7th Century Events

602 Battle of Cúl Sleamna

603 Battle of Degsastan

604 Pope Gregory's Second Mission to Christianise the Anglo Saxons

616 Death of Æthelberht King Kent

617 Battle of the River Idle

619 Boniface V Elected Pope

624 King Raedwald's Burial at Sutton Hoo

628 Battle of Cirencester

633 Battle of Hatfield Chase

634 Battle of Heavenfield

641 Battle of Maserfield

652 Battle of Bradford on Avon

654 Battle of Bulcamp

654 Battle of Strath Ethairt

655 Battle of the Winwaed

658 Battle of Pen or Peonnum

664 Plague Outbreak

671 Battle of the Two Rivers

675 Battle of Biedanheafde

679 Battle of the Trent

685 Battle of Dun Nechtain

7th Century Events is in 1st Millennium.

Battle of Degsastan

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 600-649. 603. This year Aeden (43), king of the Scots, fought with the Dalreathians, and with Ethelfrith (31), king of the Northumbrians, at Theakstone; where he lost almost all his army. Theobald also, brother of Ethelfrith (31), with his whole armament, was slain. None of the Scottish kings durst afterwards bring an army against this nation. Hering, the son of Hussa, led the army thither.

In 603 the Battle of Degsastan was fought between Æthelfrith King Northumbrians 572-617 (31) and a combined Irish and Scottish army commanded by Áedán mac Gabráin King of Dál Riata. Æthelfrith's army won a decisive victory although his brother Theobald was killed by Máel Umai mac Báetáin -608.
Theobald Bernicia -603 was killed.

Pope Gregory's Second Mission to Christianise the Anglo Saxons

Before 604 Paulinus Archbishop of Canterbury -644 arrived during Pope Gregory's Second Mission to Christianise the Anglo Saxons.

Battle of Cúl Sleamna

In 602 Colmán Rímid High King of Ireland -604 defeated Conall Cú mac Áedo -604 at the Battle of Cúl Sleamna.

Death of Æthelberht King Kent

On 24 Feb 616 Æthelberht King Kent 550-616 (66) died. His son Eadbald King Kent -640 succeeded King Kent. Emma Austrasia Queen Consort Kent by marriage Queen Consort Kent.

Battle of the River Idle

In 617 Raedwald King East Anglia 570-624 (47) and his son Raegenhere Wuffingas -617 fought the Battle of the River Idle which took place at the River Idle Markham Moor Retford which forms the western border of the Isle of Lindsey.
Raegenhere Wuffingas -617 was killed.
Æthelfrith King Northumbrians 572-617 (45) was killed. Edwin King Northumbria 586-633 (31) succeeded King Northumbria.

Boniface V Elected Pope

On 23 Dec 619 Boniface V Pope -625 was elected Pope.

King Raedwald's Burial at Sutton Hoo

Around 624 Raedwald King East Anglia 570-624 (54) died. He was proably buried at Sutton Hoo Woodbridge. His son Eorpwald King East Anglia -632 succeeded King East Anglia.

Battle of Cirencester

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 600-649. 628. This year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought with Penda at Cirencester, and afterwards entered into a treaty there.

Battle of Hatfield Chase

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 600-649. 633. This year King Edwin (47) was slain by Cadwalla and Penda, on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October [Note. Some sources say 12 Oct 633]. He reigned seventeen years. His son Osfrid was also slain with him. After this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga (28), the relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent. Eadbald and Honorius received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of Rochester, where he continued to his death.

On 12 Oct 633 King Penda's alliance of Gwynedd and Mercia defeated the Northumbrians at the Battle of Hatfield Chase.
Eadfrith Deira -633 was captured.
Edwin King Northumbria 586-633 (47) was killed. His half first cousin Osric King Deira -634 succeeded King Deira. His nephew Eanfrith King Bernicia 590-634 (43) succeeded King Bernicia.
Edwin's son Osfrith Deira -633 was killed.

