On 02 May 1641 [his father] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (14) and Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (9) were married. She a daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.
On 14 Mar 1647 [his grandfather] Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1584-1647 (63) died. His son William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (20) succeeded II Prince Orange. Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (15) by marriage Princess Orange.
On 04 Nov 1650 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 was born to [his father] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (24) and Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (19). He a grandson of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.
In 1653 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (2) was appointed 456th Knight of the Garter by [his uncle] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (22).
Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 May 1660. 14 May 1660. In the morning when I woke and rose, I saw myself out of the scuttle close by the shore, which afterwards I was told to be the Dutch shore; the Hague was clearly to be seen by us. My Lord went up in his nightgown into the cuddy1, to see how to dispose thereof for himself and us that belong to him, to give order for our removal to-day. Some nasty Dutchmen came on board to proffer their boats to carry things from us on shore, &c., to get money by us. Before noon some gentlemen came on board from the shore to kiss my Lord's hands. And by and by Mr. North (24) and Dr. Clerke went to kiss the Queen of Bohemia's' hands, from my Lord, with twelve attendants from on board to wait on them, among which I sent my boy, who, like myself, is with child to see any strange thing. After noon they came back again after having kissed the Queen of Bohemia's (63) hand, and were sent again by my Lord to do the same to the Prince of Orange (9)2.
1. "A sort of cabin or cook-room, generally in the fore-part, but sometimes near the stern of lighters and barges of burden".—Smyth's Sailor's Word-Book.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 May 1660. 14 May 1660. So I got the Captain to ask leave for me to go, which my Lord did give, and I taking my boy and judge Advocate with me, went in company with them. The weather bad; we were sadly washed when we came near the shore, it being very hard to land there. The shore is, as all the country between that and the Hague, all sand. The rest of the company got a coach by themselves; Mr. Creed and I went in the fore part of a coach wherein were two very pretty ladies, very fashionable and with black patches, who very merrily sang all the way and that very well, and were very free to kiss the two blades that were with them. I took out my flageolette and piped, but in piping I dropped my rapier-stick, but when I came to the Hague, I sent my boy back again for it and he found it, for which I did give him 6d., but some horses had gone over it and broke the scabbard. The Hague is a most neat place in all respects. The houses so neat in all places and things as is possible. Here we walked up and down a great while, the town being now very full of Englishmen, for that the Londoners were come on shore today. But going to see the Prince (9), he was gone forth with his governor, and so we walked up and down the town and court to see the place; and by the help of a stranger, an Englishman, we saw a great many places, and were made to understand many things, as the intention of may-poles, which we saw there standing at every great man's door, of different greatness according to the quality of the person. About 10 at night the Prince comes home, and we found an easy admission. His attendance very inconsiderable as for a prince; but yet handsome, and his tutor a fine man, and himself a very pretty boy. It was bright moonshine to-night. This done we went to a place we had taken to sup in, where a sallet and two or three bones of Mutton were provided for a matter of ten of us which was very strange. After supper the Judge and I to another house, leaving them there, and he and I lay in one press bed, there being two more in the same room, but all very neat and handsome, my boy sleeping upon a bench by me.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 July 1665. 04 Jul 1665. Up, and sat at the office all the morning.
At noon to the 'Change and thence to the Dolphin, where a good dinner at the cost of one Mr. Osbaston, who lost a wager to Sir W. Batten (64), Sir W. Rider, and Sir R. Ford (51), a good while since and now it is spent. The wager was that ten of our ships should not have a fight with ten of the enemy's before Michaelmas. Here was other very good company, and merry, and at last in come Mr. Buckeworth, a very fine gentleman, and proves to be a Huntingdonshireshire man.
Thence to my office and there all the afternoon till night, and so home to settle some accounts of Tangier and other papers. I hear this day the [his uncle] Duke (31) and Prince Rupert (45) are both come back from sea, and neither of them go back again. The latter I much wonder at, but it seems the towne reports so, and I am very glad of it.
This morning I did a good piece of work with Sir W. Warren, ending the business of the lotterys, wherein honestly I think I shall get above £100. Bankert, it seems, is come home with the little fleete he hath been abroad with, without doing any thing, so that there is nobody of an enemy at sea. We are in great hopes of meeting with the Dutch East India fleete, which is mighty rich, or with De Ruyter (58), who is so also. Sir Richard Ford (51) told me this day, at table, a fine account, how the Dutch were like to have been mastered by the present Prince of Orange1 (14) his [his father] father (39) to be besieged in Amsterdam, having drawn an army of foot into the towne, and horse near to the towne by night, within three miles of the towne, and they never knew of it; but by chance the Hamburgh post in the night fell among the horse, and heard their design, and knowing the way, it being very dark and rainy, better than they, went from them, and did give notice to the towne before the others could reach the towne, and so were saved. It seems this De Witt and another family, the Beckarts, were among the chief of the familys that were enemys to the Prince, and were afterwards suppressed by the Prince, and continued so till he was, as they say, poysoned; and then they turned all again, as it was, against the young Prince (14), and have so carried it to this day, it being about 12 and 14 years, and De Witt in the head of them.
1. The period alluded to is 1650, when the States-General disbanded part of the forces which the [his father] Prince of Orange (39) (William) wished to retain. The prince attempted, but unsuccessfully, to possess himself of Amsterdam. In the same year he died, at the early age of twenty-four; some say of the small-pox; others, with Sir Richard Ford (51), say of poison. B.
John Evelyn's Diary 01 August 1666. 01 Aug 1666. I went to Dr. Keffler (71), who married the daughter of the famous chemist, Drebbell (94), inventor of the bodied scarlet. I went to see his iron ovens, made portable (formerly) for the Prince of Orange's (15) army: supped at the Rhenish Wine-House with divers Scots gentlemen.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 August 1666. 16 Aug 1666. Up, having slept well, and after entering my journal, to the office, where all the morning, but of late Sir W. Coventry (38) hath not come to us, he being discouraged from the little we have to do but to answer the clamours of people for money.
At noon home, and there dined with me my Lady Pen (42) only and W. Hewer (24) at a haunch of venison boiled, where pretty merry, only my wife vexed me a little about demanding money to go with my Lady Pen (42) to the Exchange to lay out.
I to the office, where all the afternoon and very busy and doing much business; but here I had a most eminent experience of the evil of being behindhand in business. I was the most backward to begin any thing, and would fain have framed to myself an occasion of going abroad, and should, I doubt, have done it, but some business coming in, one after another, kept me there, and I fell to the ridding away of a great deale of business, and when my hand was in it was so pleasing a sight to [see] my papers disposed of, and letters answered, which troubled my book and table, that I could have continued there with delight all night long, and did till called away by my Lady Pen (42) and Pegg (15) and my wife to their house to eat with them; and there I went, and exceeding merry, there being Nan Wright, now Mrs. Markham, and sits at table with my Lady. So mighty merry, home and to bed.
This day Sir W. Batten (65) did show us at the table a letter from Sir T. Allen (54), which says that we have taken ten or twelve' ships (since the late great expedition of burning their ships and towne), laden with hempe, flax, tarr, deales, &c. This was good newes; but by and by comes in Sir G. Carteret (56), and he asked us with full mouth what we would give for good newes. Says Sir W. Batten (65), "I have better than you, for a wager". They laid sixpence, and we that were by were to give sixpence to him that told the best newes. So Sir W. Batten (65) told his of the ten or twelve ships Sir G. Carteret (56) did then tell us that upon the newes of the burning of the ships and towne the common people a Amsterdam did besiege De Witt's house, and he was force to flee to the Prince of Orange (15), who is gone to Cleve to the marriage of his [his aunt] sister (23) [Notee. his aunt]. This we concluded all the best newest and my Lord Bruncker (46) and myself did give Sir G. Carteret (56) our sixpence a-piece, which he did give Mr. Smith to give the poor. Thus we made ourselves mighty merry.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 October 1666. 08 Oct 1666. Up and to my office, called up by Commissioner Middleton, newly come to town, but staid not with me; so I to my office busy all the morning. Towards noon, by water to Westminster Hall, and there by several hear that the Parliament do resolve to do something to retrench Sir G. Carteret's (56) great salary; but cannot hear of any thing bad they can lay to his charge.
The House did this day order to be engrossed the Bill against importing Irish cattle; a thing, it seems, carried on by the Western Parliament-men, wholly against the sense of most of the rest of the House; who think if you do this, you give the Irish again cause to rebel. Thus plenty on both sides makes us mad. The Committee of the Canary Company of both factions come to me for my Cozen Roger (49) that is of the Committee.
Thence with Sir W. Coventry (38) when the House rose and Sir W. Batten (65) to St. James's, and there agreed of and signed our paper of extraordinaries, and there left them, and I to Unthanke's, where Mr. Falconbridge's girle is, and by and by comes my wife, who likes her well, though I confess I cannot (though she be of my finding out and sings pretty well), because she will be raised from so mean a condition to so high all of a sudden; but she will be much to our profit, more than Mercer, less expense. Here we bespoke anew gowne for her, and to come to us on Friday. !She being gone, my wife and I home by coach, and then I presently by water with Mr. Pierce to Westminster Hall, he in the way telling me how the [his uncle] Duke of York (32) and Duke of Albemarle (57) do not agree. The [his uncle] Duke of York (32) is wholly given up to this bitch (26) of Denham (51). The Duke of Albemarle (57) and Prince Rupert (46) do less agree. So that we are all in pieces, and nobody knows what will be done the next year.
The [his uncle] King (36) hath yesterday in Council declared his resolution of setting a fashion for clothes, which he will never alter1. It will be a vest, I know not well how; but it is to teach the nobility thrift, and will do good.
By and by comes down from the Committee Sir W. Coventry (38), and I find him troubled at several things happened this afternoon, which vexes me also; our business looking worse and worse, and our worke growing on our hands. Time spending, and no money to set anything in hand with; the end thereof must be speedy ruine. The Dutch insult and have taken off Bruant's head2, which they have not dared to do (though found guilty of the fault he did die for, of something of the Prince of Orange's (15) faction) till just now, which speaks more confidence in our being worse than before. Alderman Maynell, I hear, is dead.
Thence returned in the darke by coach all alone, full of thoughts of the consequences of this ill complexion of affairs, and how to save myself and the little I have, which if I can do, I have cause to bless God that I am so well, and shall be well contented to retreat to Brampton, and spend the rest of my days there.
So to my office, and did some business, and finished my Journall with resolutions, if God bless me, to apply myself soberly to settle all matters for myself, and expect the event of all with comfort.
So home to supper and to bed.
1. There are several references to this new fashion of dress introduced by the [his uncle] King (36), Pepys saw the [his uncle] Duke of York (32) put on the vest on the 13th, and he says Charles II himself put it on on the 15th. On November 4th Pepys dressed himself in the new vest and coat. See notes, October 15th and November 22nd.
2. Captain Du Buat, a Frenchman in the Dutch service, plotted with two magistrates of Rotterdam to obtain a peace with England as the readiest means of pressing the elevation of the Prince of Orange to the office of Captain-General. He was brought before the Supreme Court of Holland, condemned, and executed. He had been one of the household of the Prince of Orange who were dismissed by De Witt.
