation of Anne Boleyn.
John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (62) bore the Crown. Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (16) carried the Salt. Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (46) rode in the procession. William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (38) was appointed Master of the Horse. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (50) served as Lord Sewer. Henry Parker 1513-1552 (19) and William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (38) were knighted. Thomas Berkeley 6th Baron Berkeley 1505-1534 (28) and Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle 1507-1560 (26) were created Knight of the Bath. Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (46) rode in the procession. Arthur Hopton 1489-1555 (44) attended.
Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (55) refused to attend. Shortly thereafter, More was charged with accepting bribes, but the charges had to be dismissed for lack of any evidence.
Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I
On 10 Sep 1533 the future Elizabeth I was christened at the Palace of Placentia.
Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (29), Walter Blount, Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (44) and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (46) were Godparents.
Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu -1540 carried the covered gilt basin. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (49) escorted the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk. Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (16) carried the Salt. Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk 1497-1558 (36) carried the Chrisom. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk 1477-1545 (56) carried Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 carried a taper of virgin wax.
Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (24), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (56), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent 1495-1562 (38) and George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (30) supported the train of the mantle.
Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (60), William Howard 1st Baron Howard 1510-1573 (23) and John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey Sleaford 1465-1537 (68) carried the canopy.
Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard
On 28 Nov 1533 Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (14) and Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (14) were married (he was her third cousin). Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (14) by marriage Duke of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn having given birth to a girl.
He an illegitimate son of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 and 3 x great grandson of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 1368-1422.
First Act of Succession
In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (18) illegitimate and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to King Henry VIII (42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.
1534 Treasons Act
First Act of Supremacy
Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More
Before 22 Jun 1535 Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Waldon 1488-1544 presided over the trial of John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 and Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 both of whom refused to take the Oath Of Supremacy. The judges including Anne Boleyn's father William Boleyn 1451-1505 and brother Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 brought Richard Rich 1st Baron Rich Leez 1497-1567 as a witness who testified that Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 had denied that the King was the legitimate head of the Church. However, Richard Southwell 1503-1564 to the contrary.
The jury took, somewhat unsurprisingly, only fifteen minutes to conclude Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 was guilty. He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered; the King commuted this to beheading.
Death of Catherine of Aragon
Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. This yeare, the morrowe after twelve daie being Fridaie and the 7th daie of Januarie, 1536 the honorable and noble Princes, Queene Katherin (50), former wife to King Henrie the VIII (44), departed a.d. 1536. from her worldlie lief at Bugden, [Note. Bugden three miles from Kimbolton Castle] in Huntingdon shire, about tenne of the clocke at night [Note. This would appear to be an error for 2 o'clock in the afternoon], and she was buried at Peterborowe the 29th daie of Januarie, being Saturdaie.
See Death of Catherine of Aragon.
Note. Stow and Hall, with other authorities, state that Queen Katharine died on the 8th Jannarj, but the correctness of our text as to the day is placed beyond a donbt by the original letter of Sir Edward Chamberleyn and Sir Edmund Bedyngfeld transmitting this intelligence to Cromwell, still extant in the Public Record Office, and which runs thus: "Pleaseth yt yower honorable Maystershipp to be adrertysed, that this 7th day of January, abowt 10 of the clock before none, the Lady Dowager was aneled with the Holy Oyntment, Mayster Chamberlein and I called to the same; and before 2 of the clock at aftemone she departed to God. Besechyng yow that the Kyng may be advertyscd of the same, and furder to know yower pleasonr yn erciy thyng aper- teynyng to that purpose; and, furder, in all other causes concemyng the hows, the serrantes, and all other thynges, as shall stand wyth the Kynge's pleasour and yowers.".
On 07 Jan 1536 Catherine of Aragon (50) died at Kimbolton Castle Kimbolton in the arms of her great friend Maria Salinas Baroness Willoughby Eresby.
Henry VIII Tournament
On 24 Jan 1536 Henry VIII (44) held a tournament at the Palace of Placentia some two weeks after Catherine of Aragon's death. Henry VIII (44) was badly injured causing him to suffer with a wound in his leg thereafter. It is reported the injury caused a change in Henry's character thereafter becoming increasingly despotic.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. This yeare also, three daies before Candlemas, Queene Anne (35) was brought a bedd and delivered of a man chield, as it was said, afore her tyme, for she said that she had reckoned herself at that tyme but fiftene weekes gonne with chield ; it was said she tooke a fright, for the King ranne that time at the ring and had a fall from his horse, but he had no hurt; and she tooke such a fright withall that it caused her to fall in travaile, and so was delivered afore her full tyme, which was a great discompfort to all this realme.
Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Miscarriage of Anne Bolyen
On 29 Jan 1536 Catherine of Aragon was buried at Peterborough Cathedral at a service for a Princess rather than Queen. Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 (17) was Chief Mourner. Henry VIII (44) refused their daughter Mary (19) permission to attend. On the same day Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) miscarried a child; regarded as the start of Anne's demise.
Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 4 Part 2 1531 1533. 17 Feb 1536. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (35).
On that very day the good queen of England's burial took place, which was attended by four bishops and as many abbots, besides the ladies mentioned in my preceding despatches. No other person of rank or name was present except the comptroller of the Royal household. The place where she lies in the cathedral church of Peterborough is a good way from the high altar, and in a less honourable position than that of several bishops buried in the same church. Had she not been a dowager Princess, as they have held her both in life and death, but simply a Lady, they could not have chosen a less distinguished place of rest for her, as the people who understand this sort of thing tell me. Such have been the wonderful display and incredible magnificence which these people gave me to understand would be lavished in honour and memory of one whose great virtues and royal relationship certainly entitled her to uncommon honours!! Perhaps one of these days they will repair their fault, and erect a suitable. Monument or institute some pious foundation to her memory in some suitable spot or other.
On the same day that the Queen was buried this King's concubine (35) miscarried of a child, who had the appearance of a nude about three months and a half old, at which miscarriage the King (44) has certainly shown great disappointment and sorrow. The concubine (35) herself has since attempted to throw all the blame on the duke of Norfolk (63), whom she hates, pretending that her mishap was entirely owing to the shock she received when, six days before, he (the Duke) came to announce to her the King's fall from his horse. But the King knows very well that it was not that, for his accident was announced to her in a manner not to create alarm; besides which, when she heard of it, she seemed quite indifferent to it. Upon the whole, the general opinion is that the concubine's miscarriage was entirely owing to defective constitution, and her utter inability to bear male children; whilst others imagine that the fear of the King treating her as he treated his late Queen, which is not unlikely, considering his behaviour towards a damsel of the Court, named Miss Seymour (27), to whom he has latterly made very valuable presents—is the oral cause of it all. The Princess' governess, her daughters, and a niece of hers, have greatly mourned over the concubines miscarriage, never ceasing to interrogate one of the Princess' most familiar maids in waiting on the subject, and asking whether their mistress had been informed of Anne s miscarriage, for if she had, as was most likely, they still would not for the world that she knew the rest of the affair and its causes, thereby intending to say that there was fear of the King's taking another wife.
Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church
Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. This yeare also, the first Soundaie after Candlemas, being the sixt daie of Februarie, the Archbishopp of Canterberie, called Thomas Cranmer (46), preached at Paules Crosse, my Lord Chauncelor (48) being then present at his sermon, and their he approved, by scripture and by the decrees of the Popes lawes, that the Bishop of Rome, otherwise called Pope, was Antichrist, and also brought divers expositions of holie sainctes and doctors for the same; and how craftelie, and by what meanes, and how long, he had taken upon him the power of God and the aucthoritie aboTe all princes christened, and how his aucthoritie and lawes was contrarie to scripture and the lawe of God, as he then honorably declared and approved to the cleere understanding of all the people.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. The Soundaie of Quinquegesima, being the 27th daie of Februarie and Leepe yeare, a.v. 1535, preached at Paules Crosse the Bushoppe of Durhame, named Dr. Dunstall (62), sometime Bishopp of London, and afore that, being Master of the Rolls; and their were present at his sermon the Ardibishopp of Canterberie (46) with eight other bishopps, sitting at the crosse before the preacher; and the Lorde Chauncellor of Englande (48), the Duke of Norfolke (63), the Duke of Suffolke, with six Erles and divers other lordes, stoode behinde the preacher within the pulpitt, and also fower monkes of the Charterhouse of London were brought to the said sermon, which denied the King (44) to be supreame heade of the Church of Englande. And their the said preacher declared the profession of the Bishopp of Rome when he is elected Pope, according to the confirmation of eight universall general counsells, which were con- gregate for the faith of all Christendome; and everie Pope taketh an othe on the articles, promising to observe, keepe, and hould all that the said counsells confirmed, and to dampne all that they dampned; and how he, contrarie to his oth, hath usurped his power and aucthoritie over all Christendome; and also how uncharitably he had handled our Prince, King Henrie the Eight (44), in marying [him to] his brother's wife, contrarie to Godes lawes and also against his owne promise and decrees, which he opened by scriptures and by the cannons of the Appostles; and also how everie Kinge hath the highe power under God, and ought to be the supreame head over all spirituall prelates, which was a goodlie and gracious hearing to all the audience being their present at the same sermon. And in his prayers he said, after this manner, ye shall pray for the universall church of all Christendome, and especiall for the prosperous estate of our Soveraigne' and Emperour King Henrie the Eight, being the onelie supreame head of this realme of Englande; and he declared also in his said sermon how that the Cardinalls of Rome bee but curattes and decons of the cittie and province of Bome, and how that everie curate of any parrish have as much power as they have, according to scripture, save onelie that the Pope of Bome hath made them so high aucthorities onelie for to ezhalt his name and power in Christen realmes for covetousnes, as by his owne decrees he evidentlie their approved.