Battle of Heavenfield

In 634 Oswald King Northumbria 604-641 (30) won a decisive victory over the army of the Kingdom of Gwynedd at the Battle of Heavenfield which was fought at Heavenfield Hexham around six miles north of Hexham.
St Oswald's Church Heavenfield Hexham is believed to mark the location where Oswald King Northumbria 604-641 (30) raised his standard. The battle re-united Deira and Bernicia to form Northumbria and, according to Bede, restored Christianity to Northumbria.
Cadwallon ap Cadfan King Gwynedd -634 was killed.

Battle of Maserfield

On 05 Aug 641 (or 642 or 644 depending on the source) Penda King Mercia -655 Mercian and Welsh army defeated the Northumbrian army at the Battle of Maserfield. The battle is believed to have taken place at Oswestry. Northumbria was once again separated into two kingdoms.
Oswald King Northumbria 604-641 (37) was killed. His body was subsequently dismembered with his head and arms mounted on poles. His brother Oswiu King Bernicia 612-670 (29) succeeded King Bernicia. Rhiainfellt Rheged Queen Consort Bernicia by marriage Queen Consort Bernicia.
Osric King Deira -634 was killed. His son Oswine King Deira -651 succeeded King Deira.
Eowa King Mercia -642 was killed (probably).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 600-649. 642. This year Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain by Penda, king of the Southumbrians, at Mirfield, on the fifth day of August; and his body was buried at Bardney. His holiness and miracles were afterwards displayed on manifold occasions throughout this island; and his hands remain still uncorrupted at Barnburgh. The same year in which Oswald was slain, Oswy (30) his brother succeeded to the government of the Northumbrians, and reigned two less than thirty years.

Battle of Bradford on Avon

Anglo Saxon Chronicle 650 699. 652. This year Kenwal fought at Bradford by the Avon.

Battle of Strath Ethairt

In 654 Taloran King Picts 615-657 (38) defeated the army of Dál Riata at the Battle of Strath Ethairt. Dúnchad mac Conaing King of Dál Riata -654 was killed. The location of the battle in unknown.

Battle of Bulcamp

Anglo Saxon Chronicle 650 699. 654. This year King Anna was slain, and Botolph began to build that minster at Icanhoe. This year also died Archbishop Honorius, on the thirtieth of September.

In 654 Penda King Mercia -655 defeated the East Anglian army at the Battle of Bulcamp at Bulcamp Blythburgh. Anna King East Anglia -654 and his son Jurmin Wuffingas -654 were killed. Anna's son Æthelhere King East Anglia -655 succeeded King East Anglia.

Battle of the Winwaed

Anglo Saxon Chronicle 650 699. 655. This year Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty royal personages with him, some of whom were kings. One of them was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles. The Mercians after this became Christians. From the beginning of the world had now elapsed five thousand eight hundred and fifty winters, when Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of the Mercians. In his time came together himself and Oswy (43), brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter. And they did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted; because there is a well there, called Meadswell. And they began the groundwall, and wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk, whose name was Saxulf. He was very much the friend of God, and him also loved all people. He was nobly born in the world, and rich: he is now much richer with Christ. But King Peada reigned no while; for he was betrayed by his own queen, in Easter-tide. This year Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to Canterbury, on the twenty-sixth day of March.

On 15 Nov 655 Oswiu King Bernicia 612-670 (43) defeated the Mercian army (probably) at Cock Beck during the Battle of the Winwaed ending the period of Mercian dominance. The battle is believed to have ended Anglo-Saxon paganism.
On 15 Nov 655 Æthelwald King Deira 642-, an ally of Penda King Mercia -655, withdrew his forces, one of many Mercian allies to do so, weakening King Penda's army.
Penda King Mercia -655 and Æthelhere King East Anglia -655 were killed. Penda's son Paeda King South Mercia -656 succeeded King South Mercia.
Æthelwold King East Anglia -664 succeeded King East Anglia after the death of his father at the Battle of the Winwaed.