John Evelyn's Diary 02 December 1666. 02 Dec 1666. Dined with me Monsieur Kiviet (39), a Dutch gentleman-pensioner of Rotterdam, who came over for protection, being of the Prince of Orange's (16) party, now not welcome in Holland. The [his uncle] King (36) knighted him for some merit in the Prince's (16) behalf. He should, if caught, have been beheaded with Monsieur Buat, and was brother-in-law to Van Tromp, the sea-general. With him came Mr. Gabriel_Sylvius, and Mr. Williamson (33), secretary to Lord Arlington (48); M. Kiviet (39) came to examine whether the soil about the river of Thames would be proper to make clinker bricks, and to treat with me about some accommodation in order to it.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 February 1667. 17 Feb 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and called at Michell's, and took him and his wife and carried them to Westminster, I landing at White Hall, and having no pleasure in the way 'con elle'; and so to the [his uncle] Duke's (33), where we all met and had a hot encounter before the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) about the business of our payments at the Ticket Office, where we urged that we had nothing to do to be troubled with the pay, having examined the tickets. Besides, we are neglected, having not money sent us in time, but to see the baseness of my brethren, not a man almost put in a word but Sir W. Coventry (39), though at the office like very devils in this point. But I did plainly declare that, without money, no fleete could be expected, and desired the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) to take notice of it, and notice was taken of it, but I doubt will do no good. But I desire to remember it as a most prodigious thing that to this day my Lord Treasurer (59) hath not consulted counsel, which Sir W. Coventry (39) and I and others do think is necessary, about the late Poll act, enough to put the same into such order as that any body dare lend money upon it, though we have from this office under our hands related the necessity thereof to the [his uncle] Duke of York (33), nor is like to be determined in, for ought I see, a good while had not Sir W. Coventry (39) plainly said that he did believe it would be a better work for the [his uncle] King (36) than going to church this morning, to send for the Atturney Generall (69) to meet at the Lord Treasurer's (59) this afternoon and to bring the thing to an issue, saying that himself, were he going to the Sacrament, would not think he should offend God to leave it and go to the ending this work, so much it is of moment to the [his uncle] King (36) and Kingdom. Hereupon the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) said he would presently speak to the [his uncle] King (36), and cause it to be done this afternoon.
Having done here we broke up; having done nothing almost though for all this, and by and by I met Sir G. Carteret (57), and he is stark mad at what has passed this morning, and I believe is heartily vexed with me: I said little, but I am sure the [his uncle] King (36) will suffer if some better care be not taken than he takes to look after this business of money.
So parted, and I by water home and to dinner, W. Hewer (25) with us, a good dinner and-very merry, my wife and I, and after dinner to my chamber, to fit some things against: the Council anon, and that being done away to White Hall by water, and thence to my Chancellor's (57), where I met with, and had much pretty discourse with, one of the Progers's that knows me; and it was pretty to hear him tell me, of his own accord, as a matter of no shame, that in Spayne he had a pretty woman, his mistress, whom, when money grew scarce with him, he was forced to leave, and afterwards heard how she and her husband lived well, she being kept by an old fryer who used her as his whore; but this, says he, is better than as our ministers do, who have wives that lay up their estates, and do no good nor relieve any poor—no, not our greatest prelates, and I think he is in the right for my part.
Staid till the Council was up, and attended the [his uncle] King (36) and [his uncle] Duke of York (33) round the Park, and was asked several questions by both; but I was in pain, lest they should ask me what I could not answer; as the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) did the value of the hull of the St. Patrick lately lost, which I told him I could not presently answer; though I might have easily furnished myself to answer all those questions. They stood a good while to see the ganders and geese tread one another in the water, the goose being all the while kept for a great while: quite under water, which was new to me, but they did make mighty sport of it, saying (as the [his uncle] King (36) did often) "Now you shall see a marriage, between this and that", which did not please me.
They gone, by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (59), as the [his uncle] Duke of York (33) told me, to settle the business of money for the navy, I walked into the Court to and again till night, and there met Colonell Reames (53), and he and I walked together a great while complaining of the ill-management of things, whereof he is as full as I am. We ran over many persons and things, and see nothing done like men like to do well while the [his uncle] King (36) minds his pleasures so much. We did bemoan it that nobody would or had authority enough with the [his uncle] King (36) to tell him how all things go to rack and will be lost.
Then he and I parted, and I to Westminster to the Swan, and there staid till Michell and his wife come. Old Michell and his wife come to see me, and there we drank and laughed a little, and then the young ones and I took boat, it being fine moonshine. I did to my trouble see all the way that 'elle' did get as close 'a su marido' as 'elle' could, and turn her 'mains' away 'quand je' did endeavour to take one.... So that I had no pleasure at all 'con elle ce' night.
When we landed I did take occasion to send him back a the bateau while I did get a 'baiser' or two, and would have taken 'la' by 'la' hand, but 'elle' did turn away, and 'quand' I said shall I not 'toucher' to answered 'ego' no love touching, in a slight mood. I seemed not to take notice of it, but parted kindly; 'su marido' did alter with me almost a my case, and there we parted, and so I home troubled at this, but I think I shall make good use of it and mind my business more.
At home, by appointment, comes Captain Cocke (50) to me, to talk of State matters, and about the peace; who told me that the whole business is managed between Kevet, Burgomaster of Amsterdam, and my Lord Arlington (49), who hath, by the interest of his wife there, some interest. We have proposed the Hague, but know not yet whether the Dutch will like it; or; if they do, whether the French will. We think we shall have the help of the information of their affairs and state, and the helps of the Prince of Orange (16) his faction; but above all, that De Witt, who hath all this while said he cannot get peace, his mouth will now be stopped, so that he will be forced to offer fit terms for fear of the people; and, lastly, if France or Spayne do not please us, we are in a way presently to clap up a peace with the Dutch, and secure them. But we are also in treaty with France, as he says: but it must be to the excluding our alliance with the [his uncle] King (36) of Spayne or House of Austria; which we do not know presently what will be determined in. He tells me the Vice-Chamberlaine is so great with the [his uncle] King (36), that, let the [his uncle] Duke of York (33), and Sir W. Coventry (39), and this office, do or say what they will, while the [his uncle] King (36) lives, Sir G. Carteret (57) will do what he will; and advises me to be often with him, and eat and drink with him.; and tells me that he doubts he is jealous of me, and was mighty mad to-day at our discourse to him before the [his uncle] Duke of York (33). But I did give him my reasons that the office is concerned to declare that, without money, the King's work cannot go on.
From that discourse we ran to others, and among the others he assures me that Henry Bruncker (40) is one of the shrewdest fellows for parts in England, and a dangerous man; that if ever the Parliament comes again Sir W. Coventry (39) cannot stand, but in this I believe him not; that, while we want money so much in the Navy, the Officers of the Ordnance have at this day £300,000 good in tallys, which they can command money upon, got by their over-estimating their charge in getting it reckoned as a fifth part of the expense of the Navy; that Harry Coventry (48), who is to go upon this treaty with Lord Hollis (67) (who he confesses to be a very wise man) into Holland, is a mighty quick, ready man, but not so weighty as he should be, he knowing him so well in his drink as he do; that, unless the [his uncle] King (36) do do something against my Lord Mordaunt (40) and the Patent for the Canary Company, before the Parliament next meets, he do believe there will be a civil war before there will be any more money given, unless it may be at their perfect disposal; and that all things are now ordered to the provoking of the Parliament against they come next, and the spending the King's money, so as to put him into a necessity of having it at the time it is prorogued for, or sooner.
Having discoursed all this and much more, he away, and I to supper and to read my vows, and to bed. My mind troubled about Betty Michell, 'pour sa carriage' this night 'envers moy', but do hope it will put me upon doing my business.
This evening, going to the Queen's (28) side to see the ladies, I did find the [his grandmother] Queene (57), the Duchesse of York (29), and another or two, at cards, with the room full of great ladies and men; which I was amazed at to see on a Sunday, having not believed it; but, contrarily, flatly denied the same a little while since to my cozen Roger Pepys (49)? I did this day, going by water, read the answer to "The Apology for Papists", which did like me mightily, it being a thing as well writ as I think most things that ever I read in my life, and glad I am that I read it.
John Evelyn's Diary 04 November 1670. 04 Nov 1670. Saw the Prince of Orange (20), newly come to see the [his uncle] King (40), his uncle; he has a manly, courageous, wise countenance, resembling his mother (39) and the Duke of Gloucester (30), both deceased.
I now also saw that famous beauty, but in my opinion of a childish, simple, and baby face, Mademoiselle Querouaille (21), lately Maid of Honor to [his aunt] Madame (26), and now to be so to the Queen (31).
John Evelyn's Diary 24 June 1671. 24 Jun 1671. Constantine Huygens (74), Signor of Zuylichem, that excellent learned man, poet, and musician, now near eighty years of age, a vigorous, brisk man, came to take leave of me before his return into Holland with the Prince (20), whose Secretary he was.
John Evelyn's Diary 23 October 1677. 23 Oct 1677. Saw again the Prince of Orange (26); his marriage with the [his future wife] Lady Mary (15), eldest daughter to the Duke of York (44), by Mrs. Hyde (40), the late Duchess, was now declared.
On 04 Nov 1677 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (27) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (15) were married. They were first cousins. He a grandson of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. She a daughter of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701. [his wife] She by marriage Princess Orange.
John Evelyn's Diary 19 November 1677. 19 Nov 1677. They went away, and I saw embarked my Lady Sylvius (24), who went into Holland with her husband, made Hoffmaester to the Prince (27), a considerable employment. We parted with great sorrow, for the great respect and honor I bore her, a most pious and virtuous lady.
John Evelyn's Diary 01 October 1678. 01 Oct 1678. The Parliament and the whole Nation were alarmed about a conspiracy of some eminent Papists for the destruction of the [his uncle] King (48) and introduction of Popery, discovered by one Oates (29) and Dr. Tongue, WHICH LAST I KNEW, BEING THE TRANSLATOR OF THE "Jesuits' Morals"; I went to see and converse with him at Whitehall, with Mr. Oates (29), one that was lately an apostate to the church of Rome, and now returned again with this discovery. He seemed to be a bold man, and, in my thoughts, furiously indiscreet; but everybody believed what he said; and it quite changed the genius and motions of the Parliament, growing now corrupt and interested with long sitting and court practices; but, with all this, Popery would not go down. This discovery turned them all as one man against it, and nothing was done but to find out the depth of this. Oates (29) was encouraged, and everything he affirmed taken for gospel; the truth is, the Roman Catholics were exceedingly bold and busy everywhere, since the Duke (27) forbore to go any longer to the chapel.
On 28 Jul 1683 Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland 1653-1708 (30) and [his sister-in-law] Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (18) were married at Chapel Royal St James's Palace. They were second cousins once removed. She a daughter of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.
On 29 Nov 1683 Henry Waldegrave 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset 1661-1689 (22) and [his sister-in-law] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 (16) were married. She a daughter of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.