1536 Mayday Jousting
This yeare, on Maye daie, 1536, beinge Moundaie, was a great justing at Greenewych, where was chalengers my Lorde of Bochforde and others, and defenders Mr. Noris and others.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. This yeare, on Maye daie, 1536, beinge Moundaie, was a great justing at Greenewych, where was chalengers my Lorde of Rochforde (33) and others, and defenders Mr. Noris and others. See 1536 Mayday Jousting.
Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused
Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. And the secondo dale of Maie, Mr. Noris and my Lorde of Rochforde (33) were brought to the Towre of London as prisonners; Queen Anne (35) and the same dale, about five of the clocke at night, Anne Bolleine was brought to the Towre of London by my Lord Chauncelor (48), the Duke of Norfolke (63), Mr. Secretarie (51), and Sir William Kingston (60), Constable of the Tower; and when she came to the court gate, entring in, she fell downe on her knees before the said lordes, beseeching God to helpe her as she was not giltie of her aocusement, and also desired the said lordes to beseech the Kinges grace to be good unto her, and so they left her their prisoner. See Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused.
On 02 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) was charged with treason and accused of 'despising her marriage and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust' !She was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Five ladies were appointed to serve Anne whilst in prison including her aunt by marriage Elizabeth Wood aka Wode, wife of her uncle James Boleyn 1463-1561 and her aunt Anne Boleyn 1475-1556 (60), and Elizabeth Chamber Baroness St John Bletso -1602.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. Item, the 12th daie of Maie, 1536, being Fridaie, their were arraygned at Westminster Sir Frances Weston, knight, Henrie Norrisy esquier, Brerton, and Markes, being all fower of the Kinges Privie Chamber, and their condempned of high treason against the Kinge (44) for using fornication with Queene Anne (35), wife to the Kinge, and also for conspiracie of the Kinges death, and their judged to be hanged, drawen, and quartered, their members cutt of and brent before theim, their heades cutt of and quartered; my Lord Chauncelor (48) being the highest Commissioner he geving their judgment, with other lordes of the Kinges Counsell being presente at the same tyme. See Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused.
Trial of Anne Boleyn and her brother George
On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London.
Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess Worcester 1502-1565 (34) was the principal witness.
The jurors were:
Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52).
Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 (24).
Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (21).
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (49).
Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (44).
John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (56).
Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (38).
Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley 1481-1556 (55).
Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (27).
Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle 1507-1560 (28).
John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (65).
Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth 1501-1551 (35).
Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 (40).
Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527.
Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham Sternborough 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh 1488-1550 (48).
Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538.
William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (60).
Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (24).
Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Waldon 1488-1544 (48).
Edward PowersLord Powers.
William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (66).
Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (69).
George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (39).
She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman Judge 1480-1546 (56) signed the death warrant.
After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33) was also tried and found guilty.
Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co accused
On 17 May 1536 George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33), Henry Norreys 1482-1536, Francis Weston 1511-1536, William Brereton 1487-1536 and Mark Smeaton 1512-1536 were beheaded at Tower Hill. They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde, Mr. Norys, Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston, and Markys, were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London; the Lord of Rochfordes bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower, Mr. Weston and Norys in the church yeard of the same in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London. See Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co accused.
Execution of Anne Boleyn
On 19 May 1536 Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).
Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:
Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.
To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.
She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.