Battle of Pen or Peonnum

Anglo Saxon Chronicle 650 699. 658. This year Kenwal fought with the Welsh at Pen, and pursued them to the Parret. This battle was fought after his return from East-Anglia, where he was three years in exile. Penda had driven him thither and deprived him of his kingdom, because he had discarded his sister.

664 Plague Outbreak

In 664 Tuda Bishop of Lindisfarne -664 died of plague.

Anglo Saxon Chronicle 650 699. 664. This year the sun was eclipsed, on the eleventh of May; and Erkenbert, King of Kent, having died, Egbert his son succeeded to the kingdom. Colman with his companions this year returned to his own country. This same year there was a great plague in the island Britain, in which died Bishop Tuda, who was buried at Wayleigh—Chad and Wilferth were consecrated—And Archbishop Deus-dedit died.

In 664 Deusdedit Archbishop of Canterbury -664 died of plague.

Battle of the Two Rivers

In 671 Ecgfrith King Northumbria 645-685 (26) and BeornhAeth Sub King Northern Northumbria aka Lothian -685 defeated Drest VI King Picts -677 at the Battle of the Two Rivers bringing to an end the Pictish rebellion. The location of the battle is not known. Stephen of Ripon described the account in his account of the battle from Vita Sancti Wilfrithi: 'He (26) slew an enormous number of the people, filling two rivers with corpses, so that, marvellous to relate, the slayers, passing over the rivers dry foot, pursued and slew a crowd of fugitives.'.

675 Battle of Biedanheafde

Anglo Saxon Chronicle 650 699. 675. This year Wulfere (35), the son of Penda, and Escwin, the son of Cenfus, fought at Bedwin. The same year died Wulfere (35), and Ethelred succeeded to the government. In his time sent he to Rome Bishop Wilfrid to the pope that then was, called Agatho, and told him by word and by letter, how his brothers Peada and Wulfere (35), and the Abbot Saxulf, had wrought a minster, called Medhamsted; and that they had freed it, against king and against bishop, from every service; and he besought him that he would confirm it with his writ and with his blessing. And the pope sent then his writ to England, thus saying: "I Agatho, Pope of Rome, greet well the worthy Ethelred, king of the Mercians, and the Archbishop Theodorus of Canterbury (73), and Saxulf, the bishop of the Mercians, who before was abbot, and all the abbots that are in England; God's greeting and my blessing. I have heard the petition of King Ethelred, and of the Archbishop Theodorus (73), and of the Bishop Saxulf, and of the Abbot Cuthbald; and I will it, that it in all wise be as you have spoken it. And I ordain, in behalf of God, and of St. Peter, and of all saints, and of every hooded head, that neither king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor any man whatever, have any claim, or gable, or gild, or levy, or take any service of any kind, from the abbey of Medhamsted. I command also, that no shire-bishop be so bold as to hold an ordination or consecration within this abbacy, except the abbot intreat him, nor have there any claim to proxies, or synodals, or anything whatever of any kind. And I will, that the abbot be holden for legate of Rome over all that island; and whatever abbot is there chosen by the monks that he be consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury. I will and decree, that, whatever man may have made a vow to go to Rome, and cannot perform it, either from infirmity, or for his lord's need, or from poverty, or from any other necessity of any kind whatever, whereby he cannot come thither, be he of England, or of whatever other island he be, he may come to that minster of Medhamsted, and have the same forgiveness of Christ and St. Peter, and of the abbot, and of the monks, that he should have if he went to Rome. Now bid I thee, brother Theodorus (73), that thou let it be proclaimed through all England, that a synod be gathered, and this writ be read and observed. Also I tell thee, Bishop Saxulf, that, as thou desirest it, that the minster be free, so I forbid thee, and all the bishops that after thee come, from Christ and from all his saints, that ye have no demand from that minster, except so much as the abbot will. Now will I say in a word, that, whoso holdeth this writ and this decree, then be he ever dwelling with God Almighty in the kingdom of heaven. And whoso breaketh it, then be he excommunicated, and thrust down with Judas, and with all the devils in hell, except he come to repentance. Amen!" This writ sent the Pope Agatho, and a hundred and twenty-five bishops, by Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, to England. This was done after our Lord's Nativity 680, the sixth year of King Ethelred. Then the king commanded the Archbishop Theodorus (73), that he should appoint a general Wittenmoot at the place called Hatfield. When they were there collected, then he allowed the letter to be read that the pope sent thither; and all ratified and confirmed it. Then said the king: "All things that my brother Peada, and my brother Wulfere (35), and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, gave and granted to St. Peter and the abbot, these I will may stand; and I will in my day increase it, for their souls and for my soul. Now give I St. Peter to-day into his minster, Medhamsted, these lands, and all that thereto lyeth; that is, Bredon, Repings, Cadney, Swineshead, Hanbury, Lodeshall, Scuffanhall, Cosford, Stratford, Wattleburn, Lushgard, Ethelhun-island, Bardney. These lands I give St. Peter just as freely as I possessed them myself; and so, that none of my successors take anything therefrom. Whoso doeth it, have he the curse of the Pope of Rome, and the curse of all bishops, and of all those that are witnesses here. And this I confirm with the token of Christ." (+) "I Theodorus (73), Archbishop of Canterbury, am witness to this charter of Medhamsted; and I ratify it with my hand, and I excommunicate all that break anything thereof; and I bless all that hold it." (+) "I Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, am witness to this charter; and I ratify this same curse." (+) "I Saxulf, who was first abbot, and now am bishop, I give my curse, and that of all my successors, to those who break this."—"I Ostritha, Ethelred's queen, confirm it."—"I Adrian, legate, ratify it."—"I Putta, Bishop of Rochester, subscribe it."—"I Waldhere, Bishop of London, confirm it."—"I Cuthbald, abbot, ratify it; so that, whoso breaketh it, have he the cursing of all bishops and of all christian folk. Amen."