John Evelyn's Diary 15 February 1684. 15 Feb 1684. Newes of the Prince of Orange (33) having accus'd the Deputies of Amsterdam of Crimen lesse Majestatis, and being Pensioners to France. Dr. Tenison (47) communicated to me his intention of erecting a Library in St. Martin's parish, for the publiq use, and desir'd my assistance with Sr Chris Wren about the placeing and structure thereof. A worthy and laudable designe. He told me there were 30 or 40 young men in Orders in his parish, either Governors to young gentlemen or Chaplains to noblemen, who being reprov'd by him on occasion for frequenting taverns or coffee-houses, told him they would study or employ their time better, if they had books. This put the pious Doctor on this designe; and indeede a greate reproch it is that so greate a Citty as London should not have a publiq Library becoming it. There ought to be one at St. Paules; the West end of that church (If ever finish'd) would be a convenient place.
John Evelyn's Diary 23 February 1684. 23 Feb 1684. I went to Sir John Chardine (40), who desired my assistance for the engraving the plates, the translation, and printing his History of that wonderfull Persian. Monument neere Persepolis, and other rare antiquities, which he had caus'd to be drawne from the originals in his second journey into Persia, which we now concluded upon. Afterwards I went with Sr Christ' Wren to Dr Tenison (47), where we made the drawing and estimate of the expence of the Library, to be begun this next Spring neere the Mewes. Greate expectation of the Prince of Orange's (33) attempts in Holland to bring those of Amsterdam to consent to the new levies, to which we were no friends, by a pseudo-politic adherence to the French interest.
John Evelyn's Diary 12 May 1684. 12 May 1684. I return'd to London, where I found the Commissioners of the Admiralty abolish'd, and the office of Admiral restor'd to ye [his uncle] Duke (50), as to the disposal and ordering all Sea businesse; but his Ma (53) sign'd all Petitions, Papers, Warrants, and Commissions, that the Duke, not acting as Admiral by commission or office, might not incur the penalty of the late Act against Papists and Dissenters holding offices, and refusing the Oath and Test. Every one was glad of this change, those in the late Commission being utterly ignorant in their duty, to the greate damage of the Navy.
The utter mine of the Low Country was threaten'd by the siege of Luxembergh, if not timely reliev'd, and by the obstinacy of the Hollanders, who refus'd to assist the Prince of Orange (33), being corrupted by the French.
John Evelyn's Diary 26 May 1684. 26 May 1684. Lord Dartmouth (37) was chosen Master of the Trinity House, newly return'd with the fleete from blowing up and demolishing Tangier. In the sermon preach'd on this occasion, Dr. Can observ'd that, in the 27th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, the casting anchor out of the fore-ship had been cavill'd at as betraying total Ignorance: that it is very true our seamen do not do so, but in the Mediterranean their ships were built differently from ours, and to this day it was the practice to do so there.
Luxembergh was surrender'd to the French, which makes them master of all the Netherlands, gives them entrance into Germany, and a fair game for universal monarchy; which that we should suffer, who only and easily might have hinder'd, astonish'd all the world. Thus is the poor Prince of Orange (33) ruin'd, and this nation and all the Protestant interest in Europe following, unlesse God in his infinite mercy, as by a miracle, interpose, and our greate ones alter their counsels. The French fleete were now besieging Genoa, but after burning much of that beautifull citty with their bombs, went off with disgrace.
John Evelyn's Diary 18 July 1685. 18 Jul 1685. I went to see the muster of the 6 Scotch and English regiments whom the Prince of Orange (34) had lately sent to his [his uncle] Ma* (51) out of Holland upon this rebellion, but which were now returning, there having ben no occasion for their use. They were all excellently clad and well disciplin'd, and were incamped on Blackheath with their tents: the King (55) and Queene (46) came to see them exercise, and the manner of their incampment, which was very neate and magnificent. By a grosse mistake of the Secretary of his Ma*'s forces, it had ben order'd that they should be quarter'd in private houses, contrary to an Act of Parliament, but on my informing his Ma* timely of it, It was prevented. The two horsemen wch my son and myselfe sent into the county troopes, were now come home, after a moneth's being out to our greate charge.
John Evelyn's Diary 10 August 1688. 10 Aug 1688. Dr. Tenison (51) now told me there would suddenly be some great thing discovered. This was the Prince of Orange (37) intending to come over.
John Evelyn's Diary 18 September 1688. 18 Sep 1688. I went to London, where I found the Court in the utmost consternation on report of the Prince of Orange's (37) landing; which put Whitehall into so panic a fear, that I could hardly believe it possible to find such a change.
Writs were issued in order to a Parliament, and a declaration to back the good order of elections, with great professions of maintaining the Church of England, but without giving any sort of satisfaction to the people, who showed their high discontent at several things in the Government.
Earthquakes had utterly demolished the ancient Smyrna, and several other places in Greece, Italy, and even in the Spanish Indies, forerunners of greater calamities. God Almighty preserve his Church and all who put themselves under the shadow of his wings, till these things be overpassed.
John Evelyn's Diary 30 September 1688. 30 Sep 1688. The Court in so extraordinary a consternation, on assurance of the Prince of Orange's (37) intention to land, that the writs sent forth for a Parliament were recalled.
In Oct 1688 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle 1670-1718 (18) and Robert Ferguson Minister 1637-1714 (51) accompanied King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (37) to England during the Glorious Revolution.
John Evelyn's Diary 07 October 1688. 07 Oct 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on 2 Tim. iii. 16, showing the Scriptures to be our only rule of faith, and its perfection above all traditions. After which, near 1,000 devout persons partook of the Communion. The sermon was chiefly occasioned by a Jesuit, who in the Masshouse on the Sunday before had disparaged the Scripture and railed at our translation, which some present contradicting, they pulled him out of the pulpit, and treated him very coarsely, insomuch that it was like to create a great disturbance in the city.
Hourly expectation of the Prince of Orange's (37) invasion heightened to that degree, that his [his uncle] Majesty (54) thought fit to abrogate the Commission for the dispensing Power (but retaining his own right still to dispense with all laws) and restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. In the meantime, he called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued to remove Protestants and put in Papists at Portsmouth and other places of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, that they seemed passionately to long for and desire the landing of that Prince (37), whom they looked on to be their deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying incessantly for an east wind, which was said to be the only hindrance of his expedition with a numerous army ready to make a descent. To such a strange temper, and unheard of in former times, was this poor nation reduced, and of which I was an eyewitness. The apprehension was (and with reason) that his [his uncle] Majesty's (54) forces would neither at land nor sea oppose them with that vigor requisite to repel invaders.
The late imprisoned Bishops were now called to reconcile matters, and the Jesuits hard at work to foment confusion among the Protestants by their usual tricks. A letter was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), informing him, from good hands, of what was contriving by them. A paper of what the Bishops advised his [his uncle] Majesty (58) was published. The Bishops were enjoined to prepare a form of prayer against the feared invasion. A pardon published. Soldiers and mariners daily pressed.
NOTE. The Letter was written by John Evelyn ...
My Lord, The honor and reputation which your Grace's piety, prudence, and signal courage, have justly merited and obtained, not only from the sons of the Church of England, but even universally from those Protestants among us who are Dissenters from her discipline; God Almighty's Providence and blessing upon your Grace's vigilancy and extraordinary endeavors will not suffer to be diminished in this conjuncture. The conversation I now and then have with some in place who have the opportunity of knowing what is doing in the most secret recesses and cabals of our Church's adversaries, obliges me to acquaint you, that the calling of your Grace and the rest of the Lords Bishops to Court, and what has there of late been required of you, is only to create a jealousy and suspicion among well-meaning people of such compliances, as it is certain they have no cause to apprehend. The plan of this and of all that which is to follow of seeming favor thence, is wholly drawn by the Jesuits, who are at this time more than ever busy to make divisions among us, all other arts and mechanisms having hitherto failed them. They have, with other things contrived that your Lordships the Bishops should give his [his uncle] Majesty (58) advice separately, without calling any of the rest of the Peers, which, though maliciously suggested, spreads generally about the town. I do not at all question but your Grace will speedily prevent the operation of this venom, and that you will think it highly necessary so to do, that your Grace is also enjoined to compose a form of prayer, wherein the Prince of Orange is expressly to be named the Invader: of this I presume not to say anything; but for as much as in all the Declarations, etc., which have hitherto been published in pretended favor of the Church of England, there is not once the least mention of the Reformed or Protestant Religion, but only of the Church of England as by Law Established, which Church the Papists tell us is the Church of Rome, which is (say they) the Catholic Church of England—that only is established by Law; the Church of England in the Reformed sense so established, is but by an usurped authority. The antiquity of THAT would by these words be explained, and utterly defeat this false and subdolous construction, and take off all exceptions whatsoever; if, in all extraordinary offices, upon these occasions, the words Reformed and Protestant were added to that of the Church of England by Law established. And whosoever threatens to invade or come against us, to the prejudice of that Church, in God's name, be they Dutch or Irish, let us heartily pray and fight against them. My Lord, this is, I confess, a bold, but honest period; and, though I am well assured that your Grace is perfectly acquainted with all this before, and therefore may blame my impertinence, as that does αλλοτριοεπισκοπειν; yet I am confident you will not reprove the zeal of one who most humbly begs your Grace's pardon, with your blessing. Lond., 10 Oct 1688.
John Evelyn's Diary 01 November 1688. 01 Nov 1688. Dined with Lord Preston (39), with other company, at Sir Stephen Fox's (61). Continual alarms of the Prince of Orange (37), but no certainty. Reports of his great losses of horse in the storm, but without any assurance. A man was taken with divers papers and printed manifestoes, and carried to Newgate, after examination at the Cabinet Council. There was likewise a declaration of the States for satisfaction of all public ministers at The Hague, except to the English and the French. There was in that of the Prince's an expression, as if the Lords both spiritual and temporal had invited him over, with a deduction of the causes of his enterprise. This made his [his uncle] Majesty (55) convene my Lord of Canterbury (71) and the other Bishops now in town, to give an account of what was in the manifesto, and to enjoin them to clear themselves by some public writing of this disloyal charge.
John Evelyn's Diary 02 November 1688. 02 Nov 1688. It was now certainly reported by some who saw the fleet, and the Prince (37) embark, that they sailed from the Brill on Wednesday morning, and that the [his wife] Princess of Orange (26) was there to take leave of her husband.
John Evelyn's Diary 04 November 1688. 04 Nov 1688. Fresh reports of the Prince (38) being landed somewhere about Portsmouth, or the Isle of Wight, whereas it was thought it would have been northward. The Court in great hurry.
John Evelyn's Diary 05 November 1688. 05 Nov 1688. I went to London; heard the news of the Prince (38) having landed at Torbay, coming with a fleet of near 700 sail, passing through the Channel with so favorable a wind, that our navy could not intercept, or molest them. This put the [his uncle] King (55) and Court into great consternation, they were now employed in forming an army to stop their further progress, for they were got into Exeter, and the season and ways very improper for his [his uncle] Majesty's (58) forces to march so great a distance.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (71) and some few of the other Bishops and Lords in London, were sent for to Whitehall, and required to set forth their abhorrence of this invasion. They assured his [his uncle] Majesty (55) that they had never invited any of the Prince's (38) party, or were in the least privy to it, and would be ready to show all testimony of their loyalty; but, as to a public declaration, being so few, they desired that his [his uncle] Majesty (55) would call the rest of their brethren and Peers, that they might consult what was fit to be done on this occasion, not thinking it right to publish anything without them, and till they had themselves seen the Prince's (38) manifesto, in which it was pretended he was invited in by the Lords, spiritual and temporal. This did not please the [his uncle] King (58); so they departed.
A declaration was published, prohibiting all persons to see or read the Prince's (38) manifesto, in which was set forth at large the cause of his expedition, as there had been one before from the States.
These are the beginnings of sorrow, unless God in his mercy prevent it by some happy reconciliation of all dissensions among us. This, in all likelihood, nothing can effect except a free Parliament; but this we cannot hope to see, while there are any forces on either side. I pray God to protect and direct the [his uncle] King (55) for the best and truest interest of his people!—I saw his [his uncle] Majesty (55) touch for the evil, Piten the Jesuit, and Warner officiating.
John Evelyn's Diary 14 November 1688. 14 Nov 1688. The Prince (38) increases everyday in force. Several Lords go in to him. Lord Cornbury (26) carries some regiments, and marches to Honiton, the Prince's (38) headquarters. The city of London in disorder; the rabble pulled down the nunnery newly bought by the Papists of Lord Berkeley (60), at St. John's. The Queen (30) prepares to go to Portsmouth for safety, to attend the issue of this commotion, which has a dreadful aspect.
John Evelyn's Diary 18 November 1688. 18 Nov 1688. It was now a very hard frost. The [his uncle] King (55) goes to Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and return to London. Lord Delamere (36) appears for the Prince (38) in Cheshire. The nobility meet in Yorkshire. The Archbishop of Canterbury (71) and some Bishops, and such Peers as were in London, address his [his uncle] Majesty (55) to call a Parliament. The [his uncle] King (55) invites all foreign nations to come over. The French take all the Palatinate, and alarm the Germans more than ever.
John Evelyn's Diary 02 December 1688. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (55) and Earl of Nottingham (41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth declared for the Prince (38). Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (38) coming to Oxford. The [his brother-in-law] Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover (52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution.
On 09 Dec 1688 the Battle of Reading was fought between supporters of [his uncle] King James II (55) and King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38). King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) was victorious. Thereafter [his uncle] King James II (55) fled to France and King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) acceeded.
The Prince of Orange (38) is advanced to Windsor, is invited by the [his uncle] King (55) to St. James's, the messenger sent was the Earl of Faversham (47), the General of the Forces, who going without trumpet, or passport, is detained prisoner by the Prince (38), who accepts the invitation, but requires his Majesty (38) to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may be quartered about the palace and city. This is taken heinously and the King (38) goes privately to Rochester; is persuaded to come back; comes on the Sunday; goes to mass, and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I was present).
On 13 Dec 1688 Thomas Thynne 1st Viscount Weymouth 1640-1714 (48), along with the Earl of Pembroke (32), led a deputation to the Prince of Orange (38) who was at Henley on Thames after the flight of [his uncle] King James II (55).
John Evelyn's Diary 18 December 1688. 18 Dec 1688. I saw the [his uncle] King (55) take barge to Gravesend at twelve o'clock—a sad sight! The Prince (38) comes to St. James's, and fills Whitehall with Dutch guards. A Council of Peers meet about an expedient to call a Parliament; adjourn to the House of Lords. The Chancellor, Earl of Peterborough (67), and divers others taken. The Earl of Sunderland (47) flies; Sir Edward Hale (43), Walker, and others, taken and secured.
All the world go to see the Prince (38) at St. James's, where there is a great Court. There I saw him, and several of my acquaintance who came over with him. He is very stately, serious and reserved. The English soldiers sent out of town to disband them; not well pleased.
On 23 Dec 1688 [his uncle] King James II (55) abdicated II King England Scotland and Ireland. His daughter Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland. His nephew King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) succeeded IIi King England Scotland and Ireland.
John Evelyn's Diary 26 December 1688. 26 Dec 1688. The Peers and such Commoners as were members of the Parliament at Oxford, being the last of Charles II meeting, desire the Prince of Orange (38) to take on him the disposal of the public revenue till a convention of Lords and Commons should meet in full body, appointed by his circular letters to the shires and boroughs, 22d of January. I had now quartered upon me a Lieutenant-Colonel and eight horses.
In 1689 Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg 1615-1690 (73) was appointed 497th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26).
In 1689 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707 (48) was appointed 498th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26).
After 1689 Dr Henry Dove -1694 was appointed Chaplain to King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694.
John Evelyn's Diary 15 January 1689. 15 Jan 1689. I visited the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), where I found the Bishops of St. Asaph (61), Ely (51), Bath and Wells (51), Peterborough (61), and Chichester (65), the Earls of Aylesbury (33) and Clarendon, Sir George Mackenzie (53), Lord-Advocate of Scotland, and then came in a Scotch Archbishop, etc. After prayers and dinner, divers serious matters were discoursed, concerning the present state of the Public, and sorry I was to find there was as yet no accord in the judgments of those of the Lords and Commons who were to convene; some would have the [his wife] Princess (26) made Queen without any more dispute, others were for a Regency; there was a Tory party (then so called), who were for inviting his [his uncle] Majesty (55) again upon conditions; and there were Republicans who would make the Prince of Orange (38) like a Stadtholder. The Romanists were busy among these several parties to bring them into confusion: most for ambition or other interest, few for conscience and moderate resolutions. I found nothing of all this in this assembly of Bishops, who were pleased to admit me into their discourses; they were all for a Regency, thereby to salve their oaths, and so all public matters to proceed in his [his uncle] Majesty's (55) name, by that to facilitate the calling of Parliament, according to the laws in being. Such was the result of this meeting.
My Lord of Canterbury (71) gave me great thanks for the advertisement I sent him in October, and assured me they took my counsel in that particular, and that it came very seasonably.
I found by the Lord-Advocate (53) that the Bishops of Scotland (who were indeed little worthy of that character, and had done much mischief in that Church) were now coming about to the true interest, in this conjuncture which threatened to abolish the whole hierarchy in that kingdom; and therefore the Scottish Archbishop (55) and Lord-Advocate (53) requested the Archbishop of Canterbury (71) to use his best endeavors with the [his uncle] Prince (55) to maintain the Church there in the same state, as by law at present settled.
It now growing late, after some private discourse with his Grace (71), I took my leave, most of the Lords being gone.
The trial of the bishops was now printed.
The great convention being assembled the day before, falling upon the question about the government, resolved that [his uncle] King James (55) having by the advice of the Jesuits and other wicked persons endeavored to subvert the laws of the Church and State, and deserted the Kingdom, carrying away the seals, etc., without any care for the management of the government, had by demise abdicated himself and wholly vacated his right; they did therefore desire the Lords' concurrence to their vote, to place the crown on the next heir, the Prince of Orange (38), for his life, then to the [his wife] Princess (26), his wife, and if she died without issue, to the [his sister-in-law] Princess of Denmark (23), and she failing, to the heirs of the [his uncle] Prince (55), excluding forever all possibility of admitting a Roman Catholic.
Note. The reference to Prince is somewhat abiguous. It may refer to King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38).
John Evelyn's Diary 27 January 1689. 27 Jan 1689. I dined at the Admiralty, where was brought in a child not twelve years old, the son of one Dr. Clench, of the most prodigious maturity of knowledge, for I cannot call it altogether memory, but something more extraordinary. Mr. Pepys (55) and myself examined him, not in any method, but with promiscuous questions, which required judgment and discernment to answer so readily and pertinently. There was not anything in chronology, history, geography, the several systems of astronomy, courses of the stars, longitude, latitude, doctrine of the spheres, courses and sources of rivers, creeks, harbors, eminent cities, boundaries and bearings of countries, not only in Europe, but in any other part of the earth, which he did not readily resolve and demonstrate his knowledge of, readily drawing out with a pen anything he would describe. He was able not only to repeat the most famous things which are left us in any of the Greek or Roman histories, monarchies, republics, wars, colonies, exploits by sea and land, but all the sacred stories of the Old and New Testament; the succession of all the monarchies, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, with all the lower Emperors, Popes, Heresiarchs, and Councils, what they were called about, what they determined, or in the controversy about Easter, the tenets of the Gnostics, Sabellians, Arians, Nestorians; the difference between St. Cyprian and Stephen about re-baptism, the schisms. We leaped from that to other things totally different, to Olympic years, and synchronisms; we asked him questions which could not be resolved without considerable meditation and judgment, nay of some particulars of the Civil Laws, of the Digest and Code. He gave a stupendous account of both natural and moral philosophy, and even in metaphysics.
Having thus exhausted ourselves rather than this wonderful child, or angel rather, for he was as beautiful and lovely in countenance as in knowledge, we concluded with asking him if, in all he had read or heard of, he had ever met with anything which was like this expedition of the Prince of Orange (38), with so small a force to obtain three great kingdoms without any contest. After a little thought, he told us that he knew of nothing which did more resemble it than the coming of Constantine the Great out of Britain, through France and Italy, so tedious a march, to meet Maxentius, whom he overthrew at Pons Milvius with very little conflict, and at the very gates of Rome, which he entered and was received with triumph, and obtained the empire, not of three kingdoms only, but of all the then known world. He was perfect in the Latin authors, spoke French naturally, and gave us a description of France, Italy, Savoy, Spain, ancient and modernly divided; as also of ancient Greece, Scythia, and northern countries and tracts: we left questioning further. He did this without any set or formal repetitions, as one who had learned things without book, but as if he minded other things, going about the room, and toying with a parrot there, and as he was at dinner (tanquam aliua agens, as it were) seeming to be full of play, of a lively, sprightly temper, always smiling, and exceedingly pleasant, without the least levity, rudeness, or childishness.
His father assured us he never imposed anything to charge his memory by causing him to get things by heart, not even the rules of grammar; but his tutor (who was a Frenchman) read to him, first in French, then in Latin; that he usually played among other boys four or five hours every day, and that he was as earnest at his play as at his study. He was perfect in arithmetic, and now newly entered into Greek. In sum (horresco referens), I had read of divers forward and precocious youths, and some I have known, but I never did either hear or read of anything like to this sweet child, if it be right to call him child who has more knowledge than most men in the world. I counseled his father not to set his heart too much on this jewel, "Immodicis brevis est ætas, et rara senectus", as I myself learned by sad experience in my most dear child Richard (36), many years since, who, dying before he was six years old, was both in shape and countenance and pregnancy of learning, next to a prodigy.