Battle of the Trent

Anglo Saxon Chronicle 650 699. 679. This year Elwin was slain, by the river Trent, on the spot where Everth (34) and Ethelred fought. This year also died St. Etheldritha (43); and the monastery of Coldingiham was destroyed by fire from heaven.

Around 679 Æthelred King Mercia -704 defeated the Northumbrian army led by Ecgfrith King Northumbria 645-685 (34) at the Battle of the Trent somehere in Lindsey. Aelfwine King Deira -679 was killed.

Battle of Dun Nechtain

Anglo Saxon Chronicle 650 699. 685. This year King Everth (40) commanded Cuthbert (51) to be consecrated a bishop; and Archbishop Theodore (83), on the first day of Easter, consecrated him at York Bishop of Hexham; for Trumbert had been deprived of that see. The same year Everth (40) was slain by the north sea, and a large army with him, on the thirteenth day before the calends of June. He continued king fifteen winters; and his brother Elfrith succeeded him in the government. Everth (40) was the son of Oswy. Oswy of Ethelferth, Ethelferth of Ethelric, Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. About this time Ceadwall (26) began to struggle for a kingdom. Ceadwall (26) was the son of Kenbert, Kenbert of Chad, Chad of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic. Mull, who was afterwards consigned to the flames in Kent, was the brother of Ceadwall (26). The same year died Lothhere, King of Kent; and John was consecrated Bishop of Hexham, where he remained till Wilferth was restored, when John was translated to York on the death of Bishop Bosa. Wilferth his priest was afterwards consecrated Bishop of York, and John retired to his monastery in the woods of Delta. This year there was in Britain a bloody rain, and milk and butter were turned to blood.

On 20 May 685 Bridei III Picts 627-693 (57) defeated the Northumbrian army at the Battle of Dun Nechtain.
Ecgfrith King Northumbria 645-685 (40) was killed at Dunnichen, Angus. His brother Aldfrith King Northumbria -704 succeeded King Northumbria.