John Evelyn's Diary 29 January 1689. 29 Jan 1689. The votes of the House of Commons being carried up by Mr. Hampden (36), their chairman, to the Lords, I got a station by the [his uncle] Prince's (55) lodgings at the door of the lobby to the House, and heard much of the debate, which lasted very long. Lord Derby (34) was in the chair (for the House was resolved into a grand committee of the whole House); after all had spoken, it came to the question, which was carried by three voices against a Regency, which 51 were for, 54 against; the minority alleging the danger of dethroning Kings, and scrupling many passages and expressions in the vote of the Commons, too long to set down particularly. Some were for sending to his Majesty (58) with conditions: others that the [his uncle] King (55) could do no wrong, and that the maladministration was chargeable on his ministers. There were not more than eight or nine bishops, and but two against the Regency; the archbishop (71) was absent, and the clergy now began to change their note, both in pulpit and discourse, on their old passive obedience, so as people began to talk of the bishops being cast out of the House. In short, things tended to dissatisfaction on both sides; add to this, the morose temper of the Prince of Orange (38), who showed little countenance to the noblemen and others, who expected a more gracious and cheerful reception when they made their court. The English army also was not so in order, and firm to his interest, nor so weakened but that it might give interruption. Ireland was in an ill posture as well as Scotland. Nothing was yet done toward a settlement. God of his infinite mercy compose these things, that we may be at last a Nation and a Church under some fixed and sober establishment!
John Evelyn's Diary 30 January 1689. 30 Jan 1689. The anniversary of [his grandfather] King Charles I's (88) MARTYRDOM; but in all the public offices and pulpit prayers, the collects, and litany for the King (38) and Queen (30) were curtailed and mutilated. Dr. Sharp (43) preached before the Commons, but was disliked, and not thanked for his sermon.
John Evelyn's Diary 31 January 1689. 31 Jan 1689. At our church (the next day being appointed a thanksgiving for deliverance by the Prince of Orange (38), with prayers purposely composed), our lecturer preached in the afternoon a very honest sermon, showing our duty to God for the many signal deliverances of our Church, without touching on politics.
The Convention of the Lords and Commons now declare the Prince (38) and [his wife] Princess (26) of Orange King and Queen of England, France, and Ireland (Scotland being an independent kingdom), the Prince (38) and [his wife] Princess (26) being to enjoy it jointly during their lives; but the executive authority to be vested in the Prince (38) during life, though all proceedings to run in both names, and that it should descend to their issue, and for want of such, to the Princess Anne of Denmark (24) and her issue, and in want of such, to the heirs of the body of the Prince, if he survive, and that failing, to devolve to the Parliament, as they should think fit. These produced a conference with the Lords, when also there was presented heads of such new laws as were to be enacted. It is thought on these conditions they will be proclaimed.
There was much contest about the King's (38) abdication, and whether he had vacated the government. The Earl of Nottingham (41) and about twenty Lords, and many Bishops, entered their protests, but the concurrence was great against them.
The [his wife] Princess (26) hourly expected. Forces sending to Ireland, that kingdom being in great danger by the Earl of Tyrconnel's (59) army, and expectations from France coming to assist them, but that King was busy in invading Flanders, and encountering the German Princes. It is likely that this will be the most remarkable summer for action, which has happened in many years.
I saw the new [his wife] Queen (26) and King (38), with great acclamation and general good reception. Bonfires, bells, guns, etc. It was believed that both, especially the [his wife] Princess (26), would have shown some (seeming) reluctance at least, of assuming her [his uncle] father's (55) crown, and made some apology, testifying by her regret that he should by his mismanagement necessitate the nation to so extraordinary a proceeding, which would have shown very handsomely to the world, and according to the character given of her piety; consonant also to her husband's (38) first declaration, that there was no intention of deposing the [his uncle] King (55), but of succoring the nation; but nothing of all this appeared; [his wife] she came into Whitehall laughing and jolly, as to a wedding, so as to seem quite transported. [his wife] She rose early the next morning, and in her undress, as it was reported, before her women were up, went about from room to room to see the convenience of Whitehall; lay in the same bed and apartment where the late Queen (30) lay, and within a night or two sat down to play at basset, as the Queen (30), her predecessor used to do. She smiled upon and talked to everybody, so that no change seemed to have taken place at Court since her last going away, save that infinite crowds of people thronged to see her, and that she went to our prayers. This carriage was censured by many. She seems to be of a good nature, and that she takes nothing to heart: while the Prince (38), her husband, has a thoughtful countenance, is wonderfully serious and silent, and seems to treat all persons alike gravely, and to be very intent on affairs: Holland, Ireland, and France calling for his care.
Divers Bishops and Noblemen are not at all satisfied with this so sudden assumption of the Crown, without any previous sending, and offering some conditions to the absent King; or on his not returning, or not assenting to those conditions, to have proclaimed him Regent; but the major part of both Houses prevailed to make them King and Queen immediately, and a crown was tempting. This was opposed and spoken against with such vehemence by Lord Clarendon (her own uncle), that it put him by all preferment, which must doubtless have been as great as could have been given him. My Lord of Rochester (46), his brother, overshot himself, by the same carriage and stiffness, which their friends thought they might have well spared when they saw how it was like to be overruled, and that it had been sufficient to have declared their dissent with less passion, acquiescing in due time.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (72) and some of the rest, on scruple of conscience and to salve the oaths they had taken, entered their protests and hung off, especially the Archbishop, who had not all this while so much as appeared out of Lambeth. This occasioned the wonder of many who observed with what zeal they contributed to the Prince's (38) expedition, and all the while also rejecting any proposals of sending again to the absent [his uncle] King (55); that they should now raise scruples, and such as created much division among the people, greatly rejoicing the old courtiers, and especially the Papists.
Another objection was, the invalidity of what was done by a convention only, and the as yet unabrogated laws; this drew them to make themselves on the 22d a Parliament, the new King (38) passing the act with the crown on his head. The lawyers disputed, but necessity prevailed, the government requiring a speedy settlement.
Innumerable were the crowds, who solicited for, and expected offices; most of the old ones were turned out. Two or three white staves were disposed of some days before, as Lord Steward, to the Earl of Devonshire (49); Treasurer of the household, to Lord Newport (92); Lord Chamberlain to the [his uncle] King (58), to my Lord of Dorset (46); but there were as yet none in offices of the civil government save the Marquis of Halifax (55) as Privy Seal. A council of thirty was chosen, Lord Derby (34) president, but neither Chancellor nor Judges were yet declared, the new Great Seal not yet finished.
John Evelyn's Diary 29 March 1689. 29 Mar 1689. The new King (38) much blamed for neglecting Ireland, now likely to be ruined by the Lord Tyrconnel (59) and his Popish party, too strong for the Protestants. Wonderful uncertainty where [his uncle] King James (55) was, whether in France or Ireland. The Scots seem as yet to favor King William (38), rejecting King James's letter to them, yet declaring nothing positively. Soldiers in England discontented. Parliament preparing the coronation oath. Presbyterians and Dissenters displeased at the vote for preserving the Protestant religion as established by law, without mentioning what they were to have as to indulgence.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (58) and four other Bishops refusing to come to Parliament, it was deliberated whether they should incur Praemunire; but it was thought fit to let this fall, and be connived at, for fear of the people, to whom these Prelates were very dear, for the opposition they had given to Popery.
Court offices distributed among Parliament men. No considerable fleet as yet sent forth. Things far from settled as was expected, by reason of the slothful, sickly temper of the new King, and the Parliament's unmindfulness of Ireland, which is likely to prove a sad omission.
The Confederates beat the French out of the Palatinate, which they had most barbarously ruined.
John Evelyn's Diary 11 April 1689. 11 Apr 1689. I saw the procession to and from the Abbey Church of Westminster, with the great feast in Westminster Hall, at the coronation of King William and Queen Mary. What was different from former coronations, was some alteration in the coronation oath. Dr. Burnet (45), now made Bishop of Sarum, preached with great applause. The Parliament men had scaffolds and places which took up the one whole side of the Hall. When the King (38) and [his wife] Queen (26) had dined, the ceremony of the Champion, and other services by tenure were performed. The Parliament men were feasted in the Exchequer chamber, and had each of them a gold medal given them, worth five-and-forty shillings. On the one side were the effigies of the King (58) and Queen inclining one to the other; on the reverse was Jupiter throwing a bolt at Phäeton the words, "Ne totus absumatur": which was but dull, seeing they might have had out of the poet something as apposite. The sculpture was very mean.
Much of the splendor of the proceeding was abated by the absence of divers who should have contributed to it, there being but five Bishops, four Judges (no more being yet sworn), and several noblemen and great ladies wanting; the feast, however, was magnificent. The next day the House of Commons went and kissed their new Majesties' hands in the Banqueting House.
On 11 Apr 1689 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (26) were crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey.
John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham 1656-1710 (33) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports.
George Compton 4th Earl of Northampton 1664-1727 (24) bore the King's sceptre and cross at Westminster Abbey.
John Evelyn's Diary 12 April 1689. 12 Apr 1689. I went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to visit my Lord of Canterbury (58) at Lambeth, who had excused himself from officiating at the coronation, which was performed by the Bishop of London (57), assisted by the Archbishop of York (74). We had much private and free discourse with his Grace (58) concerning several things relating to the Church, there being now a bill of comprehension to be brought from the Lords to the Commons. I urged that when they went about to reform some particulars in the Liturgy, Church discipline, Canons, etc., the baptizing in private houses without necessity might be reformed, as likewise so frequent burials in churches; the one proceeding much from the pride of women, bringing that into custom which was only indulged in case of imminent danger, and out of necessity during the rebellion, and persecution of the clergy in our late civil wars; the other from the avarice of ministers, who, in some opulent parishes, made almost as much of permission to bury in the chancel and the church, as of their livings, and were paid with considerable advantage and gifts for baptizing in chambers. To this they heartily assented, and promised their endeavor to get it reformed, utterly disliking both practices as novel and indecent.
We discoursed likewise of the great disturbance and prejudice it might cause, should the new oath, now on the anvil, be imposed on any, save such as were in new office, without any retrospect to such as either had no office, or had been long in office, who it was likely would have some scruples about taking a new oath, having already sworn fidelity to the government as established by law. This we all knew to be the case of my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (58), and some other persons who were not so fully satisfied with the Convention making it an abdication of King James, to whom they had sworn allegiance.
[his uncle] King James (55) was now certainly in Ireland with the Marshal d'Estrades (82), whom he made a Privy Councillor; and who caused the [his uncle] King (55) to remove the Protestant Councillors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit, telling him that the King of France (50), his master, would never assist him if he did not immediately do it; by which it is apparent how the poor [his uncle] Prince (55) is managed by the French.
Scotland declares for King William (38) and [his wife] Queen Mary (26), with the reasons of their setting aside [his uncle] King James (55), not as abdicating, but forfeiting his right by maladministration; they proceeded with much more caution and prudence than we did, who precipitated all things to the great reproach of the nation, all which had been managed by some crafty, ill-principled men. The new Privy Council have a Republican spirit, manifestly undermining all future succession of the Crown and prosperity of the Church of England, which yet I hope they will not be able to accomplish so soon as they expect, though they get into all places of trust and profit.
John Evelyn's Diary 26 April 1689. 26 Apr 1689. I heard the lawyers plead before the Lords the writ of error in the judgment of Oates (39), as to the charge against him of perjury, which after debate they referred to the answer of Holloway, etc., who were his judges. I then went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (61) to the Archbishop (72) at Lambeth, where they entered into discourse concerning the final destruction of Antichrist, both concluding that the third trumpet and vial were now pouring out. My Lord St. Asaph (61) considered the killing of the two witnesses, to be the utter destruction of the Cevennes Protestants by the French and Duke of Savoy, and the other the Waldenses and Pyrenean Christians, who by all appearance from good history had kept the primitive faith from the very Apostles' time till now. The doubt his Grace suggested was, whether it could be made evident that the present persecution had made so great a havoc of those faithful people as of the other, and whether there were not yet some among them in being who met together, it being stated from the text, Apoc. xi., that they should both be slain together. They both much approved of Mr. Mede's way of interpretation, and that he only failed in resolving too hastily on the King of Sweden's (94) (Gustavus Adolphus) success in Germany. They agreed that it would be good to employ some intelligent French minister to travel as far as the Pyrenees to understand the present state of the Church there, it being a country where hardly anyone travels.
There now came certain news that [his uncle] King James (55) had not only landed in Ireland, but that he had surprised Londonderry, and was become master of that kingdom, to the great shame of our government, who had been so often solicited to provide against it by timely succor, and which they might so easily have done. This is a terrible beginning of more troubles, especially should an army come thence into Scotland, people being generally disaffected here and everywhere else, so that the seamen and landmen would scarce serve without compulsion.
A new oath was now fabricating for all the clergy to take, of obedience to the present Government, in abrogation of the former oaths of allegiance, which it is foreseen many of the bishops and others of the clergy will not take. The penalty is to be the loss of their dignity and spiritual preferment. This is thought to have been driven on by the Presbyterians, our new governors. God in mercy send us help, and direct the counsels to his glory and good of his Church!
Public matters went very ill in Ireland: confusion and dissensions among ourselves, stupidity, inconstancy, emulation, the governors employing unskillful men in greatest offices, no person of public spirit and ability appearing,—threaten us with a very sad prospect of what may be the conclusion, without God's infinite mercy.
A fight by Admiral Herbert (41) with the French, he imprudently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and little honor—so strangely negligent and remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new King and Queen on conditions. Act of Poll money came forth, sparing none. Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office according to law, with several other clauses. A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate the King (38) and [his wife] Queen (26) on their accession to the crown.
John Evelyn's Diary 19 July 1689. 19 Jul 1689. The Marshal de Schomberg (73) went now as General toward Ireland, to the relief of Londonderry. Our fleet lay before Brest. The Confederates passing the Rhine, besiege Bonn and Mayence, to obtain a passage into France. A great victory gotten by the Muscovites, taking and burning Perecop. A new rebel against the Turks threatens the destruction of that tyranny. All Europe in arms against France, and hardly to be found in history so universal a face of war.
The Convention (or Parliament as some called it) sitting, exempt the Duke of Hanover (29) from the succession to the crown, which they seem to confine to the present new King (38), his [his wife] wife (27), and Princess Anne of Denmark (24), who is so monstrously swollen, that it is doubted whether her being thought with child may prove a TYMPANY only, so that the unhappy family of the Stuarts seems to be extinguishing; and then what government is likely to be next set up is unknown, whether regal and by election, or otherwise, the Republicans and Dissenters from the Church of England evidently looking that way.
The Scots have now again voted down Episcopacy there. Great discontents through this nation at the slow proceedings of the King (38), and the incompetent instruments and officers he advances to the greatest and most necessary charges.
On 02 Nov 1689 Richard Coote 1st Earl Bellomont 1636-1701 (53) was created 1st Earl Bellomont by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (38) and was granted over 300 km2 of forfeited Irish lands. The land grant was highly controversial in Parliament, and was eventually rescinded by William.
John Evelyn's Diary 05 November 1689. 05 Nov 1689. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62), Lord Almoner, preached before the King (39) and [his wife] Queen (27), the whole discourse being an historical narrative of the Church of England's several deliverances, especially that of this anniversary, signalized by being also the birthday of the Prince of Orange, his marriage (which was on the 4th), and his landing at Torbay this day. There was a splendid ball and other rejoicings.
In 1690 George Wilhelm Hanover Duke Brunswick Lüneburg 1624-1705 (65) was appointed 500th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (27).
In 1690 Frederick I King Prussia 1657-1713 (32) was appointed 499th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (27).
John Evelyn's Diary 12 January 1690. 12 Jan 1690. There was read at St. Ann's Church an exhortatory letter to the clergy of London from the Bishop, together with a Brief for relieving the distressed Protestants, and Vaudois, who fled from the persecution of the French and Duke of Savoy, to the Protestant Cantons of Switzerland.
The Parliament was unexpectedly prorogued to 2d of April to the discontent and surprise of many members who, being exceedingly averse to the settling of anything, proceeding with animosities, multiplying exceptions against those whom they pronounced obnoxious, and producing as universal a discontent against King William (39) and themselves, as there was before against [his uncle] King James (56). The new King (39) resolved on an expedition into Ireland in person. About 150 of the members who were of the more royal party, meeting at a feast at the Apollo Tavern near St. Dunstan's, sent some of their company to the King (39), to assure him of their service; he returned his thanks, advising them to repair to their several counties and preserve the peace during his absence, and assuring them that he would be steady to his resolution of defending the Laws and Religion established. The great Lord suspected to have counselled this prorogation, universally denied it. However, it was believed the chief adviser was the Marquis of Carmarthen (57), who now seemed to be most in favor.
John Evelyn's Diary 16 February 1690. 16 Feb 1690. The Duchess of Monmouth's (39) chaplain preached at St. Martin's an excellent discourse exhorting to peace and sanctity, it being now the time of very great division and dissension in the nation; first, among the Churchmen, of whom the moderate and sober part were for a speedy reformation of divers things, which it was thought might be made in our Liturgy, for the inviting of Dissenters; others more stiff and rigid, were for no condescension at all. Books and pamphlets were published every day pro and con; the Convocation were forced for the present to suspend any further progress. There was fierce and great carousing about being elected in the new Parliament. The King (39) persists in his intention of going in person for Ireland, whither the French are sending supplies to [his uncle] King James (56), and we, the Danish horse to Schomberg (74).
John Evelyn's Diary 25 February 1690. 25 Feb 1690. I went to Kensington, which King William (39) had bought of Lord Nottingham (42), and altered, but was yet a patched building, but with the garden, however, it is a very sweet villa, having to it the park and a straight new way through this park.
On 15 Apr 1690 Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough 1650-1721 (40) was created 1st Earl Scarborough by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (39) in recognition of his (40) support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Frances Jones Countess Scarborough 1667-1722 (23) by marriage Countess Scarborough.
Roger Whitley's Diary 1690 June. 07 Jun 1690. Satorday, severall of the King's servants came to provide for him; viz: Mr Isaack, Lambe, Clarke, Fronteene, &c. neare 2 o'clock the King (39) came, with Lord: Portland (40), Scarborow (40); Overkirk (50), Solmes, Scranmore, Zulestein, &c. Dutch & English, the Bishop: & severall of the clergy, &c. the King (39) went to dine, past 2; had severall of his noblemen & gentry to dine with him; he also commanded the Bishop: & me to sitt downe; Lord Warrington (38) came when we were at dinner; sate downe; we were 13 or 14 at table; his Majesty (39) did me the honor to drink to me; after dinner he talked with me a long while at the window; then retired, writ letters, &c. Sir Thomas Delves (59) & severall gentlemen of the County dined with Mr Isack (who had tables provided in the Kilne) & the rest of the King's servants, officers of the Guards, &c. were provided for in one place or other; the King (39) walked in the gardens, to the stables in the evening; discoursed often very obligingly with me after he came in; retired to his chamber; had some new layd eggs to his supper; went to bed before 11. in the afternoone the County gentlemen, clergy, cittisens of Chester & Recorder (who were sent to [fo. 119r] know his Majesty's (39): pleasure about coming to Chester) kissed his hand; & in the evening my daughters, grandchildren, aunts &c; when he walked in the garden he gathered cherryes & seemed well pleased, &c. there was a good supper prepared in the Kilne for those that would eate, besides many of the King's great officers & servants; Lord Warrington (38), Sir Rowland Gwynn (32) & others lay in the house; I went to bed (weary) before 11 o'clock; Lord Brandon (31) lay at Mr Hardwares, also Mr Row.
Roger Whitley's Diary 1690 June. 08 Jun 1690. Sonday, (Whitsonday) his Majesty (39) went from Peele to Chester; (Portland (40), Scarborough (40) & Warrington (38) in the coach with him interl); I, Bidolph & one of his servants followed the Guards, &c.( the Mayor, Aldermen met him at Boughton, the Livery & Bearers in the streete interl); he went directly to the Cathedral, sate in the Bishops seate; the Bishop (57) attended him as Clarke of the Closet; then preached; after sermon took coach immediately at the church doore, soe to dinner at Geaton, &c. I had 2 pockets picked in the church & severall others besides myselfe; the Mayor invited me but I refused him; I, Bidolph & G.Mainwaring (47) dined with Streete; severall came here to us; Bellot & I went thence to visit Sir Thomas Delves (37), &c. I left Bellot there; went to Jacksons; there were Bidolph, Streete, G.Mainwaring (47), my 2 sons, Warburton, Wright, Governor (but he stayd not), Colonel Harman, another officer,&c. I and Bidolph & Roger left them past 7; came home neare 9; found Mr Offley there, he stayd all night.
John Evelyn's Diary 24 June 1690. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower, on suspicion of being affected to [his uncle] King James (56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's (28) uncle. King William (39) having vanquished [his uncle] King James (56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in [his uncle] King James's (56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (74) was slain, and Dr. Walker (72), who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (60), was taken. It is reported that [his uncle] King James (56) is gone back to France. Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William (39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici". But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.
Before 01 Jul 1690 Henry Hobart 4th Baronet Hobart 1657-1698 was appointed Gentleman of the Horse to King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702.
The English army was commanded by Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg 1615-1690 (74).
For the Irish or Catholic army [his illegitimate brother-in-law] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (19) and Henry Hobart 4th Baronet Hobart 1657-1698 (33) fought. Richard Hamilton -1717 was captured.
John Evelyn's Diary 03 August 1690. 03 Aug 1690. The French landed some soldiers at Teignmouth, in Devon, and burned some poor houses. The French fleet still hovering about the western coast, and we having 300 sail of rich merchant-ships in the bay of Plymouth, our fleet began to move toward them, under three admirals. The country in the west all on their guard. A very extraordinary fine season; but on the 12th was a very great storm of thunder and lightning, and on the 15th the season much changed to wet and cold. The militia and trained bands, horse and foot, which were up through England, were dismissed. The French King having news that King William (39) was slain, and his army defeated in Ireland, caused such a triumph at Paris, and all over France, as was never heard of; when, in the midst of it, the unhappy [his uncle] King James (56) being vanquished, by a speedy flight and escape, himself brought the news of his own defeat.
John Evelyn's Diary 15 August 1690. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate [his uncle] King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].
In 1691 Edward Villiers 1st Earl Jersey 1656-1711 (35) was created 1st Viscount Villiers, 1st Baron Villiers probably as a consequence of his sister Barbara Villiers Viscountess Fitzhardinge 1654-1708 (37) being a mistress of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (40). Barbara Chiffinch Countess Jersey 1663-1735 (28) by marriage Viscountess Villiers.
In 1691 Thomas Ken Bishop 1637-1711 (53) was deprived of his See by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (40) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (28). He was given lodgings at Longleat House by Thomas Thynne 1st Viscount Weymouth 1640-1714 (51) with whom he was at Oxford. He resided at Longleat for some twenty years.
John Ashton Edmund Elliot Richard Graham 1691. On Fryday, the 2d day of this Sessions, my Lord Preston (41), John Ashton and Edmund Elliot, were all Arrained for High Treason, my Lord Preston (41) was Tryed on Saturday by the name of Sir Richard Graham, Mr. Ashton on Monday. The Indictments against them consisted of Two Parts, the First of which set forth, That they had a Treasonable Design carrying on to Depose the King and Queen, and to Subvert and Alter the Government of the Kingdom of England, and to raise War and Rebellion in the same; which said Traiterous and Wicked Designs and Purposes to bring to pass, they did, on the 29th of December last, Meet and Conspire together, with several other Traitors not yet discovered, and did Compose several Treasonable Letters, Notes and Memorandums in writing, which set forth the most effectual way and means how they might Dethrone and Depose our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady the King (40) and [his wife] Queen (28), and further describing therein how the Affairs of this Kingdom stood, and of what Strength and Force our Shipping was; as also the Fortifications of several Sea-Port-Towns within this Kingdom. The Second Part was their adhering to the Kings's Enemies: And to that end, that they might Acquaint Lewis the French King of the same, they did hire a Boat and Embarque themselves in order to Transport themselves and Pacquet of Treasonable Letters into France, agreeing to pay for their said Passages the Sum of One hundred Pound; and, in order to their Treasonable Voyage, they had made their Passage as far as below Gravesend, but were then Taken by Captain Billop, who Cruised abroad to search for them.
After this the Evidence for the King (40) being called, gave an Account particularly from Step to Step, how cunningly and subtilly they managed this horrid Conspiracy, by hiring the Smack called the Thomas and Elizabeth, to convey them secretly into France; in order to which they took Water in a Skuller at Surrey-Stairs, and went on Board the aforesaid Vessel, which lay in the River of Thames over against the Tower: From thence they set Sail down the River, till coming within the View of the George Frigate, lying in Long-reach, they desired the Master of the Smack to hide them under the Quarter-Hatches; which was done, they having some Fear of being discovered: There they remained till past that Danger, and then came up; but when they were within Sight of Gravesend they hid again, and a little below it Captain Billop came aboard them, under Pretence of Pressing the Masters two Men, who were assistants to him; but indeed his Design and real Intention was to find out those Traytors, which, upon Search, he found lying along under the Hatches; and after their being haled up he search'd them, and found a Pacquet of Treasonable Papers in Mr. Ashton's Bosom: which he with the Prisoners carried before my Lord Nottingham; who examined the Papers, and after being examined by the Cabinet Council they were committed to the Tower. The Evidence was very full and plain against them both, much to the same effect and purport: The Letters being also Read against them in Court, were adjudged to be of no less Import than High-Treason. Upon the whole they had nothing material to offer in their Defence; so after a very long hearing, they were both found Guilty of High Treason. Edmond Elliot was ordered to remain till further order.
John Evelyn's Diary 10 April 1691. 10 Apr 1691. This night, a sudden and terrible fire burned down all the buildings over the stone gallery at Whitehall to the water side, beginning at the apartment of the late Duchess of Portsmouth (41) [Note. Not clear why 'late' since Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (41) died in 1734; possibly relates to her fall from grace following the death of [his uncle] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (60)] (which had been pulled down and rebuilt no less than three times to please her), and consuming other lodgings of such lewd creatures, who debauched both [his uncle] King Charles II (60) and others, and were his destruction.
The King (40) returned out of Holland just as this accident happened—Proclamation against the Papists, etc.
John Evelyn's Diary 19 April 1691. 19 Apr 1691. The Archbishop of Canterbury (74), and Bishops of Ely (53), Bath and Wells (53), Peterborough (63), Gloucester (69), and the rest who would not take the oaths to King William (40), were now displaced; and in their rooms, Dr. Tillotson (60), Dean of St. Paul's, was made Archbishop: Patrick (64) removed from Chichester to Ely; Cumberland (59) to Gloucester. Note. A mistake. Edward Fowler Bishop 1632-1714 (59) was made Bishop of Gloucester. Richard Cumberland Bishop 1631-1718 (59) was made Bishop of Peterborough.
John Evelyn's Diary 24 April 1691. 24 Apr 1691. I visited the Earl (49) and Countess of Sunderland (45), now come to kiss the King's (40) hand after his return from Holland. This is a mystery. The King (40) preparing to return to the army.
John Evelyn's Diary 11 July 1691. 11 Jul 1691. I dined with Mr. Pepys (58), where was Dr. Cumberland (59), the new Bishop of Norwich [Note. Should be John Moore Bishop 1646-1707], Dr. Lloyd (54) having been put out for not acknowledging the Government. Cumberland [Note. John Moore Bishop 1646-1707] is a very learned, excellent man. Possession was now given to Dr. Tillotson (60), at Lambeth, by the Sheriff; Archbishop Sancroft was gone (74), but had left his nephew to keep possession; and he refusing to deliver it up on the [his wife] Queen's message (29), was dispossessed by the Sheriff, and imprisoned. This stout demeanor of the few Bishops who refused to take the oaths to King William (40), animated a great party to forsake the churches, so as to threaten a schism; though those who looked further into the ancient practice, found that when (as formerly) there were Bishops displaced on secular accounts, the people never refused to acknowledge the new Bishops, provided they were not heretics. The truth is, the whole clergy had till now stretched the duty of passive obedience, so that the proceedings against these Bishops gave no little occasion of exceptions; but this not amounting to heresy, there was a necessity of receiving the new Bishops, to prevent a failure of that order in the Church. I went to visit Lord Clarendon in the Tower, but he was gone into the country for air by the [his wife] Queen's (29) permission, under the care of his warden.
In 1692 Charles Sackville 6th Earl Dorset 1643-1706 (48) was appointed 502nd Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (41) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (29).
In 1692 John George Wettin IV Elector Saxony 1668-1694 (23) was appointed 501st Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (41) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (29).
John Evelyn's Diary 28 February 1692. 28 Feb 1692. Lord Marlborough (41) having used words against the King (41), and been discharged from all his great places, his wife (31) was forbidden the Court, and the [his sister-in-law] Princess of Denmark (27) was desired by the Queen (29) to dismiss her from her service; but she refusing to do so, goes away from Court to Sion house. Divers new Lords made: Sir Henry Capel (53), Sir William Fermor (43), etc. Change of Commissioners in the Treasury. The Parliament adjourned, not well satisfied with affairs. The business of the East India Company, which they would have reformed, let fall. The Duke of Norfolk (37) does not succeed in his endeavor to be divorced.
On 11 Apr 1692 Henry Capell 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury 1638-1696 (54) was created 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (41).
On 12 Apr 1692 William Fermor 1st Baron Leominster 1648-1711 (43) was created 1st Baron Leominster by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (41). Catherine Paulett Baroness Leominster by marriage Baroness Leominster.
John Evelyn's Diary 10 November 1692. 10 Nov 1692. A solemn Thanksgiving for our victory at sea, safe return of the King (42), etc.
John Evelyn's Diary 04 February 1693. 04 Feb 1693. After five days' trial and extraordinary contest, the Lord Mohun (18) was acquitted by the Lords of the murder of Montford (29), the player, notwithstanding the judges, from the pregnant witnesses of the fact, had declared him guilty; but whether in commiseration of his youth, being not eighteen years old, though exceedingly dissolute, or upon whatever other reason, the King (42) himself present some part of the trial, and satisfied, as they report, that he was culpable. 69 acquitted him, only 14 condemned him.
John Evelyn's Diary 19 March 1693. 19 Mar 1693. A new Secretary of State, Sir John Trenchard (43); the Attorney-General, Somers (42), made Lord-Keeper, a young lawyer of extraordinary merit. King William (42) goes toward Flanders; but returns, the wind being contrary.
John Evelyn's Diary 14 May 1693. 14 May 1693. Nothing yet of action from abroad. Muttering of a design to bring forces under color of an expected descent, to be a standing army for other purposes. Talk of a declaration of the French King (54), offering mighty advantages to the confederates, exclusive of King William (42); and another of [his uncle] King James (59), with an universal pardon, and referring the composing of all differences to a Parliament. These were yet but discourses; but something is certainly under it. A declaration or manifesto from [his uncle] King James (59), so written, that many thought it reasonable, and much more to the purpose than any of his former.
In 1694 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712 (61) was created 1st Duke Leeds by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds 1629-1704 (65) by marriage Duchess Leeds.
In 1694 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707 (53) was created 1st Duke Devonshire by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire 1646-1710 (48) by marriage Duchess Devonshire.
In 1694 Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (52) was created 1st Earl Romney 1C 1694 by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.
In 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (33) was appointed 503rd Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (31).
On 30 Apr 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718 (33) was created 1st Duke Shrewsbury and 1st Marquess Alton by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (43) in recognition of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.
On 28 Dec 1694 [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (32) died of smallpox shortly after midnight at Kensington Palace. Her body lay in state at the Banqueting House.
On 05 Mar 1695 she was buried in Westminster Abbey. Thomas Tenison Archbishop of Canterbury 1636-1715 (58) preached the sermon.
She had reigned for five years. Her husband King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (44) continued to reign for a further eight years.
In 1695 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (44) visited the newly built Belton House.
John Evelyn's Diary 13 January 1695. 13 Jan 1695. The Thames was frozen over. The deaths by smallpox increased to five hundred more than in the preceding week. The King (44) and [his former sister-in-law] Princess Anne (29) reconciled, and she was invited to keep her Court at Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley House; she was desired to take into her family divers servants of the late Queen (32); to maintain them the King (44) has assigned her £5,000 a quarter.
On 26 Mar 1695 [his illegitimate brother-in-law] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (24) and Honora Burke Duchess Berwick 1674-1698 (21) were married at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines He a son of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701. She by marriage Duchess Berwick.
On 03 Apr 1695 Piers Butler 1st Earl Newcastle 1652-1740 (43) and [his former sister-in-law] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 (28) were married. She a daughter of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701. [his former sister-in-law] She by marriage Countess Newcastle in Limerick.
John Evelyn's Diary 29 September 1695. 29 Sep 1695. Very cold weather. Sir Purbeck Temple (71), uncle to my son Draper, died suddenly. A great funeral at Addiscombe. His lady being own aunt to my son Draper, he hopes for a good fortune, there being no heir. There had been a new meeting of the commissioners about Greenwich Hospital, on the new commission, where the Lord Mayor, etc. appeared, but I was prevented by indisposition from attending. The weather very sharp, winter approaching apace. The King (44) went a progress into the north, to show himself to the people against the elections, and was everywhere complimented, except at Oxford, where it was not as he expected, so that he hardly stopped an hour there, and having seen the theater, did not receive the banquet proposed. I dined with Dr. Gale (60) at St. Paul's school, who showed me many curious passages out of some ancient Platonists' MSS. concerning the Trinity, which this great and learned person would publish, with many other rare things, if he was encouraged, and eased of the burden of teaching.
John Evelyn's Diary 13 November 1695. 13 Nov 1695. Famous fireworks and very chargeable, the King (45) being returned from his progress. He stayed seven or eight days at Lord Sunderland's (54) at Althorpe, where he was mightily entertained. These fireworks were shown before Lord Romney (54), Master of the Ordnance, in St. James's great square, where the King (45) stood.
In 1696 Prince William Duke Gloucester 1689-1700 (6) was appointed 504th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (45)..
John Evelyn's Diary 26 February 1696. 26 Feb 1696. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder King William (45) on the first opportunity of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to Calais, an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great army in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a general insurrection here, the [his illegitimate brother-in-law] Duke of Berwick (25) having secretly come to London to head them, King James (62) attending at Calais with the French army. It was discovered by some of their own party. £1,000 reward was offered to whoever could apprehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who were engaged in it, were taken and secured. The Parliament, city, and all the nation, congratulate the discovery; and votes and resolutions were passed that, if King William (45) should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged on the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of Association drawing up to empower the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown should be disposed of according to the late settlement at the Revolution. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten miles from London. This put the nation into an incredible disturbance and general animosity against the French King and King James. The militia of the nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, and all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. This was so timed by the enemy, that while we were already much discontented by the greatness of the taxes, and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have had very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it pleased God that Admiral Rooke (46) wanting a wind to pursue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others at Portsmouth and other places, were still in the Channel, and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships which could be got together, so that there is hope this plot may be broken. I look on it as a very great deliverance and prevention by the providence of God. Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, this design of assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated many o£ his friends, and was likely to produce a more perfect establishment of King William.
John Evelyn's Diary 28 April 1696. 28 Apr 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, and a numerous train of gallants. More executions this week of the assassins. Oates (46) dedicated a most villainous, reviling book against [his uncle] King James (62), which he presumed to present to King William (45), who could not but abhor it, speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved Queen's (33) own father.
In 1697 Edward Villiers 1st Earl Jersey 1656-1711 (41) was created 1st Earl Jersey probably as a consequence of his sister Barbara Villiers Viscountess Fitzhardinge 1654-1708 (43) being a mistress of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (46). Barbara Chiffinch Countess Jersey 1663-1735 (34) by marriage Countess Jersey.
In 1697 William Bentinck 1st Earl of Portland 1649-1709 (47) was appointed 505th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (46).
On 07 May 1697 Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 (44) was created 1st Earl Orford 1C 1697 by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (46) in recognition of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.
John Evelyn's Diary 16 November 1697. 16 Nov 1697. The King's (47) entry very pompous; but is nothing approaching that of King Charles II
John Evelyn's Diary 02 December 1697. 02 Dec 1697. Thanksgiving Day for the Peace, the King (47) and a great Court at Whitehall. The Bishop of Salisbury (54) preached, or rather made a florid panegyric, on 2 Chron. ix. 7, 8. The evening concluded with fireworks and illuminations of great expense.
John Evelyn's Diary 06 December 1697. 06 Dec 1697. I went to Kensington with the Sheriff, Knights, and chief gentlemen of Surrey, to present their address to the King (47). The Duke of Norfolk (42) promised to introduce it, but came so late, that it was presented before be came. This insignificant ceremony was brought in in Cromwell's time, and has ever since continued with offers of life and fortune to whoever happened to have the power. I dined at Sir Richard Onslow's (43), who treated almost all the gentlemen of Surrey. When we had half dined, the Duke of Norfolk (42) came in to make his excuse.
In 1698 John Holles 1st Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1662-1711 (35) was appointed 506th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (47).
In 1698 Basil Firebrace 1st Baronet 1652-1724 (46) was created 1st Baronet Firebrace of London by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (47). Elizabeth Hough Lady Firebrace by marriage Lady Firebrace of London assuming she was alive in 1698.
In 1698 [his illegitimate brother-in-law] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 (27) and Anne Bulkeley Duchess Berwick -1751 were married. He a son of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701. She by marriage Duchess Berwick.
John Evelyn's Diary 30 January 1698. 30 Jan 1698. The imprisonment of the great banker, Duncombe: censured by Parliament; acquitted by the Lords; sent again to the Tower by the Commons.
The Czar of Muscovy being come to England, and having a mind to see the building of ships, hired my house at Sayes Court, and made it his court and palace, newly furnished for him by the King (47).
John Evelyn's Diary 06 August 1698. 06 Aug 1698. I dined with Pepys (65), where was Captain Dampier (46), who had been a famous buccaneer, had brought hither the painted Prince Job, and printed a relation of his very strange adventure, and his observations. He was now going abroad again by the King's (47) encouragement, who furnished a ship of 290 tons. He seemed a more modest man than one would imagine by the relation of the crew he had assorted with. He brought a map of his observations of the course of the winds in the South Sea, and assured us that the maps hitherto extant were all false as to the Pacific Sea, which he makes on the south of the line, that on the north end running by the coast of Peru being extremely tempestuous.
The Duke of Devon (59) lost £1,900 at a horse race at Newmarket.
The King (48) preferring his young favorite Earl of Albemarle (29) to be first Commander of his Guard, the Duke of Ormond (33) laid down his commission. This of the Dutch Lord (29) passing over his head, was exceedingly resented by everybody.
John Evelyn's Diary 29 April 1699. 29 Apr 1699. I dined with the Archbishop (62); but my business was to get him to persuade the King (48) to purchase the late Bishop of Worcester's (64) library, and build a place for his own library at St. James's, in the Park, the present one being too small.
John Evelyn's Diary 03 May 1699. 03 May 1699. At a meeting of the Royal Society I was nominated to be of the committee to wait on the Lord Chancellor (44) to move the King (48) to purchase the Bishop of Worcester's (64) library (Dr. Edward Stillingfleet).
In Oct 1699 James Annesley 3rd Earl Anglesey 1674-1702 (25) and [his illegitimate sister-in-law] Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby 1680-1743 (19) were married. She a daughter of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701. [his illegitimate sister-in-law] She by marriage Countess Anglesey.
In 1700 Thomas Herbert 8th Earl Pembroke 5th Earl Montgomery 1656-1733 (44) was appointed 507th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (49).
In 1700 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle 1670-1718 (29) was appointed 508th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (49).
John Evelyn's Diary 01 April 1700. 01 Apr 1700. The Duke of Norfolk (45) now succeeded in obtaining a divorce from his wife (41) by the Parliament for adultery with Sir John Germaine (49), a Dutch gamester, of mean extraction, who had got much by gaming; the Duke (45) had leave to marry again, so that if he should have children, the Dukedom will go from the late Lord Thomas's children, Papists indeed, but very hopeful and virtuous gentlemen, as was their father. The now Duke (45) their uncle is a Protestant.
The Parliament nominated fourteen persons to go into Ireland as commissioners to dispose of the forfeited estates there, toward payment of the debts incurred by the late war, but which the King (49) had in great measure given to some of his favorites of both sexes, Dutch and others of little merit, and very unseasonably. That this might be done without suspicion of interest in the Parliament, it was ordered that no member of either House should be in the commission. The great contest between the Lords and Commons concerning the Lords' power of amendments and rejecting bills tacked to the money bill, carried for the Commons. However, this tacking of bills is a novel practice, suffered by King Charles II, who, being continually in want of money, let anything pass rather than not have wherewith to feed his extravagance. This was carried but by one voice in the Lords, all the Bishops following the Court, save one; so that near sixty bills passed, to the great triumph of the Commons and Country party, but high regret of the Court, and those to whom the [his uncle] King (69) had given large estates in Ireland. Pity it is, that things should be brought to this extremity, the government of this nation being so equally poised between King and subject; but we are satisfied with nothing; and, while there is no perfection on this side heaven, methinks both might be contented without straining things too far. Among the rest, there passed a law as to Papists' estates, that if one turned not Protestant before eighteen years of age, it should pass to his next Protestant heir. This indeed seemed a hard law, but not only the usage of the French King to his Protestant subjects, but the indiscreet insolence of the Papists here, going in triumphant and public processions with their Bishops, with banners and trumpets in divers places (as is said) in the northern counties, has brought it on their party.
In 1701 King George I of Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727 (40) was appointed 509th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (50).
In 1701 James Douglas 2nd Duke Queensberry 1662-1711 (38) was appointed 510th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (50).
John Evelyn's Diary 08 March 1702. 08 Mar 1702. The King (51) had a fall from his horse, and broke his collar bone, and having been much indisposed before, and aguish, with a long cough and other weakness, died this Sunday morning, about four o'clock.
I carried my accounts of Greenwich Hospital to the Committee.
On 08 Mar 1702 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (51) died. His first cousin [his former sister-in-law] Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (37) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland.
Wee Your Majestyes most Dutyfull and Loyal Subjects the Commons Assembled in Parlyament haveing entred into a Serious Consideration of the great and extraordinary Expences in which Your Majesties are Engaged for the Reduceing of Ireland and for the Carrying on the Warr against the French King In order towards the Enabling Your Majesties to Prosecute the said Ends with Speede and Vigour doe most humbly present to Your Majestyes a Free Gift of the severall Sums of Money hereafter specified Beseeching Your Majestyes that it may be Enacted And bee it Enacted by the King and Queens most Excellent Majestyes by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and of the Commons in this present Parliament Assembled and by the Authoritie of the same That all and every Person and Persons Bodies Politick and Corporate Guilds or Fraternities within this Kingdome of England Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede haveing any Personall Estate either in Debts oweing to them within this Realme or without which he she or they doe not account as desperate other then such Debts as now are or shall be oweing from Their Majestyes (over and besides such just Debts as he she or they shall bona fide owe) or in ready Moneys shall yield and pay unto Their Majestyes for every Hundred pounds in such Debts and ready Moneys the Summe of Ten shillings (to be paid by the Lender notwithstanding any Agreement to the contrary) to be Assessed Imposed Levyed and Collected in manner herein after mentioned.
II. Public Officers (Exceptions) to pay is. for every 20s. of the Profits of their Offices.
III. Pensions, &c. from Government exceeding £20 per Ann. to pay is in the Pound.
IV. Judges, Serjeants at Law, Barristers, Advocates, and Persons practising Physick, to pay 3s. in the Pound.
V. Rates of Payments by Peers, &c.
VI. Gentleman having Estate of £300 or more, to pay 20s. though an Infant; under that Estate, on Oath, not charged.
VII. Archbishop, £50. Bishop, £20. Deans, £10. Archdeacons, £2. 10s.